Sunteți pe pagina 1din 48
GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR Compressors Used in OIL & GAS Industry - Emphasis on Centrifugal

GASGAS COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR

Compressors Used in OIL & GAS Industry

- Emphasis on Centrifugal compressor

Mahender Reddy Billam

November 21, 2011

Compressors Used in OIL & GAS Industry - Emphasis on Centrifugal compressor Mahender Reddy Billam November
Gas Gas Compressor Compressor 1 – Compressor in Natural gas production & transport 2 –

GasGas CompressorCompressor

1 – Compressor in Natural gas production & transport

2 – Types and Principles

3 - Centrifugal Compressor Selection process

4 – Compressor Components

5 – Latest developments

Types and Principles 3 - Centrifugal Compressor Selection process 4 – Compressor Components 5 – Latest
What What does does a a Compressor Compressor do do  Reduce volume of gas

WhatWhat doesdoes aa CompressorCompressor dodo

Reduce volume of gas

Increase pressure of gass

Control pressure in process

Compressor Compressor do do  Reduce volume of gas  Increase pressure of gass  Control
?
?
GASGAS FROMFROM RESERVIORRESERVIOR TOTO LANDLAND
GASGAS FROMFROM RESERVIORRESERVIOR TOTO LANDLAND
GASGAS FROMFROM RESERVIORRESERVIOR TOTO LANDLAND
GASGAS FROMFROM RESERVIORRESERVIOR TOTO LANDLAND
TYPICAL TYPICAL OIL OIL PLATFORM PLATFORM
TYPICAL TYPICAL OIL OIL PLATFORM PLATFORM

TYPICALTYPICAL OILOIL PLATFORMPLATFORM

TYPICAL TYPICAL OIL OIL PLATFORM PLATFORM
DRIVERDRIVER Gear Compressor EM Gear Compressor GT Gear Compressor ST
DRIVERDRIVER Gear Compressor EM
DRIVERDRIVER
Gear
Compressor
EM

Gear

Compressor

GT Gear Compressor
GT
Gear
Compressor
ST
ST
DRIVERDRIVER Gear Compressor EM Gear Compressor GT Gear Compressor ST
DRIVERDRIVER Gear Compressor EM Gear Compressor GT Gear Compressor ST
COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR ON ON KOLLSNESS KOLLSNESS

COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR ONON KOLLSNESSKOLLSNESS

COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR ON ON KOLLSNESS KOLLSNESS
COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR ON ON KOLLSNESS KOLLSNESS
COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR ON ON KOLLSNESS KOLLSNESS
2 TYPES AND PRINCIPLE • Compressor Type • Centrifugal - principle

2 TYPES AND PRINCIPLE

2 TYPES AND PRINCIPLE • Compressor Type • Centrifugal - principle

Compressor Type Centrifugal - principle

2 TYPES AND PRINCIPLE • Compressor Type • Centrifugal - principle
Compressor Types • Axial - large flow, low pressure • Centrifugal - large to medium

Compressor Types

Compressor Types • Axial - large flow, low pressure • Centrifugal - large to medium flow,

Axial - large flow, low pressure

Centrifugal - large to medium flow, high presssure

Helical Screw - low flow, low pressure

Reciprocating - medium to low flow, high pressure

Offshore North Sea - large flow, high pressure

low pressure • Reciprocating - medium to low flow, high pressure • Offshore North Sea -
Axial Compressor

Axial Compressor

Axial Compressor
Axial Compressor
Axial Compressor
Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor

Reciprocating Compressor

Reciprocating Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor
Helical Screw Compressor
Helical Screw Compressor

Helical Screw Compressor

Helical Screw Compressor
Basic Principles • Centrifugal Action • A Centrifugal Stage • Energy Conversion

Basic Principles

Centrifugal Action

A Centrifugal Stage

Energy Conversion

Basic Principles • Centrifugal Action • A Centrifugal Stage • Energy Conversion
Basic Principles • Centrifugal Action • A Centrifugal Stage • Energy Conversion

Centrifugal Action

Centrifugal Action
Centrifugal Action
Centrifugal Action
Centrifugal Action
Centrifugal Action Velocity Relationship Exit Path A B

Centrifugal Action

Centrifugal Action Velocity Relationship Exit Path A B
Velocity Relationship Exit Path A B
Velocity Relationship
Exit Path
A
B
Centrifugal Action Velocity Relationship Exit Path A B
Centrifugal Action Velocity Relationship Exit Path A B
Centrifugal Action Blades Disk Cover Low Velocity, Low Pressure Gas Inlet High Velocity, Higher Pressure

Centrifugal Action

Blades Disk
Blades
Disk
Centrifugal Action Blades Disk Cover Low Velocity, Low Pressure Gas Inlet High Velocity, Higher Pressure Gas

