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IV-PHOTON

Problem 1:
OAB is a triangle whose vertices are given. Find the dimensions of the rectangle with maximum area inscribed in the triangle and with one of its
sides on the side OA of the triangle.

Solution to Problem:
In the figure below, a rectangle with the top vertices on the sides of the triangle, a width W
and a length L is inscribed inside the given triangle.
We first need to find a formula for the area of
the rectangle in terms of x only.
The slope m1 of the line through OB is given by
m1 = (12 - 0) / (6 - 0) = 2
Let (x,y) be the coordinates of the top left vertex
of the rectangle. Hence
m1 = 2 = (y - 0) / (x - 0) = y / x
Hence the width W of the rectangle is give by W = y = 2x
The slope m2 through AB is given by. m2 = (12 - 0) / (6 - 10) = -3
If the top right vertex of the rectangle has coordinates (x , y) then . m2 = -3 = (y - 0) / (x - 10)
Hence y = -3x + 30
if we substitute x by x + L in the above equation then y is equal to W the width of the rectangle y = W = -3(x + L) + 30
We now equate the expressions of W = 2x and W = -3(x + L) + 30 to find and expression for L 2x = -3(x + L) + 30
Solve the above for L.
L = 10 - (5/3) x
The area A is given by. A = W L = 2x (10 - (5/3) x) = -(10 / 3) x 2 + 20 x
A is a quadratic function of x, of the form ax 2 + bx + c, and its leading coefficient a = -10 / 3 is negative hence it has a maximum value at the
critical value of the first derivative A' of A. A'(x) = -(20/3) x + 20
The critical point is found by solving the equation A'(x) = 0. Hence
-(20/3) x + 20 = 0
The critical point is given by x = 3.
The area A of the rectangle has a maximum value for x = 3, W = 2x = 6 and L = 10 - (5/3) 3 = 5.
Problem 2:
OAB is a triangle whose vertices are given. Find the dimensions of the rectangle with maximum area inscribed in the triangle and with one of its
sides on the side OA of the triangle.

Solution to Problem:
In the figure below, a rectangle with the top vertices on the sides of the
triangle, a width W and a length L is inscribed inside the given triangle. We
first need to find a formula for the area of the rectangle in terms of x only.
The slope m1 of the line through OB is given by m1 = (12 - 0) / (6
- 0) = 2
Let (x,y) be the coordinates of the top left vertex of the
rectangle. Hence
m1 = 2 = (y - 0) / (x - 0) = y / x
Hence the width W of the rectangle is give by W = y = 2x
The slope m2 through AB is given by.
m2 = (12 - 0) / (6 - 10) = -3
If the top right vertex of the rectangle has coordinates (x , y)
10)

then . m2 = -3 = (y - 0) / (x Henc y = -3x + 30

if we substitute x by x + L in the above equation then y is equal to W the width of the rectangle y = W = -3(x + L) + 30
We now equate the expressions of W = 2x and W = -3(x + L) + 30 to find and expression for L 2x = -3(x + L) + 30
Solve the above for L. L = 10 - (5/3) x
The area A is given by.
A = W L = 2x (10 - (5/3) x) = -(10 / 3) x 2 + 20 x
A is a quadratic function of x, of the form ax 2 + bx + c, and its leading coefficient a = -10 / 3 is negative hence it has a maximum value at the
critical value of the first derivative A' of A.
A'(x) = -(20/3) x + 20
The critical point is found by solving the equation A'(x) = 0. Hence -(20/3) x + 20 = 0
The critical point is given by x = 3.
The area A of the rectangle has a maximum value for x = 3, W = 2x = 6 and L = 10 - (5/3) 3 = 5.

Problem 3:In the picture below triangle ABC is inscribed inside a circle of center O and radius r. For a constant radius r of the circle, point B
slides along the circle so that the area of ABC changes. Find the length of sides AB and CB so that the area of triangle ABC is maximum.

