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T/ECHNIC.A..L SK.ILL TEST

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of a lens with a focal distance


of1 rn.
.d' Erg is the unit
of work or
energy in the metric system;
this is equal to the work done
by one dyne acting through a
distance of one centimetre.
sr Fathom is the unit used for
measuring depth of water; one
fathom is equal to 6 feet.
'd Gallon is the unit in which we

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'F'Ampere is the standard unit


for measuring the strength of
an electric current; it is equal
to the rate of 10\,\' of charge of
one coulomb per second.
r.ff Angstrom is the unit for measuring length of light waves.
'ff Darrel is the unit for measuring liquids; 1 barrel is == 31.5
gallons, or 7,3265 cu. in.
..If" Bale is the
unit in which
cotton is weighed.
e: Bushel is the unit used for
measuring corn.
. s: Cable is the unit in which
length of wires and cables are
measured;' one cable is about
183 metres long.
r_ff Caret is the unit in which
we
measure the weight of precious
stones; it is used <1S a measure
for the puritv of gold alloy.
'.d Dloptre is the unit of measure
of the refract ive pOWt)r of a
lens; this is equ.il to the pO'wer

petrol or steam engine; one


cr Steam point is the temperahorse power is equal to 745.7 ture at which the maximum
watts. It is an imperial unit of
vapour pressure of water is
power originally defined as
equal to the standard atmos~50 foot pound per second.
ph eric pressure; it is equal to
<$' Knot is the
unit used for
100Con the celsius scale.
measuring the 'speed of ships.
<:r Tesle is the unit of magnetic
1 knot > 1 nautical, mile, i. e.,
flux density equal to one
6,076.12 feet per hour.
weber of magnetic flux/m'.
w Lsmbds is the unit of wave
r:r Tonis a unit of weight; this is
length. Note the simple
. equal to 2,000 pounds," as h
relation-ship between the
used in the U. S. and Canada,
wavelength and the frequency,
and equal to 2;240 pounds as
i. e., A. ::: elf, where, c is the
is used in the Great Britain .
speed of propogation.
r:r Tonne is the metric unit of
'F Light Yearis a unit of distance
- weight equal to 1,000 kg .
that light travels in a vaccuum
r:r Ultrahigh trequeacy; UHF. is
in 1 year at 2,97,600 km/ sec.
a radio frequency in the range
It is approximately 6 trillion
of 3 x 109 - 0.3 X IO'}Hz, i. e.,
miles.
having a wavelength in the
" Mach.number is the ratio of
range of 1i) em to 1 m.
the speed of .an object to the
r:r Vapourdensity is the density'
speed of sound through the
of a gas or vapour relative to
same medium, as air.
hydrogen, oxygen or air.
vr Nautical Mile is a unit of
tff' Veryhigh frequency, VHF, is
distance used in navigation; it
a radio frequency in the rang.e
is approximately 1853metres.
of 3 x 108 - 0.3 x lOll Hz, i. e.,
lr Ohm is the unit of electrical
having a wavelength in the
resistance of a conductor.
range of 1m to ~Om.
tff' Pascal is the unit of pressure
C6"' Weberis the unit of magnetic
equal to one newton/ sq. m.
flux equal to the flux that,
Cit' Quintal is the metric measure
linking a circuit.of one turn,
of weight; 100 kg is one quintal.
produces in ~t an e.m.f. of 1
tff'Rad is the unit of absorbed
volt as it is reduced to.zero at
dose of ionising radiation;
a uniform rate in one second.
equal to 100 ergs of energy per
(iF Yard is the imperial
unit of
gram of matter.
length, equal to 3 feet; it was
vt' Slug is the unit of mass equal
redefined in 1963 as 0.9144
to the mass that will aquire an
mene exactly.
accelera tion of 1 ft sec -2 when
(iF Zero point energyi: the energy
acted by a force of one poundremaining in a substance at
force.
absolute zero of temperature.

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Units and Measurements

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measure the capacity of


liquids; 1 gallon is 4.54 litres
(l7ppJpX).

