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Off-The-Job Training Methods

Training which takes place in environment other than actual workplace is called
off-the job training. Off-the-job training is usually designed to meet the shared
learning needs of a group rather than a particular individuals needs. Lectures,
computer-based training, games and simulations are the common forms of off-thejob training methods.
1. Classroom Lectures: under the off the job methods of training, classroom
method or lecture method is well-known to train white collar or managerial
level employees in the organization. under this method employees are called
to the room like that of classroom to give training by trainer in the form of
lectures. This method is effectively used for the purpose of teaching
administrative aspects or on management subject to make aware of
procedures and to give instructions on particular topic.
2. Films and Video: There are various audio- visual means that can use for
training. Film, videocassette and slide with pre recorded content of various
topic have become common training tools. Many of them produced by
independent companies and offered for sale in market. The training
department may opt to produced pre recorded materials but it may be
expensive to do so. In addition, when this training method is used, the trainer
must be provided with the necessary gadgets used in actual presentation
3. Simulation: the simulation Method of training is most famous and core
among all of the job training methods. in the simulation training method,
trainee will be trained on the especially designed equipment or machine
seems to be really used in the field or job. But, those equipment or machines
are specifically designed for training a trainees were making them ready to
handle them in the real field or job. This method of planning is mostly used
where very expensive machinery or equipment used for performing Job or
to handle that job.
4. Vestibule Training: - Mostly this method of training will be used to train
technical staff, office staff and employees who deal with tools and machines.
Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the
training is conducted away from the actual work floor by bringing
equipments or tools to certain place where training is provided, but not work
place. Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task

without real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of

transferring learning to the job.
5. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation in the past in
same organisation or somewhere else and trainees are supposed to analyze
and give their conclusions in writing. This is another excellent method to
ensure full and whole hearted participation of employees and generates good
interest among them. Case is later discussed by instructor with all the pros
and cons of each option. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making
abilities within the constraints of limited data.
6. Role Playing: During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out
situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service
and training. This method is also called role-reversal, socio-drama or
psycho-drama. Here trainees act out a given role as they would in a stage
play. Two or more trainees are assigned roles in a given situation, which is
explained to the group. There are no written lines to be said and, naturally,
no rehearsals. The role players have to quickly respond to the situation that
is ever changing and to react to it as they would in the real one. It is a
method of human interaction which involves realistic behaviour in an
imaginary or hypothetical situation. Role playing primarily involves
employee-employer relationships, hiring, firing, discussing a grievance
problem, conducting a post appraisal interview, disciplining a subordinate,
or a salesman making presentation to a customer.
7. Programmed Instructions: programmed instruction means a learning
package involving a series of operation performing a job. This method
involves a pre-planned, proposed , or desired course proceeding pertaining
to the acquisition of some specific skills or learning a particular technique
of doing a job , or acquiring general knowledge about the job . under this
method first of all entire job is broken down into pieces or meaningful units
which can be arranged in a proper way to form a logical and sequential step
by step approach to learning . Thus the programmed instruction method of
training involves :
- Defining question, presentation of facts to the trainees
- Trainees are required to answer the question
- Trainees instantly receive feedback about the answer given by them
- Feedback my be in term of reward and penalties

8. Management Games With computerized management games, trainees

divide into five- or six-person groups, each of which competes with the
others in a simulated marketplace. Each group typically must decide, for
1. how much to spend on advertising.
2. how much to produce,
3. how much inventory to maintain, and
4. how many of which product to produce.
Usually, the game itself compresses a two- or three-year period into days, weeks,
or months. As in the real world, each company team usually can't see what
decisions (such as to boost advertising) the other firms have made, although these
decisions do affect their own sales.
Management games can be effective. People learn best by being involved, and the
games can gain such involvement. They help trainees develop their problemsolving skills, as well as to focus attention on planning rather than just putting out
fires. The groups also usually elect their own officers and organize themselves.
This can develop leadership skills and foster cooperation and teamwork.