Solution to Problem:
Since the center O of the circle is on the side AC of the triangle, AC is a
diameter of the circle and triangle ABC is a right triangle (Thales's
theorem). Its right angle is at B and its hypotenuse AC has length equal to
2r.(see figure below)

The area S of the triangle is given by S = (1 / 2) AB * CB

Using angle t, AB and CB may be expressed as follows AB = AC * cos t and CB = AC * sin t
Substitute AC by AC * cos t and CB by AC * sin t in the above formula for the area, we obtain S = (1/2) AC 2 cos t sin t
We now use the trigonometric formula sin(2t) = 2 sin t cos t to express the area S as follows. S = (1/4)AC 2 sin (2t)

Since the radius r is constant, the length of the diameter AC is also constant, hence the area depends on angle t only as point B slides along the
circle. To find t so that S is maximum, we need to find the first derivative and the stationary points. dS / dt = (1/4)AC 2 2 cos (2t)
We now equate dS / dt to zero to find stationary points and interval of increase and decrease. (1/4)AC 2 2 cos (2t) = 0
As point B slides along the circle, angle t changes fro 0 to 90 degrees. So the only solution to the above equation in the inteval (0 , 90) is
2 t = 90 or t = 45 degrees
As t changes from 0 to 45 , 2t changes from 0 to 90 and dS / dt is positive on this interval. As t changes from 45 to 90, 2t chnages from 90 to
180 degrees and dS / dt is negative on this interval. t = 45 degrees is the location of a maximum value for the area S.
When t = 45 degrees, the area of the inscribed right triangle is maximum. The length of sides AB and CB are given by AB = AC * cos (45
degrees) = 2 r sqrt(2) and CB = AC * sin (45 degrees) = 2 r sqrt(2)
The area is maximum when t = 45 degrees which also means that the right triangle is isosceles.

Problem 4: The diagram below shows the path that Wilson follows every morning to take water from the river to his farm. Help Wilson minimize
the total distance traveled from his house to the farm.

Solution to Problem 1:
Two methods, to solve this problem, are suggested.
METHOD 1: In the diagram below we find the distances d and D add them and
minimze the total distance.
d = sqrt [ x 2 + 5 2 ]
D = sqrt [ (20 - x) 2 + 10 2 ]
The total distance T is given by.
T = d + D = sqrt [ x 2 + 5 2 ] + sqrt [ (20-x) 2 + 10 2 ]

We now need to find the

that T has a minimum value

first derivative dT/dx of T with respect to x and check

then find the value of x that minimizes T.

dT / dx =

x 2((x - 20) 2 + 100) = (x - 20) 2( x 2 + 25)

Expand and simplify to obtain the quadratic equation
3 x 2 + 40 x - 400 = 0

The graph of dT / dx is shown below. At approximatel x = 6.6, the first derivative

is equal to zero; below that value it is negative and above that same value it is
positive. Hence T has a minimum value at around x = 6.6. Let us find the exact value
by calculation
The value of x that makes T minimum is found by setting dT / dx = 0 and solving
the equation obtained. It is called a critical value of the first derivative. dT / dx =
0 gives x sqrt ((x - 20) 2 + 100) + (x - 20) sqrt( x 2 + 25) = 0
which may be written as x sqrt ((x - 20) 2 + 100) = - (x - 20) sqrt( x 2 + 25)
Square both sides

Solve for x and select the positive value x = 20 / 3 = 6.67 km (approximately)

METHOD 2: We "construct a virtual house" (projection) H on the other side of the river and then
for the distance d + D to be minimum we need to have the points H, O and F to be collinear since
the shortest distance between two points is along a straight line. For these points to be on the
same line angle HOH' have to be equal (in size) to angle FOF' and the tangent of the two angles
have to be equal. Hence
Calculate the tangent in terms of x for both angles as follows tan(HOH') = 5 / x
tan(FOF') = 10 / (20 - x) 10 / (20 - x) = 5 / x
Solve for x to obtain
x = 20 / 3 = 6.67 km (approximately)

Problem 5:Below is shown a pyramid with square base, side length x, and height h. Find the value of x so that the
volume of the pyramid is 1000 cm 3 and its surface area is minimum.
Solution:

This problem has been solved graphically. Here we solve it more rigorously using the first derivative.

We first use the formula of the volume of a pyramid to write the equation: (1 / 3) h x 2 = 1000

We now use the the formula of the surface area of a pyramid to write a formula for the surface area S of
the given pyramid. In this problem we have a square pyramid, hence:
S = x * sqrt [ h 2 + (x/2) 2] + x * sqrt [ h 2 + (x/2) 2 ] + x * x
= 2 x sqrt [ h 2 + (x/2) 2 ] + x 2

Solve the equation (1 / 3) h x 2 = 1000 for h to obtain: h = 3000 / x 2

Substitute h in the surface area formula by 3000 / x 2 to obtain a formula for S in terms of x (x positive) only and rewrite it as follows:
S = sqrt [ (36 10 6 + x 6) ] / x + x 2
Let constant k = 36 10 6 and differentiate S with respect to x. dS / dx = [ 3 x 6 (k + x 6) -1/2 - (k + x 6) 1/2 ] / x 2 + 2 x

