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Chapter 14 Consumption to Satisfaction

Product Type, Situations,

Meaning, Outcomes
and Emotions

Durable goods are goods that are consumed over long periods of time
Nondurable goods are consumed quickly
Consumption frequency - the number of times a product or service is
consumed in a given time period.
The temporal factors, antecedent conditions, and physical environment
are influential on the consumption experience. How, what, and when we
consume is largely dependent on our environment.
Cultural meaning is transferred to a product
Consumers choose products, services, and experiences that they believe
will deliver value and satisfy their wants and needs.
Consumers experience a variety of emotions during the consumption
experience including feelings of pleasure, arousal, joy, disgust, sadness

A mild, positive emotional state resulting from a favorable appraisal of a

consumption outcome
Consumer Satisfaction A postconsumption phenomenon - a reaction to an outcome.
Like other emotions, satisfaction results from cognitive appraisal.
Satisfaction does not create strong behavioral reactions
A mild, negative affective reaction resulting from an unfavorable appraisal of
Consumer Dissatisfaction a consumption outcome. Emotions other than satisfaction can affect
postconsumption behavior: Delight Disgust-Surprise-Exhilaration-Anger
The most commonly accepted theory of consumer satisfaction
Expectancy/Disconfirmation Consumers enter into a consumption experience with predetermined
cognitive expectations of a products performance
Exhibit 14.5 Positive disconfirmation leads to consumer satisfaction,
Negative disconfirmation leads to dissatisfaction.
Expectations can also directly affect satisfaction.
Preconsumption beliefs, two components: The probability something will
occur & evaluation of that occurrence. TYPES:
Predictive Expectations will actually occur during an experience.
Normative Expectations should happen given their past experiences
Ideal Expectations what the consumer really wants to happen
Equitable Expectations what should happen given the level of effort
Sources of Expectations
Word-of-mouth communication from other consumers
Experience of other consumers
Advertisements and promotions that promise something
Personal factors
Expectation Confidence and Performance Perceptions
Performance Perceptions
Confidence in Expectations and the Confirmatory Bias
Desires, Emotions, Meaning and Satisfaction

Three popular ways in which satisfaction is measured:

Direct, Global Measure
Equity Theory and Attribution Theory

Disposal Decisions Trashing Recycling-Converting -Trading -Donating -Reselling

attribution theory
confirmatory bias
consumer dissatisfaction
consumer refuse
consumer satisfaction
consumption frequency
consumption process
durable goods
equity theory
expectancy/disconfirmation theory
meaning transference
negative disconfirmation
nondurable goods
positive disconfirmation
self-perception theory
service quality

theory that proposes that consumers look for the cause of particular
consumption experiences when arriving at satisfaction judgments
something that is real and genuine and has a history or tradition
tendency for expectations to guide performance perceptions
mild, negative affective reaction resulting from an unfavorable appraisal of a
consumption outcome
any packaging that is no longer necessary for consumption to take place or,
in some cases, the actual good that is no longer providing value to the
mild, positive emotion resulting from a favorable appraisal of a consumption
number of times a product is consumed
process in which consumers use the product, service, or experience that has
been selected
level of a particular benefit that will lead to a valued end state
goods that are usually consumed over a long period of time
theory that proposes that people compare their own level of inputs and
outcomes to those of another party in an exchange
proposes that consumers use expectations as a benchmark against which
performance perceptions are judged and this comparison is a primary basis
for satisfaction/dissatisfaction
process through which cultural meaning is transferred to a product and onto
the consumer
according to the expectancy/disconfirmation approach, a perceived state
wherein performance perceptions fall short of expectations
goods that are usually consumed quickly
according to the expectancy/disconfirmation approach, a perceived state
wherein performance perceptions exceed expectations
theory that states that consumers are motivated to act in accordance with
their attitudes and behaviors
overall goodness or badness of a service experience, which is often
measured by SERVQUAL
way of measuring service quality that captures consumers disconfirmation
of service expectations

Chapter 15 Consumer Relationships

Outcomes of Consumption
Exhibit 15.1



Predominantly cognitive evaluation process

Includes affective dimensions
Behavioral consequences
When a consumer actively seeks out someone with whom to share an
opinion regarding a negative consumption event.
Less than one-half of customers experiencing some dissatisfaction
When a consumer complains, the marketer has a chance to rectify the
negative situation. A truly consumer-oriented organization should
encourage customers to complain.
Result of Not Complaining
Revenge-oriented behaviors
Negative publicity is not the same thing. Countering when possible.
WOM can be negative or positive
Implications of WOM

Switching Behavior
Exhibit 15.3

Switching costs are the costs associated with changing from one choice
(brand/retailer/service provider) to another.
Switching costs can be divided into three categories: Procedural
Satisfaction and Switching
Exhibit 15.4 summarizes the vulnerability of a company to consumer

Consumer Loyalty

Customer Share
Consumer Inertia
Loyalty Programs
Customer Commitment
Exhibit 15.8 suggests ways in which value plays a role in shaping loyalty
and preventing switching behavior for different types of businesses.

