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Lecture 11 Sistemul Bankar

1. Componentele, structura i
caracteristicile sistemului bancar
2 Funciile Bancilor Centrale
3. Bncile comerciale rol, funcii,
operaiuni

Lecture 11Banking system


1 Components and structure and
characteristics of the banking system
2 Functions of the central bank
3. Comercial banks role, functions and
operations

The combination of the instability of banks as well as their important facilitating role in the
economy led to banking being thoroughly regulated. The amount of capital a bank is required to
hold is a function of the amount and quality of its assets. Major banks are subject to the Basel
Capital Accord promulgated by the Bank for International Settlements. In addition, banks are
usually required to purchase deposit insurance to make sure smaller investors are not wiped out
in the event of a bank failure.
Commercial bank, is the term used for a normal bank to distinguish it from an investment bank.
Investment banks "underwrite" (guarantee the sale of) stock and bond issues, trade for their own
accounts, make markets, and advise corporations on capital markets activities such as mergers
and acquisitions.

10.1. Componentele, structura i


caracteristicile sistemului bancar.
Sistemul bancar a aparut ca o necesitate a
societii, prin intermediul lui este realizat
acumularea mijloacelor bneti i distribuirea
acestora sub diferite forme, sistemul bancar
executnd funcia de intermediar ntre agenii
economici.
Un sistem bancar stabil, eficient i viabil
care ar asigura mobilizarea disponibilitilor
monetare ale economiei naionale, orientndule spre desfurarea activitilor financiare
eficiente, constituie o premis important
pentru dezvoltarea economic. Sistemul bancar
este unul dintre cei mai importani piloni ai
economiei unei ri, reprezintnd veriga de
legtur dintre ramurile economiei, a cror
activitate influeneaz situaia economic,
social i politic a unui stat. Importana
stabilitii sistemului bancar este mult mai
vizibil n condiiile instabilitii financiare, iar
imperfeciunile sistemului financiar,
vulnerabilitatea bncilor la schimbrile
mediului economic i crizele bancare constituie
factorii principali ce trezesc un interes major
fa de studierea i realizarea n practic a
stabilitii bancare.
Sistemul bancar al unei ri cuprinde:
cadrul instituional format din Banca
Central (cu rol de coordonare i supravegere),
banci comerciale i alte instituii financiare;

10.1.Components, structure and


characteristics of the banking system.
The banking system has emerged as a necessity
of society, through which is achieved the
accumulation of funds and their distribution
under various forms, executing the
intermediary function between economic
agents.
A stable banking system, effective and
sustainable, which would ensure mobilization
of available money of the national economy,
directing them to conduct effective financial
activities, is an important prerequisite for an
economic development. The banking system is
one of the most important pillars of the
economy in a country, being the connecting
link between sectors of the economy, whose
activity affects the economic, social and
political situation of a state. The importance of
banking systems stability is more visible in
terms of financial instability and imperfections
in the financial system, the vulnerability of
banks to changes of the economic environment
and banking crises are the main factors that
arouse significant interest towards the study
and implementation in practice of banking
stability.
The banking system of a country includes:
the institutional framework - consisting of the
central bank (having the coordinating and
supervisor role), commercial banks and other
financial institutions;
1

cadrul juridic - format din ansamblul


reglementrilor care guvernez activitatea;
Sstemul bancar este organizat avnd axe de
referine Banca Central, care realizeaz
politica monetar, valutar i de credit a
statului, i un numr de banci comerciale,
bnci de afaceri, instituii de credit
specializate: uniuni de credit, case de
economii, organizaii de mprumut, bnci
ipotecare etc.
Sistemul bancar este un ansamblu coerent
de institutii bancare, ce funcioneaz ntr-o
ar, rspunznd necesitilor unei etape de
dezvoltare social-economic. n anul 1991,
conform legislaiei, n Republica Moldova a
fost format un sistem bancar pe dou niveluri,
n care BNM ndeplineti funcia de Banca
Central, dar nu este angajat n activitatea
bancar comercial. Aceste legi includ
elemente orientate spre ntrirea rolului Bncii
Naionale n elaborarea i implementarea
politicii monetare i valutare i spre o activitate
sigur i durabil a sistemului financiar.
Sistemele bancare din rile dezvoltate
se caracterizeaz printr-o serie de trsturi,
dintre care rein atenia urmtoarele:
diversitate, concentrare, bancarizarea
activitii, accelerarea operaiunilor de
restructurare, deschiderea ctre relaiile cu
strintatea.
Diversitatea unui sistem bancar rezid
n existena unui numr sporit de instituii
bancare i de credit definite de legea bancar i
ale cror caracteristici pot fi diferite. ntr-un
sistem bancar se regsesc att instituii
specializate ntr-un anume tip de clientel sau
activiti, ct i bnci cu activitate universal.
n funcie de dimensiunea bncilor, un sistem
bancar poate cuprinde bnci de mic
dimensiune precum i bnci de dimensiune
internaional.
O varietate de situaii se poate ntlni i
n funcie de natura furnizorilor de capital, n
sensul c acesta poate fi de natur public sau
privat iar acionarii pot fi rezideni sau
nerezideni.
Un alt factor de difereniere a
instituiilor bancare l reprezint coexistena
unor organisme cu personalitate juridic foarte
diverse: societi anonime, societi de
persoane, societi cooperative.
Concentrarea activitii bancare

