Sunteți pe pagina 1din 74

TEMATICI DE ESEURI:

Epoca antic:
1. Contribuia civilizaiei antice n constituirea actualei civilizaii europene (n baza unei
civilizaii).
2. Impactul istoric al rzboaielor daco-romane asupra formrii poporului romn.
3. *Polisul ateniandemocraie reprezentativ limitat.
4. Declinul i cderea Imperiului Roman de Apus - proces istoric inevitabil.
Epoca medieval:
1. Motenirea imperial n Europa cretin: de la Imperiul Roman la Imperiul Bizantin.
2. Constituirea statului medieval ara Moldovei: ntre legend i adevr istoric.
3. Lupta antiotoman expresie a politicii externe a domnitorilor romni n epoca medieval.
4. Instaurarea regimului de suzeranitate otoman i formele lui de manifestare n rile
Romne.
5. *Ctitoriile medievale valori culturale i spirituale.
6. Rolul bisericii n societatea medieval n Europa Occidental.
Epoca modern:
1. Impactul regimului fanariot asupra evoluiei politice i socio-economice a rilor Romne.
2. Impactul revoluiei industriale asupra evoluiei lumii moderne.
3. Revoluiile de la 1848-1849 n rile Romne: general i specific
4. Formarea statelor naionale moderne: general i particular.
5. *Rivalitile ruso austro otomane n epoca modern i consecinele lor pentru
Principatele
Romne.
6. Rivalitatea marilor puteri n contextul relaiilor internaionale (1870-1914).
7. Basarabia de la autonomie la gubernie ruseasc (1812-1873).
Epoca contemporan:
1. Sistemul Versailles Washington factor determinant n declanarea celui de-al doilea
rzboi mondial.
2. *Evoluia regimurilor totalitare n perioada interbelic: studiu comparativ.
3. Basarabia n perioada interbelic: progrese i limite.
4. *Activitatea partidelor politice n Romnia (1918-1938).
5. Integrarea european: realizri, probleme i perspective.
6. Problemele globale ale umanitii test de maturitate al comunitii internaionale.

RELAII DE CAUZALITATE I SCHIMBARE N ISTORIE:


Epoca antic:
1. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre dezvoltarea social-economic a grecilor
n perioada arhaic i colonizarea greac.
2. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre rzboaiele macedonene i rspndirea
elenismului.
3. Demonstreaz relaia cauz-efect dintre politica intern a lui Burebista i consolidarea
statului geto-dac.
4. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre romanizarea dacilor i cel deformare a
poporului i a limbii romne.
5. *Demonstreaz relaia cauz-efect dintre marile migraii i cderea Imperiului Roman de
Apus.
Epoca medieval
1. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre dezvoltarea oraului i evoluia socio
economic a societii medievale.
2. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre evoluia statelor medievale romneti i
formarea instituiilor politice ale acestora.
3. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre puterea politic i biseric n societatea
medieval.
4. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre Politica extern a Imperiului Otoman i
instaurarea regimului suzeranitii otomane n rile Romne.
5. *Demonstreaz relaia cauz-efect dintre rivalitatea monarhiilor occidentale i crearea noii
hri politice a Europei la mijlocul secolului al XVII - ea.
Epoca modern:
1. *Demonstrai relaia de interdependen dintre Marile descoperiri geografice i evoluia
mercantilismului.
2. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre liberalism i democratizarea vieii
politice occidentale n epoca modern.
3. *Determin legtura de cauzalitate dintre rivalitile ruso-austro-turcei pierderile
teritoriale ale rilor Romne n epoca modern.
4. Demonstreaz legtura de interdependen dintre suprimarea autonomiei Basarabiei
(1828) i intensificarea procesului de rusificare a acesteia.
5. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre politica internpromovat de Alexandru
Ioan Cuza i modernizarea societii romneti
6. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre revoluia rus din 1917 i micarea pentru
autodeterminare a Basarabiei.
Epoca contemporan:
1. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre politica expansionist a URSS i crearea
R.A.S.S.M.
2. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauz-efect dintre Noul curs a lui F.D.Roosevelt i depirea
crizei economice de ctre SUA.
3. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre politica expansionist promovat de U.R.S.S.
i semnarea tratatului Molotov-Ribbentrop.
4. *Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre procesul de colectivizare a gospodriilor
rneti individuale i deportrile din 6 iulie1949 din R.S.S. Moldoveneasc.
5. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre noua mentalitate politic i sfritul rzboiului
rece.
6. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre micarea de eliberare naional din a doua
jumtate a anilor 80 i proclamarea independenei Republicii Moldova.
7. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre proclamarea suveranitii R.S.S. Moldoveneti
(23 iunie 1990) i rzboiul din Transnistria.

Tipologii de personaje wrote:


Tipologia Taranului
Ion din "Ion" de Liviu Rembreanu
Johann moritz din ''ora 25'' de Virgil Gheorghiu
Tipul femeii mondene
Doamna T din "Patul lui Procust" de Camil Petrescu
Ela din "Ultima noapte de dragoste, intiia noapte de razboi" de Camil Petrescu
Otilia din "Enigma Otiliei"'de G.Calinescu
si personajul eponim Adela de G.Ibraileanu
Tipologia Obsedatului
Puiu Faranga din Ciuleandra de L.Rebreanu
Apostol Bologa din Padurea Spinzuratilor L.Rebreanu
Ion de L.Rebreanu
Tipologia indragostitului
Sarmanul Dionis de M.Eminescu
Felix Sima din Enigma Otiliei si deasemenea se incadreaza in tipologia tinarului in
dezvoltare
Ioana i tefan din Romanul Delirul de M. Preda
Rusanda i Gheorghe din Frunze de Dor de I. Dru
Tipologia intelectualului
Traian Koruga din Ora 25
Victor Petrini din cel mai iubit dintre paminteni
Stefan Gheroghidiu din ultima noapte de dragoste
Tipologia creatorului
personajul eponim Mesterul Manole de L.Blaga
Mos Mihail din Sania de Ion Druta
Tipologia avarului
Mos Costache din Enigma Otiliei
Tipologia Voievozilor
Alexandru Lapusneanu de C.Negruzzi
Razvan din opera Razvan si Vidra de Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu
Tipul tnrului n devenire:
Felix din Enigma Otiliei, Gheorghi din Baltagul, Rusanda, Gherhge din Frunze de
dor
Tipul copilului universal:
Nic din Amintiri din copilrie, Ionu din Horodite, Lucian din Hronicul i cntecul
vrstelor (merge i ca adolescent + romanul adolescentului miop de Mircea Eliade)
Tipul domnitorului tiran:
Alexandru Lapuneanu
Tipul gentelmanului:
Pascalopol din Enigma Otiliei
Tipul avarului:
Mo Costache din Enigma Otiliei, Mara(posibil), Ghi din Moara cu noroc

La tipul ranului nc: Gheorghe din Frunze de dor, Onache Crbu din Povara
buntii nostre
La tipul avarului se mai poate de pus si Ion de Rebreanu, sau Luminararu din
"Ultima noapte de dragoste, intia noapte de razboi" de Petrescu
Relatia de prietenie intre doua personaje
Culai si Andrei din "Suflete tari" de Camil Petrescu
Tipul batrinului intelept; a boierului; a personajului care traieste dupa traditii; lupta
dintre clasele sociale
Matei Boiu din "Sfulete tari" de Petrescu
Femeia rebela; Intelectuala; sfideaza traditia neamului
Ioana Boiu din "Suflete tari" de Petrescu
* Tipul copilului rasfatat
Goe din "D-l Goe" de I.L.Caragiale
Ionel din "Vizita" de I.L.Caragiale
* Personaj realist (?)
Ana din "Moara cu noroc" de I.Slavici
* Taranul
Mara si Persida din "Mara" de I.Slavici
Ion din "Ion" de Liviu Rembreanu
Ilie Moromete din "Morometii" de Marin Preda
* Tipul Feminitatii
Doamna T din "Patul lui Procust" de Camil Petrescu
Ela din "Ultima noapte de dragoste, intiia noapte de razboi" de Camil Petrescu
* Personaj in formare
Nica din "Amintiri din copilarie" de Ion Creanga
Gheorghita din "Baltagul" de Mihail Sadoveanu
* Tipul indragostitului
Castris :D din "Patima rosie" de Mihail Sorbul
[+] Razvan din "Razvan si Vidra" de B.P.Hasdeu
[+] Vidra din "Razvan si Vidra" de B.P.Hasdeu
* Personaj simbol
Manole din "Mesterul Manole" de Lucian Blaga
* Prietenia (?)
# Prietenia intre Iont Jder si Alexandrel-Voda din "Fratii Jderi" de M.Sadoveanu
* Parinti model (?)
Tatal din "Ultima luna de toamna" de Ion Druta
Vitoria Lipan din "Baltagul" de Mihail Sadoveanu
Pot sa mai adaug si eu cate ceva:
Tipul Taranului : Ion din Romanul Ion Liviu Rebreanu
Victoria Lipan, Din baltagul Mihai Sadoveanu
Tipul Intelectualului :
Felix din Enigma Otiliei
Apostol Bologa Padurea Spanzuratilor.
Tipul intelectualului; neadaptatului;
Ladima din "Patul lui Procust" de Camil Petrescu
Personaj simbol; Omul izolat, superior
Pastorul din "Toiagul pastoriei" de Ion Druta
Tipul omului ratat, nerealizat in viata, dominat de teama
Gavrilescu din "La tiganci" de Mircea Eliade
Femeia vulgara, insensibila si prostituata

Emilia din "Patul lui Procust" de Camil Petrescu

Tema istoric:
Alexandru Lpuneanu
Toiagul Pstoriei
Pdurea spnzurailor
Frunze de dor
Ion(ocuparea transilvaniei)
Ora 25
Tema pentru acasa
Biserica alb
Fraii jderi
Ultima noapte de dragoste
ntia de rzboi
Povara bunatatii noastre
Tema pstoritului:
Toiagul pstoriei
Baltagul
Relaii prini-copii:
Baltagul
Ultima lun de toamn
Ion
Moromeii
Povara buntii noastre
Mara
Casa mare
Tema ranului:
Ion
Moromeii
Frunze de dor
Povara buntii noastre
Mara
Tema dragostei:
Ion
Frunze de dor
Povara buntii noastre
Ultima lun de dragoste,
prima noapte de rzboi
Enigma Otiliei
Cezara

Tema mamei:
Ultima lun de toamn
Baltagul
Amintiri din copilrie
Mara
Tema copilriei:
Moromeii
Amintiri din copilrie
Frunze de dor(Trofima)
Horodite
Hronicul i cntecul
vrstelor
Tema intelectualului n
devenire:
Moromeii(Nicolaie)
Frunze de dor(Rusanda)
Caloianul
Enigma Otiliei (Felix)
Ion (Titu Herdelea)
Tema creaiei:
Sania de I.Dru
Caloianul de G.Meniuc
Tema satului:
Ion(hram, hora, tradiii)
Moromeii
Frunze de dor(eztorile)
Toiagul pstoriei
Povara buntii noaste
Psrile tinereii noaste
Horodite
Tema testamentului:
Ultima noapte de dragoste,
prima noapte de rzboi
a doua lucrare:mad: spunei
deja voi:pardon:
Drame:

Horia
Frumos i sfnt
Rzvan i Vidra
Meterul Manole
Psrile tinereii noaste
Comedii:
O scrisoare pierdut
Romane psihologice:
Pdurea spnzurailor
Ultima noapte de dragoste
ntia de rzboi
Comunit. dintre om i
natur:
Baltagul
Moromeii(salcmul)
Frunze de dor
Povara buntii noastre
Profanarea valorilor
spirituale:
Samariteanca
Frumos i sfnt
Toiagul pstoriei

CONINUTURI DE EVALUAT
1. Cultura comunicrii. Compunerea de utilitate social
Cererea.
CV-ul.
Procura.
Avizul.
Corespondena.
Aranjarea textului n pagin. Redactarea/corectarea textului propriu.
Redactarea textelor de diferite stiluri.
Modaliti de corelare a elementelor unui text. Coerena i conexiunea elementelor
n construirea i redactarea unui text.
2. Lexicul
Structura vocabularului.
Lexicul operei literare.
Tipologia sensurilor cuvntului.
Cuvntul i contextul. Integritatea lexical a textului.
Axa lexical i cmpurile lingvistice: semantic, derivativ, noional.
Expresiile frazeologice. Expresii autohtone, internaionale, intraductibile.
3. Gramatica
Cuvintele n sistemul gramatical al limbii. Forme i sensuri gramaticale.
Interpretarea structurilor gramaticale.
Coerena gramatical a textului.
Specificul gramatical al diverselor tipuri de comunicare: descriere, naraiune, dialog.
Principii ortografice.Normele ortografice i punctuaionale ale limbii romne.
4. Stilistica
Limba romn i stilurile ei funcionale.
Particularitile de limbaj (conotative) ale stilului literaturii artistice.
Expresivitatea/resursele stilistice ale vocabularului.
Stilul individual al scriitorului.
Discursul repetat: citatul, proverbul, frazeologismul n text.
Analiza stilistic a textului.
5. Genul liric
Lirica popular (doina i cntecul popular; colindul.)
Poezia cult: diversitatea speciilor.
Elemente de structur a textului poetic: motiv, laitmotiv, prozodie (rim, ritm,
strof, vers).
Eul liric:triri, stri, ipostaze.
Limbajul i expresivitatea textului poetic: lirismul, figuri de stil, expresivitate,
sugestie, ambiguitate etc.
Condiia modern a elegiei i meditaiei. Arta formelor fixe (gazel, sonet, rondel).
Autori i opere de referin ale genului.
6. Genul epic
Elemente de structur i compoziie a operei epice.

Momentele aciunii i modaliti de expunere.


Tipologiide personaje i procedee de caracterizare.
Tradiia epicii populare: specii, teme dominante, idealuri etico-spirituale.
Proza cult: caracterizarea speciilor. Schia, balada, basmul, povestirea, nuvela,
romanul.
Autori i opere de referin ale genului.
7. Genul dramatic
Elemente de structur a textului dramatic; subiect i compoziie.
Autori i opere de referin ale genului.
Tipologia i limbajul personajelor dramatice.
Specii dramatice funcionale: drama, comedia i tragedia.
8. Literatura, fenomen n evoluie
Tradiie inovaie, condiie inerent a continuitii literare.
Miturile i folclorul resurse fundamentale ale literaturii.
Specificul romantismului romnesc. Personajul romantic. Mrci stilistice. Autori i
opere de referin.
Afirmarea realismului n literatura romn: tipuri, viziuni, specii dominante,
teme/probleme predilecte, tipologii de personaje. Autori i opere de referin.
Curente moderniste. Viziuni i mrci stilistice distincte. Autori i opere de referin.
9. Cititorul i universul artistic al personalitii literare
Universul artistic al creaiei (teme, genuri, specii, viziuni artistice). Autori i opere de
referin.
Teoria literar, istoria literar, critica literar i valorificarea creaiei scriitorilor.
Autori i opere de referin.
10. Tipuri de compoziii colare:
Comentariul poetic integral.
Comentariul poetic pe secvene: semnificaia titlului, semnificaia unui motiv, starea
de spirit a eului liric, sugestia figurilor de stil, mesajul global, similitudini cu alte
texte cunoscute.
Compoziia-analiz integral a unei opere de referin.
Compoziia-portret literar.
Compunerea-descriere.
Compoziia-prezentare de ansamblu a unei probleme.
Compoziia-sintez.
Compunerea de caracterizare a personajului.
Compunerea-paralel.
Compunerea-raionament.
Compunerea-sintez.
Eseul literar (structurat, nestructurat).
Eseul poetic.
11. Altele:
Efectele stilistice ale semnelor de punctuaie
Comentarea unei figuri de stil
Comentarea unor versuri, strofe
Figuri de stil. Epitetul
Argumentarea apartenenei unui text literar la genul liric - compunere
Argumentarea apartenenei unui text la genul epic - compunere
Semnificaia unei figuri de stil
Modaliti de caracterizare

Elaborarea, n aproximativ dou pagini, a unui eseu


despre stat i politic n spaiul romnesc n
secolele al XIX-lea al XX-lea, cu respectarea unor
cerine.
Introducere (un exemplu):
Statul romn modern, la nceput un ideal aternut n proiecte politice, a devenit o realitate n
a doua jumtate a secolului al XIX-lea i s-a desvrit n perioada interbelic, ca la finele
celui de-al Doilea Rzboi Mondial s nregistreze un regres, lund calea totalitarismului.

Cuprins:
- menionarea a dou proiecte politice referitoare la statul romn modern elaborate n
secolul al XIX-lea:
Printre proiectele politice referitoare la statul romn modern elaborate n secolul al XIX-lea
sunt proiectul Unirii Principatelor, proiectul monarhiei constituionale, proiectul
independenei de stat, proiectul partidelor politice sau proiectul modernizrii instituiilor
statului.

Elemente de legtur:
De la nite idealuri manifestate de generaia paoptist, aceste proiecte au devenit treptat
realitate, ajutate i de contextul favorabil.
n urma Unirii Principatelor Moldova i ara Romneasc, prin dubla alegere a lui Cuza la 24
ianuarie 1859, statul romn modern a nceput s prind contur. Consolidarea unirii i
modernizarea statului s-a realizat prin politica de reforme a domnului. n plan intern a
unificat instituiile i serviciile publice, a luat msuri precum secularizarea averilor
mnstireti, elaborarea legii instruciunii prin care nvmntul primar devenea obligatoriu
i gratuit, adoptarea Codului Penal i a Codului Civil n 1864 i altele. Problema reformei

agrare i opoziia conservatorilor fa de ea a determinat dizolvarea legislativului prin


lovitura de stat din 2 mai 1864. n urma unui plebiscit a fost adoptat noua lege
fundamental, Statutul Dezvolttor al Conveniei de la Paris, care legitima regimul autoritar
al lui Cuza. Prin urmare creteau atribuiile domnului, care mpreun cu prim-ministrul Mihail
Koglnceanu a reuit s adopte legea rural din 1864 ce ducea la mproprietrirea ranilor.
Regimul su autoritar i amestecul camarilei domneti n decizii au produs nemulumiri.
Liberalii radicali erau nemulumii de reforme, considerndu-le insuficiente, iar conservatorii
erau nemulumii de realizarea lor, n timp ce alii erau nemulumii pentru c nu au fost
cooptai la guvernare. Prin urmare a luat fiin monstruoasa coaliie care a dus la
nlturarea lui Cuza la 10/11 februarie 1866.
Politica de modernizare a statului a continuat i dup abdicarea lui Cuza i venirea
principelui Carol I, acum fiind realizate alte proiecte politice importante precum monarhia
constituional sau independena de stat. O msur esenial n plan intern a fost adoptarea
constituiei.
- precizarea unei cauze a adoptrii constituiei din a doua jumtate a secolului al XIX-lea i
menionarea a dou trsturi ale acestei constituii:
n 1866 a fost adoptat prima Constituie intern a Romniei. Printre cauzele adoptrii ei
putem meniona urcarea lui Carol I pe tronul Romniei, dup abdicarea lui Cuza, dorina de a
introduce monarhia constituional, necesitatea adoptrii unei legi fundamentale interne
(fcut de romni, nu impus de Marile Puteri) care s modernizeze instituiile statului
romn i s contribuie la consolidarea rii.
Printre trsturile acestei constituii putem meniona: era prima constituie intern a
Romniei, elaborat dup modelul belgian, era una dintre cele mai moderne constituii de la
acea vreme deoarece prevedea principiul separrii puterilor n stat, drepturi i liberti,
principiul suveranitii naionale, responsabilitatea minitrilor, guvernare reprezentativ i
responsabil.

Elemente de legtur:
Puterea executiv era exercitat de un Parlament bicameral, cea executiv de domn (rege
din 1881) i cea judectoreasc de instanele de judecat n frunte cu nalta Curte de
Casaie i Justiie. Votul era cenzitar. Documentul garanta o serie de drepturi i liberti,
proprietatea fiind sacr i inviolabil. Prevedea n mod oficial denumirea statului de
Romnia. Constituia a contribuit la modernizarea instituiilor statului i a afirmat dorina de
independen a Romniei. Constituia a suferit modificri n timp datorit obinerii
independenei de stat n 1878, dar i a proclamrii regatului n 1881.
Tot n a doua jumtate a secolului al XIX-lea s-a realizat i proiectul partidelor politice prin
nfiinarea Partidului Liberal i a Partidului Conservator, astfel asigurndu-se alternarea la
guvernare i existena unei viei politice moderne.
Datorit obinerii independenei de stat n 1878 i proclamrii regatului n 1881 prestigiul
internaional al Romniei a crescut i poziia ei n relaiile internaionale s-a consolidat.
ndeplinirea obiectivelor naionale a culminat cu Marea Unire din 1918, realizat pe fondul
participrii Romniei la Primul Rzboi Mondial alturi de Antanta. Datorit formrii statului
naional unitar, a realizrii reformei agrare i a introducerii votului universal era necesar
modificarea Constituiei din 1866.

- prezentarea unei caracteristici a unei constituii adoptate n Romnia Mare:


O lege fundamental adoptat n Romnia Mare este Constituia din 1923. A fost o
constituie liberal, cea mai modern din Europa la acea vreme, care a asigurat funcionarea
democraiei n Romnia interbelic deoarece prevedea introducerea votului universal, pentru
brbaii de peste 21 de ani, prevedea separarea puterilor n stat, respectarea drepturilor i
libertilor ceteneti, pluralism politic.

Elemente de legtur:
n perioada interbelic numrul partidelor politice a crescut, dar i numrul alegtorilor.
Organizarea alegerilor libere era umbrit de lipsa de experien a electoratului, dar i de
folosirea demagogiei.
Criza democraiei interbelice s-a acutizat pe fondul instabilitii politice i a crizei
economice. De scandalul dintre partidele politice a profitat Carol al II-lea care a instaurat un
regim autoritar legiferat prin Constiuia din 1938.
Declanarea celui de-al Doilea Rzboi Mondial i apoi instaurarea regimului totalitar a afectat
n mod negativ statul romn i politica acestuia, n perioada postbelic devenind un satelit al
U.R.S.S.-ului. Constituiile comuniste din 1948, 1952 i 1965, elaborate dup modelul
stalinist au pus bazele monopolului puterii deinut de partidul unic. Eliminarea opoziiei i
folosirea represiunii prin intermediul Securitii i a sistemului concentraionar au fost
practici politice folosite de comuniti. Alegerile nu erau libere, drepturile i libertile erau
ngrdite. Regimul comunist din Romnia a cunoscut dou perioade principale: stalinismul lui
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej i naional-comunismul lui Nicolae Ceauescu.
Revenirea la democraie s-a realizat n urma revoluiei din decembrie 1989 care a
determinat cderea regimului Nicolae Ceauescu.
- formularea unui punct de vedere referitor la rolul constituiei n construcia democraiei
postdecembriste din Romnia, n a doua jumtate a secolului al XX-lea i susinerea acestuia
printr-un argument istoric:
Din punctul meu de vedere Constituia din 1991 a avut un rol esenial n construcia
democraiei postdecembriste din Romnia deoarece asigur respectarea drepturilor i
libertilor ceteneti, organizarea de alegeri libere, pluralismul politic, separarea puterilor
n stat. Constituia prevede principii democratice care asigur existena statului de drept.
Conform constituiei Romnia este o republic democratic. Elaborarea aceastei legi
fundamentale a fost absolut necesar dup cderea regimului comunist n decembrie 1989
pentru c numai aa se putea pune bazele unei societi democratice i a unui stat de drept.

Concluzie:
De-a lungul secolelor al XIX-lea al XX-lea, spaiul romnesc a cunoscut n mod constant
transformri, unele pozitive, altele negative, determinate de evoluia regimurilor politice, de
modificarea statutului politico-juridic sau a teritoriului.