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Horse Power is the unit used


tor measuring the power of

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r~"Unit is

Watt-Power
Watt Hour - Energy Consumed

Fundamental

J ..
N
Hz .
lx
H

1m
Wb

T
W

Pa'

Constants

.. 9.80665-2

Avogadro constant, L.NA


.. 6.02252 X 1023 mol"
Boltzmann constant, k = R/NA
.._1.380622 X 10-23 JKl
Electric constaht~ (sn)
.. 8.854 x 1O-12.Fm-!
Electronic charge, (e)
.. 1.602192 x 1O-19C
Electronic rest mass, (m)
.. 9.109558 x 10-31kg

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S.I. Units
Base & Supplementary
Physical Qty Name
Symb.o
Length
metre
m
Mass
kilogram kg
Time
second s
Electric Current ampere A
. Theromdunamic
lemperature
kelvin
K
'Luminous
Intensity
candela cd
mole
mol
Amount of
Substance
rad
Plane Angle
radian
steradian sr:
Solid A,ngle

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Symbol

Acceleration offree fall, g

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physical quantity,
used as a standard in the
measurement
of other
physical quantities.
'Jr International Office of Weights
& Measures is located at Sevres
near Paris in France.
!t' One metre is the length of the
path travelled by light in
vaccum during a time interval
of 1/299792458 of a second.
(POne kilogram is the mass of a
particular I cylinder
of
platinum- Iridium alloy, kept at
Sevres, near Paris in France.
A second is the time taken for
9192631770 vibrations
of
cesium atoms which act likea
pendulum in the atomic clock.
This atomic clock works on
energy changes in gaseous
caesium atoms.
=The "Mean Solar day" is the
average
period between
successive transits of the Sun
across the meridian, taken
over 12 months, at any part of
the.earth's surface.
.
El_

Physical Qty Name


Capacitance
farad
Energy
joule
Force
, newton
Frequency.
hertz
Illuminance
lux
Inductance
henry
Luminous flux lumen
Magnetic flux weber
Magnetic flux
,. density/Magnetic
Induction
tesla
Power
watt
Pressure
pascal

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area, density, etc.


Measurement, is the physical
act which expresses
the
properties of a given object or
svstem
in numbers.
_,
, 'The measure of a' quantity
consists of a magnitude and a

Deri ved Units


Angstrom - Wavelength
Coulomb - Qty. of Electricity
Erg, Joule - Energy
Hertz - Wave Frequency
Newton - Force
Ohm - Electrical Resistance
Pascal - Pressure
Roentgen - Qty. of Radiation
Volt - Potential Difference

physical quantities, e.g., speed,

Standard.Units (5.1. System)


Ampere - Electric Current,
Candela - Luminosity
Kelvin - Temperature
Kilogram - Mass .
Metre - Distance
Mole - Amount of Substance
Second - Time

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Measurements
quantities are of two
. kinds, viz., fundamental quantities, i.e., those quantities
which cannot be measured-in .
terms of any physical quantities
other than themselves, e.g.,
mass, length, time and electric
current; and derived quantities,
i.e., those quantities whose
definitions are based on other