Legal framework - consisting of all


regulations which lead the activity;
The banking system is organized having as
referential axes the Central Bank, which realize
the monetary, currency and credit policy of the
state, and a number of commercial banks,
business banks, specialized credit institutions:
credit unions, savings, loan organizations ,
mortgage banks, etc..
The banking system is a coherent set of
banking institutions, operating in a country,
corresponding to the needs of socio-economic
development stages. In 1991, according the
law, in the Republic of Moldova was formed a
two-tier banking system, where the National
Bank of Moldova shall act as the Central Bank,
but it is not engaged in commercial banking.
These laws include elements aimed to
strengthen the role of the National Bank in
developing and implementing the monetary
and exchange rate policy, and for creating a
safe and sustainable business financial system.
Banking systems of developed countries are
characterized by a number of features, from
which we have to mention: diversity,
concentration, banking activity expansion,
accelerating the restructuring operations,
opened to external relations with other
countries.
The diversity of the banking system lies in the
existence of an increasing number of banks and
credit institutions defined by the banking law
and whose characteristics can be different. A
banking system could include as specialized
agency specialized in a particular type of
clientele or business, as banks with universal
activity. Depending on the size of banks, a
banking system may include both small-scale
banks and banks of international dimension.
A variety of situations may occur depending on
the nature of capital providers, meaning that it
can be of public or private nature and the
shareholders are residents or nonresidents.
Another differentiating factor is the
coexistence of banking organizations with very
different legal personality: limited liability
company, incorporated partnerships,
cooperative societies.
The concentration of banking activity is a
2

reprezint o caracteristic ce poate fi


cuantificat prin ponderea deinut de
principalele bnci n totalul sistemului bancar
i prin diminuarea numrului de bnci n
totalul acestora. Gradul de concentrare este
apreciat prin nivelul activitii (distribuire de
credite, colectare de depozite) realizate de
instituii bancare i de credit. Studiile
evideniaz c un numr redus de bnci
controleaz, n mare parte, piaa bancar. ntre
gradul de concentrare a activitii bancare i
numrul instituiilor bancare se manifest o
puternic legtur, astfel: pe msur ce
numrul bncilor se diminueaz gradul de
concentrare bancar sporete.
Un fenomen de dimensiuni mondiale l
constituie, n contextul globalizrii financiare,
criza sistemelor bancare. La originea crizelor
bancare s-a aflat un factor ce poate fi definit
astfel: adaptarea cu dificultate la globalizarea
financiar, respectiv manifestarea a o serie de
fenomene n toate rile,
care au vizat urmtoarele aspecte:
amploarea i rapiditatea modificrilor n
materie de reglementri i mediu de activitate;
criza pieelor mobiliare;
carenele n exercitarea controlului i
supravegherii prudeniale.
Crizele succesive care s-au manifestat n
ultimele dou decenii au evideniat insuficiena
procedurilor de supraveghere i control asupra
expunerii la risc a bncilor.

feature that can be measured by the share held


by major banks in total banking system and by
reducing the number of banks in total. The
degree of concentration is assessed by the
activity (distribution of loans, collection of
deposits) made by banks and credit institutions.
Studies show that a few banks mostly control
banking market. Between the degree of
concentration of banking activity and the
number of banking institutions there is a strong
connection, as follows: as the number of banks
is decreasing the level of bank concentration
increases.
A global phenomenon, in the context of
financial globalization, is the crisis of banking
systems. The origin of banking crisis
represented a factor that can be defined as:
difficult adaptation to financial globalization,
which respectively sets a series of phenomena
that take place in all countries,
which endorsed the following aspects:
- The magnitude and rapidity of changes in
regulatory and business environment;
- Crisis of securities markets;
- Deficiencies in controlling and prudential
supervision.
Successive crises that occurred in the last two
decades have highlighted the inadequacy of
procedures for monitoring and control of risk
exposure of the banks.
10.2 Functions of Central Banks

10.2 Funciile Bancilor Centrale


Obiectivul bncilor centrale a evoluat de-a
lungul timpului. Astfel, n perioada etalonului
aur, obiectivul a fost formulat n termenii
convertibilitaii metalice; ulterior, prin erodarea
rolului aurului ca etalon al valorii, obiectivul
bncii centrale a fost reformulate n termeni de
stabilitate a preurilor. Alturi de acestea,
obiectivele intermediare au przentat o mare
variabilitate, ns, indiferent de modificrile n
formularea obictivelor, bncile centrale au
acceptat idea c stabilitatea monetar constituie
o contribuie important la stabilitatea
financiar. Si, de asemenea, rolul lor a evoluat
o dat cu dezvoltarea sistemului financiar.
De remarcat c banca de emisiune, prin
importana activitaii sale privind determinarea
strii monetare la nivel micro i