Eseuri de pregatire pentru BAC


2. How would you describe your country or region and the people who live there?
Moldova is my country, my dream and my mather! Moldova a piece of land with
wonderful people and clean heart, people who have met over the years a lot of
hardships, but they have gone well. The earth which kept me in your hands until I

came into the world, the cradle when I heard the sweet song of the Romanian
language, repeat until you have is bunch of grapes in that mirror places of great
beauty, places that grow and in my soul and take you anywhere in the world: Old
Orhei, Fortress Soroca natural pearls - the five reserves, calm and kindness of the
people, traditions and customs that lets magic. This is Moldova! This is my country!
3.Speak about one of the holidays celebrated in Great Britain/Moldova/the USA in
greater detail.
Easter is one of the most important holidays in Christianity.
Easter - celebration of life - the miracle of the Resurrection marks and acts of
purification of Bright Week restore balance and harmony Christians. The object of
Christian holidays is the living memory of the passion, death and resurrection of
Jesus Christ. Easter, the celebration of light and joy, and so far has kept its charm
and significance, being a time of peace of mind and family nearby. Special charm is
given both to the religious, and the traditions and symbols of Easter: egg painting,
bunny, Easter lunch with traditional food - cake, bread, lamb, and taking the job on
Saturday night lights.
4.Do you think it is a dangerous thing to judge about a nation by existing
stereotypes? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Yes, I think it is a dangerous think to judge about a nation by existing stereotypes,
because stereotypes is a fixed idea that have people about people about someone
or something, something wrong. Many of this stereotypes say about people. For
example not to judge the Chinese about their stereotypes : All Chinese look the
same. This thing not true, because everyone Chinese are unique in China. Others
say it because Chinese nation resembles. Many says what: All Arabs are terrorists
which says that all Arabs including children are terrorist but this thing true. This
stereotype formed because a group of terrorist done something wrong. As a
conclusion must not judge about a nation by existing stereotypes.
5. Choose one of the characters you remember well from your favourite book(s).
Describe him/her.
Book is a source of knowledge. Many of us read book because they search some
interesting and discover new types of characters. My favorite characters is Goe of
Caragiale work. Goe is portrayed by I.L. Caragiale as spoiled, rude, uneducated, lazy
and a child who does not like teaching. That is used to being awarded the family,
even when you do not deserve and receive all the command and unconditionally,
shows that it is spoiled. It is very rude, conceited and think very clever. Therefore
addressing offending mother and grandmother. He feels that it is smart to have
thought of her as very smart and sensitive. Goe's qualities are evidenced by facts,
by way of speaking, through relationships with other characters and by their opinion
of him. Goe is the spoiled child always.
6. Can you name any place in Great Britain which is internationally known? What is
it noted for?
Great Britain is one of the worlds most popular tourist destination. Great Britain is
decorated with many different place which makes the country famous. One of the
old and enigmatic place is a Stonehege, which is a prehistoric stone circle and is
believed to have constructed around 3100 BC. No one knows exactly what purpose
it served, but it is thought to have been a centre a pagan worship. Other beautiful
place is Tower Bridge which is one of Londons most recognizable landmarks and
also one of the most famous bridges in the world. Great Britain has many

interesting place: Big Ban, Eyewitness Traivel Guide, Chatsworth house which is one
of the popular and visited place the world.
7. Different countries have reputation for being good at different sports. Think of
some example.
Each country have reputation in different types of sports. For example Brazil has
the best football players, in USA basketball is one of the popular sports in country.
For the NBA United States this game is a cult street black Americans. Many types of
sports depend of climate and terrain . in countries with cold climates are better
developed winter sports, for example hokey in Russia and Canada, but closer to
equator summer sports. For Americans is specifically: basketball, beisbol,, for
Europe and Brazil is football which have a very famous players in our world: Karim
Benzema, C. Ronaldo, Ronaldihno. The Moldovan atlets are making significant
progress at the global level, not at all typical sports such as, for example, the GrecoRoman wrestling.
8.Describe some things which are associated with the Scots.
The Scottish people, or Scots are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland.
Scotland is a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northen Ireland that
each nation Scots differ from others. One of the interesting and fascinating thing
about your culture is a men kilt (drees). This habit Scots have of the 16th century.
Although the kilt was used only on holidays or sports, but over time it became
fashionable for men, wear it every day. Another thing that only associate there is a
bagpipes. He is a musical instrument used by their ancestors from certain parties.
When you see a man with a kilt and a bagpipes in hand you know well who is
involved.
9. Use your knowledge to present interesting facts about the British royal family
The British Royal family is a group of chose of the Monarch of United Kingdom .
Members of this family is a famous and historical people in a Great Britain and in
our world. The supreme governor of the church of England is the Queen. Queen is a
supreme governor of the Church, because this thing is a old ritual, remained till
nowadays . other interesting think about British Royal family Is a residence of the
Queen Mother was Clarence House, which is situated in the city of Westminster.
Queen Elizabeth 2 is reigning queen and head of 16 sovering states , the figurehead
of the Commonwealth of the Nations and the supremeGovernor of the Church of
England.
10. What famous people of the USA are you impressed by? Prove your answer.
The USA is the place where you can find worldwide personalities. One of the famous
people of the USA and all world is a Michael Jackson. He is a king a music and
dance. Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by
Guinness World Records. His contribution to music, dance, and fashion, along with a
much-publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over
four decades. His music was and is the most known and appreciated. His distinctive
musical sound and vocal style influenced numerous hip-hop, post-disco,
contemporary RB, pop and rock artists. All his live he was a good example for
others. In my opinion Michael Jackson was and is a very popular in all world for all
time.

11. Why do you think the English language is taught in many countries of the world?
The English language is one of the popular language in the world. This language is
speaking in : USA, Great Britain, NewZeland and Pakistan. English is a West
Germanic language spoken originally in England. Because England had many
colonies around the world especially in Africa, thus many countries on this continent
have official language English. Approximately 375 million people speak English as
their first language . English today probably the third largest language by numbers
of native speakers after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. Most of the universities
worldwide include English as one of their major subject, therefore we must learn
English and therefore English language is taught in many countries of the world.
12. Every nation has its own customs and traditions. How can you explain why
people keep up their traditions and practice them for centuries?
Every country and every nation has its own tradition and customs. Its very
important to known traditions and customs of different people. It will help you to
know more about the history and life of different nation and countries. Every nations
preserves tradition for centuries , because traditions for they is a think that connect
with ancestors. Traditions and custom are a saint for each of us. For example every
years in each family for centuries is celebrated Christmas day which is one of the
favorite tradition in all world. It is preferred because it has Santa Claus as a symbol,
being loved by all children. In my opinion customs and tradition of nowadays will
keep for centuries.
13. Think of some people who have excelled in the world of music, art and cinema.
Write about one of them.
There many personality in the world, I would like speak about the Will Smith. Willard
Christopher "Will" Smith, Jr. also known by his stage name The Fresh Prince, is an
American actor, producer, and rapper. He has enjoyed success in television, film and
music. In April 2007, Newsweek called him the most powerful actor in Hollywood.
Smith has been nominated for four Golden Globe Awards. Fourteen of the nineteen
fiction films he has acted in have accumulated worldwide gross earnings of over
$100 million, and four took in over $500 million in global box office receipts. As of
2011, his films have grossed $5.7 billion in global box office.[4] His most financially
successful films have been Bad Boys, Independence Day, Men in Black, , I, Robot, I
Am Legend, Hancock.
14. What are the main values of the European Union?
The European Union is an economic and political union or confederation of 27
member states which are located in primarily Europe. The European Union is
founded for respect, certain values of respect for human dignity, equality,
democracy, liberty. These values are valid for members of European Union. The
member state of EU are characterized by pluralism, tolerance , justice, solidarity
and non-discrimination. These values play an important role, in special for
agreements signed, for example any European state wishing to become a member
of the Union must respect these values in order to be considerate eligible for
admission. If one state not respect the rules may lead to the suspension of that
member state.
15. What are the major events of national and social importance which are
traditionally celebrated in the USA?

Americans celebrate an enormous variety of festivals and holidays because they


come from around the globe and practice many religions. They also celebrate
holidays specific to the United States that commemorate historical events or
encourage a common national memory. Most important celebration in the United
State is Thanksgiving Day which has been celebrated in the USA on the fourth
Thursday in November of Abraham Lincoln. Besides holidays in the USA is organized
many festivals, for example in January Pasadena, California is celebrated Rose
Parade. Since 1890, millions of spectators from around the world celebrate the New
Year with the annual Rose Parade featuring the beautiful pageantry and tradition of
magnificent floral floats. Besides they still celebrated each year: Christmas,
Halloween, Columbus Day.

16. What changes in present-day school would you propose to make them more
effective for educating pupils?
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under
the direction of teacher. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is
commonly compulsory In these systems. Most affective change in educational
system is to put 10 classes instead of 12, because it is so much to learn for a child.
Other change would be to change the textbooks and simplify matters. These
changes would improve the school situation, that students should learn to enjoy the
material require. In Moldova would be worth learning a system that highly
developed stats. After the class 4 student has to choose certain subjects fixed to
continue studies. If in our schools would be an education system so them all will be
satisfied.
17. What are the benefits of globalization for the average person?
Globalization is an economic an cultural phenomenon. Globalization allows the
average person to travel, own things manufactured overseas, foreign films and TV
shows. Globalization has brought increasing living standards, increased PBI.
Increase in life expectancy is a cause of globalization, which in the last century
brought the world's population to a record number. Formation of new institutions
that protect and respect people of all, improve standards of living and healthcare
bringing them people more decent living.
18. Many British museums and galleries are real treasure houses of unique works of
art. Which are the best known? What collections do they contain?
Great Britain has a wide network of museums, which are unique exhibits that
contain them. One of the fascinating and knows museums in Great Britain is the
British Museum which contain many collections: Egyptian mummies, Roman coins,
the Rosetta Stone and many interesting exhibits. Other known museum is The
National Gallery which is home to one of the worlds greatest collections of Western
European painting. Some of the gallerys most famous exhibits include Turners the
Fighting Temeraire and van Goghs Sunflowers. Best known museums are: The
Museum of London, The National Portrait Gallery, London Transport Museum.
19. What components does culture consist of? Provide examples.

Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but it is a fragile phenomenon. Our
written languages , governments, buildings, and other man-made things are merely
the products of culture. Culture consist of : values, language, myths, customs and
rituals. Language is a important elements of culture, she refers to a system of
symbols that have specific and arbitrary meaning in a given society. For we
Romanian language is a important element of our cultures. Based on language is
customs which is present in every country. Other component of culture is the
cognitive component. It includes ideas, knowledge and belief, values and account.
For everybody culture is different, because it is understood in different ways.
20. Name some environmental problems and give some solutions to them.
Today the Earths environment is in a difficult situation. Every of us depend of
environment but every of us permanently pollute the environment. The biggest
problem is air pollution which is need for everybody. Every day, the average person
inhales about 20.000 liters of air. Air pollution can have serious consequences for
the health of human beings, and also severely affects natural ecosystems. People
may try to restrict population growth, use less energy, improve energy efficiency,
reduce waste, and move to non-polluting renewable forms of energy production. In
addition to air pollution are many problems: water pollution, smog, ozone depletion,
hazardous waste and global warming.. each one is a big problem, but for each there
are ways to remove.

21. Millions of people wish there were more peace and harmony in the world. How
can they be achieved?
For many people peace and harmony in the world is a big dream. World peace is an
ideal of freedom, pace, and happiness among and within all nations and people.
Peace and harmony is problem number one for volunteers non-violence. Make a
great effort and World Peace which help people by human rights, technology,
education, engineering, medicine and an end to all forms of fighting. But the
greatest power you have to have people, for which you would have to fight, to
promote new relationship with others, forming the global friendship. The
international community should build a harmonious society featuring sustainable
peace and common prosperity. How to say Nelson Mandela : Education is the most
powerful weapon which you can use to change the World.
22.Write what democracy means to you.
Democracy is a system of governance characterized by citizen participation in the
management process. For me, democracy means freedom to expression, free
movement, right to care, education. Democracy means anyone can grow up to be
president, and anyone who doesn't grow up can be vice president. Democracy is
people of all races, colors, and creeds united by a single dream: to get rich and
move to the suburbs away from people of all races, colors, and creeds. Democracy
means any state can offer freedom of man. every opinion should be heard, then
made conclusions about what the person said. For me and many of us democracy is
world which protects you from any violence.

23.Write about the national symbols of Moldova.


There are many symbols that represent the Moldova. Some of the most popular
ones are the: flag, coat of arms. State flag of the Republic of Moldova is a tricolor
(flag with three colors) blue (azure), light yellow, red. Blue symbolizes hope more
residents of this realm. Yellow means wealth pirguit chain like people. Red reminds
us of the blood shed for freedom. Emblem is a shield with bull head. Between his
horns is a star with eight coltiri. In the left side of stag, if stem facing him is pink
(sun) and the right - month (Magi-new). shield is placed in the chest eagle with a
cross in its beak.
24. Write about national symbol of the USA.
There are many symbols that represent the United States of America. Some of the
most popular ones are the Stars and Stripes (the US flag), the Great Seal of the USA,
the bald eagle (our national bird), the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memory.
The flag of the United Statesf eatures thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top
and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal
rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars
represent the 50 states; the 13 stripes the 13 original colonies. The Bald Eagle was
officially declared the National Emblem of the United States by the Second
Continental Congress in 1782
25. How do change in society influence peoples culture? What can slow down or
speed up cultural development?
A society is made up of people who interact in the beliefs, values and activities. Can
not be cultured outside the company and there is no society without culture, no
man can be considered as a social being, a member of society, a culture that does
not belong. Any change in company culture influence on people. Changes that lead
to good influence positive on human culture and change so good influences
negative. For speed up cultural development is needed cultural programs,
popularizing subculture and intensifying foreign influences as some factors that
raise the level of culture.
26. There are many impressive and valuable historical places in your country. Give
interesting details about some you have visited.
Old Orhei (Romanian: Orheiul Vechi) is a historical and archaeological complex,
located in Trebujeni, at 60 kilometres north-east of Chiinu, on the Rut River. The
ancient city Old Orhei - a unique natural and historical complex in the open air. It
organically combines the natural landscape and vestiges of ancient civilizations. As
a result of enormous archeological excavations here there were discovered the
cultural layers of different epochs such as - thePaleolithic, Eneolithic, and Iron Age.
The culture of Geto-Dacians of Early and Late Middle Ages is represented by the
rests of earthen and wooden fortresses of Geto-Dacian period and the traces of two
medieval towns - Shehr al-Djedid town of the Golden Horde period and the
Moldovan town Orhei.
27. Write about the national symbols of the UK.
The national symbols of England are flags, icons or cultural expressions that are
emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of England orEnglish culture.
As a rule, these national symbols are cultural icons that have emerged out of

English folklore and tradition, meaning few have any official status. However, most
if not all maintain recognition at a national or international level, and some, such as
the Royal Arms of England, have been codified in heraldry, and are established,
official and recognised symbols of England. Each country in Britain has its own
patron saint and floral emblem: England is the rose, Scottish bluebell, Walesdaffoidil, Northern Ireland- shamrock.
28. How do students in the USA and UK spend their free time?
U.S. and UK students spend their free time on extracurricular activities, sports and
travel. Much of her time visiting places that have not seen, are always looking for
new adventures and beautiful things. for them it would be a tradietie, always
leaving her free time or vacation trips to see something new, something causes
interest cups. Besides her travels in sport. For U.S. is specific beisbolul and
basketball, but for the UK football. In addition to her fun and spend more time
learning and spend time in schools for extracurricular activities. Many students from
USA and UK spend all day at school, being busy with things related to education.
2. The internet has forever changed the way we life.
Internet is the most fascinating thing of all time. Many years ago internet it was just
a dream, but today internet is part of our life. The Internet offers opportunities that
I never had before. It's not just the possibility with people in any other place in the
world. But easy access to an unbelievable amount of quality information and what's
important in a convenient form. You can have access to information from the library
any time before inaccessible, sitting comfortably in your home and dressed in
pajamas when before I had to make effort to get them. Internet is good in terms of
professional contact with people worldwide and the opportunity to exchange views
at any time is a feature not available in pre-Internet era. The Internet is a gold mine
but need to know to exploit. In conclusion Internet has changed the way towards a
better life.
3. There os almost nothing in our lives that is not touched by language
Language belongs to each of us. Everyone uses words. there is almost nothing in
our lives that is not touched by language. We live in and by language. Language is
obviously a vital tool. Not only is it a means of communicating thoughts and ideas,
but it forges friendships, cultural ties, and economic relationships. Language, of
course, is knowledge, and in our world today knowledge is one of the key factors in
competitiveness. Brains and knowledge are what create the prosperity and growth
we tend to take for granted.
4. Happiness is a value worth pursuing
Everyone wants to live in peace and harmony and to found the door from of
happiness.
5. People are often affected by their success and fame.
Fame and success makes some people forget their friend are busy only with tasks.
Success has a big impact in our life, because it gives up happiness and self
confidence. I want to say that success and fame have negative and positive
consequences. For different people success and fame act differently, for example

too mach fame make people very busy and away from make people busy and away
from loved ones, but success and fame bring money which for many is a source of
happiness. Famous people work hard long hours every day and do their best for
their fans. Also I think that famous people dont have private lives , they dont see
their relatives and friends often. Be successful and to be famous its a good thing,
but fame in many cases bring to deception. Yes fame and success make people
happy, but you can lose personal life and friends.
6. The future role of technology in the world. Write about advantages and
disadvantages
Today everything is based on technology. Without technology world would not
interests, we cant image ourselves technological advantages such as cars,
computers and television, all technology is a big advantage for people, because life
is more easy and comfortable. One of the important reasons for advantages
technology is they save a great deal of time and money. Robots and machines
would take over your daily life chores. These robots will replace a dirty and hard
work which is a big advantage for the world. As there so many advantage from
highly developed technology, there also is a great deal of disadvantages from them.
One disadvantage is that as technology develops, robots and machines will take
over many jobs and people will lose their jobs. Robots and machines will replace
people t the work it is good, but lack of exercise will lead to illness population. In
conclusion I think what technology is a good for life not taking account the
disadvantage.
7. Write the headline and a short story for something that has happened in your
village
Recently in kindergarten and high school ceremony transmission of technological
equipment and furniture offered to these institutions in environmental improvement
projects funded food service program grants for human security projects
"Kusanone" in Japan. At the ceremony attended by Minister of Agriculture, Basil
Bumacov and Ambassador of Japan in Moldova based in Kiev, Tadashi Izawa. In his
speech, Agriculture Minister thanked the guests of the Land of Rising Sun for
support to farmers, rural residents, urged the children present at the ceremony to
teach and to learn lessons as well, for that was specific to Minister "good knowledge
accumulated over time, will help you become richer, thus we can help other people
and we, as does Japan, which rose from the ruins after the war, due to solid
knowledge gained, of diligence and the desire to escape poverty. " This is the most
important event happened lately.
8. We are using up the earths natural resource fasted than ever.
The world is gripped by the largest financial crisis ever. But the thing that is
shocking the world at present is that the natural resource crisis is proving worse
than the global financial crisis. We are using up the earths resources very fast; and
as a result, we are heading for an ecological credit crunch. Pollution and more
consumption of the natural resources are adding to this problem, because over
consumption and pollution are growing faster then technology can support. If
nothing changes, it is predicted that by 2030, mankind would need two planets to
sustain its lifestyle. In recent years each people need of a good condition of live, but
for this conditions is needed natural resource for: energy, food, clothing. Earths
population increased very quickly, but resource were reduced. For this problem

people think about a solution recovery and ration use, but is difficult for other. For
electricity needs a big part of natural resource : natural gaze, petrol and coal. These
resource are limited, every years the amount decreases. Besides their use much
resources are polluated and can not be used.
9. A good reputation is more valuable that money
A good reputation make people personality, but money is are resource for live. With
personality people is appreciated true, with money people is appreciated false.
Many of us think what : if I have money I will all success in the world but money in
many cases is underestimated as reputation. Reputation is a fundamental
instrument of social order , based upon distributed, spontaneous social control.
Reputation of a man worth more what money that has, because money today are
but tomorrow not, reputation always remaining. A good way to have a good
reputation is always to do what you said you do. Always do what you said you do,
even if you later changed your mind, or even lose some money. Gained such
reputation will make all the money. This will gradually lead to a more mature
thinking and speaking of you. A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches
I think what reputation make people much better.
10. Leisure is time for doing something useful
Leisure is the part of our lives that if too much is bad, and if too little is really bad .
So all we seek or even try to balance the situation, because it's hard to get all
gentleman and as we have our time. As said many people: Time is money here It
becomes evident that time precious, and not use for widgets. With help time can do
many useful things, for example read a book or you to deal with sports. Many of us
spend time sleeping every day, which is something less good, therefore time is for
doing something useful. All people have to have a tome for leisure after their work
or shool day. People in different ways. Children their leisure they spend in games
and discovery new interesting thing for they, but for the adults leisure is a time for
something useful. Nowdays more and more activities in which we can take part in
our spare time are appearing, as a result of the wide spread of the technology.
11. A heart that loves is always young.
Love is an emotion of a strong affection and personal attachment. Love is also a
virtue representing all of human kindness, compassion, and affection .
12. Your time, energy, relationship, and finances are you most valuable assets.
Handling them wisely enhances your ability to succed
Energy, relationship and finance have a high value in our lives. Handling them
wisely enhance your ability to succeed in many different solution. Many of us
handling this values for some good. Evaluates how you spend your time and learn
to invest and spend your time and learn to invest and spend your most valuable
asset in meaningful and productive actions. If you spend your time rational things
will get better. Relationships with others is one of the important goods in life. Your
success depend of your ability to control your live.
13. The way we communicate with others and with ourselves ultimately determines
the quality of our lives

Its important to choose words carefully and wisely, to listen to yourself , to be clear
and concise, to be aware of what you say, and to show respect for listener. One of
the important way of communicate with others is to speak calm without offending
others. For a good communication with others is needed attention to facial
expression, hand gestures, and eye contact. Awareness of how we are
communicating is vital to our careers, therefore how you talk with our depend and
your careers , therefore how you talk with our depend and your career an your live.
For every of us need a new way of communicate, because people are different for
listening. Working to change how you communicate with different people can take
time and a lot of patience, but the end result is rewarding.

14. Good manners are not natural and have to be taught


Good manners are a set of behaviors which mark someone as a civilized and
cultural member of a society. In todays society manners to learn from tv and movie.
Each of us need to know which are good and which is a bad manners. Good
manners are not natural and have to be taught of childhood. Manners ca be taught
in a big family but and school play a big role to learned a good manners. If you learn
a good manners you a gentleman for others, and you get respect. Good manners go
a long way in most societies. Mannerly people are more likely to get ahead in the
world of business, and they also find themselves more commonly invited as guests
and welcomed in society. Life is a teacher of manners for all years. Good manners
are extremely important in life, in school and the workplace. Without manners
people in this world would be unable to communicate between anyone. Manners
should be instilled in a child at an early age so that when they grow it will be
natural, and not a problem.
28. One is rich when he has friend
"A friend in need is". A real friend is one who, if necessary, help you, is what
remains when all around you leave you in short is a wealth. If a measure of wealth is
how many friends you have, and I believe it is, we are among the world's richest
people. A good friend knows how to take care of you, your absence will be
completed by the excess of what is his is yours. A good friend will give you hope, a
good friend will make you strong, a good friend will help you see the sun hiding
behind the dark clouds, a good friend will motivate you to go away when you do not
and you may not want, when you sleep he will watch over you, when you're on the
road will appear, you will protect, this is your true wealth. Each of us who have a
good friend is one of the richest in the world, because friendship is more that
money. A good word I think it has moral value of a treasure for the human soul, but
unfortunately do not know how to appreciate all this, comes a friend is your true
wealth
27. Work keeps us from three great evils: boredom, vice and need
Work is that occupation that keeps us away from certain vices and boredom. Once
you start to work your mind is preoccupied and does not have time to think it over
and something else. Often hear that the work saved mankind, so a lot of people call
service employees and works every day. For most work is a source of existence, for
others it is a pleasure, an occupation that you avoid the monotony and makes your
life more interesting. What is better and desirable, to be tired and to regain energy

after a day of work or to be tired and regain your energy after a day of boredom?
Oh, yes! And boredom tired man, is even more tiring than the work itself, because
you out of that period which I mentioned earlier. Only regain that energy, that
training, you fofileti and you find it difficult to come back. Boredom is harmful,
somewhat destructive. Or, to not be so hard, boredom leads to such excess cases.
Work saves us from boredom and other vices.
26. Nothing in this world is impossible to a willing heart.
Abraham Lincoln's words, Nothing in this world is impossible to a willing heart has
been around for decades and has inspired countless souls. What your heart wants
you can not stop, can not hide, therefore the heart comes often winning. Feelings
can be hidden in appearance can be deceptive acts, but his heart will always look
like they are. For man there are some obstacles that prevent you to do something,
but the heart is that stimulus that causes him to finish what he started. Everything
went to the end is due to them. When they see a girl you do not like on the outside
want to get away from it, but already it is not possible because it allows dignity to
do this, the heart already understands what is hiding the girl and only wants it.
Nobody can stop to think of it, and always see it getting me beautiful.