Relationships and the

Marketing Firm

Customers have a lifetime value to the firm.

True loyalty involves both a continuing series of interactions and feelings
of attachment between the customer and the firm.

antiloyal consumers consumers who will do everything possible to avoid doing business with a
particular marketer
complaining behavior action that occurs when a consumer actively seeks out someone to share an
opinion with regarding a negative consumption event
consumer inertia situation in which a consumer tends to continue a pattern of behavior until
some stronger force motivates him or her to change
customer commitment sense of attachment, dedication, and identification
customer share portion of resources allocated to one brand from among the set of
competing brands

financial switching costs total economic resources that must be spent or invested as a consumer
learns how to obtain value from a new product choice
loyalty card/program device that keeps track of the amount of purchasing a consumer has had
with a given marketer once some level is reached
negative public publicity action that occurs when negative WOM spreads on a relatively large scale,
possibly even involving media coverage
negative word-of-mouth (negative WOM) action that takes place when consumers pass on negative
information about a company from one to another
positive WOM action that occurs when consumers spread information from one to another
about positive consumption experiences with companies
procedural switching costs lost time and extended effort spent in learning ways of using some product
rancorous revenge is when a consumer yells, insults and makes a public scene in an effort to
harm the business in response to an unsatisfactory experience
relational switching cost emotional and psychological consequences of changing from one
brand/retailer/service provider to another
retaliatory revenge consumer becomes violent with employees and/or tries to vandalize a
business in response to an unsatisfactory experience
share of wallet customer share
switching times when a consumer chooses a competing choice, rather than the
previously purchased choice, on the next purchase occasion
switching costs costs associated with changing from one choice (brand/retailer/service
provider) to another

Chapter 16 Consumer and Marketing Misbehavior

Motivations of Consumer

Distinguish Consumer
Problem Behavior and

Unfulfilled Aspirations
Lack of Moral Constraints
Differential Association
Pathological Socialization.
Provocative Situational Factors
Consumer problem behavior seemingly outside of their control.
Consumer misbehavior deliberately harmful
Computer-Mediated Behaviors: Illegal Sharing of Software and Music
Computer-Mediated Behaviors: Attacks
Consumer Fraud
Abusive Consumer Behavior
Dysfunctional fan behavior
Culture jamming
Illegitimate Complaining

Consumers may simply not pay attention to what they are doing.
Consumers may feel as though they always get away with the risky
Consumers may have a tendency to be error prone.
Consumers may focus more on the thrill of misuse rather than the actual
Product Misuse
risk of the behavior.
Aggressive Driving
Driving While Impaired
Cell Phone Use in Cars

Consumer Problem Behavior


Consumer Vulnerability and

Product Harmfulness

Compulsive Consumption
Compulsive buying Compulsive Shopping
Addictive Consumption
Eating Disorders
Binge Drinking/ Alcohol Abuse
Problem Gambling
Drug Abuse
Consumer Bill of Rights
CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility
Deceptive advertising
Marketing to children
Planned obsolescence
Artificial needs
Manipulative sales tactics
Stealth marketing
Products Liability

addictive consumption physiological dependency on the consumption of a consumer product

consumption of five or more drinks in a single drinking session for men and
binge drinking
four or more drinks for women
consumption of large amounts of food while feeling a general loss of control
binge eating
over food intake
chronic, repetitive purchasing that is a response to negative events or
compulsive buying
repetitive, excessive, and purposeful consumer behaviors that are
compulsive consumption
performed as a response to tension, anxiety, or obtrusive thoughts
repetitive shopping behaviors that are a response to negative events or
compulsive shopping
consumer behavior that is deemed to be unacceptable but that is seemingly
consumer problem behavior
beyond the control of the consumer
damages that are intended to cover costs incurred by a consumer due to an
compensatory damages
introduced by President John F. Kennedy in 1962, list of rights that include
Consumer Bill of Rights
the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to redress and to be

consumer misbehavior
corporate social responsibility
customer orientation
deceptive advertising

planned obsolescence
problem gambling
products liability
punitive damages
societal marketing concept
strict liability

heard, and the right to choice

behaviors that are in some way unethical and that potentially harm the self
or others
activities of various groups to voice concern for, and to protect, basic
consumer rights
organizations activities and status related to its societal obligations
practice of using sales techniques that focus on customer needs
message that omits information that is important in influencing a
consumers buying behavior and is likely to mislead consumers acting
situation whereby an injured consumer attempts to show that a firm could
foresee a potential injury might occur and then decided not to act on that
act of planning the premature obsolescence of product models that perform
obsession over the thought of gambling and the loss of control over
gambling behavior and its consequences
extent to which businesses are held responsible for product-related injuries
practice of making exaggerated claims about a product and its superiority
damages that are sought to punish a company for behavior associated with
an injury
marketing concept that states that marketers should consider not only the
wants and needs of consumers but also the needs of society
legal action against a firm whereby a consumer demonstrates in court that
an injury occurred and that the product associated with the injury was faulty
in some way