The Central Banks objectives evolved over


time. Thus, during the gold standard, the goal
was formulated in terms of metal convertibility,
and thereafter by the erosion of the role of gold
as a standard of value, central banks objectives
were reformulated in terms of price stability.
Near to these, intermediate objectives
presented a wide variety, but, regardless to the
changes in formulating the objectives, central
banks accepted the idea that monetary stability
significantly contributes to the financial
stability. And also, their role has evolved with
the development of the financial system.
Note that the issue bank, through the
importance of its work on determining
monetary situation at micro and macro level,
by the influence they may have on other
financial and banking institutions and over the
3

macroeconomic, prin influienele pe care le


poate exercita asupra celorlalte instituii
financiar-bancare i asupra economiei, n
general, deine o poziie prioritar n cadrul
oricrui sistem bancar.

economy in general, has a prior position in


every banking system.
Functions of the central banks
In a market economy, issue banks have the
following functions:
Issue function;
Funciile bncilor centrale
State bank, of the administration and public
ntr-o economie de pia, bncile de emisiune services;
ndeplinesc urmtoarele funcii:
Bank of the bank function;
Funcia de emisiune;
Center office and foreign reserve
Funcia de banc a statului, a administraiei i a management function;
serviciilor publice;
Prudence and surveillance function;
Funcia de banc a bncilor;
Occasional economic functions;
Funcia de centru valutar i de gestionare a
rezervei valutare;
Issuing function
Funcia prudenial i de supraveghere;
Funcii economice ocazionale;
Decisional stage in the issuing banks
development was regulating by the state the
Funcia de emisiune
issue system and especially the establishment
Etapa hotrtoare n dezvoltarea
of monopoly on the issue by assigning the
bncilor de emisiune a fost reglementarea de
privilege to some banks and finally to one bank
ctre stat a sistemului de emisiune i mai ales
or banks under a federal system.
instituirea monopolului asupra emisiunii prin
Currently central bank has the sole right to
atribuirea acestui privilegiu unor bnci i, n
issue currency as legal way of payment, is the
final,unei singure bnci sau unor bnci
only having the right to establish the nominal
ncadrate ntr-un sistem federal.
value, size, weight, design and other features of
n present banca central deine dreptul banknotes and coins. Under the same right, the
exclusive de a emite nsemne monetare ca
central bank assures the printing of banknotes,
mijloace legale de plat, este singuara n drept minting of metal coins and their withdrawal,
s stabileasc valoarea nominal, dimensiunile, and the destruction of withdrawn coins. The
greutatea, desenul, precum i alte caracteristici central bank may cancel or withdraw from
ale bancnotelor i monezilor. n virtutea
circulation any banknotes and coins that were
aceluiai drept, banca central asigur tiprirea issued and, instead, putting into service of
bancnotelor, baterea monezilor metalice i
other types of coins.
punerea lor n circulaie, precum i retragerea
To prevent the issuance of money without
i distrugerea nsemnelor monetare retrase. De coverage, by statute shall be required to settle
asemenea,banca central poate dispune
cash in circulation, issued by Central Bank,
anularea sau retragerea din circulaie a oricror over the level of international reserves, to be
bancnote sau monede metalice care au fost
entirely covered by government securities held
emise i, n locul acestora, punerea n circulaie in investment portfolio, through assets
a altor tipuri de nsemne monetare.
resulting from credits offered to banks and
Pentru a preveni emiterea de moned
other legal bodies granted under the law, or by
fr acoperire,prin statut se stabilete obligaia checks, drafts and other debt securities
ca trana de numerar aflat n circulaie, emisa expected or held in portfolio.
de BC, peste nivelul rezervelor internaionale,
s fie acoperit integral prin titluri de stat
deinute n portofoliul de investiii, prin active
rezultate din credite acordate bncilor i altor
personane juridice, n condiiile legii, sau prin
State bank, Bank of the administration and
cecuri, cambia i alte titluri de credit scontate
public services Function
sau deinute n portofoliu.
This function reflects the task of the bank to
4

Funcia de banca a statului, a administratiei


publice i a serviciilor publice
Aceast funcie reflect sarcina bncii
de a deine i a administra conturile statului,
ale cror solduri figureaz n pasivul bilanului.
Bncile de emisiune, prin unitaile de
trezorrie, sunt n general casierul statului, n
conturile lor, la nivel central, reflectndu-se
execuia bugetului de stat. Totodat, statul este
pentru banca de emisiune unul dintre
principalii beneficiari de credite.Titlurile de
credit emise de ctre stat n postura sa de
debitor (bonuri de tezaur, titluri de rent,
obligaiuni) ocup un loc important printre
activele bncilor de emisiuni.
n afara acestor diferenieri n
gestionarea depozitelor i plilor publice,
banca central joac un rol direct sau indirect
n finanarea statului sau administraiei publice.
De asemenea, BC finaneaz statul, direct sau
indirect, prin achiziia de titluri publice pe
piaa de open- market.
Datorit interveniilor de finanare direct
sau indirect, bncile centrale ndeplinesc rolul
esenial de consilier i realizator al emisiunilor
de titluri pentru contul statului. Astfel, BC
organizeaz sindicate pentru achiziii de
mprumuturi, administreaz datoria public i
plata anual a dobnzilor la titluri de stat, toate
aceste atribuiuni atestnd, ntr-o msur
considerabila, funcia de banca a statului.

