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MORFOLOGIA

Gr. morphe = form, logos = studiu)


Morfologia este partea gramaticii care cuprinde regulile de modicare
a cuvintelor n procesul comunicrii. Ea studiaz pr'ile de vorbire sub aspect
formal, semantic i func'ional.
Pr'ile de vorbire sunt:
1. Articolul The Article)
2. Substantivul The Noun)
3. Adjectivul The Adjective)
4. Pronumele The Pronoun)
5. Numeralul The Numeral)
6. Verbul The Verb)
7. Adverbul The Adverb)
8. Prepozi'ia The Preposition)
9. ConjuncCia The Conjunction)
10. InterjecCia The Interjection)
1.1. ARTICOLUL (THE ARTICLE)
Este un instrument gramatical care individualizeaz sau determin un
substantiv. PrezenCa lui dovedete c substantivul pe care-l nsoCete este
deja cunoscut de interlocutor.
1.1.1. Articolul hotrt (The Denite Article) este the
PronunCat [ naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu o consoan sau semiconsoan the ball [bo-l] the window [`wind_
PronunCat [I/i] n faCa cuvintelor care ncep cu o vocal the eye [i
ai] the apple [i `Epl] singular: plural:
The girl [g|l] = fata the girls [g|lz] = fetele the boy [Boi] = biatul
the boys [Boiz] = bieCii the tree [trI] = copacul the trees [trIz] = copacii
the cat [kEt] = pisica the cats [kEts] = pisicile
Articolul hotrt apare ntr-un mare numr de expresii:
On the one side/hand = pe de o parte on the other side/hand = pe de
alt parte at the same time = n acelai timp etc
Articolul hotrt plasat n faCa unor adjective d acestora sensul unor
substantive la numrul plural:
Adj. rich = bogat-bogat, bogaCi-bogate the rich = cei bogaCi cele
bogate adj. poor = srac-srac, sraci-srace the poor = cei sraci cele
srace
Articolul hotrt apare la gradul superlativ relativ al adjectivelor:
The best = cel mai bun, cea mai bun, cei mai buni, cele mai bune the
least = cel mai puCin, cea mai puCin, cei mai puCini, cele mai puCine the
biggest = cel mai mare, cea mai mare, cei mai mari, cele mai mari the most

interesting = cel mai interesant, cea mai interesant, cei mai interesan i, cele
mai interesante etc
Articolul hotrt apare i n structura the., the. = cu ct., cu att. (dou
comparative juxtapuse)
The earlier you come, the better it is. = Cu ct vii/veni i mai devreme
cu att e mai bine.
The more we are, the easier it is. = Cu ct suntem mai mul i, cu att
este mai uor.
The more interesting the book is, the more I like it. = Cu ct cartea este
mai interesant, cu att mi place mai mult.
Articolul hotrt se intercaleaz de regul ntre un substantiv precedat
de o prepozi ie i prepozi ia respectiv.
A house n the forest = o cas n pdure a boat on the lake = o barc
pe lac across the road = peste drum at the end = la sfrit at the door = la
u n the end = n nal n the moming = diminea a n the village = n sat n
the shade = la umbr
Articolul hotrt poate ntlnit n unele denumiri geograce:
The Black Sea, The Danube, The Carpathians, The Alps, The Himalaya
Mountains, The Thames, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northem
Ireland, The Commonwealth of Australia States and Territories, The United
States of America, The Sahara Desert, The Atlantic Ocean, The Indian Ocean,
The Pacic Ocean etc.
Articolul hotrt nso ete, de obicei, substantivele cnd acestea sunt
acompaniate/precedate de adjective.
n the rst/second/third/etc. Sentence = n prima/a doua/a treia/etc.
Propozi ie n the course of time = n decursul timpului, de-a lungul timpului n
the second half = n a doua jumtate n the days/months that followed = n
zilele/lunile care au urmat
Mount Everest is the highest mountain n the world. = Muntele Everest
este cel mai nalt munte din lume.
Articolul hotrt the se mai traduce n limba romn prin articolele
adjectivale cel, cea, cei, cele sau articolele posesive al, a, ai, ale.
Alfred the Great = Alfred cel Mare
Stephen the Great = "tefan cel Mare
The Second World War = Cel de al doilea rzboi mondial.
1.1.2. Articolul nehotrt (The Indenite Article) este:
A [- naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu consoan sau semiconsoan:
A dog [`dog] = un cine a wall [`wOl] = un zid/perete a 4ower [`4au=
o 4oare a year [`ji = un an
An [] naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu vocal:
An apple [`Epl] = un mr an eye [`ai] = un ochi an ear [`i= o ureche an
idea [ai`di= o idee
Articolul nehotrt introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate
ntlnit:
n fa a substantivelor nso ite/precedate de adjective:

A good teacher = un profesor bun a big house = o cas mare a book of


proverbs = o carte de proverbe a house on re = o cas n cri a little tea
= puin/destul ceai
n unele structuri:
A tobacconists = o tutungerie a bakers = o brutrie a greengrocers =
un aprozar a blue eyed girl = o fat cu ochi albatri a confectioners = o
cofetrie a jewellers = un magazin de bijuterii a chemist s = o farmacie a
stationers = o papetrie once upon a time = a fost odat a grocer s = o
bcnie two/three at a time = cte doi/trei o dat
Articolul nehotrt are n unele cazuri funcie numeric:
A hundred = o sut a thousand = o mie two saucers and an ash-tray =
dou farfurioare i o scrumier
1.1.3. Articolul zero (The Zero Article)
Articolul zero apare:
A) n nume de continente, ri, persoane, zilele sptmnii etc.
Exemple: Africa, Asia, America, Europe, England, France, Italy,
Romania, Sunday, Alice, Bob, George, John, Mary, Peter, Richard, William etc.
B) n faa subsantivelor folosite n sens general:
Children like sweets. = Copiilor le plac dulciurile.
Knowledge is power. = tiina nseamn putere.
Oil is lighter than water. = Uleiul este mai uor dect apa.
Boys like toys and lots of noise. = Bieilor le plac jucriile i mult
zgomot.
C) n faa subsantivelor nenumrabile (uncountables):
Gold is yellow. = Aurul este galben.
This house is made of wood. = Aceast cas este fcut din lemn.
D) naintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: care, death,
hatred, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water etc.
Salt seasons all things. (prov.) = Sarea d gust tuturor lucrurilor.
Multe substantive abstracte apar n proverbe.
Hunger is the best sauce. = Foamea este cel mai bun buctar.
E) nume de: culori (white, black, yellow, red, green, brown, pink, violet,
orange, blue, black), sporturi i jocuri sportive (football, volleyball, basketball,
hockey, tennis etc.), limbi (English, Romanian, German, French etc.), mese
(breakfast, snack, lunch, tea, dinner, supper).
F) n unele expresii/structuri xe, care trebuie memorate pentru
evitarea greelilor.
After dark = dup lsarea ntunericului after three oclock = dup ora
trei after dinner = dup cin day by day = zi de zi drop by drop = strop cu
strop day after day = zi dup zi, zi de zi from end to end = de la cap la cap
from rst to last = de la primul la ultimul from place to place = din loc n loc
from time to time = din cnd n cnd good for food = comestibil goods on
sale = mrfuri/bunuri de vnzare n general = n general to leam by heart =
a nva pe de rost piece by piece = bucat cu bucat
Just n time = chiar la timp/moment to leave for school = a pleca la
coal to keep n mind = a ine minte to be on duty = a de serviciu to go on

foot = a merge pe jos to put n order = a pune n ordine to be n parliament


= a n parlament to go to bed = a merge la culcare from London = de la
Londra to look for help/aid = a cuta ajutor to pay on demand = a plti la
cerere from moming to night = de dimineaa pn seara from beginning to
end = de la nceput la sfrit on certain conditions = cu anumite condiii
1.2. SUSBTANTIVUL (THE NOUN)
Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans = substan; sub = sub/
dedesubt, stans = aezat) este partea de vorbire care denumete ine,
obiecte, stri, noiuni, nsuiri etc.
1.2.1. Clasicare
Comune (Common Nouns) dog (cine), cat (pisic), bird (pasre), house
(cas), apple (mr), girl (fat), boy (biat), water (ap).
Proprii (Proper Nouns)
John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain
etc.
Abstracte (Abstract Nouns) friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom
(nelepciune), safety (siguran), theory (teorie), gratitude (recunotin) etc.
Inidividuale (Individual Nouns) man (brbat), house (cas), stone
(piatr), tree (copac) etc.
Colective (Collective Nouns) team (echip), army (armat), family
(familie), eet (ot), crowd (mulime), ock (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup)
etc.
Nume de materie (Names of Matter) water (ap), air (aer), re (foc),
beer (bere), milk (lapte), steel (oel), silver (argint), gold (aur), snow
(zpad), wine (vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc.
1.2.2. Genul substantivelor (The Gender of the Nouns) masculin
(masculine) feminin (feminine) he = el) she = ea) actor = actor actress =
actri bachelor = celibatar spinster = celibatar barman = barman barmaid
= barmani boy = biat girl = fat bridegroom = ginere bride = mireas
brother = frate sister = sor dad/daddy = tati/tticu mam/mammy = mami
earl = conte countess = contes father = tat mother = mam gentleman =
domn gentlewoman = doamn god = zeu goddess = zei grandfather =
grandpa = bunic grandmother = grandma = bunic hero = erou heroine =
eroin husband = so wife = soie king = rege queen = regin lad = cu
lass = fat landlord = proprietar landlady = proprietreas man = brbat
woman = femeie master = stpn mistress = stpn monk = clugr nun
= clugri nephew = nepot niece = nepoat papa/daddy = tata mamma/
mammy = mama policeman = poliist policewoman = poliist prince = prin
princess = prines salesman = vnztor saleswoman = vnztoare sir =
domn madam = doamn son = u daughter = ic tutor = tutore governess
= guvernant uncle = unchi aunt = mtu neutru (neuter) comun (common)
it = el/ea) he/she = el/ea) air = aer associate = asociat/asociat ball =
minge architect = arhitect/arhitect book = carte artist = artist/artist box =
cutie beginner = nceptor/nceptoare bread = pine author = autor/
autoare building = cldire child = copil/copil bus = autobuz buyer =