-ir Physical

~~~=-.:;______./

.. 9.648670 x 104C mol"


Gas constant, (R)
.
.. 8_31434JKI mol:'

Gravitational constant, (G)


.. 6.664 x 10-11Nm2 kg-2
Loschmidi's constant, (N))
.. 2.68719 x'1O-25 ml

Magnetic constant, (uv)


.. 9-109558 X 10-7 Hm'

Derived S. I.Units

Physical Qty Name


Absorbed dose gray
Activity dose becqurel
Dose equivalent sievert
Electric charge coulomb
Potential difference (elec.)
vult
Resistance
ohm
Conductance
siemens

Faraday constant, (F)

Symbo
Gy
Bq

Sv
C

Neutron rest mass, (m)


.. 1.67492 x 10-27 kg

Planck'e constant, (h):


.. 6.626196 X 10-34 Js

. Proton rest mass, (m)


... 1.672614
Speed of light, (c)

1027 kg

.. 2.997924 x lOs rns'

Ste!Cl,I1-Bo[tzmmmconstant. (d)
.. 5.6697 x 10-~Wm 2K-4

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ABC in- Meeharrics


energy of the piston:
Conversion 'Of Units
Acceleration
is the rate of
Escape velocity is the minimum
2.54 x 10-2
in.
m
change of velocity.
velocity which a body when
ft.
m
0.3048
.
,.
Accleration due to gravity (g) is projected goes out of the
sq. ill. 6.4516 x 10 -4 mgravitational field of the earth; it
the acceleration caused by the
sq. ft. 9.2903 x 10 -2 "rn"
is equal to 11.2 km/ sec.
gravitational attraction of the
cu. ill: 1-63871 x 10-3 m3
earth on a freely falling object.
Friction is the force opposing
cu. ft. 2.83168 x 10 -3 m3
10 -3
I (litre)
m3
Thevalue of g is more at poles relative motion between two
than at the equator because of surfaces which are in contact.
gallon 4.54609 x 10-3 m3
Dynamic friction is lesser than
uneven shape of earth. AcceleraI(litre)
gnllon
454609
Static friction. Rolling friction is
tion. due to gravity increases
0.47704
miles/hr.
ms"
. lesser than Slidingfrictiori. Friction
with the increase of latitudes.
Km./hr.
0.2~778
ms"
during pull is lesser than friction
lb (pound) 0.453592
Apparent weight is the weight
kg.
during push.
kg.m?
of the solid body as measured,
g.cm".
103
when the body is immersed in a Geostationary orbit is about
Ib/in3 2.76799 x 10 -3 m3
103
36000krn above earth's surface.
liquid.
N
dy1le
N
kg{
9.80665
Centre of gravity is the point
Geostationary
satellites are
those which appear stationary
poundal
0-138255
N,
where the whole weight of the
with
respect to earth and has 24
4.44822
N
body
can
be
considered
to
act
lbf
Pa
hour period of rotation.
mmHg
'133.322
If the centre of gravity rasses
Atmospherjl.Ol325 x 105 Pa
Gravity is a force which the
through the base of an object,
~
W
745.7
earth exerts on
bodies lymg
hp
then it is stable. Bodies with low
lQ-7
on ~ts surface or 'near it.
.
erg
centre of gravity and wide bases
J
eV 1.60210. x 10-19,
are more stable.'
. Mechanics is subdivided into
J
3.6 x '106
kWh
kinematics and dynamics, that
Centre of mass is the point
J
cal
4.1868
deal with the description of
where, the whole mass of the
J
motion and relation of forces to
body is concentrated.
Decimal ~ultiples
the motion respectively.
Centrifugal force is the force
Multiple
Prefi~ Symbol
Mechanical motion is of two
'which is equal and opposite to
10
deca
da
types, viz., translational (linear)
centripetal
force and it is
102
hecto
h
and rotational (sPin). '
.
directed outwards ..
1(}"I
kilo
k
Momentum is the product of \
Centripetal force is the force
M
106
mega
which causes the body to move .ma~ and velocity of the body.
109
giga
G
in circular path. The direction
Impulse is the product, of the
10li
.tera T
of the force is towards the centre
force and time, when a certain
peta
P
1015
of its revolution.
force acts for a given period of
exa
1018
E.
time.
Displacement is the distance in
Decimal Sub-multiples
a specified direction.
Orbital velocity. is the velocity
Prefix Symbol
Sub1nIIUiple
with which the satellite revolves
Doppler's Effect - is the change
10-1
deci
d
round the planet in an orbit.
in frequency of a wave due to
JQ-2
centi
c
motion of the source.
Oscillatory motion is the to and
10-3milli
m
fro motion of a particle about its
Energy is the capacity to do"work.
10-1>
micro
j.t
It is of two types, viz., kinetic" mean position.
10-'1
nano
n
energy and potential energy.
Periodic motion is a motion
10-12
pico
p
which
repeats itself in equal
Engine .: is the practical .device
10-15
f
fernto