hold and manage state accounts, whose balance


is reflected in the liability side of the balance
sheet.
Issue banks by treasury units are generally "the
cashier" of the state, in their accounts at the
central level, reflecting the implementation of
the state budget. At the same time, the state is
for the bank one of the main beneficiary of
credits . State credit titles issued in its debtor
position (treasury bills, bonds of rent, bonds)
represent an important part of the issuing
banks assets.
In addition to these differences in management
and payment of public deposits,the central
bank plays a direct or indirect role in funding
the state or government. Also, the central bank
finances the state, directly or indirectly,
through purchase of government securities on
markets of "open market".
Thanks to assistance to direct or indirect
funding, central banks meet the essential role
of adviser and issuer for state securities. Thus,
central bank organizes unions for purchase
loans, administers public debt and annual
payment of interest for government securities,
all these attributions attesting to a considerable
matter, the bank of the state function.

Bank of the banks function


This function combines three activities,
linked between them, executed by the central
Funcia de banc a bncilor
bank
Aceasta funcie reunete trei activiti, srtns
Each bank of the 2nd rank has an account at
legate ntre ele, pe care le desfaoar banca
the central bank, which cannot be charged, and
central.
on which can be realized interbanking transfers
1. fiecare banc de rang secundar are un cont la and compensations.
banca central, care nu poate fi debitor, i pe
If in the process of compensation some banks
baza caruia pot fi realizate viramente i
need refinancing, then central bank may, under
compensri interbancare.
certain conditions, provide the necessary
2. dac n procesul compensrilor, anumite
resources, fueling monetary market. Can occur
bnci au nevoie de refinanare, atunci banca
situations where central bank can absorb
cenral poate , n anumite condiii, s furnizeze liquidities from the market, if it is considered
resursele necesare, alimentnd piaa monetar. they are in surplus.
Se poate manifesta i situaia n care BC poate Central bank should use monetary market
absorbi lichiditi de pe pia, dac se
interventions to maintain weight and monetary
consider ca acestea sunt n surplus.
rate within the limitations fixed by monetary
3. BC trebuie s utilizeze interveniile pe piaa authorities.
monetar pentru a menine masa monetar i
rata dobnzii n limitele fixate de ctre
Monetary policy represents all means used by
autoritatea monetar
monetary authorities of each country to reach
Politica monetar reprezint ansamblul set monetary goals. In some countries,
5

mijloacelor utilizate de ctre autoritile


monetare din fiecare ar pentru atingerea
obiectivelor monetare fixate. n unele ri,
politica monatar este considerat, n
exclusivitate, un mijloc de meninere a
stabilitii preurilor i de lupt contra inflaiei,
iar n altele se apreciaz c trebuie s
acompanieze politica bugetar n
reglementarea creterii economice.
Funcia de centru valutar i gestionar al
rezervelor valutare
Sub aceast denumire este desemnat o
tripl funcie a bncii centrale:
Asigurarea ,singur sau la concuren cu
bncile de rang secundar, a schimbului de
moned naional n devize;
Pstrarea i gestionarea rezervelor valutare;
Supravegherea ratei de schimb a monedei
naionale.
Banca de emisiune, ca centru valutar
al rii, dobndete atribuii pe linia aplicrii
politicii valutare a statului sub forma unor
restricii valutare (a contingentrii importurilor
i controlul plilor n devize, a prelurii unei
pri din ncasri valutare din exporti) sau
aplicrii unor stimulente la export de genul
primelor la export, al subvenionrii axportului.

monetary policy is considered exclusively a


mean of keeping prices stable and fight against
inflation, while in others it is considered that
there should accompany budgetary policy in
regulating economic growth.
Center office and foreign reserve management
function
Under this name is represented a triple function
of central bank:
Ensure, alone or competing with secondary
banks ranking, in exchange of national
currency ;
Storage conditions and management of
foreign reserves;
Monitoring the currency exchange rate.
Bank of issue, as an exchange center of the
country, acquires powers in line applying
foreign policy of the state in the form of
currency restrictions (the quota of imports and
control of currency payment, taking currency
parties from collections of export) or applying
export incentives like the export bonuses, or
export subsidies .