Cover

Low Velocity, Low Pressure Gas Inlet
Low Velocity,
Low Pressure
Gas Inlet

High Velocity, Higher Pressure Gas Outlet

Centrifugal Action Blades Disk Cover Low Velocity, Low Pressure Gas Inlet High Velocity, Higher Pressure Gas
ImpellersImpellersImpellers
ImpellersImpellersImpellers
DIFFUSOR From impellers gas flows in to diffuser Diffusor Diffuser converts kinetic energy to pressure

DIFFUSOR

From impellers gas flows in to diffuser

DIFFUSOR From impellers gas flows in to diffuser Diffusor Diffuser converts kinetic energy to pressure energy
Diffusor
Diffusor
DIFFUSOR From impellers gas flows in to diffuser Diffusor Diffuser converts kinetic energy to pressure energy

Diffuser converts kinetic energy to pressure energy

DIFFUSOR From impellers gas flows in to diffuser Diffusor Diffuser converts kinetic energy to pressure energy
Bend How A Centrifugal Works Centrifugal Stage Return Return Bend Return Channel Guide Vanes Diffuser

Bend

How A Centrifugal Works

Bend How A Centrifugal Works Centrifugal Stage Return Return Bend Return Channel Guide Vanes Diffuser Reduces
Centrifugal Stage Return Return Bend Return Channel Guide Vanes
Centrifugal Stage
Return
Return Bend
Return Channel
Guide Vanes

Diffuser

Reduces Velocity Increases Static Pressure

Impeller

Increases Velocity Increases Static Pressure

…… ONE ONE COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR TRAIN TRAIN  IMPELLER  Transfer energy -pressure og speed
……
……

ONEONE COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TRAINTRAIN

IMPELLER

Transfer energy -pressure og speed

DIFFUSOR

Converts kinetic energy to pressure

TRAIN TRAIN  IMPELLER  Transfer energy -pressure og speed  DIFFUSOR  Converts kinetic energy
GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 3 – Centrifugal Compressor Selection process

GASGAS COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR

GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 3 – Centrifugal Compressor Selection process

3 – Centrifugal Compressor Selection process

GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 3 – Centrifugal Compressor Selection process
Selection Selection Process Process  Inputs required for centrifugal compressor selection  Typically Know: 

SelectionSelection ProcessProcess

Inputs required for centrifugal compressor selection

Typically Know:

Ts inlet

Ps inlet

Pd outlet

Flow (Q)

gas composition

Driver type (Gas Turbine, Steam Turbine, Motor)

 Ps inlet  Pd outlet  Flow (Q)  gas composition  Driver type (Gas
 Ps inlet  Pd outlet  Flow (Q)  gas composition  Driver type (Gas

SelectionSelection ProcessProcess

Selection Selection Process Process  Selection Process  Aerodynamic Selection and Optimization • Impeller

Selection Process

Aerodynamic Selection and Optimization

• Impeller Requirements (including Stress)

Mechanical Design

• Coupling size

• Bearing and Seal sizes

Rotordynamic Design

• Could reselect coupling, bearings, seals

Design • Coupling size • Bearing and Seal sizes  Rotordynamic Design • Could reselect coupling,
Design • Coupling size • Bearing and Seal sizes  Rotordynamic Design • Could reselect coupling,
Polytropic Polytropic Work Work (Head) (Head) COURTESY OF BILL FORSTHOFFER

PolytropicPolytropic WorkWork (Head)(Head)

COURTESY OF BILL FORSTHOFFER
COURTESY OF BILL FORSTHOFFER

BasicBasic ThermodynamicThermodynamic EquationsEquations

P

d

P

s

m

1

m

R T

s

Z

avg

1 m         R  T s  Z

(

k

k

1) /

m

Head

z = compressibility

R = Universal Gas Constant

Redlich Kwong equation used to calculate compressibility(z)

(1545.3/Mw)

Mw = Mole Weight

k

C

compressibility(z) (1545.3/Mw) Mw = Mole Weight k C = Isentropic Exponent (Cp/Cv) p = Specific Heat

= Isentropic Exponent (Cp/Cv)

p = Specific Heat at constant

pressure

v = Specific Heat at constant

volume

C

k C = Isentropic Exponent (Cp/Cv) p = Specific Heat at constant pressure v = Specific

SomeSome RotorRotor dynamicdynamic terminology:terminology:

z

Axial vibrations
Axial vibrations

Lateral vibrations

Torsional vibrations

y

z Axial vibrations Lateral vibrations Torsional vibrations y x Concepts used in Rotor Dynamics: • Basic

x

Concepts used in Rotor Dynamics:

• Basic principles of vibrations

• Knowledge of how a fluid film bearing works

• Influence of bearings on the dynamics of the machine

• Influence of labyrinth and damper seals on the dynamics of the machine

of bearings on the dynamics of the machine • Influence of labyrinth and damper s eals

SomeSome RotorRotor dynamicdynamic terminology:terminology:

Rotor: rotating element consisting of shaft, impellers/disks, shrunk-on components like sleeves, balance piston, etc.

shrunk-on components like sleeves, balance piston, etc. • Bearings : Journal bearings support the rotor in

Bearings: Journal bearings support the rotor in the lateral direction. (Thrust bearings support the axial load of the rotor while in operation.)

support the rotor in the lateral direction. (Thrust bearings support the axial load of the rotor
support the rotor in the lateral direction. (Thrust bearings support the axial load of the rotor
support the rotor in the lateral direction. (Thrust bearings support the axial load of the rotor
Some Some Rotor Rotor dynamic dynamic terminology terminology (Contd.): (Contd.): • • • Natural frequency

SomeSome RotorRotor dynamicdynamic terminologyterminology (Contd.):(Contd.):

Natural frequency: Frequency at which the system vibrates. The frequency of vibration of a system (e.g. rotor-bearing system) with damping is called the damped natural frequency. •Ring of a bell or a tuning fork.

Critical speed: Is a natural frequency with an ‘active enough’

response that the natural frequency should be designed around. (more

on this later)

Stability: The stability of a system is defined as the “reaction” to any external perturbation. (more on this later)

Stability : The stability of a system is defined as the “reaction” to any external perturbation.

SomeSome RotorRotor dynamicdynamic terminologyterminology (Contd.):(Contd.):

Some Some Rotor Rotor dynamic dynamic terminology terminology (Contd.): (Contd.):
Some Some Rotor Rotor dynamic dynamic terminology terminology (Contd.): (Contd.):
Some Some Rotor Rotor dynamic dynamic terminology terminology (Contd.): (Contd.):

CompressorCompressor ControlControl

Compressor Compressor Control Control Recycle Recycle Valve Valve Recycle Increases Suction Flow

RecycleRecycle ValveValve

Compressor Compressor Control Control Recycle Recycle Valve Valve Recycle Increases Suction Flow

Recycle Increases Suction Flow

Compressor Compressor Control Control Recycle Recycle Valve Valve Recycle Increases Suction Flow
Surge! Surge! SURGE LINE COMPRESSOR DESIGN POINT 105% Speed 100% Speed 90% Speed Polytropic Pressure

Surge!Surge!

SURGE LINE COMPRESSOR DESIGN POINT 105% Speed 100% Speed 90% Speed Polytropic Pressure Coefficient
SURGE LINE
COMPRESSOR
DESIGN POINT
105% Speed
100% Speed
90% Speed
Polytropic Pressure Coefficient

Flow

Surge! Surge! SURGE LINE COMPRESSOR DESIGN POINT 105% Speed 100% Speed 90% Speed Polytropic Pressure Coefficient
GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 4 – Centrifugal Compressor components

GASGAS COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR

4 – Centrifugal Compressor components

GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 4 – Centrifugal Compressor components
GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 4 – Centrifugal Compressor components
Rotor Assembly Balance Piston Impellers Drive Coupling Mount Shaft Thrust Bearing Rotor Journals Impeller
Rotor Assembly
Balance
Piston
Impellers
Drive
Coupling
Mount
Shaft
Thrust
Bearing
Rotor
Journals
Impeller
Spacers
Seal
Area

STRAIGHTSTRAIGHT THROUGHTHROUGH FLOWFLOW

DeDe--ethaniserethaniser--D10R5SD10R5S

FLOW FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance
FLOW FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance
FLOW FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance

bearing

FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance piston

Gas seals

Balance piston

FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance piston

Gas seal

bearing

FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance piston
FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance piston

Thrust

Bearing

FLOW De De - - ethaniser ethaniser - - D10R5S D10R5S bearing Gas seals Balance piston
Centrifugal Flowpaths P3 P5 P7 P9 Balance Piston P1 Straight-Through or Series Flow

Centrifugal Flowpaths

P3 P5 P7 P9
P3
P5
P7
P9
Balance Piston P1
Balance
Piston
P1

Straight-Through or Series Flow

Centrifugal Flowpaths P3 P5 P7 P9 Balance Piston P1 Straight-Through or Series Flow
Centrifugal Flowpaths SS In SS Out P5 P7 P9 P3 Piston P1 Series Flow with

Centrifugal Flowpaths

SS In

SS Out

Centrifugal Flowpaths SS In SS Out P5 P7 P9 P3 Piston P1 Series Flow with Sidestreams
P5
P5
P7 P9 P3 Piston P1
P7
P9
P3
Piston
P1