by which heat energy of steam. is ) interval of time.
10,18
atto
a
transformed into the mechanical
Power is the rate of doing work ..

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Pressure is the force acting per


unit area.
Rectilinear motion is the motion
,of an object 'in which every
particle (of the object) follows a
straight line path.
Retardation happens when the
velocity decreases-with time, it is
,a~o called negative acceleration.
Simple harmonic motion is the

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ABC
General Science
Bordeaux mixture _ is the first
fungicide discovered for plant
Adhesion - is the forces of
disease. It is a mixture of cupric
'~'ttraction
between
unlike
sulphate, cal~iuirzoxide and water.
molecules,
Bosons _' are particles which
Adiabatic - the process taking
conform to 'Bose-Einstein statisplace without heat entering or
tics, whose numbers are not
leaving the system.'

conserved in particle interactions.


Adsorption _ the concentration
Brinell's Test .: a test for the
of a substance on a surface.
hardness of metals.
Advection - the process in which
motion in which the acceleration
British Thermal Unit _ is the
either matter or energy is transof the body is always directed
quantify of heat required to raise
ferred from one place to another
towards the equilibrium position
the temperature of 1 lb water
by a horizontal stream of gas.
and is always proportionate to
through 10C.
Aerobic - is the condition in the
, the displacement of the body
presence of free oxygen.
Byte - is a single unit of inforSpeed is the distance travelled
matien
handled by a computer.
Allotropy - is the property' by
by a body in unit time interval.
Usually 1byte is equal to 8 bits.
which certain chemical elements
Universal gravitational cons- exists in two or more different
Calcination - the p.rocess in
'tant, G is equal to 6167 xl(J"u. It
forms.
which metals are converted into
is the force that pulls every object Alum -I is the crystalline form of , their oxides by heating in air.
towards the earth.
'potassium ~l~um
silicate.
Canal rays - ar'e- positively
Upthrust - is the upward buoyAnnealing - is the slow regula- charged 'ions produced' during ,
ant force by the fluid, liquid or ted cooling, especially of metals, -the discharge, of electricity in '
gas, on a solid.
to relieve strains set up during 'gases, driven to the cathode by
.Velocity - is' the distance covered heating or other treatQ1en~: '
the applied potential difference
by an object in a specified
Attenuation - is the loss of ' and allowed to pass through
direction in unit time interval,
.
canals bored in the cathode. '
power suffered by radiation as
Weight _ the weight of a body is it passes through ~att~r.
.Capillarity - helps oil rise up a
maximum at the poles and
lampwick.
Axis' of symmetry -' is a line
minimum at equator.
about w~ich a given figure is Celluloid ....is a thermoplastic'
Weight of-an object is less at high
symmetrical. '
materialmade from cellulose
altitudes than at sea level. Weight
,
.nitrate
and camphor.
Azimuth _ is the angular distance
of an object will be zero at the
from the north or south point of the
Cementation ...a processfor steel
. centre of the earth. On the surface
horizon to the foot of-the vertical , manufacture, in which bars of
of the .moon the weight would be
circle through a heavenly ]?ody.
wrought 'iton.are heated for many
1/6 compared to weight on, the
days in charcoal at redheat.
Babbitt _ is a class of alloys with
earth because the acceleration
a high proportion of tin and little
Chlorination -:-is the commonly
due to gravity-on the moon is
of
copper
and
antimony.
adopted
method of water purifinearly that of one-sixth of that on .
Betatron _ is a 'cyclic accelerator cation for human consumption.
earth; Weight of' a free falling
for accelerating a continuous
Cinnabar - is .an ore of mercury.
object is' zero. Weight would'
beam
of
electrons
to
high
'speeds
by
Conductor> it has large number
increaseif earth stops rotation.
means
of
the,electricfield
produced
.of free 'electrons in conduction
. 'Weight would be less if speed of
by a changing magnetic flux.
bend.
'
rotation increases.' '.
Biprism= is anoptical device for Covalent bond - a bond formed