25. If you could go back to some time and place in the past , when and were would
you go? why? What famous person would you like to meet? What questions would
you like to ask him?
If I could go in the past I'd like to meet him on Stefan cel Mare. first question I would
address would be: How did you manage to win so many battles with the Turks? that
was your war tactics? Once I got past I want to see beautiful landscapes that will
stretch in Moldova, and see how legends are born. I chose the Stefan cel Mare
because he was a strong man, brave and full of strength that saved our nation from
the war, he was the man who gave the name of this region. Sword would be
something wonderful for me because it is the weapon that saved thousands of
people and that's always been handy. If such a war again, when you have in the
past, I would go with the soldiers to fight to see real tactics and men who see in
each. An unpleasant souvenir Ever since the would be a picture of Stefan cel Mare.
Each of us would like to leave at that time in which our nation was formed. Fantasies
are good, but I think I'll ever get there!
24. What you do to improve the world? Think of actions you could take to help make
the world a better place.
To improve the world need good things made by humans. Some of them are: be
happy, love courageously, read a book, Play like a child, Tell the truth, love. Books
provide a huge kick to our imagination, boost for ability to dream and often also
knowledge to make those dreams come true. Books are those objects which by
themselves could change the whole world. Their content increases imagination and
makes people more aware of what they do. Love is one of the most powerful forces
in the Universe. It can transform lives, it can work miracles. This is the single, most
important thing you can do to bring the world closer to perfection (hope you see me

winking). It's simple logic - if every inhabitant of the Earth takes care to stay happy,
than the whole world will be happy! This things is one of the important action which
improve the world. Are some simple things but hardly fulfilled.
22. Health is like a song ; your body is the tone, your mind is the lyric, your heart is
the beat, your spirit is the melody, and they all must be played in perfect harmony"
A rock band cannot be famous, if its members do not feel the team spirit and the
harmony produced by all the instruments played in the band. Inside us, people, lives
the same band, which waits to be fed both physically and morally. These band
members are always keeping themselves closely tied-hands. If one of them weakens
the strait, the others become weaker. These figures are known as: Body, Mind, Heart
and Spirit, together forming the band Health. Each of them must be on duty 24 out
of 24 hours a day: Mind deals with the lyrics, Body is the tone, Heart is the beat and
Spirit is the melody of the song. As any group needs a leader, so in this case, the
leader of the band is none other than the Man. He has everything in his hands. How
well he feeds his inner world, what kind of thoughts does he implant in himself all
depends upon him.
21. Money is good for nothing unless you know the value of it by experience
People usually dont think too much about the meaning of money. The only idea
and concern is to make more than they usually have. Of course having money is a
good thing because they give us the possibility to satisfy our needs and desires.
People work a lot to earn as much as possible, but when it comes to spending their
money they dont usually think too much, the waste it buying expensive cars, eating
out or buying expensive things just for being in fashion. Yet, money has a certain
feature to come easier to those who treat it well. Money tends to go to those who
can use it in the most productive way to produce useful services and valuable goods
and who has the ability to invest the in a profitable economical field. At the same
time money uses to flow away from those who dont have the habit to use them in a
profitable way.
I think everyone should learn to save money and to invest it in order to gain
more. If we know the value of money we can easily manage it. It becomes a habit
that leads to a successful life and career.
The more effective period for learning the value of money is childhood because
children usually dont value money because they dont know how much effort their
parents put in their work in order to earn a certain some of money. Thus, parents
are responsible for showing the real value of money when their kids are still small,
than it will be much easier for them to value money without being even told about
this.
20. Instruction ends in the school-room but education ends only with life
Education instruction does not end in the class room. Many schools are using
collaboration between topics. Extra curricluar activities also teach the students on
and off the field, out of the gym and during competitions. Instruction is happening
on the internet, through everyday events. You will continue to learn throughout your
life - it is a life long process. As a matter of fact, you are learning now and you may
not even be aware of it.
21. The good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge
In my view, the good life is inspired by desire, guided by love, and facilitated
(enabled) by knowledge. Russell states that the good life is inspired by love.And, to

a considerable extent, it is.Our love for our mate and our children is a major aspect
of human existence.But, as human beings, with high intelligence and a wide range
of emotions, love for family members is but one of many other significant aspects of
existence. Love at its fullest is an indissoluble combination of the two elements,
delight and well-wishing.The pleasure of a parent in a beautiful and successful child
combines both elements; so does sex love at its best.But in sex love, benevolence
will only exist where there is secure possession, since otherwise jealousy will
destroy it, while perhaps actually increasing the delight in contemplation.Delight
without well-wishing may be cruel; well-wishing without delight easily tends to
become cold and a little superior.
20. Give to the world the best you have and the best will come back to you.
Have you ever noticed that successful people who have their lives in order are also
more active, involved, and generous with charity, church, and volunteer
organizations? They find time to make giving a top priority in their lives. The fact is
your success is an outcome of how much you do for others. Your deeds have lasting
impact, not your stuff, power, position or busy schedule. Successful people make
more time to serve others. Becoming a success is directly proportional to what you
give. Its a fine linesome people give to getbut that wont work for most.
16. A Day to Celebrate Earth
Earth Day is the largest, most widely celebrated international environmental event.
Earth Day helps celebrate Earths unique place in the universe. It is the only planet
in our solar system teeming with incredible biodiversity. Learning about and
protecting this biodiversity is what Earth Day is all about. People all over the world
celebrate our efforts to protect plants and animals and to clean up the world we live
in. Most people celebrate Earth Day on April 22nd each year. In some countries, it is
celebrated a month earlier on the vernal equinox.
Cuprins
20. Give to the world the best you have and the best will come back to you.
16. A Day to Celebrate Earth
How would you describe your country or region and the people who live there?
(testul 2)
My native place it is Lozova. It was foundated in 1420, and it has a long and
interesting legend. It is said that the people who came here were peasant and they
practicated wickerwork, from here and it name. Lozova is surrounding by forest.It is
bordered with a natural reservation, Rezervatia Codrii. The people from here are 7
thousands in number. Are hardworking and they are activing in many domenians
like industrial, economical, cultural. The village has a church and at every holiday
people go to it.lozova is a beautiful village and I love it.
The internet has forever changed the way we live(testul 2)
Sience when Nostradamus was alive, he predict, that the world will change
dramatically, when the earth will be surrounding by a web. Nowadays his prediction
become thrue. Our lives are influential by internet. It changed the way we live. Not
very long time ago, we didnt drimed to hear other person from another continent,
through telephone, but today we can see her, and this is possible thanks to
socialization cityes. Another benefit which internet brings with it, is the acces at
information, a lot of information. Every day, every night, at any time we just must

to make a click on mouse and the whishes information is in front of us. Through the
internet we can make new friends, we can spread our relation with people and can
pass over the physical barrier which stop us in really life to communicate with
them.
Speak about one of the holidays celebrated in Great Britain/Moldova/the USA in
greater details.(testul 3)
Thanksgiving Day is a holiday celebrated in USA on the fourth Thursday of
November, and often extends to the weekend that falts closet to it. The modern
Thanksgiving holiday tradition traces its origins to a 1621 celebration at ply month
in present day Massachussets. In the USA Thanksgiving parades are held, during
which school marching bands and ussaly have different floats. Traditional
Thanksgiving dishes are stuffed turkey rosted, smoked or roasted, ham, mashed
potatoes,sweet potatoes, corn and pumpkin pie. In an annual celebration of one
day, which thanks traditionally to God for the rich harwest that year.

There is nothing in our lives that is not touched by language.(testul 3)


Since from the old times, the men felt the need to fit in a group, a family , society.
This evolution brings with her the communication. At the beginning wewrw just
some signs, mimicries and sounds. Nowadays the men have reached a high level,
and in every day, in every second he uses the words. Our lives are impossible
witouth communication, without languag. Everything in our lives is touched by
language. We need it in family, at school, at service, in bus, on the street, at the
shop, evrywherea. The brain had evolve very much. A men who learned a language
from when he was a baby, at the maturite he can to talk another one, or maybe
two, three, four, and he can talk with other people in a foreign language for him. In
conclusion, every felling, desire, think which we have, it is impossible to express
without language. Without it the world would be pauper.
Do you think it is dangerous to judge about a nation by existing stereotypes? Use
specific reasons and examples to support your answer.(testul 4)
Negative stereotypes are a schematic idea of someone. Usually they are formed
when people are required it wrong. Audiovisual media often tell us, for example
that gypsies stole him on such and such. Did they stel gupsies, but only a person
of Roma? Or we camunicated, Romanians in Ukraine leading cigarettes. Are all the
people Romanian trafficked cigarettes , or border was retained only a Romanian
citizen? Similarly, in the mainds of many were roote negatve stereotypes and that
Jews are smart, Russians-drunks, Ukranians-stingy, Lituanians very slowe, Georgians
aggressive. In the middle of every nation there are people smart, drunken, greedy,
aggressive. Nationality not determine these traits or specific human behavior, but
education, some psychological traits we should not make a wrong picture well that
there is no bushwood forest.
Happiness is a value worth pursuing.(testul 4)
Happiness is a value that comes and goes like wind. Happiness comes from the
small things, from a smiley, from a flower, from a laugh of baby, from a shine of sun.
It is a felling that make you to fell good, makes you to fell that exist something for

which is worth to live. Not everytime we are in a good way, sometimes we dont fell
good with ourself, without all that we have money, cars, houses and everything we
want. All these things do not have anything in common with soul and with its
pleasure. The soul needs spiritual foodlike love, honestly, hormony, a good
atmosphere. Without happiness our souls become poor and our whish for life
disappears. Happiness is ecentialy for a good life, a life without feelings by
happiness is a pauper one, it is worth pursuing.

Choose one of the characters you remember well from your favourite book.(testul
5)
One of my favourite books is Baltagul, written by Mihail Sadoveanu. It is an
interesting nuvela, where the principal character is a women, whos name is Vitoria
Lipan. She is a strong women, a lovely wife and a carefull mother, and is a very
good detective. Is skillful and hardworking . She conquer through her beauty and
frames charm. She is not youth more, because she is fourteen but she has a rare
beauty in the glance. With all these is a superstitions person, bealiving in signs and
dreams. She is a representative figure by popular hero, involving all fundamental
qualities of a simple men from village, characterized by culture for the thruth and
rightness, observing the traditional laws and castumary.
People are often effected by their success and fame.(testul 5)
Happiness is a value which run through life hand in hand with peace and silence.
Some people such stars, singers, actories , do not have and dont happy so much
by these things. Simple people are surrounding more time by dear person,
receiving a lot of love and spiritual warness. They have a lot of time to offer their
affection and care whom they love. Nowadays success. Fame and carier goals are
on the first place for many people. All these take a big part from our free time, the
time which we should spend how we want. We are more interesd in ours success
estranging by family, by friends. In some moments like these we dont understand
that we lose their love, friendship, thrust and respect, and at once we rouse alone
face to face just with our fame.How much we want success wouldnt keep us warm
and wouldnt give its love. These are people affected by fame, they only refuse
relationships going to loneliness.
Can you name any place in Great Britain which is internationally known? What is
noted for?(testul 6)
British Museum is one of the oldest and most important museums in the world,
holding statues of pharaohs, deities and ancient Egypt, mummies, mummified cats,
considered deities, the priests Egyptian mummies of noble, princes and princesses.
There are few places where one can admire the many treasures of all time under
one roof. Today British Museum houses no less than six and half million art objects
and has 94 permanent and temporary exhibitions. To visit the British Museum
visitors should reserve plenty of time to holiday in London, because the museum
houses many treasures. Perhaps the best thing would be to consider several visits
to see every exhibit at length.

The future role of technology in the world . Write about advantages and
disadvantages.(testul6)
Tehnology is all the methods, processes, operations made or applied to raw
materials and data for any particular industrial or commercial product. Today
through technology means everything about robots, computers, software, and other
wonders of the 21st century. Great advantages that it give to us is that we should
not spend more time doing things. Simple example, we dont need few days or a
week to receive a letter, a simply click is enough to receive message from someone.
All at once here comes a downside, while the world is making progress, a lot of
people remain lighthouse workstations. Technology requires only those who
understand it, and ordinary people remain behind it. In conclusion we can say that
technology is the big step of evolution and a great advantage for people, if we dont
take into consideration the disadvantages.
Different country have reputation for being good at different sports. Think of some
exmples.
For example Brazil it is good at football, USA axcel at rugby, baseball and
basketball, Canada-at hokey. Our country , Moldova, has some champions at
weightlifting. This year Moldova took three medals at European Championship. Oleg
Sirgi is the new European weightlifting champion. Moldovan athlete won the title
having raised a total of 262 kilograms category to 56 kg. But the reputation of the
countries is due primarly to climatic condition. In a country where winter prevails,
will practice winter sports and where the prevailing climate is warm, will be
practiced summer sports.
Describe some things which are associated with the Scots. (testul8)
Scotland are a nation or a ethnic group native to Scotland. And as every nation it
has its traditions, customs and its personal culture. Scottish national dress is the
kilt, a wrap around of four yards of tartan with box pleats. Men wear the kilt and
sporran, tartan hose, jacked in the hose, jaket and bonnet and a sgian dhubh,
trucked in the hose. Saint Andrews day is celebrated on the 30th November. The St.
Andrews Cross became the national flag. The national emblem is Thistle. The use of
the word Scotch referring to all things Scotish was common place out with the
country bygone days, however, the modern use of the term describe only Scottish,
usually food or drink.
We are using up the earths natural resources faster than ever.(testul8)
Natural resources are a natural gift of the environment that we use every day.
However we dont think of the consequences that might follow. We are in the 21st
century where everything happens very quickly, and technology is one step ahead
of humanity. Natural resources are two classes, finite and infinite, but both,
population uses excessively, leading to environmental degradation and desctruction
of the planet.
Use your knowledge to present interesting facts about the British Royal
Family(testul9)
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United
Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people who are ,
the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovering of any of the other
Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with official national terms for

the family. The head of the royal family is the Queen Elizabeth II. Her husband is
Prince Phillip. They two have a daughter and three sons. One of the famous
members is Princess Diana, the wife of Prince Charles, hwo after her death, married
again with Duchess Camilla. First two have two sons, Henry and William, who
married on 29 April 2011 with Duchess of Cambridge, Catherine.
A good reputation is more valuable then money.(testul9)
Reputation is one of the most important value and is very flexible. You strive to
lumps a lifetime, but you can lose in a second. Reputation is the business card of a
man. It may indicate social porch, typology ethics, manners, lifestyle, and most
importantly dignity and honor which goes by hand with reputation. Money is only
part of the material that make the reputation to grow over night, but not necessarily
in a good turn. Reputation not win with money, can be poor but with a pure heart
and a good thoughts. Money is the magic, now you see it, now you dont, but
reputation is a treasure that no one can take you only if you give it with your own
hands. Be a man and not give honor to honor!
What famous people of the USA are you impressed by?(testul10)
Withney Houston was an American recording artist, actress, producer and model. In
2009 the Ginnes World-Records cited her at the most-awarded female act of alltime. Houston was one of the worlds best-selling music artist, having sold aver 170
million albums, singles and videos worldwide. Witheney is the only artist to chart
seven consecutive number 1 Billboard Hot 100 hits. She is first acting role was the
star of the feature film The bodyguard. The films original soundtrack won the
1994 Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Its lead single I will always love you,
become the best-selling single by a female artist in music history. She was, is and
will be a true treasure.

Leisure is time for doing something useful(testul10)


All people have to have a time for leisure after their work or school day. People in
different ages use their time in different ways. Most spend time with family, go out,
walking in the park, to live happy moments and to forget the daily routine.
Teenagers hang out with friends at cinema, at concerts, also feeling better. The
quietest person who likes to read a book during free up and enriched imagination,
or practice sports without anyone to disturb, and a health: benefits beings. If we
speak about those hwo have too much free time and do not know what to with it,
as an advice I would propose voluntary work, to help the elderly people. Generally
everyone has free time, how little would be, and each tries to get involved with
something good, not just to get for nothing.
Why do you think the English language is taught in many countries of the world?
(teatul11)
English is a west Germanic Language spoken originally in England, And now is the
most widely used language in the world. It is spoken as first language by a majority
of the inhabitants of several nations, including United kingdom, the USA, Canada,
Australia, Ireland and New Zealand. English is an official language of the European
Union and many Commonwealth countries, as well as in many world organization.

The influence of the British Empire is the main reason for the initial spread of the
language for beyond the British Isles. Following the Second World War, growing
economic and cultural influence of the United States has significantly accelerated
the spread of this language. Knowledge of English is necessary for employment in
certain fields, jobs or occupations.
A heart that loves is always young(testul11)
Love is the strongest feeling that it can reach the heart. Love you can feel it at
different ages of life, but youth is specific. Adolescence is the period in which
experience first kiss, when butterflies tickling your stomach, and when light eyes
does not cease to play. When love is in your heart, all the colors seem brighter and
you can hear the angels singing. Happens often those in park submitted elderly
couples that walk arm in arm or by the hand. They smile nice one to each other, talk
about different think and look tenderness. It is tenderness of the eyes in a thered of
love. Love that carries the soul of one another makes them fell young. It make them
hearts beat faster and feelings do not grow old never. Love is the elixir of the youth.

Every nations has its customs and traditions. How can you explain why people keep
up their traditions and practice for centuries?(testul12
Culture of a country consists of customs and traditions. It makes the difference
between people. Traditions are the nations history and customs its card, without
which culture would be poorer. It makes a nation special and help us to maintain
contact with ancestors. People keep up their traditions because these reminds them
who they really are. Romanian will go in every winter to roam and Americans will
eat turkey at each table at Thanksgiving Day. Traditions are we, are the voices from
our heart.
What are the main values of the European Union?(testul14)
European Union is an economic and political union, developed in Europe which is
composed of 27 states. The main objectives of the Union are: peace and its values,
like respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, rule of low and
respect, human and minority rights. European Union single market has developed in
a standardized and unified lows that apply to all Member States. In the Schengen
Area border controls were abolished. Supports EU policies ensure free movement of
persons, good services and capital, have been issued laws justice and home affairs
and kept common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development.
It was also established a monetary union, euro area currently consists of 17 states.
Good manners arent natural and have to be taught.(testul14)
Good manners from an important part of our civilization. We know a man for his
manners. They are important for our conduct in society. Manners are very useful
and make us gentlemen. We are called gentlemen when we show good behavior.
Good manners make friends for us, because people like to make friendships with
pleasant and nice people. It is possible to turn our enemies in our friends. Manners
exist everywhere, at school, we should make kind behavior to our classmates, at a
general meeting, should behave property, not disturb or interrupt when one is
speaking. At an interview we must show better, to give a good impression. Good
manners are quite essential for us. So we should try to distinguished between good
or bad.

What are the major events of national and social importance which are traditionally
celebrated in the USA?(testul15)
USA has a lot of major events of national and social importance. Among them are
Independence Day, celebrated on 4 July, Thanksgiving Day celebrated on the fourth
Thursday of November and often extends to the weekend. An interesting event is
Oscar, where a lot of celebrities gather to enjoy the attention from photographers
and fans. Am major event of social and national importance is the presidential
elections, that took place every four years, and includes all the people think. These
are some of the events in the USA, buy there are others equally importance.
Write about the effect of a parent, teacher, or friend on your life.
The role of parent is very and the most important. It should be strong with firm, not
by severity or violence, through patience and love. Studies have shown that good
parents are that parent who fails to understand and respond appropriately to her
childs need and encourage child autonomy even at young age, showing respect for
the individuality of the child. Parents are the first model after that child is
structured. The father model or mother model, that will choose child, negative or
positive, is a first evidence of how reflected image of parents in childrens
consciousness. An important role as it is creating an uplifting family, secure,
relaxed, to stimulate the childs mental. Love and parental care are considered in
the literature as important for intellectual development of children of such as
vitamins and proteins for physical development. Parents build the education of
children, contributing to seven years from home.
What changes in present-day schools would you propose to make them more
effective for educating pupils?(testul16)
For pupils school is like the second home, spending here nearly a half day. From my
point of view schools would need by new technologies within hours of chemistry,
biology, mathematics, where students could do more experiments. But besides all
these, it should be a safe and pleasant place. Students should come at school as at
a holiday. Tutor should know the character of each student and of course their
problems. He must be careful to make them united and friendly. Also the
relationships between principle and pupils should be an open and kind one, and
atmosphere, pleasant one, to make student life more interesting and attractive.

Earth day should be every day(testul16)


Every year, April 22 Earth day is celebrated, on the birth of the movement for
environmental protection. There are many ways to help conserve and protect our
environment. Instead of polluting it, we can do simple everyday practices to help
and protect Earth. If everyone contribute a little in our society, the world would
become a better place , because that would add up to a large product. In order to
get this result we have to take action and this may start as simple as in your own
house. To do so I will write healthy alternatives for customs that are not good for the

environment. One easy way we can conserve daily is by using tap water instead of
bottled water. Another way we can help Earth is by reducing fuel consumption. We
can do this by biking or walking instead of using the car. Walking costs no money,
but using car, it releases carbon dioxide. The change must start from us, and to
transform it in a holiday by every day.
What are the benefits of globalization for the average person? (testul17)
Globalization refers to the increasing global relationships of culture, people and
economic activity. This process involves the problems of the most developed
country in the world, but it doesnt exclude the issues of the average people. Till
today globalization has led to six times the GDP growth in the second half of the
twentieth century; population growth and life expectancy; improving living
standards; reduce infant mortality; improving basic hygiene, and improving internal
governance and the emergence of institutions dealing with global problems. But
besides all these we cant deny that globalizations has its disadvantages.
Fashion is not something that exists in dresses only.
Fashion is something we deal in every day. Every people who say they dont care
what they wear, choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how
they feel that day. However we definitely get fashion ideas from music clips, videos,
books and television. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. For
example it is known that more sunglasses were sold in America after the movie Man
in Black.

Many British museums and galleries are real treasure-houses of unique works of art.
Which are the best known? What collection do they contain?
Great Britain is a big country with a lot of beautiful places and tourist destination. It
has many palaces, theatres and museums. British Museum is one of the oldest and
most important museums in the world, holding statues of pharaohs, deities and
ancient Egypt, mummies, mummified cats, considered deities, the priests Egyptian
mummies of nobles, princes and princesses. There are few places where one can
admire the many treasures of all time under one roof. Today, British Museum houses
no less than six and half million art objects and has 94 permanent and temporary
exhibitions. To visit the British Museum, visitors should reserve plenty of time to
holiday in London, because the museum houses many treasures. Perhaps the best
thing would be to consider several visits to see every exhibit at length.
What components does culture consists of? Provide examples.(testul18)
Culture refers to the social heritage of a nation. It is composed of nonmaterial
culture-abstract creations like values, beliefs, symbols, customs, traditions, and
material culture-physical objects like clay pats, computers, coins, football helmets.
Symbols assume many forms, including spoken and written words, gestures.
Language is perhaps our most distinctive and complex achievement as human
beings. It permits us to transmit practices from one generation to the next. Norms
are social rules or guidelines that specify the behavior. It includes folkway and
mores. Folkways are the customary and habitual ways by which the members of a

group do things. Mores are vital to societys well-being and survival. Laws are rules
that are enforced by a political body, which result of conscious thought, deliberate
planning and formal declaration. Culture could not exist without people, and people
could not exist without culture.
Name some environmental problems and give some solutions to them. Testul20
The environment is our home. Here we are born, grow-up and here we die. Our
health depend on its health. Nowadays technologies lead to destructions. The
environment facing with greenhouse effect, global warming is causing the Earth to
lose its snow cover, with ozone depletion, without the ozone layer, everyone would
be susceptible to a number of skin diseases, including skin cancer. The acid rains
are also an issue facing the planet. It cause stone, rocks, steel, metal to erode and
paint to peel off. We would be care because the natural resources are limited, and
after us are coming and other generations. And not the lost should be careful with
the technologies, because it has advantages and disadvantages.
Millions of people wish there were more peace and harmony in the world. How can
they achieved?testul21.
In my opinion, people should be more kind, patient and sociable. People should
learn to communicate with other and avoid conflict. Peace is not just for hippie.
Living in peace is about living in harmoniously with yourself, others, and all
sentiment beings around you. People can achieved harmony if they will try to speak
to love, not to control others, to mode they will reflect before some events. Also is
important to seek forgiveness, not revenge, to find inner place, to live in joy, to be
the change you wish saw in the world. Staring with you, trying to make peace with
yourself and harmony will full you heart and soul.
Write about what democracy means to you.teatul22
Democracy is a system of governance characterized by citizen participation in the
management process. Basic principles of democracy are universal suffrage and
sovereignty of the nation. The essence of modern democracy involves human
rights, multiparty, limitation and separation of powers. Democracy is not need to
exist, it must be felt. Democracy is then when you have an opinion and you are not
afraid to express, when in society dominate the peace and you are not afraid to
walk on street. Democracy is then when the national symbols are recognized by all
people and when the political parties respect their ideologies. Democracy provides
the weakest of us the same opportunities as yours most powerful. Democracy
makes us equal.
Education is an indivisible part of the prosperity of the nationtestul23
Education is simply defined as a process by which people acquire knowledge, skills,
habits, values, or attitudes. Education is acting significantly in eradicating poverty in
a nation. There are many factors leading to poverty, but the major ones are
unemployment, poor health and domestic violence, which generally seem are
rooted from low level of education. These people dont contribute at development of
country, but rather slow it and drives country to poverty. The fact that more and
more people are known legible and skillful attracts more job opportunity and
accelerates income for people. Furthermore, when people are educated, their
health, accordingly is also improved because they know how to keep themselves
healthy and how to raise their children, who will be a part of a thrifty country.