Series Flow with Sidestreams

Balance

Centrifugal Flowpaths SS In SS Out P5 P7 P9 P3 Piston P1 Series Flow with Sidestreams
Balance Centrifugal Flowpaths P3 P7 P9 P5 Piston P1 Compound Flow

Balance

Centrifugal Flowpaths

P3
P3
Balance Centrifugal Flowpaths P3 P7 P9 P5 Piston P1 Compound Flow
P7 P9
P7
P9
P5 Piston P1
P5
Piston
P1

Compound Flow

Balance Centrifugal Flowpaths P3 P7 P9 P5 Piston P1 Compound Flow
Centrifugal Flowpaths P3 P3 P5 P1 P1 Parallel or Double Flow

Centrifugal Flowpaths

P3 P3 P5 P1 P1
P3
P3
P5
P1
P1

Parallel or Double Flow

Centrifugal Flowpaths P3 P3 P5 P1 P1 Parallel or Double Flow
Centrifugal Flowpaths P5 P9 P1 P5 D Wa ll D Wa ll Back to Back

Centrifugal Flowpaths

P5 P9 P1 P5 D Wa ll D Wa ll
P5
P9
P1
P5
D Wa ll
D Wa ll

Back to Back Flow with No Cooler

Centrifugal Flowpaths P5 P9 P1 P5 D Wa ll D Wa ll Back to Back Flow
Centrifugal Flowpaths P5 P9 P1 P5 D Wa ll D Wa ll Back to Back

Centrifugal Flowpaths

P5 P9 P1 P5 D Wa ll D Wa ll
P5
P9
P1
P5
D Wa ll
D Wa ll

Back to Back Flow with a Cooler

Centrifugal Flowpaths P5 P9 P1 P5 D Wa ll D Wa ll Back to Back Flow
KOMPRESSOR KOMPRESSOR ACESSORIES ACESSORIES - - COMPONENTS COMPONENTS  Compressor  Lube oil system 

KOMPRESSORKOMPRESSOR ACESSORIESACESSORIES -- COMPONENTSCOMPONENTS

Compressor

Lube oil system

Gasseal system – gas or oil

Gear and Couplings

Driver - el. motor, gasturbine, steam turbine

Foundation skid

Prosess- anti-surge valve, scrubber and cooler

Instrumentation and control system

turbine  Foundation skid  Prosess- anti-surge valve, scrubber and cooler  Instrumentation and control system
turbine  Foundation skid  Prosess- anti-surge valve, scrubber and cooler  Instrumentation and control system
REMOVABLE LIFTING LUG A.V.M (anti vibration mount) DRIP PAN CONNECTION  33 pointpoint supportsupport
REMOVABLE
LIFTING LUG
A.V.M
(anti vibration mount)
DRIP PAN
CONNECTION
 33 pointpoint supportsupport BASEPLATEBASEPLATE
((withwith centralcentral boxbox beambeam))
GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 5 – Centrifugal Compressor latest develoments

GASGAS COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR

GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 5 – Centrifugal Compressor latest develoments

5 – Centrifugal Compressor latest develoments

GAS GAS COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR 5 – Centrifugal Compressor latest develoments
Latest Latest Developments Developments  Compact integral Motor driven compressor

LatestLatest DevelopmentsDevelopments

Compact integral Motor driven compressor

Latest Latest Developments Developments  Compact integral Motor driven compressor
Latest Latest Developments Developments  Compact integral Motor driven compressor
Latest Latest Developments Developments  Compact integral Motor driven compressor
Latest Latest Developments Developments  Compact integral Motor driven compressor - High speed Electrical motors

LatestLatest DevelopmentsDevelopments

Compact integral Motor driven compressor

Developments  Compact integral Motor driven compressor - High speed Electrical motors - No gearbox -
Developments  Compact integral Motor driven compressor - High speed Electrical motors - No gearbox -

- High speed Electrical motors

- No gearbox

- Magnetic bearings that eliminate need for oil lubrication

- Reduced footprint

- digital controls instead of analog controls

- Emission-free design

need for oil lubrication - Reduced footprint - digital controls instead of analog controls - Emission-free
Latest Latest Developments Developments Integrated Compression System(ICS) DATUM I Compressor package

LatestLatest DevelopmentsDevelopments

Integrated Compression System(ICS)

Latest Latest Developments Developments Integrated Compression System(ICS) DATUM I Compressor package

DATUM I Compressor package

Latest Latest Developments Developments Integrated Compression System(ICS) DATUM I Compressor package
Latest Latest Developments Developments Integrated Compression System(ICS) DATUM I Compressor package
Thank You

Thank You

Thank You