Work _ is said to' be done when
obtaining,
interferencefringes. , ,".,
a force acting on a body; moves .
by the sharing pf 'lectrons .
~
Blende
is
natural
zinc
sulphide.
it through a distance,
between two atoms.

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form of waves of energy


associated with the electric and
magnetic fields, Itis a transverse
Crystallisation
- the l most
wave and the velocity
equal
widely used process :,tor the
,
to
light
velocity.
.
separation and purification .of
solid substances.
Fluoresence - the emission of
Curie point- the temperature for light du~ to absorption' of
photons by an atom.
a giyen ferromagnetic substance
above which it/becomes merely. Freon - the volatile liquid which
paramasnetic.
causes cooling in a refrigerator
Damping - a decrease in the by causing evaporation.
amplitude of oscillation or wave
Fusion of hydrogen - process
motion with time.
by which energy is generated in
.
Dasymeter - ~ instrument for the Sun.
, determining the density of agas.
Greenhouse effect -, is the rise
experienced in average global
Degaussing - the demagnetisatemperature.
tion of a magnetic substance; ,
Dehydration
causes Haber's process - the commercial
process to manufacture ammonia.
elimination of water in a body.
Half life period - It is the time
Dekatron - a gas filled emission
taken for half of the no. of atoms
tube with a central ..anode
.
~f tJ:teelement to disintegrate.
usually surrounded
by, ten
Heavy water - D20,is used as a
cathodes and associated transfer
electrodes.
moderator in nuclear reactor.
Delta connection - the method
Heparin - a naturally occurring
of connecting three windings of anticoagulant in the hUIl1a11
body.
a three phase electrical system.
Hydrometer - an instrument
. Desalinisation - is the process
used for measuring the density
of removal of salt from saline
of liquid.
water.
Hygrometer - instrument used
Dialysis ., is the method of for measuring relative humidity.
separa tion of colloidal particles
Incandescence - the emission of
by selective diffusion through a light from a substance; whose
semi-permeable membrane. ,
a toms are extit,ed by high
Diamond - is exceptionally hard
tempera ture.
due to its three dimensional
Integrated circuit - a microelectpolymeric structure.
ronic circuit incorporated into a
Dichromatism ~ a form of colour
chip of semiconductor, usually
blindness iri which only two
crystalline silicon.
, colours of the spectrum, can be
Interface - the surface which
distinguished.
separates two chemical phases.
Dielectric - a substance in which
Interferon - a protein which is
'an 'electric field gives rise to no
produced in many animal cells
net flow of electric charge but
as the result of the presence of
only to a displacement of charge.
viruses.

.Internal Energy - the total,


'kinetic and potential energy of a
continually moving molecule . .Lunar eclipse - occurs when the .
Earth' ,comes between the
Sun
.
and the Moon.
Metallurgy - is the process of
. extracting metal f~om its ore;
Microwave - it is a band in the
electromagnetic
.spectrum
having the frequency range from
300MHz to 30MHz.
Molecule - the smallest possible
unit of a chemical compound.
Neon - the gas used extensively
in making advertising signs.
Neutrons - the neutral particles
having charge equal to protons.
Nitrification - is the oxidation
. process in which ammonia is
converted into nitrate.
Nuclear fallout - Radioactive
substances deposited upon the
surface of the earth from the
atmosphere.
Nuclear fission - is the splitting
of a heavy nucleus into two
approximately.equal parts due
to capture of a neutron by the
nucleus.
Nuclear fusion - the binding
together of light nuclei to form a
heavier nucleus is called nuclear
fusion.
Nuclear wastes - any waste
material'
that
contains
radioactive nuclides.
Such
materials occur in the mining of
radioactive ores, the generation
of electricity by nuclear power
and in research laboratories. .
Nuclear weapons - weapons in
which the explosive power is
derived from Nuclear Fission or
a combination of Nuclear fission
and Nuclear fusion.

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Electromagnetic radiation - the

'Cryogenics - study of materials'


and phenomena at temper~ture
, close to absolute zer1J.