Prudence and surveillance function


Funcia prudenial i disciplinar
Prin funcia disciplinar este neleas
exercitarea controlului asupra bncilor i
instituiilor de credit, n scopul asigurrii
securitii depozitelor si al prevenirii
falimentelor bancare.
Cmpul de aplicare al acestei funcii este
urmtorul:
autorizarea exercitrii activitii bancare,
crearea i transformarea bncilor;
concentrarea i divizarea riscurilor bancare
lichiditatea i solvabilitatea bancar
Funcia economic
Toate funciile precedente ale bncii
centrale presupun i o implicare economic a
acesteia. Astfel, atunci cnd se realizeaz
emisiunea monetar, sau se supravegheaz
cursul valutar sau rata de schimb, sau atunci
cnd se intervine pe piaa monetar, pentru a
influena rata dobnzii, bncile centrale
ndeplinesc i o funcie economic.

Through surveillance function is understood


exercising control over banks and credit
institutions in order of assuring security of
bank deposits and prevent bankruptcies.
Scope of this feature are:
- Authorization banking activity, creating and
transformation of banks;
- Concentration and bank risk division
- Bank liquidity and solvency
The economic function
All previous functions of the central bank
require the economic implication of it. Thus,
when realizing monetary issuance, or
supervising exchange rate or exchange rate, or
when intervening on the monetary market
comes in order to influence interest rates,
central banks meet also the economic function.
10.3 Commercial banks - role, functions,
operations
6

10.3. Bncile comerciale rol, funcii,


operaiuni
Rolul bncilor n cadrul unei economii poate fi
analizat, n primul rnd, prin utilizarea
conceptului de intermediere ntre agenii
debitori i creditori din economie, iar n al
doilea rnd prin funciile tradiionale de
finanare, de colectare a depozitelor i de
gestionare a mijloacelor de plat.
Pentru a evidenia rolul bncilor, este
necesar situarea acestora n cadrul sistemului
financiar, al cror element principal l
constituie. Pe plan financiar, exist la nivelul
unei economii, dou categorii de participani,
ale cror preocupri sunt complementare,
respectiv cei care au necesiti de finanare i
care doresc procurarea de resurse, pe de o
parte, i cei cu capaciti de finanare i care
doresc plasarea eficient a resurselor lor.
Funcia sistemului financiar este de a asigura
interfaa dintre agenii excedentari i cei
deficitari.
Pornid de la acest dublu rol, i de la
calitatea lor de intermediar, bncile ndeplinesc
3 funcii importante:
Constituirea de resurse prin atragerea
disponibilitilor temporale ale clienilor
Utilizarea, respectiv plasarea acestor resurse
prin acordri de credite.
Asigurarea mecanismului de funcionare a
plilor prin efectuarea de viramente i pli n
numerar.
Procedura de creare a bncii
Banca Naional este investit cu
dreptul exclusiv de a elibera autorizaii
bncilor. Suma minima subscris i depus n
capitalul bancii se stabileste n cuantum de 100
de milioane de lei.
Pentru eliberarea autorizaiei de a
desfura activiti financiare se depune la
Banca Naional, n modul stabilit de ea, o
cerere scris, la care se anexeaza:
a) date despre calificarea i experiena
administratorilor viitoarei instituii financiare,
activitatea lor profesional din ultimii 10 ani;
b) date despre capitalul viitoarei bnci care se
prevede sa fie pltit;
c) business-planul viitoarei bnci cuprinzind
structura organizatoric, tipurile de activiti
financiare preconizate, pronosticul rezultatelor

The role of banks in the economy can be


analyzed, first by using the concept of
intermediation between borrowers and lenders
in the economy, and secondly through the
traditional functions of funding, collection of
deposits and management of means of
payment.
To highlight the role of banks, they should be
placed within the financial system, whose main
element is. Financially, there are in the
economy, two categories of participants, whose
interests are complementary, that those who
need funding and willing availability of
resources , on one hand, and those seeking
financing and capacity placement of their
resources efficiently. Financial systems
function is to provide "interface" between
excess agencies and the deficit ones.
Taking into consideration this double function,
banks, as intermediaries, have 3 important
functions:
1. To build up resources by attracting
temporary reserves of clients
2. To use and place these resources through
granting credits
3. To assure the mechanism of functioning of
payments through transfer or cash payment.
The procedure of bank creation
The National Bank has the exclusive right to
issue licenses to commercial banks. The
minimum amount subscribed and paid in the
banks capital equals to 100 mln lei.
Licenses for financial activities shall be applied
for in written form at the National Bank with
the attachment of the following information:
Information about the qualification and
experience of the administrators of the future
financial institution including the professional
activity for the past 10 years.
Information on the expected paid in capital of
the proposed financial institute
The business plan of the future bank including:
organizational structure, types of planned
financial activities, forecast of the financial
results for the following 3 years, ect.
Information regarding the name, residence
7

financiare pentru urmtorii 3 ani etc.;