What would you do to improve the worldtestul24


There are many ways in which you can make our planet a better place. Every tiny
bit helps.
Every step matters. You can do it in two ways, on the inner and outer things. First
should to appreciate the Earth. It is our only home. Do not squeeze out of it all
resources, because we will need them for a long time. But I would try to change the
world in another way. I try to do to escape the daily routine and to get them to enjoy
life. The world will be a better place if the people will be more happily. For that
everyone should pursue his dreams, should be patient with others and with hisselfe,
could smile at strangers, and they will give the smile back, and the day which
semmed cloudy in the morning will get a light beam. Will be fine if we will put our
heart into everything we do, we will love courageously, if we will tell the truth every
time. This is a better world, without lie, lazy and sad faces. Be free, be fearless, be
happy, that is what it is all about.
Write about the national symbols of the USA.
The USA is one of the big powers in the world. It has a rich history with a strong
base. Along the years it adopted a lot of creations, transforming it in national
symbols. Some of the most popular are the stars and stripes, the USA flag, the
Great Seal of the USA, the bad Eagle, their national birds, the Washington
Monument, the Lincoln Memorial, the USA Capital, the white House, the Statue of
Liberty and other. The last is situated in Ney York and send welcome greetings, it is
a gift from France. The White House is the official residence and principal workplace
of the President of the USA, built in 1792. All symbols related to their culture
traditions and customs, and not least is due to history.
How do changes in society influence peoples culture? What can down or speed up
cultural development?testul25
Cultural factors influence social changes. There is an intimate relationships between
society and culture. Hence cultural changes involve social change. All these
changes depend on values of society, on attitudes population, ideologies of any
field, and others. For example if it is organized a rally to support two political
parties, of course there will be two categories of supporters, and between they will
appear misunderstanding, will say bad words, pushed one another. Such stage
shows lower degree of culture. If in city is announcing a theatre coming from
aboard, and people in a pleasant way will be interested to be present to conduct,
would be about raising the level of culture. Any social event influences the culture
of the people, but we should to strive to prevail to an increase.
If you could go back to some time and place in the past, when and where would you
go?testul25
I always was interested in Hitlers personality, a hard men, without heart, which
caused a huge pain in soul of many people. I would like to go back in time of the
Second World War, although it sounds scary I want to see with my eyes that
underwent tortures men, women, children. If I had the opportunity to sit face to face
with Hitler, first question that I would ask it would be if he afraid to death. Id be

curious to find out things about his childhood, about the dreams he had when he
was young. It would be interesting to know if such a men ever imagined how will die
or read old will then. I would not resist outside to ask him if he ever regretted the
pain that has caused millions of people and, if he ever put in place an innocent man
who feels the bullet holes in his body. It would be scary, but also amazing.
There are many impressive and valuable historical places in your country. Give
interesting details about some you have visited.
Moldova is a beautiful country with a lot of tourist destination. Among them you can
meet natural reserves, historic monuments, monasteries, and other interesting
places. Fortress Soroca is in the middle of Sorocas city. It was built in command of
Stefan cel Mare. Here you can visit also the monument Luminarea Recunostintei. At
the Eastern Republic, on the right bank of the Dnister River is located monastery
Sfinta treime din Saharna. It is surrounded by rocky hills. There is also an important
archaeological resort, with remains from the Iron Age and a Dacian fortress
promotoriu. Tipova Monastery is considered one of the largest in Europe. It is built
on top of the steep cliffs, opeaning a charming view of the river Dnister. It is said
that Orpheus from Greek mythology spent his last years of life. I think that these
places worth to be visited and most important to take care of them, because it are a
really national treasure.
Nothing in this world is impossible for a willing heart.testul26
Life is like a long way, both the ups with the downs as well. Not always in front of us
is waiting good weather and joy. Sometimes we meet with a strong wind and
sadness. There are times when life is not like we want to be. Sometimes we give up
hopeless .But we should know that the first ingredient of success is desire and
nothing is impossible for willing heart. Everything that comes from the soul, from
deep heart is pure, powerful and nothing can oppose to good. Strong feelings move
mountains and make any wish to become thru. A heart that knows what it wants is
a strong one, which spreads over all difficulties and open all doors closed, and
achieves its goal. I think that phrase I cant, doesnt exist, I dont want, exist,
there is real and all we need is faith and desire.
Work keeps us from three great evils: boredom, vice and need..testul27
Work you up and ruin you laziness, or labor is gold bracelet. These are wise words of
elders. Since ancient times, works was the main factor that contributed to human
evolution. Nowadays work is indispensable to our lives. For the vast majority of it is
a source of existence, for others it is an escape from the real world. Work is also
beneficial refuge. It keeps you busy all the bad things, you thoughts heading for
something good. It occur involuntarily by boredom, vice and need. When you are
working you mind is focused on the result you will get, and all evils are far away
from. It is important to remember that through working man is glorified.
Write about the national symbols of the UK. testul 27
UK of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland consist of four traditional country:
England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and several territories. The national
symbols of England are the flag St. Georges Cross, the red rose, and the three lions
crest. The national symbols of Scotland are the flag St. Andrews Cross, and the
national flower is thistle. The flag of Wales incorporates the red dragon, along with
the Tudor colors of green and white. The daffodil is the national flower of wales.

British flag is the flag of Kingdom, known as the union Jack. The national anthem is
God save the Queen. Britain is symbolized a young women with black hair or
blond, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes.
One is rich when he\she has frends.testul28
It is said that friendship is golden bracelet, and that one friend do more than one
hundred money, and it is true. We are rich when we have friends, when we are
surrounding by people who love us and who are ready to help us when we are in
trouble. Material stuff like jewel, houses, cars, sackes with money are beautiful
thinks which we all want it but these stuffs cant to soothe our soul, but a good
friend can make us to smiley, seeing a good world. The true friends are near us at
good and at bad, at trouble and at happiness, and they encourage us when we
need. This is the most important and is more important than fortunes. Friendship is
a saintly treasure.
Testul 13
There it is power in the spoken word. But most of us arent aware of what we say,
how we say it and how it affects every aspect of our lives. Too often we get into bad
habits and say whatever pops into our heads without thinking. Good communicators
are aware of what they say, how they say it and how they listen. Sometimes we
realized the intelligence of a person by way talks. It is included and that sometimes
words that we said without thinking too much, we wanted to say, and appear
regrets, sorrows , in some cases depression. These influence out health.
Write about the national symbols of the Republic of Moldova.test23
The national symbols of the Republic of Moldova are the flag, emblem and anthem.
State flag is a tricolor, flag with three colors. Blue symbolized hope, yellow means
wealth and red remind us of the blood shed for freedom, Emblem is a shield with
bull head. Between his horns is an eight-pointed star. In the left side of flag , if
steam facing him, is a pink the sun and the right-mouth, magi-new. Shield is the
chest eagle. The poetry Limba Noastra written by Alexei Mateevici, put on music
by composer Alexandru Cristea, was approved as the national anthem of the
Republic of Moldova.

. Citete textul i realizeaz sarcinile propuse.


O via cu Eugen Doga
Eugen Doga este autorul acordurilor venic tinere care ne ajut s trecem prin via
n pai
de vals. El a descoperit lumii ntregi un nume i o ar: Eugen Doga i Republica
Moldova.
Despre Maestrul Doga se poate spune, fr exagerare, c este unul dintre cei mai
remarcabili
compozitori contemporani. Faima compozitorului crete, iar muzica sa continu s
vibreze sufletele

asculttorilor. Eugen Doga a intrat n circuitul internaional al valorilor cu muli ani n


urm. n
1976, mpreun cu regizorul Emil Loteanu, compozitorul obine Trofeul Scoica de aur
la festivalul
de film din Spania pentru pelicula atra, o capodoper a cinematografiei din acei
ani. atra a fost
prezentat n aproape toate rile Europei, n Japonia i SUA. n aceeai perioad,
Sonetul Maestrului
a fost declarat n Japonia Cea mai frumoas melodie a anului i s-a meninut n
top timp de doi
ani! Piesele lui Eugen Doga snt imprimate pe milioane de discuri.
Ronald Reagan, preedintele SUA, afirma c valsul din filmul Dulcea i tandra mea
fiar
este valsul veacului al XX-lea. i Eugen Doga a fost declarat Omul secolului XX,
alturi de alte 99
de personaliti marcante ale lumii.
Muzica renumitului, talentatului nostru pmntean este simpl ca firul de iarb,
sensibil ca
flacra unei lumnri, sincer i aproape inimii, accesibil att academicienilor, ct i
oamenilor
simpli. Ea ne rscolete sufletul, ne nal spre stele.
ntr-una din discuii, cunoscutul compozitor mrturisea c a fost un copil
neastmprat din
satul Mocra, raionul Rbnia, care nu s-a ruinat - cnd a pornit spre muzic, carte c drumul e cu
pietre, iar el descul.
Pentru merite deosebite, muzicianul, compozitorul, dirijorul, profesorul de pian,
violoncel i
vioar Eugen Doga este decorat cu Ordinul Republicii, cu Medalia de Aur Omul
secolului XX
(SUA), cu Medalia de Aur Omul mileniului, 2000 (SUA), cu Ordinul Pentru merite n
faa
Patriei (Rusia), cu Medalia Mihai Eminescu etc., etc.
Noi, locuitorii Republicii Moldova, nu am zburat n cosmos, nu am inventat
computerul, dar
(Din pres) Nr. Item Punctaj
1. Transcrie, din text, enunurile n care se vorbete despre:
a) ce au aflat oamenii din multe ri datorit compozitorului
b) un film cunoscut n Europa, SUA .a.
c) valsul secolului al XX-lea
2. Rescrie enunurile, nlocuind cuvintele subliniate prin sinonimele lor, potrivite
contextului.
ntr-o discuie, cunoscutul compozitor spunea c a pornit spre muzic pe un drum
dificil.
3. Rspunde la ntrebri.
a) Unde i-a petrecut copilria Eugen Doga?

b) Cum este muzica compozitorului?


c) Cu cine a colaborat fructuos renumitul muzician?
d) Ce pies muzical le-a plcut mult japonezilor?
4. Scrie trei enunuri dezvoltate n care cuvntul stea s aib sensuri diferite.
stea (corp ceresc)
stea (persoan celebr)
stea (obiect /figur)
3 5. Caracterizeaz, n patru enunuri, muzica pmnteanului nostru, utiliznd
reperele:
genuri de muzic, atitudinea oamenilor fa de muzica compozitorului.
6. Scrie dou sfaturi colegilor care ascult doar muzic rock.
7. Continu, n trei enunuri, finalul textului:
Noi, locuitorii Republicii Moldova, nu am zburat n cosmos, nu am inventat
computerul, dar ___________________________________________________
8. Comenteaz, n trei enunuri, aprecierea Omul secolului.
1.
Compune, n cinci enunuri, textul unei reclame pentru campania de promovare a
fructelor moldoveneti pe piaa european.
2. Examineaz anunul. Continu dialogul cu opt replici dezvoltate.
Am citit anunul Dumneavoastr. A vrea s obin informaii suplimentare.
V rspundem cu plcere. Ce v intereseaz?
Pentru corectitudinea prilor I i II ale testului L/0/1/2/3/4/5
Caritabil i util
Noi, elevii liceului Ioan Slavici, invitm doritorii pentru a realiza
aciuni de voluntariat. Dorim s ajutm copiii de la Spitalul Republican. Ei
au nevoie de susinere moral i comunicare.
Date de contact: Chiinu, str. Petru Rare, 9; tel.: 022-92-19-52 III. Scrie, n zece
enunuri, un eseu la tema:
Un col (loc) de rai din Republica Moldova.
Respect reperele:
prezint argumente;
exprim-i atitudinea personal;
folosete exemple;
formuleaz concluzii.
IV. Red, n dousprezece enunuri, coninutul romanului Ciuleandra de Liviu

Rebreanu, exprimnd i argumentnd opinia personal fa de coninutul lucrrii.

Cererea
Cererea este documentul prin care ne adresam oficial cu o rugaminte formulata in
text. Aici la fel trebuie sa indicam adresatul, data si semnatarul.
Cererea trebuie sa respecte urmatoarele reguli:
Asezarea corecta a textului in pagina
La o distanta de 5, 6 cm de marginea superioara a foii, se scre cu majuscula formula
de adresare urmata in mod obligatoriu de virgula.
Prima unitate din alineat are scopul de a prezenta subsemnatul cu numele si
prenumele complet.
Urmeaza formula de precizare a statutului solicitantului din cerere cu datele sale
generale de identificare.
Pina a data si a semna cererea, recomandam utilizarea unei formule de incheiere
Urmeaza semnatura solicitantului si data redactarii.
Introducerea formulei de invocare a destinatarului.
Cererea se scrie sau se tipareste pe o foaie de format A4.
Exemplul unei cereri:

Domnului Director de Festival


Importanta profesorilor,
Nicolae Varzarescu
Domnule Director,
Subsemnatul, Gheorghe Blogger, elev in clasa a IX-a din LIceul Teoretic Stefan cel Mare,
satul Gordinesti, raionul Edinet, va rog acceptati inscrierea mea ca participant cu drepturi
depline la concursul de preselectie a finalistilor etapei republicane a Festivalului Importanta
profesorului, sectiunea Creatii proprii.

Va informez cu certitudine ca, la aceasta etapa, ma voi prezenta cu trei poezii si doua
eseuri proprii la tema expusa in genericul festivalului.
02 iunie 2008
(Semnatura) Gheorghe Blogger

CV
CV-ul reprezint primul contact cu viitorul angajator. tii s scriei CV-ul potrivit
pentru a v asigura urmtorul post?
Regul elementar la redactarea unui CV:
CV-ul dvs. este scris pentru viitorul angajator, nu pentru dumneavoastr. CV-ul
dumneavoastr trebuie s fie relevant, concis i, n primul rnd, bine structurat.
Ce trebuie s includ CV-ul dumneavoastr?
Date personale i de contact
Informaii despre educaie, cursuri de instruire i programe de studiu n strintate
(dup caz)
Experiena de munc n ordine invers cronologic
Competene lingvistice, cunotine de folosire a computerului
Alte competene, cunotine, certificri i licene
Permis de conducere
Ce nu suntei obligai s scriei n CV?
Nu suntei obligai s scriei detalii personale, cum ar fi: sexul, starea civil,
numrul de copii, starea de sntate i informaii despre cazierul judiciar.
3 sfaturi utile pentru CV-ul dumneavoastr
Fii pregtii s explicai fiecare detaliu al CV-ului dumneavoastrPutei discuta n
detaliu fiecare element al CV-ului pe parcursul interviului. Ar trebui s tii ce ai
scris, dar nu s memorai.
Redactai mai multe CV-uri Fiecare companie este diferit i caut, de asemenea,
candidai cu competene specifice. Adaptai-v CV-ul n funcie de poziia pentru
care aplicai.

Pstrai CV-ul actualizatNu putei ti niciodat ce oportunitate de munc vi se


ivete. Fii pregtii i actualizai-v CV-ul pentru a nu fi devansat de alt
contracandidat la postul respectiv.

PROCUR
(localitatea)
Prin prezenta procur _________________________, n persoana ______________
(denumirea i locul aflrii pers. jur.) (n.p.p., funcia)
activnd n baza________________________, l mputernicete pe ______________
(statutului, hotrrii, etc.) (n.p.p.)
seria buletinului_______________ , nr. id.________ , eliberat pe ___ "____________200_
(cnd a fost eliberat)
____________________ , s ncheie contractul __________________________ cu condiiile
(organul care a eliberat) (de indicat obiectul contractului)
(de indicat condiiile contractului, sau fraza la alegerea lui")
i s ndeplineasc toate aciunile necesare, legate de ndeplinirea acestei nsrcinri.
Prezenta procur se elibereaz pe un termen de __________________,____________________
(cu drept de substituire sau fr drept de substituire)
Semntura_________________

Efectele stilistice ale semnelor de punctuaie


Virgula ,

Virgula separarea unei apoziii/explicaii suplimentare, izolarea unei


construcii n vocativ, separarea a dou idei aflate n raport adversativ (dac
ntlnim conjuncia dar, iar, ns,ci) sau disjunctive (dac ntlnim conjuncia sau),
elipsa predicatului (Mama vine, sora, nu), construcie incident (vino, zise).

Virgula se folosete n situaii n care este necesar s se accentueze s se


releveze o anumit parte a enunului.

Virgula scoate n prim-plan ceea ce este mai important pentru acest context.
Formule de utilizat:
Virgula provoac cititorul spre ...

Punctele de suspensie marcheaz ntreruperea irului gndirii i o pauz


afectiv ce accentueaz sentimentele exprimate n text.


Punctele de suspensie evideniaz surprinderea, ezitarea, durere, regret,
ndoial, o vorbire incoerent, disperare, meditaie, nedumerire, renunare, haos n
gndire.

n textul literar, reprezint un semn grafic, dar i de tonalitate, care


marcheaz discursul fragmentar, de tip reflexiv/meditativ, semnificnd
interiorizarea tririlor sau a gndurilor.

Punctele de suspensia marcheaz ntrerupere comunicrii. Motivaiile


subiectului vorbitor sunt multiple; consider c destinatul subnelege ceea ce
urmeaz; un moment de surpriz sau oc emoional, avnd ca efect instaurarea
tcerii semnificative; o pauz psihologic, intenionat, a vorbitorului, dup care
urmeaz un cuvnt neateptat, care poate avea nuan ironic.

Punctele de suspensie interiorizeaz starea de spirit (a autorului, a eului liric).


Ele constituie fundalul pe care se realizeaz triri i sentimente.
Formule de utilizat:
Punctele de suspensie reprezint declanarea unei game de emoii (atitudini) ...
Model:
Rar ninge-n noapte fr vindecare,
Cu leru-i ler peste un sfert de veac...
Mi-e dor...

Punctele de suspensie marcheaz ntreruperea enunului, a discursului liric.


Au valoarea de a sugera starea profund a eului liric de retrire a amintirilor legate
de frumuseea tradiiilor, de cas printeasc i de prini. Ele angajeaz i cititorul
ntr-o stare de reflexivitate.

Punctele de suspensie folosite n mod repetat n text sunt pauze afective n


fluxul narativ i sugereaz refleciile rememorrii unor ntmplri din trecut.

Punctele de suspensie ndeamn la meditaie, sugernd totodat o puternic


ncurctur emoional a eului liric.

Punctele de suspensie din ultimul vers au rol stilistic i semnific melancolia


eului liric, ndemnul spre meditaie.

Punctele de suspensie din strofa a patra sunt folosite tocmai pentru a da o


oarecare continuitate a versului, au rolul de a atrage atenia asupra spuselor sale i
reprezint o pauz de gndire a personajului sugernd astfel i o stare emoional.
Linia de pauz -

Linia de pauz este marca unei tensiuni lirice deosebite, cnd este plasat
dup un enun cu caracter confesiv, inducnd cititorului contiina gravitii
mrturisirii:
Carbonizat, amorul fumega
Parfum de pene arse...

Linia de pauz are rolul de a atrage atenia cititorului asupra tririlor afective
ale eului liric i confer o frumoas not de expresivitate.

Linia de pauz este cea mai adecvat pentru a reda o pauz, care deschide
perspectiva unei dezvluiri, unei precizri, unei elucidri i a unei insistri.
Cade
Tot ce-i frumos i unic
Cade sufletul.

Linia de pauz are valoare de semn de egalitate, de echivalen total ntre


dou realiti
Toamna strugure de chihlimbar

Linia de pauz marcheaz totodat o schimbare a intonaiei i pune n


eviden o atitudine afectiv a eului liric.

Dou puncte :

Dou puncte au rolul de a atrage atenia asupra a ceea ce urmeaz.

Dou puncte introducere o contestare de mare valoare, de o mare revelaie

Dou puncte marcheaz o pauz, uneori mai mic dect punctul, pauz care
pregtete i anun o vorbi direct, o enumerare, o exclamaie sau o concluzie.

Semnul dou punct este un segment de pornire, demarare a unei constatri


derivate din ceea ce a trit i a concis autorul.
Semnul exclamrii !

Semnul exclamrii marcheaz grafic o atitudine a vorbitorului, o stare


sufleteasc. Aceasta poate fi: suferina, bucuria, dezndejdea, admiraia, regretul,
dezaprobarea, ciuda etc. Contextul are un rol foarte important n identificarea
corect a acestei stri.

Semnul exclamrii marcheaz conturul internaional al unui enun exclamativ,


dar i participarea afectiv a autorului, accentund sentimentele exprimate; poate
marca i adesarea direct i evocarea unei personaliti istorice din trecut

Prezena propoziiilor exclamative ntr-un text narativ(cnd nu aparin


personajulor) indic implicarea afectiv a naratorului, iar ntr-unul liric reprezint o
marc a eului liric. n amndou situaiile, propoziiile exclamative, imprim textului
o not puternic de subiectivitate.
Formule de utilizat:

Semnul de exclamare vine s nuaneze...

Semnul de exclamare evideniaz...

Semnul de exclamare scoate n eviden...

Semnul de exclamare exteriorizeaz starea de spirit a eului liric...


Semnul interogrii ?

Semnul interogrii exprim o implicare afectiv puternic: indoial,


nedumerire, uimirea, emoia, surpriza, furia, dilema, incertitudine, cutare febril,
suferina, nehotrrea, indignarea etc.

Semnul interogrii marcheaz conturul intonaional al unui enu interogativ,


evideniaz starea de incertitudine sau starea meditativ a eului liric(n funcie de
situaie):
Formule de utilizat

Semnul de interogrii provoac un interes...


Model:
Florile surind n tain;
Oare ce-ar surde ele?
Semnul de interogrii relev starea de revelaie, de surprindere, pe care o triete
eul liric n raport cu personificarea Florile surind. Semnul mai exprim i o ncercare
a eului liric de a gsi un rspuns, de a exprima o nedumerire.
Punctul i virgula ;

Punctul i virgula marcheaz ezitarea autorului de a trece la alt segment de


comunicare, el face o legtur ntre cele enunate anterior i cele ce urmeaz s fie
spuse n comunicare.
Model:
Florile surind n tain;
Punctul i virgula marcheaz final unei descrieri a cadrului de natur, realizat printro stare calm, feeric i trecerea la un alt segment de comunicare.

PLANUL COMPUNERII

COMPUNEREA

I. INTRODUCERE
Definiia operei epice

Genul epic cuprinde opere literare n care autorul i exprim


n mod indirect gndurile, ideile i sentimentele, prin
intermediul aciunii, al personajelor i al naratorului.

II. CUPRINS
Argumentarea faptului
c"Vizit", de I.L. Caragiale
este o oper epic:

Vizit , de I.L. Caragiale, este un text epic, deoarece are


trsturile acestui tip de text.
n primul rnd, are aciune. De Sf. Ion, un musafir sosete n
vizit la dna Maria Popescu, cu ocazia onomasticii fiului
acesteia. Pe parcursul vizitei, micuul srbtorit se dovedete
a) are aciune rezumat,
neastmprat i lipsit de educaie, fcnd numai pozne. Este
eventual momentele
gata s rstoarne maina de fcut cafea, face trboi cu
subiectului;
trmbia i toba, o lovete pe mama sa cu sabia n
apropierea ochiului, toarn pe ascuns dulcea n oonii
musafirului, fumeaz o igaret ntreag, vars cu mingea
cafeaua pa pantalonii musafirului, n sfrit, lein, din cauza
tutunului.
b) are personaje
n al doilea rnd, textul este epic, deoarece are personaje:
prezentare scurt;
musafirul, dna Popescu, Ionel, jupneasa. Personajul principal
este Ionel, un copila ru crescut, cruia mama i tolereaz
c) are narator felul
orice.
naratorului, la ce persoan
n al treilea rnd, caracterul epic al textului este dovedit de
povestete;
prezena naratorului, care povestete la persoana I,
d) se folosete naraiunea, adoptnd perspectiva unuia dintre personaje.
ca mod de expunere principal, n sfrit, ca n orice text epic, sunt folosite toate modurile de
dar, n funcie de text, ea se
expunere. Naraiunea este folosit pentru a prezenta
mpletete cu dialogul i
aciunea. Dialogul d via personajelor. Descrierea apare
descrierea.
foarte puin, din loc n loc, pentru a crea cadrul aciunii i a
prezenta sumar personajele.
III. NCHEIERE
Concluzii - scurt rezumat al
cuprinsului;
- mesajul artistic
(ce vrea s transmit
INDIRECT autorul);

n concluzie, textul Vizit... este un text epic, n care


autorul comunic indirect, prin intermediul unei poveti, un
mesaj ironic-dezaprobator la adresa educaiei fcute copiilor
n anumite familii.

Textul liric este un text literar n care autorul exprim gnduri, idei, sentimente n mod
direct, prin intermediul unei voci numite eu liric, folosind un limbaj artistic, ncrcat de
subiectivitate.
II. CUPRINS
Argumentarea apartenenei textului " Mezul iernei", la categoria textelor lirice
a)
exprim gnduri, idei, sentimente ale autorului n MOD DIRECT (iei poezia strof cu
strof i ari ce spune autorul, ce gnduri, idei i sentimente comunic)
b)
exist eu liric ( caui mrcile prezenei eului liric n text )
c)
limbajul este artistic, ncrcat de subiectivitate:

imagini artistice i figuri de stil (prezentarea celor mai importante imagini i figuri de
stil, cu semnificaia lor)

muzicalitate ( ritm, rim, msur)


Mezul iernei este un text liric pentru c are toate caracteristicile acestui tip de text. n
primul rnd, este un text liric pentru c exprim tririle proprii ale autorului n mod direct.
Contemplnd un peisaj de iarn, acesta este mai nti ngrozit de virulena gerului. E att de
frig, nct se aud trosnind stejarii n pdure, nct i stele par ncremenite pe bolta cereasc.
Peisajul este totui ncnttor i eul liric este fermecat de strlucirea zpezii. Mreia naturii
l copleete i are sentimentul c trebuie s existe un creator care a zmislit-o. i nchipuie
natura ca pe un templu, ale crui coloane sunt fumurile ce ies pe hornurile caselor.
Acoperiul templului este bolta cereasc, luna este farul principal, iar stelele sunt fcliile.
Munii sunt altarele i vntul scoate sunete ngrozitoare la orga reprezentat de codri. Omul
se simte mrunt n faa grandorii naturii.
n al doilea rnd, textul este liric, deoarece exist un eu liric. Acesta i face simit
prezena n ultima strof prin verbul la persoana I vd. De asemenea, se simte prezena
eului liric i n exclamaii:
E un ger amar, cumplit
O! Tablou mre, fantastic!
n al treilea rnd, caracterul liric al textului este dat de limbajul folosit. Este un limbaj
artistic, care creeaz imagini, prin intermediul crora poetul i exprim emoiile. Astfel,
prima strof ncepe cu imaginea vizual-auditiv a naturii copleite de ger. Epitetele amar,
cumplit, ngheate i oelit transmit un sentiment de nelinite i chiar team n faa
grozviei frigului. Strofa continu cu imaginea (tot vizual-auditiv) a cmpiilor acoperite de
zpad. Comparaia zpada... pare-un lan de diamanturi i epitetele cristalin i
strlucitoare sugereaz frumuseea i strlucirea zpezii, care l ncnt pe eul liric. n
urmtoarele strofe, autorul creeaz imaginea naturii ca un templu. El folosete comparaia
fumuri...se ridic ca naltele coloane, metaforele altare, organe sonoare i epitetele
albe, scnteios, maiestuos, tainic, mre, fantastic, argintii, nemrginitul,
ngrozitoare pentru a sugerea mreia i misterul naturii i pentru a transmite un
sentiment de admiraie amestecat cu team. Eul liric presimte existena unui creator divin
ndrtul acestei grandori cosmice.