'

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'Radiocerbondating> is used to
Liquid thermometers, e.g., Mercury
find' the age offossils,
.
thermometer, Alchol thermometer, Six's Maxima and Minima
Radio waves - are a band in the
thermometer, . Gas thermometers,
electromagnetic
spectrum
e.g., Constant volume type,
having the lowest frequencies
Constant pressure type, Resisand the longer wavelengths and
'tance
thermometers; Thermoelechence least energies'.
tric thermometers, and Pyrometer
Rectifier - the device used for
used for measuring temperatures
converting A.c. into D.C.
,
usually above 5W C.
Reserpine - the medicine used
The relation between temperato reduce high blood pr~ssure.
ture on these four scales can be
Sedative t: is a drug which. deduced using' the formula
controls and reduces nervousgiven below. .
.
ness and excitement. '
L = F-32 =..._ = A-273.
Semiconductor - it intermediates
80
100
100 .. 100
between insulator and conductor.
(R,
F,
C,
A
respectively
represent
It be-haves as insulator in pure
the readings on Reamur, Fahrencrystalline
form hut their
heit, Celsius and Ab~olute scales).
conductivity increased when
small amount of Impurities are Toxins - produced by microadded. Semiconductors
are . organisms cause food poisoning.
Tranquiliser - the drug used for
either p type or n type.
Solar cells ~ are the source of the treatment of mental diseases,
and to sedate a trauma patient.
electric 'energy in an artificial
Transformer - is a device for.
satellite.
Stainless Steel-can alloy of iron .setting up or down AC voltage.
Transmutation - the phenomena
and chromium,
containing
in which, due to emission of
carbon.
radioactive rays, one element
Streptomycin - is an antibiotic
changes
to all other.
'
.used for treatment of Tuberculosis.
Triple point - is the point at
Sulphur dioxide - is the reagent
that bleaches the colour of a which the 3 state of a substance
liquid, solid and gas coexist.
fabric.
Ultrasound - a diagnostic techSuperconductor - at temperanjque
based on recording of
tures near absolute zero metals
echoes of extremely
high
have almost zero resistance and
frequency
waves.
because superconductors certain
Variometer - a variable inducceramics behavesas
super
tance consisting of two coils in
conductor at relatively high
temperature of above lOOk. It series, arranged so that one coil
can rofate within the other.
has permeability less than unity,
and behaves like diamagnetic.
Viscosity - the property of a
fluid whereby it tends to resist
Thermometer -: an instrument
relative
motionwithin itself. _
for the measurement
of
temperatures. Different types of Zygote - the single cell from
thermometers
are there for
which every sexually reproducing
living organism derives.
different purposes.

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. Palaeontology> isthe scientific


study of fossils.
Paraffin - is. the fuel used m ai"
jet engine.
Petroleum ether - the solvent
used for drycleaningclothes.
_Pero.xyacytyl nitrate - is a
powerful ey~ irritant.
Photelectric .cell - converts
light energy to electric energy.
Photoelectric effect - the phenomenon of transfer of light energyto electrical energy. .
Photo oxidation
- this is ~
process initiated by light.
Plasma membrane - it is the
dynamic structure controlling
the movement of substances into
and out of the cell.
Plasma state - the fourth state ..
of matters is called plasma state.
The molecules in this state exist in the positive
negative ions.
The number of positive ions is
(approx.) equal to the number of
negative ions so that the matter
appears neutral, but it is full of
charge so it is highly conducting.
Pleura '7 membrane that covers
the lung and lines the walls of
the chest and diaphragm.
Polythene - is industrially
prepared by the polymerisation
of ethylene.
Propellants - are special fuels
that are highly compact and
bum rapidly and completely are
called propellants.
Proton - the elementary particle
with charge equal and opposite
to that of an electron.
Quantum
theory, - radiant
energy of frequency I can be
emitted or absorbed only in
discrete amounts which are
integral multiples of hf, where lz
is Plank's constant.

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