d) informaii privitoare la numele (denumirea),
domiciliul (sediul), activitatea comerciala sau
profesional din ultimii 10 ani i cota de
participare a fiecrei persoane care
intenioneaz s dein 10% sau mai mult din
aciunile cu drept de vot ale bncii. n scopul
aplicrii acestei prevederi asupra persoanelor
afiliate, cota de participare a acestora se
stabileste prin agregarea cotelor lor;
e) orice alte informatii prevazute de
regulamentele Bancii Nationale.
Cererea de eliberare a autorizaiei
pentru filialele i sucursalele unei bnci strine
se depune de ctre aceasta n modul stabilit
prin regulamentele Bncii Naionale.
Dup aprobarea preliminar a cererii,
Banca Naional stabilete urmtoarele cerine
pentru primirea autorizaiei:
a) depunerea capitalului iniial, care nu trebuie
s fie mai mic dect capitalul minim necesar;
b) angajarea de specialiti;
c) ncheierea de contract cu o firm de audit;
d) nchirierea sau cumpararea de utilaj pentru
efectuarea operaiunilor bancare i de edificii
bancare.
Dac n decursul unui an banca nu ndeplinete
cerinele enumerate, aprobarea preliminar a
cererii se anuleaz. Dac cerinele enumerate
sunt satisfcute, Banca Naional elibereaz
autorizaia n termen de o luna.
Bncile pot desfura, n limita
autorizaiei acordate, urmtoarele activiti:
a) acceptarea de depozite (pltibile la vedere
sau la termen etc.) cu sau fr dobnd;
b) acordarea de credite (de consum i
ipotecare, factoring cu sau fara drept de regres,
finanarea tranzaciilor comerciale, eliberarea
garaniilor i cauiunilor etc.);
c) mprumutarea de fonduri, cumprarea ori
vnzarea, n cont propriu sau n contul
clienilor (cu excepia subscrierii hrtiilor de
valoare), de:
- instrumente ale pieei financiare (cecuri,
cambii i certificate de depozit etc.);
- futures i optioane financiare privind titlurile
de valoare i ratele dobnzii;
- instrumente privind rata dobnzii;
- titluri de valoare;
d) acordarea de servicii de decontri i
ncasri;
e) emiterea i administrarea instrumentelor de

(headquarter), business and professional


history for the past 10 years and the share of
each person that intends to own an equivalent
of 10 % or more of the shares which provides
the right to vote (common shares). For
applying this measure upon affiliated persons,
the participation share of these is established
through aggregation of their shares.
Other information stipulated by the regulations
of the National Bank.
The request for license issuance for branches
and subdivisions of a foreign bank is applied
according to the regulations of the National
Bank.
After the preliminary approval of the request,
the National Bank establishes the following
conditions for receiving the authorization:
depositing of the initial capital which can not
be less than the minimum required capital
hiring of specialists
signing an agreement with an auditing firm
purchasing or leasing the equipment and fixed
assets for performing banking operations and
bank building.
If within one year, the bank doesnt satisfy the
above mentioned requirements, the preliminary
approval of the request is canceled. If the
described requirements are satisfied, the
National Bank of Moldova will issue the
license within one month.
Banks can carry on, within the authorization
received, the following activities:
Accept deposits ( current and time deposits)
with or without interests
Grant credits (consumption credits and
mortgage, factoring with or without regression,
financing of commercial transactions, to issue
guaranties and cautions ect)
Lend funds , buy or sell, on their own behalf or
on the behalf of the clients (except the
subscriptions of securities), of :
-financial market instruments (checks, bills and
certificates of deposit ect)
-financial features and options regarding
securities and interest rates
-instruments regarding the interests rates
-securities
4. Provide services of payment and receipts of
money.
5. Issue and administrate instruments of
8

plat (cri de credit sau de plat, cecuri de


voiaj, cambii bancare etc.);
f) cumprarea i vnzarea banilor (inclusiv a
valutei strine);
g) leasing financiar;
h) acordarea de servicii aferente la credit;
i) acordarea de servicii ca agent sau consultant
financiar, cu exceptia celor de la lit. a) si b);
j) operaiuni n valut strin, inclusiv
contracte futures de vnzare a valutei strine;
k) acordarea de servicii fiduciare (investirea i
gestionarea fondurilor fiduciare), pstrarea i
administrarea hrtiilor de valoare i altor valori
etc.;
l) acordarea de servicii de gestionare a
portofoliului de investiii i acordarea de
consultaii privind investiiile;
m) subscrierea i plasarea titlurilor de valoare
i aciunilor, operaiunile cu aciuni;
n) orice alt activitate financiar permis de
Banca Naional.