Limbajul artistic se arat i prin forma muzical a textului, care este organizat n
versuri cu msur egal (de 15 16 silabe), are rim mperecheat i ritm trohaic.
III. NCHEIERE
Concluzii - rezumatul cuprinsului
n concluzie, textul Mezul iernei este liric, deoarece, prin vocea unui eu liric, autorul
comunic n mod direct emoii i gnduri legate de iarn, folosind un limbaj expresiv prin
care reuete s ne impresioneze puternic.

Figuri de stil la nivel morfologic i sintactic


Repetiia
Repetiia const n repetarea unui cuvnt sau a unei expresii n diferite poziii ale
enunului.
La rndul ei, poate aprea n forma de:
Epifora - care const n reluarea unui cuvnt la sfritul unei propoziii sau a unei
propoziii la sfrit de fraz.
Ex.: n guvern se fur, n parlament se fur, n justiie se fur, pn i din Biseric se
fur.
Enumeraia
Enumeraia const n prezentarea succesiv a unor fapte sau aspecte. Relaia ce se
stabilete ntre termenii enumerrii este una de coordonare.
Enumerarea poate fi ntlnit sub form de:
Apostrofa
Apostrofa este o ntrerupere a expunerii n care vorbitorul adreseaz unui
interlocutor (prezent sau absent) o ntrebare, afirmaie sau exclamaie.
Ex.:Campania lor a avut rezultate foarte bune, dar cred oare domnii directori ai
companiei c ne pot mini pe fa?
Interogaia (ntrebarea) retoric
Interogaia retoric este o ntrebare la care nu se ateapt rspuns, acesta fiind
evident i cuprins sau sugerat n enun.
Ex.:Poate cineva nva ntr-o zi ceea ce noi studiem de ani buni?

Invocaia retoric
Invocaia retoric este o rugminte adresat divinitii, muzelor sau unor persoane
reale pentru a cere ajutor.
Cum nu vii tu,epe Doamne, ca punnd mna pe ei
S-i mpari n dou cete: n smintii i n miei
Scrisoarea III, Mihai Eminescu

Figuri de stil la nivel semantic sau figuri de cuvnt


Comparaia
Comparaia este una dintre cele mai frecvente figuri de stil i const n alturarea a
doi sau mai muli termeni cu scopul evidenierii primului termen.Dar nu se poate
scrie decat sub forma epitetului personificator pentru a se alatura figurii de stil.
Originalitatea, care devine criteriul principal de apreciere a acestei figuri de stil n
operele literare, poate fi realizat n urmtoarele tipuri de comparaii, determinate
de natura termenilor care se compar:
un termen concret cu altul tot concret: Pe un deal rsare luna, ca o vatr de
jratic (M. Eminescu, Clin - file din poveste)
un termen abstract cu altul concret: Trecut-au anii ca nori lungi pe esuri (M.
Eminescu, Trecut-au anii)
un termen concret cu unul abstract: Soarele rotund i palid se prevede printre nori
| Ca un vis de tineree printre anii trectori (V. Alecsandri, Iarna)
un termen abstract cu altul abstract: Anii ti se par ca clipe | Clipe dulci se par ca
veacuri (M. Eminescu, O, rmi)
Expresivitatea unei comparaii este i n funcie de caracterul ct mai diferit al
domeniilor din care provin termenii ei. O asociere ntre uman i vegetal ntlnim n
poezia Dar ochii ti?:
Prin ce minuni ciudate i zmisliri ncete
S-a svrit n smburi asemenea scumpete?
n pleoape, ca petala de floare de gutui.
Dar ochii ti?, Tudor Arghezi

Metafora
Articol principal: Metafor.
Metafora este figura de stil prin care se trece de la sensul obinuit al unui cuvnt la
alt sens, prin intermediul unei comparaii subnelese. Procesul de realizare a
metaforei const n punerea semnului identitii ntre dou obiecte diferite (lucruri,
fiine, persoane) prin numele lor, pe baza unei analogii.
S urmrim exemplul metaforei din poezia eminescian Melancolie:
Prea c printre nouri s-a fost deschis o poart,
Prin care trece alb regina nopii moart.
Melancolie, Mihai Eminescu
Aceast metafor presupune o comparaia iniial: luna ca o regin moart a
nopii, comparaie bazat pe dou similitudini: paloarea astrului i a unei fiine

moarte, unicitatea lunii pe cerul nopii i prezena ei dominant fa de celelalte


corpuri cereti, nsui care apare i n alte poezii ale lui M. Eminescu. De exemplu, n
Scrisoarea I:
Lun tu, stpn-a mrii, pe a lumii bolt luneci.
Scrisoarea I, Mihai Eminescu
n cazul imaginii artistice din poezia Melancolie, comparaia apare prescurtat, n
lipsa adverbului de comparaie (cu valoare de prepoziie) ca i a termenului lun, n
acest mod realizndu-se concentrarea prin metafor, care confer o expresivitate
sporit textului poetic. Contextul ne ajut s intuim primul termen al presupusei
comparaii chiar n absena lui, ceea ce demonstreaz c, n nelegerea metaforei,
nu putem face abstracie de suportul contextului.
Metafora este o figur de stil esenial, ntruct ea st la baza altor figuri, cum sunt
personificarea, alegoria, metonimia, sinecdoca, epitetul.
Clasificarea metaforei
Clasificarea, dup Ortega y Gasset, - n metafora contiinei-tabl (metafor simpl
cu o singur semnificaie; sens denotativ - propriu) i metafora contiinei-vas
(metafor complex cu mai multe semnificaii; sens conotativ)
Clasificarea, dup Tudor Vianu, - n metafor explicit i metafor implicit - in
absentia (alctuit dintr-un singur cuvnt cu valoare de sugestie, de regul pe lng
o construcie verbal; se aseamn cu simbolul)
Clasificarea, dup Lucian Blaga, - n metafor plasticizant i metafor revelatorie.
Epitetul
Articol principal: Epitet.
Epitetul este figura de stil constnd n determinarea unui substantiv sau verb printrun adjectiv, adverb etc., menit s exprime acele nsuiri ale obiectului care
nfieaz imaginea lui aa cum se reflect n simirea i fantezia scriitorului.
Epitetul nu este o figur de stil n sine, ci numai un purttor de figuri de stil. Orice
atribut, nume predicativ sau circumstanial de mod este numit epitet cnd conine
n acelai timp o metafor, o metonimie, o sinecdoc, o hiperbol etc., sau cnd
face el nsui s apar o asemenea figur. Dac nu cuprinde aa ceva, atunci el nu
este epitet.
Nu orice element determinant (adjectiv sau adverb) este epitet. n situaii ca cele
din textele de mai jos determinarea este neutr din punct de vedere stilistic, fr s
implice participarea imaginaiei sau afectivitii scriitorului:
[...] i prinii, i fraii, i surorile mi erau sntoi. (I. Creang, Amintiri din
copilrie)
Atta obid se abtu asupra lui, nct sub pleoapele nchise nchipuirea-i ddi
buzna [...]. (Ionel Teodoreanu, La Medeleni)
Dac n cazul exemplului de mai sus reprodus din opera lui I. Teodoreanu, adjectivul
nchise ar fi nlocuit cu altul, care s presupun o metafor, cum ar fi zvorte,
atunci termenul ctig n expresivitate i devine epitet.
n versurile lui Tudor Arghezi din poezia Testament:
n seara rzvrtit care vine
De la strbunii mei pn la tine
[...]
Durerea noastr surd i amar,
epitetul rzvrtit presupune la baz o personificare, iar epitetele surd i
amar sunt rezultatul unei metonimii n care s-a nlocuit efectul prin cauz.
Epitetele au rolul important de plasticizare a imaginii artistice precum i cel de
atragere a cititorului.

Metonimia
`Metonimia`-figur de stil nrudit cu metafora, care const n nlocuirea cauzei prin
efect, a efectului prin cauz, a operei cu numele autorului, a unui produs cu originea
lui, a concretului cu abstractul etc., pe baza unei relaii logice:
Ex:La noi sunt cntece i flori,
i lacrimi multe, multe Goga
Metonimia poate exprima 1) Cauza prin efect; 2) Efectul prin cauza; 3) Denumirea
recipientului n locul coninutului 4) Semnul n locul obiectului semnificat.
Sinecdoca
Sinecdoca este o figur de stil care const n lrgirea sau restrngerea sensului unui
cuvnt prin folosirea ntregului n locul prii (i invers), a particularului n locul
generalului, a materiei din care este fcut un lucru n locul lucrului nsui etc. Astfel,
n expresia 50 de capete de vite, capete este folosit pentru a desemna
animalele cu totul. n propoziia Aceast firm deine cele mai bune creiere din
ar., creiere desemneaz oamenii cu cele mai strlucite mini.
Personificarea
`Personificarea` este figura de stil (procedeul artistic) prin care lucrurilor, obiectelor
li se atribuie nsuiri umane .
exemple: norii plng; soarele rde; stelele clipesc; psrelele optesc; vntul
alearg; slciile triste; pisica vorbete lin.
Hiperbola
Articol principal: Hiperbol (figur de stil).
Hiperbola este un procedeu artistic prin care se exagereaz intenionat, mrind sau
micornd, trsturile unei fiine, ale unui lucru, fenomen, sau eveniment, pentru a-i
impresiona pe cititori.
Ex: "Gigantic poart-o cupol pe frunte," ( G.Cobuc "Paa Hassan")
Antiteza
`Antiteza` este o figur de stil care const n opoziia dintre dou cuvinte, fapte,
personaje, idei, situaii. n creaia lui M. Eminescu antiteza apare i n formularea
unor titluri: Venere i Madon, nger i demon, mprat i proletar.
Exemplu
Ea un nger ce se roag El un demon ce viseaz;
Ea o inima de aur El un suflet apostat. (M. Eminescu)
Cuvinte i expresii la figurat[modificare | modificare surs]
Figuratul este o modificare a valorii semantice a cuvntului sau expresiei, utilizat n
anumite mprejurri. nelesul devine altul dect cel uzual, propriu-zis. O figur de
stil strns nrudit cu figuratul este metafora.
Exemple de expresii la figurat:
s-a dus de rp, cu semnificaia: s-a pierdut, s-a stricat, a euat
i-a pus coarne (= l-a nelat)
a cincea roat la cru (= inutilitate)
valurile vieii (= ntmplrile vieii)

SECTION I. THE ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE (30 points)


Read the text and do the tasks below the text.
Cultural Dos and Donts
When travelling outside of your own culture, it is always rewarding to put yourself
deep within
the host culture to develop a better appreciation of your new environment.
However, things that
might be considered normal in your home country could be viewed as rude in
someone elses, and
vice versa.
Before entering a foreign environment, it is best to find out what to expect. Read as
much as
you can before travelling to a new country to become an expert in local social rules
and cultural
differences. Travel guides will usually provide a very specific list of dos and
donts. Be sure to
make use of Internet sites or forums, and of course do not hesitate to ask the locals.
It is better to
ask what might seem like a ridiculous question to one person, than to make a fool of
yourself in
front of a larger group.
When I first moved to Japan, I was surprised that people made unpleasant noises
when they ate
noodles. They even picked up the bowl to drink the soup. Making noise while eating
and drinking
straight from the bowl is definitely disapproved of in my country. But in Japan, it is
not rude, it is
actually expected.
Over the years, I have travelled to many places. Each country may have its own set
of cultural
taboos and acceptable behaviour. Here is a short list of some of the more
interesting yet strange
local customs that I have come across:

Discussing sports in Germany is considered an uneducated thing to do.


Do not blow your nose in public in Korea, China, Saudi Arabia, or France.
When in Thailand, never touch the head of a small child. It is considered bad luck.
In many Asian countries, such as China, pointing with the index finger in public is
considered
quite rude.
Bulgaria can be a confusing place for many foreignersthe locals shake their
head to indicate
yes and nod the head up to indicate no.
In conclusion, if you happen to commit a mistake, dont worry too much about it.
Mistakes
happen whether we like it or not and sometimes thats the only way to learn.
No Item
Score
1. Answer the question.
Why should a person read travel guides before visiting a foreign country?
2. Find in the text the synonyms for the word and word combination given below.
a) to present - ____________________
b) to make an error - ____________________
4 3. Find in the text the antonyms for the words given below.
a) similarity - ____________________
b) clear - ____________________
4. Identify and circle the correct variant (True/False). Justify your choice.
a) In Japan it is rude to make noise while eating and drinking. True False
because
b) In Germany it is considered polite to discuss sports in public. True False
because
5. Give another title to the text. Write your title in the form of a sentence.
Comment the phrase below in 4 lines.
Mistakes happen whether we like it or not and sometimes thats the only way to
learn.
7. Identify the message of the text and comment on it in 5 lines.
SECTION II. THE ASSESSMENT OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE (20 points)
Fill in the gaps with a suitable article and preposition. Write the correct form of the
verb in brackets.
Choose the correct word from those given in brackets.
No Item Score
10.
When I finished school, I applied to study philosophy at two universities,
Sheffield, my home town, and London. I didnt have much hope of getting into
London University my school exam results were not brilliant. London University is
one of the (high/highly/highlier) _______________________________________
appreciated universities in the world therefore, I wanted to be accepted there. But I
was lucky and I was accepted there. I (must/had to/should)
_______________________________________ make two trips to London before I
started one for the interview and another to find accommodation. The university
provided students with information about flats. By the time the semester began, I
(already, to find) _______________________________________ a place to live and a
roommate.
While I was studying, I didnt think about work and how I (to earn)

_______________________________________ my living after university. When the


time came, I realized that languages had always interested me so I applied
_______________________________________ several jobs to teach English abroad.
Obviously, I didnt have any experience but I thought I had a small chance of (to
accept) _______________________________________.
In the end, a letter came and I felt nervous as I opened it. But the news (to be)
_______________________________________ good! The letter offered me a job in a
Swedish school. I knew the winter weather in Sweden was cold so I bought some
warm clothes. Then I had _______________________________________ farewell
party and everyone wished me good luck in my new life as a teacher. Since then I
(to
have) _______________________________________ a lot of jobs in difference
countries and I am happy to say that I have enjoyed all of them. But I have
wondered
many times what (to happen) _______________________________________ if that
first letter had turned me down.
SECTION III. THE ASSESSMENT OF PRAGMATIC AND CULTURAL COMPETENCES (20
points)
Write a coherent 10-line text for the situation below.
No Item Score
1. Your local newspaper asked you to write an article about a tradition or holiday
that is
celebrated in an English-speaking country, but not in your own country.
SECTION IV. THE ASSESSMENT OF PRAGMATIC AND CIVIC COMPETENCES
(30 points)
Write a coherent 20-line text expressing your attitude on the given topic.
No Item Score
1. Some people consider that responsibility is the key to success. Do you agree or
disagree? Bring TWO arguments or examples.
Use the following plan:
Make an introduction;
Bring two arguments/examples;
Draw a conclusion.

GEOGRAFIA UMAN A LUMII


HARTA POLITIC A LUMII
Noiuni: hart politic, poziie economico - geografic, state monarhii, state federale
- Evoluia hrii politice a lumii n perioada contemporan.
- Tipologia statelor lumii.

RESURSELE NATURALE
Noiuni: resurse naturale, condiii naturale, resurse economice, fond funciar
- Resursele naturale. Clasificarea resurselor naturale.
- Resursele climatice
- Resursele de ap.
- Resursele de substane minerale utile.
- Resursele vegetale faunistice i pedologice
POPULAIA
Noiuni: natalitate, mortalitate, bilan natural, explozie demografic, politic
demografic, criz demografic, micarea natural a populaiei, migraie, tranziie
demografic, exod de intelecte, resurse umane, urbanizare, aglomeraie urban,
megalopolis.
- Evoluia numeric i micarea natural a populaiei.
- Migraia populaiei.
- Repartiia i densitatea populaiei.
- Structura rasial, etnolingvistic i religioas a populaiei.
- Structura pe grupe de vrst i sexe a populaiei. Resursele umane de munc.
- Aezrile umane. Urbanizarea.
ECONOMIA MONDIAL
Noiuni: economie mondial, diviziune geografic internaional a muncii, ramur
de specializare internaional, import, export, balana comercial, integrare
economic.
- Structura economiei mondiale. Diviziunea geografic internaional a muncii.
AGRICULTURA
- Agricultura mondial. Caracterizare general.
- Cultura plantelor.
- Creterea animalelor.
INDUSTRIA
- Industria ramura de baz a economiei mondiale.
- Industria energetic.
- Industria metalurgic.
- Industria constructoare de maini i de prelucrare a metalelor.
- Industria chimic.
- Industria uoar.
- Industria alimentar.
SECTORUL SERVICIILOR
- Sectorul serviciilor. Structura pe ramuri.
- Turismul
- Transporturile i cile de comunicaii.
- Relaiile economice internaionale. Principalele organizaii de integrare economic
(UE, OPEC, NAFTA, ASEAN)
CARACTERIZAREA ECONOMICO-GEOGRAFIC A STATELOR
Noiuni: poziie economico-geografic.
Aprecierea poziiei economico-geografice (aprecierea hotarelor din punct de vedere
economic, poziiei fa de bazinele de resurse naturale, poziiei fa de cile de
transport); asigurarea cu diferite tipuri de resurse naturale; populaia (tipul de
reproducere, politica demografic, structura pe vrste i pe sexe, densitatea i
amplasarea); agricultura (factorii dezvoltrii, ramurile de specializare); industria
(ramurile de specializare, factorii de localizare ale subramurilor); rolul transportului
n traficul de mrfuri i traficul de pasageri.

- State: Germania, Marea Britanie, Frana, Romnia, Federaia Rus, Japonia, China,
India, SUA, Brazilia, Republica Africa de Sud, Uniunea Australian.
MEDIUL GEOGRAFIC.
Noiuni: mediul geografic, structur i organizare, mediu geografic, mediu natural,
mediu antropic, mediu antropizat, mediu nconjurtor, componentele mediului
geografic
TIPURILE DE MEDIU
- Mediul pdurilor ecuatoriale.
- Mediul de via subecuatorial.
- Mediul tropical.
- Mediul subtropical.
- Mediul temperat.
- Mediile reci.
- Mediul antropic.
- Mediile intrazonale
- Mediile n bazinele oceanice
DOMENIILE DE DEGRADARE A MEDIULUI. PROTECIA MEDIULUI
Noiuni: impact antropic, impact natural, degradarea mediului, poluarea mediului.
gaze de eapament, efect de ser, poluare transfrontalier, monitorizarea mediului.
- Degradarea mediului aerian. Degradarea mediului aerian (2)
- Protecia mediului aerian. Protecia mediului aerian (2)
- Degradarea mediului acvatic.
- Protecia mediului acvatic.
- Degradarea vegetaiei naturale.
- Msuri de protecie a vegetaiei naturale. Msurile juridice de protecie a
resurselor regnului animal.
- Degradarea lumii animale.
- Msuri de protecie a lumii animale.
- Degradarea solului. Msuri de protecie a solului.
- Conservarea sistemelor naturale i a patrimoniului antropic.
- Ariile protejate.
- Ariile protejate din Republica Moldova.
PROBLEMELE ACTUALE ALE MEDIULUI NATURAL I ALE LUMII CONTEMPORANE
Noiuni: deertificare, malnutriie, criz energetic, hazardurinaturale.
- Despduririle. Deertificarea. Modificrile climaticeglobale.
- Problema demografic. Asigurarea populaiei lumii cu produse alimentare.
Malnutriia.
- Problema apei.
- Problema energetic. Asigurarea omenirii cu resurse naturale.
- Problema lichidrii decalajelor economico - sociale dintre statele dezvoltate i cele
slab dezvoltate.
- Problema dezarmriii meninerii pcii pe Pmnt.
- Hazardurile naturale i antropice. Impactul acestora asupra mediului.
- Protecia mediului n condiiile dezvoltrii durabile.

GEOGRAFIE FIZIC GENERAL


Noiuni: univers, sistem solar, galaxie, gravitaia terestr, globul geografic, harta, planul.
Universul
- Unitatea materiei n univers: elementele i structura universului;
- Structura Sistemului Solar;
- Soarele iinfluena lui asupra Pmntului.
Pmntul corp cosmic
- Individualitatea Pmntului n Sistemul solar: forma Pmntului, dimensiunile Pmntului, importana
lor geografic;
- Micrile Pmntului: micarea de rotaie (dovezi i consecine);
- Determinarea orei locale pe glob;
- Micarea derevoluie (consecine);
Modalitatea de reprezentare planimetric a spaiului terestru
- Globul geografic;
- Planul i harta: elementele planului i ale hrii;
- Clasificarea hrilor dup diferite criterii (dup scar, destinaie, coninut);
- Determinarea coordonatelor geografice;
- Calcularea distanelor pe hart.
LITOSFERA
Noiuni: litosfer, micri tectonice, crust, plac litosferic, coliziune, subducie, procese endogene,
procese exogene.
- Compoziia petrografic a crustei: roci magmatice (intruzive i efuzive), roci sedimentare (detritice,
chimice, organogene) i metamorfice;
- Dinamica scoarei terestre: Procesele magmatice. Rolul lor n modelarea scoarei terestre. Procesele
seismice i efectele lor.
- Plcile litosferice i dinamica lor: plci majore, cureni subcrustali, dorsale medio-oceanice;
expansiunea fundului oceanic, coliziunea i subducia plcilor litosferice.
- Relieful scoarei terestre creat de forele endogene: formele de relief i clasificarea lor dup criteriul
dimensional i morfogenetic; forme de relief majore ale continentelor (muni, podiuri, cmpii).
- Relieful scoarei terestre creat de forele exogene: gravitaional, torenial, fluvial, carstic,
eolian,biogen, antropic.
- Rolul scoarei terestre n nveliul geografic.
ATMOSFERA
Noiuni: radiaie solar, umiditatea aerului, condensare, sublimare, ciclon, anticiclon, alizee, muson,
mase de aer, vreme, harta sinoptic.
- Importana atmosferei, compoziia aerului atmosferic, structura pe vertical a atmosferei;
- Regimul termic al troposferei: variaia temperaturii aerului pe vertical;
- Umiditatea aerului: condensarea i sublimarea vaporilor de ap la suprafaa terestr (roua, bruma,
chiciura, poleiul), condensarea vaporilor n stratul inferior al atmosferei (ceaa);
- Precipitaiile atmosferice: tipurile precipitaiilor atmosferice conform strii de agregare (lichide
ploaia, burnia; solide zpada, grindina; mixte lapovi); repartiia geografic a precipitaiilor.
- Variaia presiunii atmosferice; ciclon i anticiclon; vnturile dominante (alizee, vnturi de vest, vnturi
polare), musoni, vnturile locale (brize).Masele de aer: clasificarea conform criteriului termic,
termodinamic i originii geografice;
- Vremea i prevederea ei;
- Clima: factorii climatici, descrierea tipurilor geografice de climat.
HIDROSFERA
Noiuni: salinitate, valuri, cureni maritimi, tsunami, maree.

- Circuitul apei n natur; Oceanul Planetar: prile componente;


- Proprietile fizico-chimice ale apelor oceanice: salinitatea, temperatura;
- Dinamica apelor oceanice: micri ondulatorii, micri ritmice, micri de translaie;
- Rurile: reelele hidrografice, alimentarea rurilor i importana rurilor;
- Lacurile: clasificarea dup originea cuvetei lacustre, importana lacurilor.
- Rolul hidrosferei n nveliul geografic.
BIOSFERA
- Interaciunea biosferei cu celelalte geosfere ale Terrei.
SOLUL
Noiuni: sol, pedogenez
- Solul i caracteristicile lui.
- Factorii de pedogenez.
- Principalele tipuri de sol pe Terra. Repartiia geografic a solurilor pe glob. Solul iactivitatea omului.;
NVELIUL GEOGRAFIC
Noiuni: nveli geografic.
- Legitile nveliului geografic: unitatea i integritatea, zonalitatea, azonalitalea, ritmicitatea (diurn
i anual).
- nveliul geografic i societatea uman

Geografie
I. Analizarea i interpretarea componentelor i fenomenelor mediului
geografic, utiliznd hri, imagini i fragmente de text (38 p.).
1
Acest tip de mediu este situat pe ambele pri ale Ecuatorului. Dintre toi
componenii, rolul principal n formarea mediului revine climei. Aici se
deosebete un singur anotimp cu temperaturi pozitive ale aerului i cu
multe precipitaii atmosferice. Clima a determinat dezagregarea intensiv i
alterarea chimic a rocilor, debitele mari ale rurilor, formarea unei vegetaii
abundente pe soluri lateritice srace n humus. Vegetaia este reprezentat
de arborele-de-cauciuc, arborele-de-cacao .a., dintre animale se ntlnesc
jaguarul, gorila .a. n unele regiuni au fost defriate mari suprafee de
pduri, ceea ce a provocat formarea unui mediu anropizat.
Identificai tipul de mediu geografic, folosind fragmentul de text, harta
climatic din atlas i algoritmul de mai jos. Completai spaiile libere cu
informaia necesar:
a) valoarea temperaturii aerului n luna ianuarie atinge _________; n iulie
_________;
b) cantitatea anual de precipitaii atmosferice atinge: _____________________;
c) tipul caracteristic de sol este: ___________________________________;
d) denumirea tipului de mediu geografic este:
e) dou tipuri de relaii existente n acest mediu geografic (i cte un
exemplu respectiv de relaii) snt:
Determinai n limitele cror longitudini geografice se ncadreaz teritoriul
Australiei (ntre Capul Steep-Point i Capul Byron). Aplicai reeaua de grade
a hrii. Indicai rspunsul doar n grade (eroare admis 1).