On-The-Job Training Methods

The purpose of the on-the-job training session is to provide employee with taskspecific knowledge and skills in work area. The knowledge and skills presented
during on-the-job are directly related to job requirements. Job instruction
technique, job rotation, coaching and apprenticeship training are the common
forms of on-the job training methods. Fully on-the-job training theoretically does
not involve any off-the-job training. However, it is very rare for 100% of training
to take place as part of the productive work of the learner. Job instruction training
is a structured approach to training, which requires trainees to proceed through a
series of steps in sequential pattern. The technique uses behavioral strategy with a
focus on skill development, but there are usually some factual and procedural
knowledge objectives as well. This type of training is good for task oriented duties
such as operating equipment. The instructor or supervisor prepares a job
breakdown on the job, while watching an experienced worker perform each step of
the job. Job instruction technique consists of four steps, preparation, present, try
out and
follow up (Blandchard and Thacker, 1999:306). Job rotation is the systematic
movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an
organization, as a way to achieve various different human resources objectives
such as: simply staffing jobs, orienting new employees, preventing job boredom or
burnout, rewarding employees, enhancing career development, exposing
employees to diverse environments (Woods, 1995:188). Excellent job rotation
program can decrease the training costs while increases the impact of training,
because job rotation is a hand on experience. Job rotation makes individuals more
self-motivated, flexible, adaptable, innovative, eager to learn and able to
communicate effectively. One of the possible problems with the rotation programs
is the cost, because job rotation increases the amount of management time to spend
on lower level employees. It may increase the workload and decrease the
productivity for the rotating employees manager and for other employees. Job
rotation may be especially valuable for organizations that require firm-specific
skills because it provides an incentive to organizations to promote from within
(Jerris, 1999:329). Coaching is the process of one-on-one guidance and instruction
to improve knowledge, skills and work performance. Coaching is becoming a very

popular means of development, and often includes working one-on-one with the
learner to conduct a needs assessment, set major goals to accomplish, develop an
action plan, and support the learner to accomplish the plan. The learner drives
these activities and the coach provides continuing feedback and support. Usually
coaching is directed at employees with performance deficiencies, but also used as a
motivational tool for those performing well. Coaching methods solve precise
problems such as communication, time management and social skills. Executive
coaching generally takes place on a monthly basis and continues over a period of
several years. Often, coaches are brought in where there is a change in the structure
of the company, when a team or individual is not performing well or where new
skills are required. Coaching assumes that you are fine but could be even better
(Kirwan, 2000).

Training problem that faced

The traditional and still popular ideal for all around training in several closely
related trades is not compatible with modern condition. On all levels today
requisite skill consists of three parts - specific practical skill, technical knowledge
and general education the first has lost the two others has gained importance.
The monolithic character of apprentice training has been broken to practical
training has now been added technical education since the latter is urged and
provided by Government, the employer has ceased to bear the entire responsibility
for apprenticeship training and single type craft apprenticeship is being replaced by
grading of apprenticeship. The employer is still the arbiter of practical training no
minimum standard are laid down , let alone enforced and no test of proficiency is
required for the completion of apprenticeship.
There is consequently a great
variety in the contents, the method and the quality of training. By their training
methods firm ( and industries) fall into two groups: the traditional manner of
training on the shopfloor or on the job prevails in the printing and building
industries and is most engineering firms. But in Engineering the modern method of

separating training from production is getting ground in a number of firms before

going on to the shopfloor apprentices receive basic training in a training workshop
under special instructors

Overall Advantage
Apprenticeship has focused primarily on construction and manufacturing
occupations, but it has many advantages as a skill development strategy for a range
of other occupations, including many with programs in community colleges. Since
apprenticeship is driven by employer demand, mismatches between skills taught
and supplied and skills demanded in the work place are less likely to occur than
when training is provided in school-based or community-based courses
.Apprenticeship provides workers with a full salary and wage progression so that
participants can support their living standards without a government stipend. these
features are especially important for low-income workers. Apprenticeship
generates high skills that can be well-documented through a process of learning in
the context of actual work content. It offers a way for workers to master not only
relevant content skills but also other work-related skills, including communication,
problem solving, allocating resources, and dealing with supervisors and a diverse
set of coworkers .Young people reap many developmental benefits from engaging
in apprenticeships. they work with natural adult mentors who can guide them but
allow them to make their own mistakes. Supervisors provide the close monitoring
and frequent feedback that helps apprentices keep their focus on performing well at
the work site and in the classroom. For many young people, apprenticeship offers
an attractive route to a valued credential and the added confidence in their learning
capacity to pursue and complete a college degree. Apprentices can take advantage
of the tuition subsidies that most employers provide to incumbent workers for
college courses. Apprenticeship is particularly appealing as a way of integrating
minorities especially minority young men into rewarding careers. Learning takes
place mostly on the job, making the tasks and classroom work highly relevant to
their careers, and providing participants wages while they learn can give minorities
increased confidence that their personal efforts and investment in skill
development will pay. In addition, mastering a skill by completing an
apprenticeship gives graduates a genuine sense of occupational identity and pride.