payment (payment and credit card, travel


checks and bank bills)
6. Buy and sell money, including foreign
currency.
7. Financial leasing
8. Provide credit reference services
9. Provide services as an agent or financial
consultant except those mentioned above in the
point 1) and 2)
10. Executing foreign currency operations
including future contracts of selling foreign
currency
11. Provide trust services (investment and
administration of funds received in trust), safe
keeping and administration of securities and
other valuables.
12. Provide services as an investment portfolio
manager and investment advisor
13. Underwriting and distribution of shares and
securities, operations with shares
14. Any other financial activity permitted by
the National Bank.
Operations of commercial banks
There is a strong interdependence between
active and passive operations (asset operations
and liability operations) of commercial banks.
The structure and nature of liability operations
characterize mostly the possibility of the banks
to perform asset operations and, at the same
time, the change of the policy of the banks in
the sphere of crediting can influence essentially
the nature of resources. Still, from historical
Operaiunile bncilor comerciale:
point of view, liability operations had priority
ntre operaiunile pasive i cele active ale
over asset operations, because for performing
bncilor comerciale exist o interdependen
asset operations a mandatory condition is the
puternic. Structura i caracterul pasivelor
sufficiency of financial resources.
determin n mare msur posibilitile bncii
Liability operations are operations that bring
de a efectua operaiuni active i, n acelai
out modifications in the liability side of the
timp, schimbarea politicii bncii n domeniul
banks balance sheet and are characterized by
creditrii poate influena esenial caracterul
bank resource formation both own resources
resurselor. i totui, din punct de vedere
and attracted one. The essence of these types of
istoric, operaiunile pasive aveau un rol
operations is attracting different types of
prioritar fa de cele active, deoarece pentru
deposits , receiving credits and loans from the
efectuarea operaiunilor active o condiie
National Bank and other commercial banks,
obligatorie este suficiena resurselor financiare. receiving loans from international financial
institutions, issuance of own securities and
Operaiunile pasive reprezint operaiuni care
performing other operations which increase the
provoac modificri prin pasivul bilanului
volume of bank resources.
bancar i se caracterizeaz prin formarea
According to their origin, financial resources of
resurselor bancare att a celor proprii, ct i a
commercial banks can be classified in 2 big
resurselor atrase. Esena acestui tip de
categories:
operaiuni const n atragerea diferitor tipuri de
owners equity
9

depozite, primirea creditelor i mprumuturilor


de la alte bnci comerciale i de la Banca
Naional, primirea mprumuturilor de la
instituiile financiare internaionale, emisiunea
valorilor mobiliare proprii, precum i
realizarea altor operaiuni n rezultatul crora
se majoreaz volumul resurselor bncii.
Dup sursa de provenien a lor, resursele
financiare ale bncilor comerciale se clasific
n dou categorii mari:
1. capital propriu (resursele proprii);
2. capital mprumutat (resursele atrase).
Dei ambele componente sunt diferite ca
structur i ca rol, ambele servesc la finanarea
proiectelor bancare i se afl ntr-o
interconexiune: existena capitalului propriu
garanteaz rambursabilitatea capitalului
mprumutat. Mrimea capitalului propriu
condiioneaz existena i volumul capitalului
atras.
Capitalul normativ total include suma
capitalului de gradul nti i a capitalului de
gradul doi, minus cotele de participare n
capitalul altor bnci care dein autorizaia
Bncii Naionale a Moldovei.
Capitalul de gradul nti este
componenta de baz a capitalului normativ
total, care include suma dintre aciunile
ordinare aflate n circulaie, aciunile
prefereniale cu dividende nefixate i aciunile
prefereniale cu dividende fixate necumulative
emise cu termen nelimitat, surplusul de capital
i profitul nedistribuit minus mrimea
necompletat a reducerilor pentru pierderi de la
credite (fondul de risc) i leasing financiar.
Capitalul de gradul doi este
componenta suplimentar a capitalului
normativ total i include suma aciunilor
prefereniale cumulative i parial cumulative
cu scaden nefixat, surplusul de capital
atribuit aciunilor prefereniale cumulative i
parial cumulative, datoriile subordonate minus
mrimea sumei termenilor enumerai mai sus
ce depesc mrimea capitalului de gradul nti.
Suma minima subscrisa si depusa n
capitalul bancii se stabileste de BNM n
cuantum de 100 de milioane de lei.
Premisele majorrii capitalului iniiate
de Banca Naional a Moldovei au fost
alinierea la standardele internaionale i
lichidarea unor bnci slabe cu un capital
insuficient, care ar putea pune n pericol

liabilities
Although both components are different as
structure and role, they are both used for
financing banking projects and both are
interconnected: the existence of owners equity
grants the reimbursement of borrowed capital.
The amount of owners equity conditions the
existence and the volume of attracted capital.
Total regulatory capital includes the sum of
tier one capital and tier two capital minus the
participation quotas in the capital of other
banks that have the authorization of the
National Bank of Moldova.
Tier one ca capital is the basic component of
total regulatory capital, which includes sum
of:
Common shares
Preferred shares with unfixed interest
Preferred non-cumulative shares with fixed
interest issued for an unlimited term
Surplus of capital and non-distributed profit
minus the incomplete amount of decrease for
losses from credits (risk fund) and financial
leasing
Tier two capital is the supplementary, auxiliary
component part of total regulatory capital and
it includes the sum of:
Cumulative and partial cumulative preferred
shares with unfixed due date
Surplus of capital regarding cumulative and
partial cumulative preferred shares
Subordinated debts minus the sum of above
mentioned terms which overcome the amount
of tier one capital.
The minimum sum subscribed and deposited
into the capital of the bank is established by the
National Bank of Moldova in the amount of
100 mln lei.
The premises of capital increase initiated by
National Bank of Moldova have been the
alignment to international standards and the
liquidation of weak banks with an insufficient
capital which could danger the viability of the
entire banking system.
These strict regulations also derive from the
major importance of equity capital and of the
functions it performs:
Equity protects depositors in case of bank
insolvability;
It absorbs the unpredictable losses and assures
the stability in case of problematic situations ,
10

viabilitatea de ansamblu a sistemului bancar.