Explicai unul dintre principalii factori care a determinat amplasarea


ramurilor industriale indicate.
Amplasarea
Factorul
a) industriei automobilelor;
b) produciei zahrului din sfecl de zahr;
c) industriei aeronautice.
n coloana A snt indicate cteva tipuri de roci magmatice i de cele
sedimentare, dar n coloana B unele exemple de roci. Scriei, pe liniile din
faa literelor mari din coloana A, cifrele din coloana B, corespunztor fiecruit
tip de roci (cifrele pot fi scrise o singur dat).
Coloana A Coloana B
______ A. Roci intruzive 1. Nisip.
______ B. Roci efuzive. 2. Granit.
______ C. Roci detritice. 3. Bauxit.
______ D. Roci hemogene. 4. Calcar.
______ E. Roci organogene. 5. Piatra ponce.
6. Petrol.
7. Sienit.
8. Fosforit.
9. Argil.
10. Bazalt.
Citii afirmaiile de mai jos. Dac afirmaia este adevrat, ncercuii litera A,
dac este fals, ncercuii litera F. Dac ai ncercuit litera F, scriei pe linii, n
locul cuvintelor subliniate, alte cuvinte, care fac afirmaia adevrat.
_______________ A F 1. Coliziunea este procesul de alunecare a unei plci
litosferice sub o alt plac.
______________ A F 2. Principala ramur a agriculturii Indiei este cultura
plantelor.
_______________ A F 3. Solurile tipice pdurilor i arbutilor permanent verzi
cu frunze tari snt cele brune.
II. Stabilirea relaiilor cauzale dintre componentele mediului geografic (23 p.).
6
Apreciai poziia Statelor Unite ale Americii fa de cile de transport
maritime i cele terestre, folosind hrile necesare:
a) poziia fa de cile de transport maritime:
b) poziia fa de cile de transport terestre:
Descriei formarea musonilor, folosind desenele i algoritmul de mai jos:
a) indicai direcia de deplasare a aerului n fiecare muson:
- de var
- de iarn
b) scriei una dintre principalele cauze care determin formarea musonului:
c) explicai cum se formeaz musonul:
- de var
- de iarn

d) identificai o regiune pentru care este caracteristic clima musonic,


analiznd harta climatic:
Analizai dependena repartiiei i densitii nalte a populaiei n diferite
regiuni ale Terrei de trei factori, aplicnd hrile necesare:
III. Eseu structurat (14 p.)
Alctuii un eseu structurat cu tema Degradarea vegetaiei naturale.
Argumentai:
a) dou cauze antropice care au dus la degradarea vegetaiei naturale pe
Terra:
b) dou consecine ale degradrii vegetaiei naturale:
c) opinia voastr privind evitarea degradrii vegetaiei naturale:

Istorie
Citii cu atenie sursele istorice propuse. n baza coninuturilor expuse, a cunotinelor,
capacitilor i abilitilor, formate pe parcursul anilor de studii, rspundei la urmtoarele
ntrebri:
Sursa A. Foametea i deportrile organizate le-au ngreuiat i mai mult situaia
moldovenilor n timpul campaniei de colectivizare (1946-1950). Dei foametea i seceta nu
erau neobinuite n Basarabia, exist dovezi clare c foametea din 1946-1947 a fost
provocat de rechiziionarea grnelor de ctre comuniti i a fost direcionat mpotriva celui
mai mare grup etnic de la sate - moldovenii. Cel puin 115 000 de rani au murit de foame
i de alte boli din decembrie 1946 pn n august 1947. n plus, o campanie oficial de
eliminare a chiaburilor", ndreptat mpotriva ranilor moldoveni presupui a fi fost bogai

(chiaburi), a distrus la rndul ei multe familii, majoritatea moldoveneti, ntre 1947 i 1951.
Doar n dou zile - 6 i 7 iulie 1949 - 11 342 de familii moldovene au fost deportate n
Kurgan, Tiumeni, Irkutsk i alte localiti din Siberia i Kazahstan n cadrul unui plan numit
Operaiunea Sud, condus de cunoscutul ministru pentru securitatea statului din RSSM, I.L.
Mordove. n total, din 1941 pn n 1951, aproape 16 000 de familii au fost deportate din
RSSM.
(Charles King, Moldovenii..., p. 97)
Sursa B. Acest tratat marcheaz o nou etap n procesul de creare a unei uniuni i mai
puternice ntre popoarele Europei, n care deciziile sunt luate ct mai aproape de cetean.
() Uniunea i propune urmtoarele obiective: S promoveze progresul economic i social
echilibrat i susinut, n special prin crearea unei zone fr frontiere interne. () S i afirme
identitatea proprie pe scena internaional, n special prin implementarea unei politici
externe de securitate comune, incluznd un cadru eventual de politic comun de aprare,
care ara putea, n timp, s conduc la o aprare comun. S ntreasc protejarea
drepturilor i intereselor cetenilor din Statele membre prin introducerea ceteniei
europene. S dezvolte cooperarea strns n justiie i afaceri interne.
(Extras din Tratatul de la Maastricht de constituire a Uniunii Europene, 1992)
I. Timpul, spaiul, personalitatea n baza analizei i utilizrii surselor istorice (43 puncte)
1.
Scriei evenimentele sau procesele istorice la care se refer sursele A i B.
Sursa A - ______________________________________________________
Sursa B - ______________________________________________________
Menionai i datai trei evenimente istorice care au avut loc ca urmare a Tratatului de la
Maastricht (sursa B).
Construii un segment de ax cronologic, plasnd pe el cel puin dou evenimente cu
referire la coninutul sursei A.
A)___________ - _______________________________________________
B)___________- ________________________________________________
Scara:
Marcai pe harta de contur teritoriul unui stat membru al Uniunii Europene.
Denumirea statului ____________________________________________
Not: La marcarea teritoriului se va lua n consideraie: conturarea hotarelor, haurarea
teritoriului statului, aplicarea pe hart a denumirii statului i a capitalei, completarea
legendei (fiecare simbol aplicat pe hart se va explica n legend).
Legenda:
Formulai dou enunuri istorice despre esena i consecinele proceselor de colectivizare i
deportare (sursa A).
Menionai i explicai 4 obiective ale integrrii europene, conform urmtoarelor domenii.
Domeniul
economic
Domeniul politic
Domeniul social
Domeniul cultural
II. Analiza i interpretarea cauzalitii i schimbrii n istorie (14 puncte)
8.
Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre romanizarea dacilor i formarea poporului i a
limbii romne
Not: La elaborarea relaiei de cauzalitate se va ine cont de: stabilirea relaiei cauz-efect;
argumentarea relaiei de cauz-efect, utiliznd noiuni istorice, date cronologice i
personaliti istorice adecvate contextului; formularea i argumentarea concluziei.
III. Eseu (20 puncte)
9.
Elaboreaz un eseu, ncadrat n cel puin 1 pagin, la subiectul propus:
Motenirea imperial n Europa cretin:
de la Imperiul Roman la Imperiul Bizantin

Not: La elaborarea eseului se va ine cont de: abordarea subiectului n relevan tematic i
expunere logic; utilizarea noiunilor istorice; plasarea corect n timp i spaiu a
evenimentelor i personalitilor istorice; menionarea relaiilor de cauz-efect, reflectarea
subiectului n context universal i naional; formularea i argumentarea concluziilor.
EXEMPLE DE ITEMI/ PROBE
PE FIECARE DOMENIU DE CONINUT
n scopul susinerii examenului de bacalaureat la Istoria romnilor i universal este propus
testul de examen, care pentru toate profilurile umanist, real, arte i sport, este structurat
tridimensional:
I. Timpul, spaiul, limbajul i personalitatea istoric n baza analizei i interpretrii surselor
istorice propuse.
II. Analiza i interpretarea cauzalitii i schimbrii n istorie.
III. Scriere de eseuri.
La realizarea compartimentului Timpul, spaiul, limbajul i personalitatea istoric n baza
analizei i interpretrii surselor propuse snt propuse surse istorice, din spaiul universal i
naional, selectate din lista de surse istorice, incluse la capitolul Coninuturi de evaluat n
prezenta Program. Sarcinile de lucru, care vizeaz timpul, spaiul, limbajul i personalitatea
istoric, pornesc de la coninutul surselor istorice i aplicarea cunotinelor i abilitilor
formate pe parcursul anilor de studii.
La compartimentul Analiza i interpretarea cauzalitii i schimbrii n istorie este propus
spre determinare i prezentare o relaie de interdependen/ cauzalitate din lista sugestiv,
inclus n Coninuturi de evaluat n prezenta Program. Determinarea legturii de cauzalitate
va fi efectuat, pornind de la caracteristica celor dou fenomene solicitate pe rol de cauz i
efect, cu stabilirea legturilor posibile dintre ele, formularea concluziilor, cu determinarea
cadrului de desfurare, implicarea personalitilor, argumentarea relaiei indicate i a
opiniei anunate.
La compartimentul Scriere de eseuri candidatul urmeaz s elaboreze un eseu nestructurat/
reflexiv, asupra unor subiecte din istorie, care se regsesc n lista sugestiv a Coninuturilor
de evaluat a prezentei Programe i presupune folosirea cunotinelor acumulate anterior,
pentru o tratare original n baza algoritmului propus.
Exemple de itemi structurate conform domeniilor de coninut
Compartimentul I. Timpul, spaiul, limbajul i personalitatea istoric n baza analizei i
interpretrii surselor istorice propuse.
*- sarcini de lucru pentru profilurile umanist i arte.
Profil umanist, arte, real, tehnologic, sport
Cunoatere i nelegere
1.Scrie evenimentele istorice la care se refer sursele A i B.
2. Indic statele , care au participat la evenimentul reflectat n sursa indicat.
3.Numete trei evenimente istorice, care se refer la subiectul expus n sura propus, datnd
fiecare eveniment numit.
4. Coreleaz evenimentele istorice din coloana A cu datele cronologice/ personalitile
istorice din coloana B, unindu-le prin sgei.
5. *Citete afirmaiile de mai jos. Dac afirmaia este adevrat, ncercuiete litera A, iar
dac este fals, ncercuiete litera F. Dac ai ncercuit litera F, scrie n spaiul rezervat, data
cronologic corect.
1. Indic pe harta de contur teritoriul /statul, n perioada indicat n sursa menionat,
aplicnd algoritmul anexat.
2.* Numete personalitatea istoric, despre care se vorbete n sursa istoric propus.
3. Enumer, n baza a trei argumente, rolul personalitii istorice, n perioada indicat n
sursa nominalizat.
4. Alctuiete (dou enunuri-profil umanist, arte) / (un enun - profil arte, real, tehnologic,
sport) cu noiunile evideniate n sursa propus, care ar conine un adevr istoric, cu referire
la esena/ cauzele/ consecinele/ impactul fenomenului istoric.

5. Enumer cte dou exemple de manifestri/ caracteristici/ cauze/ consecine/ impact ale
fenomenului/ evenimentului istoric, explicndu-le conform domeniilor solicitate.
Compartimentul II. Analiza i interpretarea cauzalitii i schimbrii n istorie.
Profil umanist, arte, real, tehnologic, sport
Analiz i interpretare
Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen/ cauzalitate dintre evenimentele/ fenomenele
istorice prezentate, respectnd urmtorul algoritm.
1. Identificarea procesului/ evenimentului istoric pe rol de cauz i efect;
2. Stabilirea relaiei de interdependen/ cauzalitate dintre evenimentele/ fenomenele
istorice prezentate;
3. Argumentarea relaiei cauz-efect, utiliznd limbajul istoric, datele cronologice i
personalitile istorice adecvate contextului.
4. Formularea concluziilor cu referire la cauzalitatea/ interdependena stabilit;
5. Argumentarea concluziilor formulate. ncadrarea personalitii istorice, utilizarea
limbajului istoric adecvat, a datelor cronologice; expunerea logic i formularea concluziei.
Compartimentul II. Scriere de eseuri.
Profil umanist, arte, real, tehnologic, sport
Analiz i interpretare
La elaborarea eseului istoric, n scopul expunerii subiectului n relevan tematic,
candidatul urmeaz sa respecte, la redactarea eseului, structurarea logic a textului pornind
de la:
introducere, n care se prezint problema general a temei, ce urmeaz a fi abordat,
obiectivele i importana subiectului;
cuprins, care include prezentarea logic a tematicii, susinut prin:
ansamblul de fapte, care constituie materia esenial a subiectului, pornind de la
cunotinele, abilitile i atitudini formate.
evidenierea relaiilor de cauzalitate
determinarea spaiului de desfurare a evenimentelor/ proceselor, care se ncadreaz n
contextul logic al subiectului;
utilizarea limbajului specific/ adecvat evenimentelor descrise;
personalitile istorice adecvate subiectului;
respectarea timpului istoric la care se refer tematica propus, cu prezentarea cronologiei
necesare;
ncheiere, care conine concluzii generale, derivate din ideile i argumentele exprimate n
cuprinsul eseului.
VII. CONINUTURI DE EVALUAT
Personalitile istorice, tematicile de cauzalitate i eseurile marcate cu asterisc (*) se refer
doar la candidaii la bacalaureat, profil umanistic i arte.
Personaliti istorice Istoria
Istoria universal
naional
Epoca antic
Burebista
*Pericle
Decebal
Traian
*Deceneu
Alexandru Macedon
*Constantin cel Mare
Epoca medieval
tefan cel Mare
*Carol cel Mare
Vasile Lupu
Cristofor Columb
Mihai Viteazul
Ludovic al XIV-lea
*Matei Basarab
Mehmed al II-lea Cuceritorul
Epoca modern
*Constantin Mavrocordat
Petru I cel Mare
Dimitrie Cantemir
George Washington
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
Otto von Bismarck
Carol I de Hohenzolerlern Napoleon Bonaparte

Sigmaringen
*Gavril Bnulescu Bodoni
Regina Victoria
*Alexandru II
*Abraham Lincoln
Epoca contemporan
Ferdinand I
Charles de Gaulle
*Ion Incule
Iosif Stalin
Nicolae Titulescu
*F.D. Roosevelt
*Nicolae Iorga
Winston Churchill
Nicolae Ceauescu
*Margaret Thatcher
Grigore Vieru
Mihail Gorbaciov
RELAII DE CAUZALITATE I SCHIMBARE N ISTORIE.
Epoca antic
1. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre dezvoltarea social-economic a grecilor
n perioada arhaic i colonizarea greac.
2. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre rzboaiele macedonene i rspndirea
elenismului.
3. Demonstreaz relaia cauz-efect dintre politica intern a lui Burebista i consolidarea
statului geto-dac.
4. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre romanizarea dacilor i cel de formare a
poporului i a limbii romne.
5. *Demonstreaz relaia cauz-efect dintre marile migraii i cderea Imperiului Roman de
Apus.
Epoca medieval
1. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre dezvoltarea oraului i evoluia socioeconomic a societii medievale.
2. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre evoluia statelor medievale romneti i
formarea instituiilor politice ale acestora.
3. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre puterea politic i biseric n societatea
medieval.
4. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre Politica extern a Imperiului Otoman i
instaurarea regimului suzeranitii otomane n rile Romne.
5. *Demonstreaz relaia cauz-efect dintre rivalitatea monarhiilor occidentale i crearea noii
hri politice a Europei la mijlocul secolului al XVII - ea.
Epoca modern
1. *Demonstrai relaia de interdependen dintre Marile descoperiri geografice i evoluia
mercantilismului.
2. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre liberalism i democratizarea vieii politice
occidentale n epoca modern.
3. *Determin legtura de cauzalitate dintre rivalitile ruso-austro-turce i pierderile
teritoriale ale rilor Romne n epoca modern.
4. Demonstreaz legtura de interdependen dintre suprimarea autonomiei Basarabiei
(1828) i intensificarea procesului de rusificare a acesteia.
5. Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre politica intern promovat de Alexandru
Ioan Cuza i modernizarea societii romneti
6. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre revoluia rus din 1917 i micarea pentru
autodeterminare a Basarabiei.
Epoca contemporan
1. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre politica expansionist a URSS i crearea
R.A.S.S.M.
2. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauz-efect dintre Noul curs a lui F.D Roosevelt i depirea
crizei economice de ctre SUA.
3. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre politica expansionist promovat de U.R.S.S. i
semnarea tratatului Molotov-Ribbentrop.

4. *Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre procesul de colectivizare a gospodriilor


rneti individuale i deportrile din 6 iulie 1949 din R.S.S. Moldoveneasc.
5. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre noua mentalitate politic i sfritul rzboiului
rece.
6. Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre micarea de eliberare naional din a doua
jumtate a anilor 80 i proclamarea independenei Republicii Moldova.
7. *Demonstreaz relaia de cauzalitate dintre proclamarea suveranitii R.S.S. Moldoveneti
(23 iunie 1990) i rzboiul din Transnistria.
TEMATICI DE ESEURI.
Epoca antic
1. Contribuia civilizaiei antice n constituirea actualei civilizaii europene (n baza unei
civilizaii).
2. Impactul istoric al rzboaielor daco-romane asupra formrii poporului romn.
3. *Polisul ateniandemocraie reprezentativ limitat.
4. Declinul i cderea Imperiului Roman de Apus - proces istoric inevitabil.
Epoca medieval
1. Motenirea imperial n Europa cretin: de la Imperiul Roman la Imperiul Bizantin.
2. Constituirea statelor medievale romneti: general i particular.
3. Lupta antiotoman expresie a politicii externe a domnitorilor romni n epoca medieval.
4. Instaurarea regimului de suzeranitate otoman i formele lui de manifestare n rile
Romne.
5. *Ctitoriile medievale valori culturale i spirituale.
6. Rolul bisericii n societatea medieval n Europa Occidental.
Epoca moderna
1. Impactul regimului fanariot asupra evoluiei politice i socio-economice a rilor Romne.
2. Impactul revoluiei industriale asupra evoluiei lumii moderne.
3. Revoluiile de la 1848-1849 n rile Romne: general i specific
4. Formarea statelor naionale moderne: general i particular.
5. *Rivalitile ruso austro otomane n epoca modern i consecinele lor pentru
Principatele Romne.
6. Rivalitatea marilor puteri n contextul relaiilor internaionale (1870-1914).
7. Basarabia de la autonomie la gubernie ruseasc (1812-1873).
Epoca contemporan
1. Sistemul Versailles Washington factor determinant n declanarea celui de-al doilea
rzboi mondial.
2. *Evoluia regimurilor totalitare n perioada interbelic: studiu comparativ.
3. Basarabia n perioada interbelic: progrese i limite.
4. *Activitatea partidelor politice n Romnia (1918-1938).
5. Integrarea european: realizri, probleme i perspective.
6. Problemele globale ale umanitii test de maturitate al comunitii internaionale. SURSE
ISTORICE Imperiul lui Carol cel mare s-a frmiat definitiv ntr-o serie de state
independente: Frana, Germania, Italia i Burgundia. Ele erau ns state numai cu numele. n
secolele IX-XI, pe ntreg teritoriul Europei apusene a dominat frmiarea politic. Ierarhia
feudal, care s-a instaurat n aceast perioad, a consfinit i consolidate situaia existent.
Dispunnd de dreptul de a judeca i administra, de a aduna dri i a bate moned, avnd i o
for armat, fiecare senior mai puternic se considera un suveran independent, putea s se
rzboiasc cu cine dorea (chiar i cu suzeranul su), putea ncheia tratate de pace i aliane
cu cine voia. Puternica frmiare feudal i numeroase granie mrunte, acre mpreau
Europa, tergeau hotarele dintre marile state. (Istoria diplomaiei) Aceast ruptur s-a
vzut mai ales n ncoronarea lui Carol cel Mare ca mprat roman(800). Constituirea lumii
romane n dou pri deosebite administrativ i politic prin crearea unei capitale noi n
rsrit, de ctre Constantin cel Mare la anul 330, a dus la mari consecine politice, culturale
i sociale. Existena a dou imperii cretine, unul grec oriental i altul german - occidental,
le punea n opoziie pe chestiunea ilegimitii titlului de imperiu roman, revendicat de

fiecare din ele mpotriva celuilalt. Mai ru, cele dou imperiiromane deosebite naional i
disputau nu numai titlul ci i teritorii i drepturi. (). Misiunea cretin a devenit astfel o
chestiune politic i motiv de discordie i de friciuni cu consecine imediate grave (http://
www.crestinortodox.ro/diverse/marea-cchisma-de-la-1054-96495.html) La origine ideii de
cruciad stau mai muli factori, dintre care putem sublinia n primul rnd tradiia pelerinajului
la Ierusalim, centrul lumii spirituale a cretinilor. Greutile i prejudiile drumului transform
cltoria la Locurile Sfinte ntr-o pocin, care poate aduce omului medieval iertarea de
pcate. Pe de alt parte, cuceririle islamice nsufleite de spiritul djihadului, rzboiul sfnt
musulman, creeaz reacii de rspuns n lumea cretin i contribuie la formarea idei
legitimitii rzboiului mpotriva necredincioilor. Idea de cruciad se nate din ntlnirea
acestor dou tradiii (J. Le Goff, Evul mediu i naterea Europei) Dincolo de achiziiile
teritoriale de moment, cruciada a avut consecine mai ales pe plan economic i cultural().
Modul de via al nobililor se transform n urma contactului cu luxul orientului, ranilor li se
cere mai mult pentru a se putea finana asemenea expediii, comerul se dezvolt prin
deschiderea de noi drumuri. Cruciada s-a transformat ntr-un instrument la dispoziia
papalitii, care a folosit-o n lupta mpotrivaereticilor i a adversarilor politici. Cruciadele , i
n special a IV-a, au contribuit la definitiva ndeprtare dintre Occident i Bizan, care va
rsturna, pentru totdeauna, resentimentele mpotriva latinilor i care va refuza unirea
religioas cu Roma chiar n condiiile n care turcii se aflau sub zidurile Constantinopolului.
(O. Drmba, Istoria culturii i civilizaiei, vol. II) Mehmed al II-lea a fost mai nti un
rzboinic, care a mrit considerabil i a ntrit armata terestr, pe care au dotat-o cu o
artilerie eficient: la moartea sa, el lsa n urm o putere, care fcea Europa s tremure. ns
el na a neglijat organizarea imperiului.. prima sa grij a fost s i asigure autoritatea
personal.n ceea ce privete organizarea imperiului, Mehmed al III-lea a dorit s fac din
Istanbul o capital puternic a construirii, dar i prin deplasarea populaiilor, ceea ce a dus la
mpotriviri Voina de a consolida imperiul i influena capitalei l-au determinat pe Mehmed
al II-lea s organizeze confesiunile nemusulmane ntr-un mod centralizat, dominat de o
patriarhie aflat la Istanbul chiar de la cucerirea Constantinopolului Ocupaia cea mai
important rmne rzboiul O alt msur economic cu consecine politice importante,
reforma financiar La moartea sa, n 1481, Mehmed al II-lea lsa, deci un imperiu mai
mare i mai puternic dect oricnd, lsa ns o armat obosit, un popor epuizat i
nemulumit, o elit iritat i frmiat. (Robert Mantran, Istoria Imperiului otoman)
Pgnul mprat al turcilor i puse n gnd s-i rzbune i s vie, n luna mai, cu capul
su i cu toat puterea sa mpotriva noastr i s supuie ara noastr, care e poarta
cretintii i pe care Dumnezeu a ferit-o pn acum. Dar dac aceast poart, care e ara
noastr, va fi pierdut Dumnezeu s ne fereasc de aa ceva atunci toat cretintatea
va fi n mare pericol. De aceea, ne rugm de domniile voastre s ne trimetei pe cpitanii
votri mpotriva dumanilor cretintii, pn mai este vreme, fiindc turcul are acum muli
potrivnici i din toate prile are de lucru cu oameni ce-i stau mpotriv cu sabia n mn.
Dat n Suceava, n ziua de Sfntul Pavel, luna ianuarie 25, n anul Domnului 1475. tefan
voievod, domn al rii Moldovei.
Din Apelul lui tefan cel Mare ctre principii Europei
Deci s tii c ne-am btut cu turcul, nainte cu vreo trei sptmni n ara noastr la
Clugreni, n care btlie bunul Dumnezeu ne-a ajutat nou cretinilor n chip minunat Eu
firete, cu toate c doresc peste msur s m npustesc iari asupra dumanului,
socotesc totui c trebuie ateptat ajutorul celorlali cretini. Iari i iari v rugm
struitor s v ndurai de treburile cretineti i s stingei focul care arde pcatele
vecinului nainte ca el s v ajung pe voi.
Din Adresarea lui Mihai Viteazul ctre castelanul Lvovului
Pentru o perioad mai scurt sau mai lung de timp, otomanii au ncasat sume de bani
de la majoritatea statelor cretine din centrul i sud-estul Europei. De regul, acest tribut era
consemnat n tratatele de pace, ncheiate n urma unor rzboaie relativvictorioase ale
otomanilor. Obligaia fundamental a voievozilor romni fa de poart, era plata la timp a
tributului. () Semnificaiile tributului pltit Porii de ctre rile Romne au depins direct de
raporturile de fore, ele schimbndu-se ctre mijlocul secolului XVI-lea, odat cu ntrirea

controlului otoman la nord de Dunre. O invariabil rmne, ns:tributul achitat nsemna,