Multiply numerator and denominator by (k + x 6) 1/2 and simplify. dS / dx = [ 2 x 6 - k ] / [ x 2 (k + x 6) 1/2 ] + 2x

A graph of dS / dx is shown below. For x > 0, dS / dx has a zero and is negative to the left of that zero and positive to the right of the zero.
This means that S has a minimum value that may be located by setting dS / dx = 0 and solve for x.
[ 2 x 6 - k ] / [ x 2 (k + x 6) 1/2 ] + 2 x = 0
Rewrite as. [ 2 x 6 - k ] = - 2 x 3 (k + x 6) 1/2
Let u = x 3 and u 2 = x 6 and rewrite the above as follows: [ 2 u 2 Square both sides: 4 u 4 + k 2 - 4k u 2 = 4 u 2 (k + u 2)
Simplify to obtain: k 2 - 4k u 2 = 4 k u 2 k
Solve for u: (u positive since x positive)

u = sqrt [ k / 8 ]
Finally solve for x to obtain:

x = [ sqrt [ k / 8 ] ]

1/3

Sustitute k by its value and calculate x:

x = 12.8 cm (rounded to 1 decimal place).

Solution:

k ] = - 2 u (k + u 2) 1/2

Solution:

Problem 8: A rectangular water tank (see figure below) is being filled at the constant rate of 20 liters / second. The base of
the tank has dimensions w = 1 meter and L = 2 meters. What is the rate of change of the height of water in the tank?(express
the answer in cm / sec).
Solution:

The volume V of water in the tank is given by.

V = w*L*H
We know the rate of change of the volume dV/dt = 20 liter /sec. We need to find the rate of change of the height H of water dH/dt.
V and H are functions of time. We can differentiate both side of the above formula to obtain dV/dt = W*L*dH/dt
note W and L do not change with time and are therefore considered as constants in the above operation of differentiation.
We now find a formula for dH/dt as follows.
dH/dt = dV/dt / W*L
We need to convert liters into cubic cm and meters into cm as follows
1 liter = 1 cubic decimeter
= 1000 cubic centimeters
= 1000 cm 3
and 1 meter = 100 centimeter.
We now evaluate the rate of change of the height H of water.
dH/dt = dV/dt / W*L
= ( 20*1000 cm 3 / sec ) / (100 cm * 200 cm)
= 1 cm / sec.

Problem 9: An airplane is flying in a straight direction and at a constant height of 5000 meters (see figure below). The angle of elevation of
the airplane from a fixed point of observation is a. The speed of the airplane is 500 km / hr. What is the rate of change of angle a when it is 25
degrees? (Express the answer in degrees / second and round to one decimal place).
Solution: The airplane is flying horizontally at the rate of dx/dt = 500 km/hr. We need a relationship between angle a and distance x. From
trigonometry, we can write
tan a = h/x
angle a and distance x are both functions of time t. Differentiate both sides of the above formula with respect to t.
d(tan a)/dt = d(h/x)/dt
We now use the chain rule to further expand the terms in the above formula
d(tan a)/dt = (sec 2 a) da/dt
d(h/x)/dt = h*(-1 / x 2) dx/dt.
(note: height h is constant)
Substitute the above into the original formula to obtain
(sec 2 a) da/dt = h*(-1 / x 2) dx/dt
The above can be written as
da/dt = [ h*(-1 / x 2) dx/dt ] / (sec 2 a)
We now use the first formula to find x in terms of a and h follows
x = h / tan a
Substitute the above into the formula for da/dt and simplify
da/dt = [ h*(- tan 2a / h 2) dx/dt ] / (sec 2 a)
= [ (- tan 2a / h) dx/dt ] / (sec 2 a)
= (- sin 2a / h) dx/dt
Use the values for a, h and dx/dt to approximate da/dt with the right conversion of units: 1km = 1000 m and 1 hr = 3600 sec.
da/dt = [- sin 2(25 deg)/5000 m]*[500 000 m/3600 sec]
= -0.005 * [ 180 degrees / Pi radians] /sec
= -0.3 degrees/sec

Problem 10: From a car traveling east at 40 miles per hour, an airplane traveling horizontally north at 100 miles per hour is visible 1 mile east, 2
miles south, and 2 miles up. Find when this two will be nearest together.
Solution:
From the figure:

where:
x2 = (1 - 40t)2 + (2 - 100t)2
x2 = (1 - 80t + 1600t2) + (4 - 400t + 10000t2)
x2 = 5 - 480t + 11600t2

Thus,