Aceste reglementri stricte deriv i din
importana major a capitalui propriu i a
funciilor pe care le ndeplinete:
capitalul propriu protejeaz deponenii n
cazul insolvabilitii bncii;
absoarbe pierderile neanticipate i asigur
stabilitatea n cazul situaiilor problematice,
astfel se creaz o perioad de timp pentru ca
banca s-i reorganizeze activitatea;
capitalul propriu servete o prghie prin
intermediul creia autoritatea monetar
reglementeaz activitatea bancar.
Operaiunile active reprezint pentru bncile
comerciale operaiunile de utilizare a resurselor
mobilizate de ctre instituiile bancare sub
forma atragerii de depozite, a contractrii de
mprumuturi sau din alte surse n vederea
ndeplinirii funciilor specifice.
Aa cum se cunoate, o banc are un
volum de capital redus n raport cu totalul
pasivelor sale, aa nct plasamentele efectuate
vor fi corelate cu resursele pe termen scurt,
mediu i lung atrase. Pentru a nregistra profit
bncile trebuie s utilizeze ct mai eficient
resursele atrase, astfel nct plasarea lor s se
efectueze la rate active de dobnd mai nalte
dect cele pltite. La nivel agregat, eficiena
este dat de o diferen pozitiv ntre
plasamente i resurse, respectiv ntre dobnzile
ncasate (active) i cele plasate (pasive).
Putem concluziona c unul dintre
obiectivele managementului bancar este
meninerea pe ansamblu a unui raport
supraunitar ntre dobnzile la utilizri i cele la
resursele constituite.

in such a way creating a period of time in


which the bank could reorganize its activity
Equity serves as means through which the
monetary authority regulates the activity of the
bank.
Asset operations represent for commercial
banks- the operation of use of mobilized
resources by the banking institutions under the
form of deposit attracting, raising loans or
other sources with the purpose of performing
specific functions.
As known, a bank has the volume of capital
less than its total liabilities, so that investments
(placements) made will be correlated with the
short, medium and long term attracted
resources. For registering a profit, banks have
to use in the most efficient way their attracted
resources, so that their investment (placement)
could be executed at active interest rates higher
than those paid. At the aggregate level, the
efficiency is provided by the positive
difference between the investments and
resources, and respectively between the
collected interests rates (active) and placed
interest rates (passive).
We can conclude that one of the objectives of
the banking management is to maintain an
overall supra-unitary rapport between the
interest in use and those in continuing
resources.

The main asset operations of the banks are:


Cash on hand
Current accounts and deposits in other
commercial banks
Current accounts opened at the central
bank
Principalele operaiuni active ale bncilor sunt:
Treasury securities and other securities
disponibilul aflat n casierie;
owned by the bank
conturile curente i depozitele plasate la
loans of different categories
alte bnci comerciale;
lease receivables;
conturile curente deschise la banca
equity;
central;
tangible;
titlurile de trezorerie i alte titluri
goodwill;
deinute de banc;
intangible assets;
creditele de diverse categorii;
Other categories of assets.
creanele din leasing;
titlurile de participaie;
imobilizrile corporale;
fondul de comer;
11

imobilizrile necorporale;
alte categorii de active.

Acte legislative
1. Legea cu privire la instituiile financiare, 550-XIII de la 21 iulie 1995
2. Legea cu privire la Banca Naional a Moldovei, 548-XIII de la 21 iulie 1995
3. Regulamentul cu privire la autorizarea bncilor nr.23/09-01 din 15 august 1996.
4. Regulament cu privire la deschiderea filialelor de ctre bnci nr 37/09-01 din 15/11/1996
Manuale, monografii
1. Alexandru Olteanu Management bancar, Editura Dareco Bucureti, 2003
2. Alexandru Olteanu, Florin Manuel Olteanu, Leonardo Badea Management bancar.
Caracteristici. Strategii. Studii de caz.,Editura Dareco, Bucureti,2003.
3. Alexandru Olteanu, Mdlina Antoaneta (Olteanu) Rdoi Politici i strategii naionale i
comunitare n domeniul financiar-bancar, Editura Dareco Bucureti, 2005
4.

Alina Bratu, Moned, credit, bnci, editura Ex Ponto, Bucureti,2005;

5.

Aurelian Alexandru, Paul Berea, Bncile. Modernizarea sistemului bancar, editura Expert,
Bucureti 2003;

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