att pentru otomani, ct i pentru cretini, instaurarea strii de pace()fie ea temporar sau
permanent. (V. Panainte, Pace, rzboi i comer n islam. rile Romne i dreptul otoman
al popoarelor, secolele XV-XVII) Marile descoperiri geografice din secolul al XV-lea i din
prima jumtate a secolului al XVI-lea au fost posibile nu numai datorit progresului
considerabil n economie, n arta i tehnica navigaiei i n concepia despre lume a omului
medieval. Ele au fost pregtite n secolele premergtoare de naintaii anonimi sau celebri,
ntr-o epoc n care a avut loc o sensibil mutaie a frontierelorContactele violente, apoi
panice, au pus fa n fa Occidentul i Orientul. Schimbrile de bunuri i apoi de idei se
realizau la nceput lent, apoi mai accentuat. Explozia scandinav, Islamul n expansiune,
cruciadele, cltorii i misionari au lrgit orizontul, cunotinele Occidentului despre lumea
necunoscut i au stimulat scuturarea de orizonturi noi. (S. Goldenberg, S. Belu, Epoca
marilor descoperiri geografice)
Regele face tot ce poate pentru a arta c nu e dominat n nici un fel de minitri [...].
Regele, avnd o memorie extraordinar i dorind ca orice lucru, de orice natur, s-i fie
raportat, minitrii vin ntotdeauna la Consiliu tremurnd [...]. n public, regele e plin de
gravitate i cu totul diferit de cel care este n particular,pe scurt, tie bine s fac pe regele
n toate. Printre altele, el a distrus efii i partidele, a abolit folosirea oricror recomandri
[...] el nu are intermediari; dac se vrea ceva, trebuie s i se adreseze direct lui i nu altora.
El ascult pe toat lumea, primete memorii i rspunde mereu cu graie i maiestate: Voi
vedea!, i fiecare se retrage satisfcut. Tot timpul face ceva, trece trupele n revist, face
soldaii s defileze, ridic fortificaii, rscolete pmntul; el ncurajeaz navigaia i, prin
aciunile sale, ine n continu alert pe prieteni i pe dumani i toat Europa."
Primi Visconti, Memorii de la curtea lui Ludovic al XIV-lea
Pmnturile principatului Moldovei, dup vechea hotrnicie moldoveneasc, asupra
crora domnul va avea drept de stpnire sunt cele cuprinse ntre rul Nistru, Camenia,
Bender, cu tot inutul Bugeacului, Dunrea, graniele rii Munteneti i ale Transilvaniei i
marginile Poloniei, dup delimitrile fcute de acele ri...
13. n caz de cndva sar face pace ntre mpria noastr i sultanul turcesc principatul
Moldovei s nu fie lipsit niciodat de aprarea i protecia Mriei Noastre arului...
16. Fgduim c noi i urmaii Mriei Noastre arului vom fi datori s pzim cu sfinenie
aceste articole, s le ntrim n chip neclintit i s le pzim pe vecie.
Din Tratatul ncheiat ntre D. Cantemir, domn al rii Moldovei,
i Petru I, mprat al Rusiei. Ruptura definitiv dintre coloniile americane i metropol s-a
produs n momentul n care Parlamentul londonez a introdus noi taxe i restricii comerciale,
n ciuda opoziiei coloniilor. Decizia fatal a fost luat n 1773, cnd colonitilor li se cere s
cumpere ceai numai de la Compania Indiilor Orientale i s plteasc o mic tax direct
asupra vnzrilor de ceai n America. Aa s-a ajuns la Partida de ceai de la Boston din 16
decembrie 1773, cnd un grup de oameni deghizai n indieni au aruncat n apele oceanului
ncrctura de ceai de pe trei vase englezeti.
Despre Partida de ceai de la Boston.
I. Oamenii se nasc i rmn liberi i egali n drepturi (...).
II. Scopul oricrei asociaii politice este conservarea drepturilor naturale i imprescriptibile
ale omului; aceste drepturi sunt libertatea, proprietatea i rezistena la opresiune.
III. Naiunea este sursa esenial a principiului oricrei suveraniti; nici o grupare, nici un
individ nu pot exercita vre-o autoritate care s nu emane de la ea (). Legea este expresia
voinei generale.
XI. Comunicarea liber a gndurilor i a opiniilor lor este unul din drepturile cele mai de pre
ale omului ().
Din Declaraia Drepturilor Omului i ale Ceteanului.
Art. 16. 1. S se acorde ...tuturor locuitorilor acestor principate amnistierea total (...).
3. S fie napoiate mnstirilor diferitor persoane pmnturile stpnirile, care acum sunt
numite raiale (...).
4. S nu se cear de la ei nici o contribuie sau plat pentru ntreaga perioad de rzboi (...)
i pentru doi ani de acum nainte (...).

6. S li se permit domnitorilor acestor dou principate s aib fiecare din partea sa un


mputernicit pentru chestiunile cretinilor de rit grecesc (...) i vor fi tratai cu bunvoin de
Sublima Poart. (...).
Din Tratatul de la Kuciuk - Kainargi, 1774
,,n secolul al XIX-lea, Regatul Unit devenea Imperiul Britanic, iar Regina Victoria i aduga
n titlurile regale i onoarea de mprteas. Rolul suveranei n conducerea statului era
pregnant, att pe plan intern, ct i pe plan extern. Iar preocuprile acesteia de a-i
consolida constant statutul au propulsat-o pe Victoria ca o figur central n Europa. Este
cazul situaiei din Europa secolului al XIX-lea, cnd, prin intermediul alianelor matrimoniale,
exista cte un reprezentant al Casei britanice n majoritatea Caselor domnitoare de pe
continent. Fiii i fiicele Reginei Victoria i ai Prinului Albert erau pioni de referin, direct sau
indirect, n circuitul diplomatic European. Ion Bulei, Gabriel Badea-Pun, Monarhi europeni.
Marile modele (1948-1914)
Dei mult tirbit, autonomia rilor Romne s-a pstrat i n epoca fanariot. Oastea
rilor Romne, restrns ca numr i n unele perioade practic desfiinat - redus lagarda
domneasc i la mici uniti, care s asigure ordinea intern, n-a intrat n structurile militare
ale Imperiului otoman. Cele dou ri i-au pstrat organizarea lor intern.
(Academician tefan tefnescu, Istoria romnilor n sec. al XVIII-lea)
Schimbrile care se produceau n regimul proprietii, ca i n sistemul de organizare
statal i administrativ au determinat creterea preocuprii pentru ntocmirea i editarea
unor coduri de legi: Pravilniceasca condic din 1780 i Legiuirea Caragea (1818) n ara
Romneasc, Sobornicescul hrisov din 1785 al lui Alexandru C. Mavrocordat i Codul
Calimachi (1816-1817) n Moldova au nsemnat pai importani pe cale modernizrii
legiuirilor, a tendinei de separare a justiiei de administraie.
( Academician tefan tefnescu, Istoria romnilor n sec. al XVIII-lea)
.,, Orice francez se va bucura de drepturi civile; strinul se va bucura de aceleai drepturi
civile (...). Nimeni nu i poate nstrina libertatea personal; nu exist cstorie atunci cnd
nu exist consimmnt (...). Fiecare este rspunztor de prejudiciul pe care l-a provocat (...)
Proprietatea este dreptul de a beneficia i de a dispune de lucruri n mod absolut; nimeni nu
poate fi constrns s - i cedeze proprietatea (...). Copilul, de orice vrst, datoreaz cinste i
respect tatlui i mamei sale (...).
Napoleon, Codul Civil
Dac Imperiul lui Napoleon a desfiinat unele cuceriri ale revoluiei, el a conservat esena
revoluiei. n domeniul politic, economic i, mai ales, social, Imperiul napoleonean a
meninut motenirea revoluionar i a mpiedicat rentoarcerea la Vechiul Regim.
Rzboaiele duse n timpul Republicii au fost vzute ca eliberatoare. Ele au propagat ideile
revoluionare i dreptul popoarelor de a dispune de ele nsele. Dar, armatele revoluionare,
ct i cele imperiale au fost ntmpinate peste tot cu ostilitate. Napoleon a modificat harta
Europei, redesemnnd o parte din frontiere. n ciuda eecului su militar, opera lui Napoleon
i va pune amprenta mult timp asupra rilor, pe care le-a cucerit.
(Jean- Michel Lambrin, Histoire)
Articolul IV. Hotarul dintre cele dou state s fie rul Prut (...). Dar fiindc nalta mprie
a cedat statului Rusiei teritoriul situat n stnga Prutului, cu cetile existente i cu oraele i
cu toi locuitorii lor, tocmai de aceea mijlocul rului Prut s fie hotar ntre cele dou state (...).
Articolul V. mpria Rusiei s napoieze i s predea naltei mprii Otomane pmntul
Moldovei de pe partea dreapt a rului Prut, de care s-a amintit mai nainte, precum i ara
Romneasc i Oltenia aa cum se afl n prezent (...). Din Tratatul de pace ruso-turc
ncheiat la 16/28 mai 1812, la Bucureti.
,,Cluzindu-se dup principiul c supunerea locuitorilor acestui inut cere , cu o deosebit
pruden, de a avea o atitudine corect i cumptat, bazat pe legile i obiceiurile
moldoveneti privitoare la impozite. Hartingh, spre a-i atinge scopurile, include n comitetul
pentru stabilirea impozitelor pe cei mai onorabili boieri din Basarabia.
La acest apel ns sa rspuns astfel : Mitropolitul Gavril nicidecum nu m pot hotr s
particip; C. Paladi pleac la Iai cu treburile moiei; D. Rcanu bolnav, (..). n aceast

situaie delicat eschivarea sub diverse motive era mai curnd o atitudine. Ba chiar a zice
un protest tacit, o nempcare cu trista realitate.
Atitudinea boierilor basarabeni fa de impozitarea
locuitorilor 1815, F. Vighel
Dup prbuirea Imperiului napoleonian, reconfigurarea hrii europene a fost decis n
cadrul Congresului de la Vienaunde, ntre 1 noiembrie 1814 i 9 iunie 1815, s-au reunit
reprezentanii puterilor nvingtoare(Austria, Rusia, Prusia i Marea Britanie) alturi de alti
217 plenipoteniari* mandatai de entitile suverane europene, de la Principatele italiene i
Oraele Libere Germane pn la Ordinul Cavalerilor Teutoni i cel suveran al cavalerilor de la
Malta. Principele Klemens L.W.von Meternich, Ministrul Afacerilor Externe al guvernului
austriac, cel care avea s joace un rol de prim plan n negocierile privind stabilirea unui nou
echilibru internaional, a fost amfitrionul tuturor acestor oaspei.() Congresul de al
Viena()a svrit prin a reconfigura sistemul internaional european , noua realitate
geopolitic i teritorial, fiind sintetizat n cele 121 de articole ale Actului final de la Viena
(9 iunie 1815).
(Diplomaie i istorie politic, 1814-1878Congresul de la Viena i noul echilibru european)
Art. V. principatele Moldovei i Valahiei, punndu-se, n urma unei capitulaii* sub
suzeranitatea Sublimei Pori i Rusia garantndu-le prosperitatea, este de la sine neles, c
ele i vor pstra toate privilegiile i imunitile care le-au fost acordate, fie prin capitulaiile
lor, fie prin tratatele ncheiate ntre cele dou imperii (). n consecin ele se vor bucura de
libera exercitate a culturii lor, de o siguran perfect, de o administraie naional
independent i de o deplin libertate a comerului:clauzele adiionale stipulaiilor de mai
nainte, considerate necesare pentru a asigura acestor dou provincii posibilitatea de a se
bucura de drepturile lor, sunt consemnate n actul separat anexat, care este i av fi socotit
ca fcnd parte integrant din prezentul tratat.
(Tratatul de al Adrianopol, 1829 )
(...) Eroismul poporului parizian a rsturnat un guvern retrogradat i oligarhic (...).
Sngele poporului a curs ca i n iulie 1830, de data aceasta, ns, acest popor nobil nu va fi
nelat. A dobndit un guvern naional i popular care aprob drepturile i voina de progres
ale acestui popor mare i nobil (...). Guvernul provizoriu vrea republica n funcie de
aprobarea poporului i va consulta poporul fr ntrziere. Dorete unitatea naiunii, care de
acum nainte va cuprinde toate clasele i toi cetenii; dorete autoguvernarea naiunii (...).
El are ca principiu libertatea, egalitatea i fraternitatea, iar ca deviz poporul.
(Din Proclamaiunea guvernului provizoriu francez,
24 februarie 1848) Pe scurt poporul romn recapitulnd decreteaz: 1. Independena sa
administrativ i legislativ. 2. Egalitatea drepturilor politice. 3. Contribuie general. 4.
Adunarea general compus de reprezentani ai tuturor strilor societii. 5. Domn
responsabil, ales pe cinci ani i cutat n toate strile societii (...). 8. Libertatea absolut a
tiparului (...). 13. Emanciparea clcailor ce se fac proprietari prin despgubire (...). 14.
Dezrobirea iganilor prin despgubire (...). 16. Instrucie egal i ntreag pentru tot romnul
de amndou sexele. 22. Convocarea (...) unei Adunri generale (...) care va fi datoare a
face Constituia rii.
(Proclamaia de la Islaz, iunie 1848)
,,Art. XXII. Principatele Muntenia i Moldova vor continua s se bucure, sub suzeranitatea
Porii i garania puterilor contractante, de privilegiile i de imunitile pe care le au (...).
Art. XXIV. Majestatea sa sultanul promite s convoace imediat, n fiecare dintre cele dou
provincii, un divan ad-hoc, alctuit n aa fel nct s constituie reprezentarea cea mai exact
a intereselor tuturor claselor societii. Aceste divanuri vor fi chemate s exprime dorinele
populaiilor referitoare la organizarea definitiv a principatelor.
Tratatul de la Paris, 1856
,,Lund in vedere c dorina cea mai mare (...), aceea care mplinit va face fericirea
generaiilor viitoare, este Unirea Principatelor intr-un singur stat, o unire fireasc (...), pentru
c n Moldova i n Valahia suntem acelai popor, omogen, identic ca niciun altul, pentru c
avem acelai nceput, acelai nume, aceeai limb, aceeai religie, aceeai istorie, aceeai

civilizaiune, aceleai instituii, aceleai legi i obiceiuri (...). Adunarea ad-hoc a Moldovei (...)
declar c cele mai mari i mai generale i mai naionale dorine ale rii sunt:
I. Respectarea drepturilor Principatelor i ndeosebi a autonomiei lor (...).
II. Unirea Principatelor intr-un singur stat sub numele de Romania.
III. Prin strin cu motenirea tronului, ales dintr-o dinastie domnitoare a Europei.
Rezoluia Adunrii ad-hoc a Moldovei, 1857
() Rzboiul din Crimeea a produs n Rusia o impresie enorm. Eecul suferit pe cmpul de
lupt se prezenta totodat i ca o dovad a strii economice i social politice a statului
rusesc (...). Ura european fa de Rusia a nceput s fie explicat de rui prin politica
extern i intern greit a guvernelor ruse (...). Critica acestei situaii bazat pe o nou
apreciere a valorilor sociale i politice, duce la o rspndire general a spiritului de reforme.
Al. Boldur despre necesitatea reformelor
1. erbia () se lichideaz pentru totdeauna ().
2. n baza prezentului statut i a legilor generale ranilor eliberai li se acord drepturile
locuitorilor liberi, att cele personale ct i cele patrimoniale ().
Manifestul arului Alexandru II din 19 februarie 1861Dezmembrarea Uniunii federale , pn
mai ieri o simpl ameninare, a devenit astzi o tentativ formidabil. Eu susin c, n spiritul
legii universale i al contiinei, Uniunea statelor noastre este perpetu. Perpetuitatea ei
este implicat, chiar dac nu este exprimat, n legea fundamental a tuturor guvernelor
naionale (...).
Uniunea este mult mai veche dect constituia. Ea s-a format , n fapt, prin articolele de
asociere din 1774. A fost dezvoltat i continuat de Declaraia de independen din 1776. A
fost dezvoltat mai departe prin jurmntul i angajamentul explicit al tuturor celor
treisprezece state, cuprinse n articolele Confederaiei din 1778, n sensul c ea trebuie s
fie venic. n fine, n 1787, unul din scopurile declarate ale promulgrii i statornicirii
constituiei a fost acela de a forma o uniune mai deplin().
Ceteni, n minele voastre , nemulumiii mei conceteni, i nu ntr-ale mele, se afl
teribila problem a rzboiului civil.
Guvernul n-au va ataca. Nu vei avea rzboi, dac nu vei fi agresori.
Voi n-ai de pus jurmntul de a distruge statul, n vreme ce eu am depus jurmntul cel mai
solemn de a-l menine, de a-l proteja i de a-l apra.
Dei pmnturile au ntins la maximum coarda afeciunii noastre reciproce, ele nu trebuie
s o rup.
(Din Discursul inaugural al preedintelui SUA ,A. Lincoln, 4 martie 1861)
,,Germania urmrete cu atenie nu liberalismul Prusiei, ci puterea sa; Bavaria, Wurtemberg
i Baden n-au dect s arate nclinaii n sens liberal, pentru acest lucru nimeni nu le va
atribui rolul Prusiei; Prusia trebuie s-i ntreasc puterea i s o in pregtit pentru acel
moment favorabil pe care de mai multe ori l-a pierdut; problemele mari ale epocii nu se mai
decid prin cuvntri i hotrri majoritare-aceasta a fost marea greeal din anii 1848-1849 ci prin fier i snge.
Otto von Bismarck-despre unificarea Germaniei
Art. 43. naltele pri contractante recunosc independena Romniei ().
Art. 45.Principatul Romniei retrocedeaz m.s. mpratului Rusiei poriunea teritoriului
Basarabiei desprit de Rusia n urma tratatului de la Paris din 1856 ().
Art. 46. Insulele formnd Delta Dunrii, precum i Insula erpilor, sangeacul Tulcei,
cuprinznd districtele Chilia, Sulina, Mahmudia, Isaccea, Tulcea, Macin, Babadag, Hrova,
Kiustange, Constana, Medgidia sunt ntrupate cu Romnia. Principatul mai primete afar
de aceasta inutul situat la sudul Dobrogei pn la o linie care plecnd de la rsrit de
Silistra rspunde n Marea Neagr, la miaz-zi de Mangalia.
Tratatul de la Berlin, 1878
,,Maiestile Lor (...) au czut de acord s ncheie un tratat, care, prin natura sa exclusiv
conservatoare i defensiv, nu urmrete dect s le narmeze mpotriva pericolelor ce ar
amenina pacea i linitea Europei (...).
Art. I. naltele pri contractante i fgduiesc reciproc pace i prietenie precum i abinerea
de la orice alian (...) care ar fi ndreptat mpotriva uneia din ele. Ele se oblig s ntrein

un schimb de preri asupra problemelor politice care s-ar putea ivi, promiindu - i sprijin
reciproc, cu luarea n considerare a intereselor proprii (....).
Tratatul Triplei Aliane din 1882,,Art.1. naltele pri contractante i fgduiesc, promit pace
i prietenie i nu vor intra n nici o alian sau angajament ndreptat mpotriva unuia din
statele lor. Ele se angajeaz s urmeze o politic amical (...).
Art. 2. Dac Romnia, fr nici o provocare din partea ei, s-ar ntmpla s fie atacat,
Austro Ungaria trebuie si dea n timp util ajutor i asisten mpotriva agresorului (...).
Tratatul de alian dintre Romnia i Tripla Alian, 1883.
Frana i Rusia nsufleite de dorina comuna de a pstra pacea, i neavnd alt scop dect
de a face fa nevoilor unui rzboi de aprare, provocat de atacul Triplei Aliane mpotriva
uneia sau alteia dintre ele, au czut de acord asupra urmtoarelor:
1.Dac Frana este atacat de Germania sau de Italia susinut de Germania, Rusia trebuie
s-i angajeze toate forele disponibile pentru a ataca Germania.
2.Dac Rusia este atacat de Germania sau de Austria susinut de Germania, Frana trebuie
s-i angajeze toate forele disponibile pentru a nfrunta Germania. Forele trebuie angajate
n ntregime, cu toat viteza pentru a obliga Germania s lupte n acelai timp i n Est i n
Vest.
Din Convenia militar franco-rus, 1892.
() n numele poporului Basarabiei, Sfatul rii declar: Republica Democratic
Moldoveneasc (Basarabia), n hotarele ei dintre Prut, Nistru, Marea Neagr i vechile
granie cu Austria, rupt de Rusia acum o sut i mai bine de ani din trupul vechii Moldave,
n puterea dreptului istoric i dreptului de neam, pe baza principiului ca noroadele singure
s-i hotrasc soarta lor, de azi nainte i pentru totdeauna, se unete cu Mama sa
Romnia.
(Din Declaraia de unire a Basarabiei cu Romnia, 27 martie 1918)
Regimul democraiei liberale (...) presupune participarea cetenilor la viaa public i (...)
garania tuturor formelor de libertate. (...) Regimul democraiei liberale este, n primul rnd,
un regim democratic, ceea ce nseamn c cetenii particip, direct sau indirect, la putere.
Cea mai bun expresie a acestei democraii pare s fie votul universal, care permite tuturor
cetenilor aduli s-i desemneze reprezentanii. (...)
Dar acest tip de democraie se vrea i liberal, pentru c ea are drept scop meninerea i
aprarea libertilor individuale (...). Libertile politice [vizeaz] libertatea presei, a
ntrunirilor, libertatea de contiin, dreptul de a-i exprima n libertate opiniile, sigurana de
a nu fi arestat fr motiv (...). Libertatea economic e fondat pe ideea c economia se
supune unor legi naturale i c statul nu trebuie s le perturbe pe acestea, prin intervenii
care ar risca s le denatureze funcionarea.
(P.Milza, S.Berstein, Istoria secolului XX)
Trei mari caracteristici ale regimului [totalitar] se nfieaz privirii oricui caut s-l
analizeze:
1) el se reclam de la o ideologie;
2) se folosete de teroare pentru a orienta comportarea populaiei; 3) regula general de
via este (...) domnia nelimitat a voinei de putere.
A menine aceste trsturi separate mi pare indispensabil, nici una dintre ele neputnd fi
redus la celelalte.
(T.Todorov, Omul dezrdcinat)
nfiinarea RASSM n 1924 a servit dou eluri importante n noua politic a Uniunii
Sovietice. In primul rnd, noua republic facilita ptrunderea propagandei sovietice n
regatul Romniei, netezind astfel drumul revoluiei socialiste romneti. In al doilea rnd, a
meninut problema Basarabiei n centrul politicii internaionale - ca un spin n coasta
diplomailor romni la Liga Naiunilor. ns originile acestui efort de a construi o identitate
moldoveneasc distinct nu erau doar rezultatul necesitilor politicii externe sovietice.
Construirea unei naiuni n RASSM nu a aprut doar ca rezultat al expansionismului sovietic,
ci mai mult ca rezultat al combinaiei dintre elurile politicii externe centrale, formele de
identitate existente i aciunile aflate pe agenda elitelor politice i culturale din interiorul
republicii autonome nsi. Arhitecii culturii sovietice erau perfect contieni de importana

politic a ceea ce avea s primeasc numele de moldovenizare", dar ei nu erau doar simpli
executani ai politicii sovietice elaborate la centru. Disputele profesionale dintre lingviti i
istorici precum i credina autentic a multora c ajut la eliberarea moldovenilor de
opresiunea regimului burghezo-moieresc de la Bucureti au jucat un rol important n
ideologia diferenelor naionale din anii 1920.
(King Charles. Moldovenii, p.62.)
Pe malul stng al Nistrului, de la Kamene - Podolsk i pn la Marea Neagr locuiete o
populaie de 7000 000 de romni-moldoveni blnzi i umilii Moldovenii au ocupat aceste
locuri nc de pe vremurile expansiunii romanilor de la muni spre rsrit i a desclecatului
Moldovei n veacul al XIV-lea.
Vicisitudinile istoriei au vrut ca acum 14 ani aceti romni s fie nglobai n Uniunea
SovieticSovietele urmresc metodic distrugerea religiei, obiceiurilor i a familiei
moldovenilor. Li se confisc produsul muncii lor, li se sechestreaz averea, orict de mic ar fi
ea, i i silesc cu fora s se nscrie n gospodriile colective colhozuri, unde ei snt sortii
unei existene de sclavi De al o vreme guvernul comunist al republicii a dispus ca
moldovenii s fie deportai treptat n Siberia i n regiunea Arhanghelsk din nordul Rusiei,
unde nu-i ateapt dect moartea. Aceasta nu este dect aducerea la ndeplinire a planului
infernal sovietic de a extermina completamente aceast populaie neadaptabil
comunismului.
(Memoriul romnilor transnistreni naintat Ligii Naiunilor, martie 1932)
,,Reforma agrar s-a aplicat n Basarabia, astfel c azi toi mproprietriii i tiu loturile
precis i caut s le plteasc pentru ca proprietatea s fie i mai efectiv. Din cele 4480
moii expropriate n suprafaa de 1.899.539 ha s-au trecut n stpnirea ranilor 1.043.062
la 357016 lotai. Lotul tip este cel de 6 ha, iar unde populaia a fost deas el a fost micorat.
Numrul vitelor este n cretere progresiv. ()
(mproprietrirea ranilor, Adevrul, 23 aprilie 1925) Art. 33. Toate puterile statului eman
de la naiune, care nu le poate exercita dect numai prin delegaiune i dup principiile i
regulile aezate n Constituiunea de fa. Art. 34. Puterea legislativ se exercit colectiv de
ctre rege i reprezentaiunea naional. Reprezentaiunea naional se mparte n dou
adunri: Senatul i Adunarea Deputailor. Orice lege cere nvoirea a ctor trei ramuri ale
puterii legiuitoare. Nici o lege nu poate fi supus sanciunii regale dect dup ce se va fi
discutat i votat liber de majoritatea ambelor adunri.
(Extras din Constituia romn adoptat n anul 1923)
Art. 30. Regele este capul statului. Art. 31. Puterea legislativ se exercit de rege prin
reprezentaiunea naional, care se mparte n dou adunri: Senatul i Adunarea
Deputailor. Regele sancioneaz i promulg legile (...)
Regele poate refuza sanciunea (...) Iniiativa legilor este dat regelui. Fiecare din cele dou
adunri poate propune din iniiativ proprie numai legi n interesul obtesc al statului.
(Constituia romn publicat n Monitorul Oficial, 27 februarie 1938)
Nicolae Titulescu s-a afirmat ca mare orator n prima jumtate a secolului al XX-lea i s-a
impus n chip deosebit ca diplomat de talie internaional. S-au ntmplat cazuri, cum a fost
acela din Camera Comunelor din 1937, cnd parlamentul englez - vrjii de elocvena
diplomatului romn au cerut lui N. Titulescu s repete discursul n limba englez. A fost un
politician al pcii, militnd n favoarea bunelor relaii cu vecinii. El a optat restabilirea
relaiilor cu Uniunea Sovietic, dar protejnd graniele Romniei. De asemenea, a lansat
ideea unei Europe unite, introducnd sintagma spiritualizarea frontierelor, potrivit creia o
abordare transfrontalier a valorilor cultural-spirituale poate desfiina imaginar graniele
dintre state, iar popoarele rilor vecine devin mai unite. Datorit talentului su diplomatic
de excepie, ct i a contribuiei sale la cauza pcii n Europa, Titulescu a fost supranumit
ministru al Europei, rmnnd un simbol al Romniei n Europa.
(romania-on-line.net)
() Criza din 1929-1933 a orientat societatea spre alte modele economice dect cel liberal,
c dup prerea multor specialiti, criza economic a fost de conjunctur n apusul Europei,
acolo unde societatea a nregistrat progrese evidente, i de repercusiune n estul i sud-estul
Europei, zone n care procesul respectiv s-a aflat pe alte coordonate. Prin aceasta s-a produs

o mutaie decisiv n istoria omenirii. Dac omenirea a scpat pn astzi de repetarea


crizei de tip 1929-1933, meritul revine, fr ndoial, funciei noi pe care statul o
ndeplinete, responsabil principal al bunului mers al mainii economice.
() trebuie subliniat c urmrile politice ale crizei din 1929-1933 au fost mai puternice i
mai nefaste pentru omenire dect consecinele ei economice. Impactul crizei cu politica a
fost deosebit de dur n Occident i Europa central. n Germania ea a dus la dictatura
nazist, n Frana i Anglia a dus la dezagregarea executivului i instabilitate ministerial
(Paris) i la un reflux electoral n favoarea conservatorilor(Londra). Temerile politice au
mpiedicat cooperarea economic, esenial n redresarea i restaurarea ncrederii.
Preocuprile pentru ndeprtarea dificultilor materiale i financiare au distras atenia
oamenilor de stat de la pericolele politice iminente - revizionismul i revanismul - i au
izolat naiunile, prejudiciind sperana de securitate.
(Constantin Hlihor, Istoria secolului XX,
Editura Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1999)
Fiecare din cele patru puteri se angajeaz prin acest acord s fac demersurile necesare
ca s-i asigure executarea.
Art.1. Evacuarea va ncepe la 1 octombrie.
Art. 2. Regatul Unit, Frana,i Italia convin c evacuarea teritoriului n cauz va trebui s fie
terminat la 10 octombrie.
Art. 3 Condiiile acestei evacuri vor fi stabilite, n ce privete amnuntele, de o comisie
internaional, compus din reprezentani ai Germaniei, Regatului Unit, Franei, Italiei i ai
Cehoslovaciei.
Art. 4 Ocuparea progresiv de ctre trupele Reich-ului a teritoriilor n care predomin
germanii va ncepe la 1 octombrie.()
Art. 6 Determinarea final a frontierelor se va face de ctre Comisia internaional a celor
patru puteri: Germania, Regatul Unit, Frana i Italia, n anumite cazuri excepionale, ea va
recomanda modificri de mic importan la determinarea strict etnografic a zonelor
Transferabile().
(Extras din Acordul de la Munchen, 29-30 septembrie 1938)
Cu ocazia semnrii Tratatului de neagresiune dintre Reich-ul german i Uniunea
Republicilor Sovietice Socialiste plenipoteniarii semnatari din partea celor dou pri au
discutat n cadrul unor convorbiri strict confideniale problema delimitrii sferelor lor
respective de interes n Europa Rsritean. Aceste convorbiri au avut urmtorul rezultat:
1. n cazul unor transformri teritoriale i politice ale teritoriilor aparinnd statelor baltice
(Finlanda, Estonia, Letonia, Lituania), frontiera nordic a Lituaniei va reprezenta frontiera
sferelor de interes att ale Germaniei, ct i ale URSS.
2. n cazul unor transformri teritoriale i politice ale teritoriilor statului polonez, sferele de
interes, att ale Germaniei, ct i ale U.R.S.S., vor fi delimitate aproximativ pe linia rurilor
Narew, Vistula i San.
3. n privina Europei Sud - Estice, partea sovietic subliniaz interesul pe care-l manifest
pentru Basarabia. Partea german i declar totalul dezinteres politic fa de aceste
teritorii.
4. Acest protocol va fi considerat de ambele pri ca strict secret.
(Protocol adiional secret al Pactului de neagresiune
dintre Germania i Uniunea Sovietic, 23 august 1939)
n anul 1918, Romnia, folosindu-se de slbiciunea militar a Rusiei, a desfcut de la
Uniunea Sovietic (Rusia), o parte din teritoriul ei Basarabia, clcnd prin aceastaunitatea
secular a Basarabiei, populat n principal de ucraineni, cu Republica Sovietic Ucrainean.
()
Acum, cnd slbiciunea militar a U.R.S.S. ine de domeniul trecutului, iar situaia
internaional care s-a creat cere rezolvarea rapid a chestiunilor din trecut pentru a pune n
fine bazele unei pci solide ntre ri, U.R.S.S. consider necesar i oportun ca n interesele
restabilirii adevrului s procedeze mpreun cu Romnia la rezolvarea imediat a chestiunii
napoierii Basarabiei Uniunii Sovietice.

Guvernul Sovietic consider c chestiunea ntoarcerii Basarabiei este legat n mod organic
de chestiunea transmiterii ctre U.R.S.S. a acelei pri a Bucovinei, a crei populaie este
legat n marea sa majoritate de Ucraina Sovietic.() Un astfel de act ar fi cu att mai just,
cu ct transmiterea prii de nord a Bucovinei ctre U.R.S.S ar reprezenta, este drept c
numai ntr-o msur nensemnat, un mijloc de despgubire a acelei pierderi care a fost
pricinuit U.R.S.S. i populaiei Basarabiei prin dominaia de 22 de ani a Romniei n
Basarabia.
Guvernul U.R.S.S. propune guvernului regal al Romniei:
1. S napoieze cu orice pre Uniunii Sovietice Basarabia;
2. S transmit Uniunii Sovietice partea de nord a Bucovinei, cu frontierele potrivit cu harta
alturat.
Guvernul sovietic i exprim sperana c guvernul romn va primi propunerile de fa ale
U.R.S.S. i c aceasta va da posibilitatea de a se rezolvare cale panic conflictul prelungit
dintre U.R.S.S. i Romnia.
(Nota ultimativ a Guvernului Sovietic
adresat guvernului Romn, 26 iunie 1940)
13. Influena sovietic a avut o nsemntate hotrtoare att la nivelul politicii interne ct i
externe. Albania, Bulgaria, Cehoslovacia, RDG, Ungaria, Polonia i Romnia au adoptat
politica economic sovietic a promovrii rapide a industriei grele i colectivizrii agriculturii.
Aceasta, ca n Uniunea Sovietic, trebuie s se fac prin intermediul unor serii de planuri
economice elaborate i administrate de centru. De aceia, noile ri socialiste i-au modificat
aparatul de stat pentru a face loc numrului mare de ministere de natur economic
existente n sistemul sovietic. Dar modelul Sovietic s-a aplicat i n zonele din afara
economiei. Armatele i-au fcut apariii n uniforme croite dup cele ale Armatei Roii,
cultura a devenit subordonat necesitilor politice. Creativitatea lsnd locul realismului
socialist; sistemul juridic a fost remodelat dup principiile sovietice; nvmntul s-a
restructurat; pn i moda trebuia s maimureasc estul proletar, nu saloanele elegante de
la Paris, Londra sau New York.
(Crampton R. J., Europa Rsritean n secolul al XX-lea... i dup.)
Scopurile Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite sunt urmtoarele:
1. S menin pacea i securitatea internaional i, n acest scop, s ia msuri colective
eficace pentru prevenirea i nlturarea ameninrilor mpotriva pcii i pentru reprimarea
oricror acte de agresiune sau altor violri ale pcii i s nfptuiasc, prin mijloace panice
i n conformitate cu principiile justiiei i dreptului international aplanarea ori rezolvarea
diferendelor sau situaiilor cu caracter internaional care ar duce la o violare a pcii.
2. S dezvolte relaii prieteneti ntre naiuni, ntemeiate pe respectarea principiului egalitii
n drepturi a popoarelor i dreptului lor de a dispune de ele nsele, i s ia orice alte msuri
potrivite pentru consolidarea pcii mondiale.
3. S realizeze cooperarea internaional, rezolvnd problemele internaionale cu caracter
economic, social, cultural sau umanitar, promovnd i ncurajnd respectarea drepturilor
omului i libertilor fundamentale pentru toi, fr deosebire de ras, sex, limb sau religie.
4. fie un centru n care s se armonizeze eforturile naiunilor ctre atingerea acestor
scopuri comune.
(Carta ONU. n: Istoria universal n texte.)
() Un instrument eficient al regimului sovietic de ocupaie n meninerea acestui control
riguros asupra spiritelor umane l constituia i cenzura draconic asupra tipriturilor,
emisiunilor radio i cele difuzate de televiziunea sovietic.
Vigilena cenzurii sovietice n-a slbit nici pentru o clip, ea fiind la fel de rigid de-a lungul
ntregii perioade de ocupaie sovietic. n cele ce urmeaz, ne vom referi la cteva aspecte
din activitatea acesteia n R.S.S. Moldoveneasc pe parcursul deceniului apte al sec. al XXlea.
n aceast perioad, cenzura sovietic din R.S.S.M. urmrea, n mod strict, ca n reeaua
bibliotecilor, n librrii s nu ajung cumva lucrri elaborate de autori din Romnia i din
emigraia romneasc. Ultima categorie de autori era considerat cea mai periculoas,
ntruct reprezenta nu doar un curent de opinie strin, ci i unul burghez.()

() cenzura draconic de tip comunist a fcut ravagii, decenii la rnd, schilodind i mutilnd
destinele nu doar ale reprezentanilor culturii, tiinei din R.S.S.M. Prin privarea de dreptul de
a accede, n mod nestingherit, la informaia util, pe care cenzorii sovietici, aceti ostai ai
frontului invizibil, au dosit-o cu mult grij, s-au comis alte multiple crime, deformndu-lise i contiina sutelor de mii de basarabeni i ale cror consecine le mai resimim i n
prezent.
(Ion VARTA. Cenzura sovietic din R.S.S. Moldoveneasc n anii 70
ai secolului al XX-lea. n. Revista Limba Romn. Nr. 3-6, anul XXI, 2011)
Art.1. Prile se angajeaz , aa cum este stipulat n Carta Naiunilor unite, s rezolve prin
mijloace panice toate diferendele internaionale n care ele ar putea fi implicate().
Art.4. rile se vor consulta de fiecare dat cnd, la avizul uneia din ele, integritatea
teritorial,interdependena politic sau securitatea uneia din pri va fi ameninat.
Art.5. Prile convin c un atac armat mpotriva uneia sau mai multora dintre ele, survenind
n Europa sau n america de Nord va fi considerat ca un atac ndreptat mpotriva tuturor
prilor i, n consecin, ele convin ca, dac un astfel de atac se produce fiecare dintre ele
() va asista partea sau prile astfel atacate, lund imediat, individual i n acord cu
celelalte pri, acea msur pe care o va credenecesar,inclusiv folosirea forei armate,
pentru a restabili i a asigura securitatea n regiunea Atlanticului de Nord.
(Tratatul Atlanticului de Nord)
Foametea i deportrile organizate le-au ngreuiat i mai mult situaia moldovenilor n
timpul campaniei de colectivizare (1946- 1950). Dei foametea i seceta nu erau neobinuite
n Basarabia, exist dovezi clare c foametea din 1946-1947 a fost provocat de
rechiziionarea grnelor de ctre comuniti i a fost direcionat mpotriva celui mai mare
grup etnic de la sate - moldovenii. Cel puin 115 000 de rani au murit de foame i de alte
boli din decembrie 1946 pn n august 1947. n plus, o campanie oficial de eliminare a
chiaburilor", ndreptat mpotriva ranilor moldoveni presupui a fi fost bogai (chiaburi), a
distrus la rndul ei multe familii, majoritatea moldoveneti, ntre 1947 i 1951. Doar n dou
zile - 6 i 7 iulie 1949 - 11 342 de familii moldovene au fost deportate n Kurgan, Tiumeni,
Irkutsk i alte localiti din Siberia i Kazahstan n cadrul unui plan numit Operaiunea Sud,
condus de cunoscutul ministru pentru securitatea statului din RSSM, I.L. Mordove. n total,
din 1941 pn n 1951, aproape 16 000 de familii au fost deportate din RSSM.
(King Charles. Moldovenii, p.97)
() Dup victoria conservatorilor la alegerile din mai 1979, devine prima femeie ef de
guvern din Europa. Promoveaz o politic neoliberal care permite relansarea creterii
economice, dar provoac o ampl rat a omajului i o vie nemulmire social. Guvernul
condus de Margaret Thatcher respinge statutul providen i aciunea sindical i
promoveaz iniiativa individual i profitul:stricta reglementare a dreptului la grev,
reducerea impozitelor pe veniturile mari, limitarea cheltuielilor publice etc. Supranumit
Doamna de fier, ea nu cedeaz n faa teroritilor irlandezi ai IRA, care ncearc s o
asasineze la Brighton (octombrie 1984), nici n faa minerilor, n ciuda unor greve ce au
durat un an de zile (1984-1985). Revenind de dou ori n fruntea guvernului,dup victoriile
conservatorilor din 1982 i 1987, devine o figur foarte nepopular din cauza noului impozit
local pe cap de locuitor pe care l introduce n aprilie 1990, iar n noiembrie 1990
demisioneaz.
(Din Anne Carol, Dicionar de istorie a secolului XX-lea)
() Viziunea ortodox american, aa cum a fost ea elaborat de guvernul american () ,
const n ideea c rzboiul rece era replica esenial i curajoas a oamenilor liberi
mpotriva agresiunii comuniste. Unii s-au ntors mult naintea celui de-al Doilea Rzboi
Mondial pentru a detecta sursele expansionismului rusesc. Geopoliticii descopereau urmele
rzboiului rece n ambiiile strategice ale Rusiei imperiale ce duceau n secolul al XIX-lea la
rzboiul din Crimeea , n penetraia rus n Balcani i Orientul Mijlociu i n presiunile asupra
Marii Britanii cu privire la portia de salvare din India () Observatori ateni ()
concluzioneaz c imperialismul clasic rus i panslavismul au fost puse cap la cap dup
1917 la mesianismul leninist i au confruntat Vestul la sfritul celui de-al Doilea Rzboi
Mondial cu tendina inexorabil ctre dominaie.

()Teza revizionist este diferit. n forma ei extrem, ea se reflect n faptul c, dup


moartea lui Franklin Roosevelt i sfritul celui de al Doilea Rzboi Mondial , StateleUnite au
abandonat n mod deliberat politica de colaborare n timpul rzboiului i, nsufleite de
deinerea bombei atomice, au abandonat o tactic de agresiune pe cont propriu cu scopul
de a elimina influena rus din Europa de Est i de a stabili state capitaliste democratice pe
fiecare latur extern a Uniunii Sovietice. n viziunea revizionitilor, aceast politic radical
i nou a americanilor, sau mai degrab aceast reluare de ctre Truman a unei politici
anticomuniste inumane, i-a lsat Moscovei doar alternativa de a lua msuri n aprarea
propriilor ei granie. Rezultatul a fost rzboiul rece ().
(A. Winkler. Trecutul apropiat. Eseuri i documente
(B. despre America de dup cel de-al Doilea Rzboi Mondial )
Pentru statele Europei Centrale, care s-au trezit, dup 1945, mpotriva voinei lor, de partea
cealalt a cortinei de fier, diagnosticul poate prea sever. Fr ndoial c este, dar este cel
pe care elitele i conductorii lor, ei nii l pun n orice caz, cei mai lucizi dintre ei. Dup
cderea comunismului, muli credeau c ceea ce a fost mai greu a trecut. n realitate, greul
abia ncepea. Avnd diferene de la o ar la alta, n care tradiia precomunist joac un rol
important, statele Europei Centrale se regsesc fr instituii democratice, cu o societate
embrionar, cu o economie devastat de colectivism i de ntreruperea schimburilor
comerciale prin pierderea pieii sovietice.
(Le Monde,14 decembrie 1991)
() Parlamentul Republicii Moldova, constituit n urma unor alegeri libere i democratice
() proclam
Solemn, n virtutea dreptului la autodeterminare, n numele ntregii populaiei a Republicii
Moldova i n faa lumii ntregi:
REPUBLICA MOLDOVA ESTE UN STAT SUVERAN, INDEPENDENT UI DEMOCRATIC, LIBER S-I
HOTRASC PREZENTUL I VIITORUL, FR NICI UN AMESTEC DIN AFAR, N CONFORMITATE
CU IDEALURILE I NZUINELE SFINTE ALE POPORULUIN SPAIUL ISTORIC I ETNIC AL
DEVENIRII SALE NAIONALE.
(Extras din Declaraia de independen
a Republicii Moldova, 27 august 1991)
() Acest tratat marcheaz o nou etap n procesul de creare a unei uniuni i mai
puternice ntre popoarele Europei, n care deciziile sunt luate ct mai aproape de cetean.
() Uniunea i propune urmtoarele obiective: S promoveze progresul economic i social
echilibrat i susinut, n special prin crearea unei zone fr frontiere interne. () S i afirme
identitatea proprie pe scena internaional, n special prin implementarea unei politici
externe de securitate comune, incluznd un cadru eventual de politic comun de aprare,
care ara putea, n timp, s conduc la o aprare comun. S ntreasc protejarea
drepturilor i intereselor cetenilor din Statele membre prin introducerea ceteniei
europene. S dezvolte cooperarea strns n justiie i afaceri interne.
(Extras din Tratatul de la Maastricht de constituire a UE, 1991) Politica European de
Vecintate a Uniunii Europene stabilete obiective ambiioase bazate pe angajamente
pentru valorile comune i implementarea efectiv a reformelor politice, economice i
instituionale.
Moldova este invitat s stabileasc cu UE relaii politice, de securitate, economice i
culturale mai intense, s intensifice cooperarea transfrontalier i s mprteasc
responsabilitatea pentru prevenirea i soluionarea conflictelor. Unul dintre obiectivele cheie
ale acestui Plan de Aciuni va fi susinerea n continuare a unei soluionri viabile a
conflictului Transnistrean.
Politica European de Vecintate deschide noi perspective de parteneriat: Perspectiva
avansrii dincolo de cooperare spre un grad semnificativ de integrare, inclusiv prin accesul
pe piaa intern a UE i posibilitatea de a participa progresiv la aspecte cheie ale politicilor i
programelor UE () Ridicarea nivelului oportunitilor i intensitii cooperrii politice, prin
intermediul dezvoltrii n continuare a mecanismelor pentru dialogul politic; () Continuarea
angajamentului puternic al UE de a susine soluionarea conflictului transnistrean, utiliznd
instrumentele aflate la dispoziia UE i n strns consultare cu OSCE. UE este gat s

examineze cile de a-i consolida mai departe angajamentul; () Oportunitatea pentru


convergena legislaiei economice, deschiderea reciproc a economiilor i reducerea
continu a barierelor din calea comerului, ceea ce va stimula investiiile i creterea
economic; () Sprijin financiar sporit: asistena financiar a UE pentru Moldova va fi
disponibil pentru a susine aciunile identificate n prezentul document. n acest scop
Comisia propune un nou Instrument European de Vecintate i Parteneriat (IEVP) care de
asemenea va include aspectele foarte importante ale cooperrii transfrontaliere i transnaionale dintre Moldova i (viitoarele) statele membre.() Posibiliti pentru deschiderea
treptat sau participarea consolidat n anumite programe Comunitare, promovnd legturile
culturale, educaionale, de mediu, tehnice i tiinifice; ()
(Planul de Aciuni UE-MOLDOVA, semnat la 22 februarie 2005, Bruxelles)

MODEL DE TEST
Citete cu atenie sursele istorice propuse i rspunde la sarcinile de lucru formulate:
Sursa A.
Viziunea ortodox american, aa cum a fost ea elaborat de guvernul american (),
const n ideea c rzboiul rece era replica esenial i curajoas a oamenilor liberi
mpotriva agresiunii comuniste. Unii s-au ntors mult naintea celui de-al Doilea Rzboi
Mondial pentru a detecta sursele expansionismului rusesc. Geopoliticii descopereau urmele
rzboiului rece n ambiiile strategice ale Rusiei imperiale ce duceau n secolul al XIX-lea la
rzboiul din Crimeea, n penetraia rus n Balcani i Orientul Mijlociu (). Observatori ateni
() concluzioneaz c imperialismul clasic rus i panslavismul au fost puse cap la cap dup
1917 la mesianismul leninist i au confruntat Vestul la sfritul celui de-al Doilea Rzboi
Mondial cu tendina inexorabil ctre dominaie.
() Teza revizionist este diferit. n forma ei extrem, ea se reflect n faptul c, dup
moartea lui Franklin Roosevelt i sfritul celui de-al Doilea Rzboi Mondial, Statele Unite au
abandonat n mod deliberat politica de colaborare n timpul rzboiului i, nsufleite de
deinerea bombei atomice, au abordat o tactic de agresiune pe cont propriu cu scopul de a
elimina influena rus din Europa de Est i de a stabili state capitaliste democratice pe
fiecare latur extern a Uniunii Sovietice. n viziunea revizionitilor, aceast politic radical
i nou a americanilor, sau mai degrab aceast reluare de ctre Truman a unei politici
anticomuniste inumane, i-a lsat Moscovei doar alternativa de a lua msuri n aprarea
propriilor ei granie. Rezultatul a fost rzboiul rece ().
A.Winkler. Trecutul apropiat. Eseuri i documente
despre America dup cel de-al Doilea Rzboi Mondial )
Sursa B.
1. A confirma listele chiaburilor, fotilor moieri, marilor comerciani () n numr total de
11342 de familii.()
2. Toi chiaburii, fotii moieri i marii comerciani () s fie deportai pe via n regiunile
ndeprtate ale URSS.
3. A permite celor deportai s ia cu sine valori, bani, mbrcminte, inventar agricol,
meteugresc i casnic, precum i o rezerv de produse alimentare n volum total de 1500
kg de fiecare familie.

(Extras din Hotrrea Consiliului de Minitri al RSSM


Cu privire la deportarea din RSSM a familiilor de chiaburi, fotilor
moieri i marilor comerciani, 28 iunie 1949, Chiinu )I. Timpul, spaiul i personalitatea n
baza analizei i valorificrii surselor propuse (56 puncte).
1.
Scrie evenimentele istorice la care se refer sursele A i B.
2.
Numete trei evenimente istorice, care se refer la subiectul expus n sursa B, datnd fiecare
eveniment numit.
3.
Construiete axa cronologic, plasnd pe ea nceputul a trei evenimente istorice subliniate n
textul sursei A.
Indic pe harta de contur teritoriul RSSM n perioada indicat n sursa B.
Not:La indicarea teritriului se vor lua n consideraie: conturarea hotarelor, haurarea
teritoriului, aplicarea inscripiilor denumirea statului i capitalei, completarea legendei
(orice inscripie se explic n legend).
5.
Enumer, n baza a trei argumente, rolul istoric al conductorului URSS n perioada indicat
n sursa B.
6.
Alctuiete dou enunuri, cu noiunile evideniate n sursa B, care ar conine un adevr
istoric, cu referire la esena regimului totalitar comunist.
7.
Enumer cte dou exemple de manifestri ale rzboiului rece, explicndu-le conform
domeniilor solicitate.
Domeniul economic.Domeniulpolitic.Domeniulmilitar.
Relaia de cauzalitate n istorie (14 puncte).
8.
Demonstreaz relaia de interdependen dintre dezvoltarea oraului i evoluia economic
a societii medievale.
Not: La elaborarea relaiei de cauzalitate se va ine cont de: prezentarea fiecrui proces /
eveniment istoric; prezentarea relaiei cauz-efect; ncadrarea personalitii istorice,
utilizarea limbajului istoric adecvat, a datelor cronologice; expunerea logic i formularea
concluziei.
Eseu (20 puncte).
9.
Elaboreaz un eseu, ncadrat n 1 pagin, la subiectul propus:
Basarabia n contextul rivalitii ruso-turce n secolul al XIX-lea.
Not: La elaborarea eseului se va ine cont de: utilizarea limbajului istoric; abordarea
subiectului n relevan tematic i expunere logic; evidenierea relaiilor de cauzalitate;
plasarea corect n timp i spaiu a evenimentelor i personalitilor istorice; reflectarea
subiectului abordat prin prisma de la naional la universal; argumentarea tiinific a
punctului de vedere propriu i formularea concluziei; respectarea volumului indicat.