cumprtor/cumprtoare crocodile = crocodil client = client/client error =


gre#eal companion = nsoitor/nsoitoare sh = pete cook = buctar/
buctreas ag = drapel cousin = verior/verioar ute = aut customer
= client/client fork = furculi customs o5cer = vame/vame glory =
glorie dancer = dansator/dansatoare helicopter = elicopter doctor = doctor/
doctori honour = onoare dreamer = vistor/vistoare house = cas driver
= ofer/oferi impression = impresie dyer = vopsitor/vopsitoare
indi2erence = indiferen economist = economist/economist kangaroo =
cangur engineer = inginer/inginer land = pmnt examiner=examinator/
examinatoare legend = legend ghter = lupttor/lupttoare light = lumin
friend = prieten/prieten march = mar guest = musar/musar medal =
medalie interpreter = interpret/interpret microbe = microb journalist =
jurnalist/jurnalist minaret = minaret owner = posesor/posesoare monkey =
maimu painter = pictor/pictori mouse = oarece parent = printe
mushroom = ciuperc
Masculin (masculine) feminin (feminine) he = el) she = ea) boy friend
= prieten girl friend = prieten brother n law = cumnat sister n law =
cumnat bull = taur cow = vac cock = coco hen = gin dog = cine bitch
= cea drake = roi duck = ra father n law = socru mother n law
= soacr sherman = pescar
Fox = vulpoi vixen = vulpe gipsy/gypsy = igan gipsy/gypsy woman =
iganc grandson = nepot granddaughter = nepoat horse = cal mare = iap
host = gazd hostess = gazd lion = leu lioness = leoaic lord = domn lady
= doamn man-servant = servitor maid servant = servitoare
Mr. = domnul
Miss/Mrs. = domnioara/doamna negro = negru negress = negres ox
= bou cow = vac peasant = ran peasant woman = ranc pirate = pirat
Postman = pota
Schoolboy = colar schoolgirl = colri soldier = soldat
Son n law = ginere daughter n law = nor steward = stevard
stewardess = stevardes tom cat = pisoi pussy cat = pisic turkey cock =
curcan turkey hen = curc usher = plasator usherette = plasatoare waiter =
chelner waitress = chelneri neutru (neuter) comun (common) it = el/ea) he/
she = el/ea) net = plas photographer = fotograf/fotograf novel = roman
physician = doctor/doctori number = numr physicist = zician/zician
occupation = ocupaie passenger = pasager/pasager ocean = ocean
manager = manager/manager, director/directoare oil = ulei philosopher =
lozof page = pagin physiologist = ziolog panic = panic pilot = pilot part
= parte player = juctor/juctoare pear = par playwright = dramaturg petal
= petal printer = tipograf/tipograf piano = pian prisoner = prizonier/
prizonier pig = porc purchaser = cumprtor/cumprtoare pot = oal
supporter = suporter/suporter root = rdcin reader = cititor/cititoare
scorpion = scorpion reporter = reporter/reporter shark = rechin rival =
rival/rival sparrow = vrabie scholar = nvat/nvat sphere = sfer
scientist = savant/savant stage = scen smoker = fumtor/fumtoare stick
= b spectator = spectator/spectatoare sun = soare spouse = so/soie tea

= ceai successor = succesor/succesoare telephone = telefon superintendent


= supraveghetor/supraveghetoare etc.
Theorist = teoretician/teoretician
Weaver = estor/estoare welder = sudor/sudori worker =
muncitor/muncitoare writer = scriitor/scriitoare
1.2.3. Pluralul substantivelor
1.2.3.1. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor
Se formeaz prin adugarea literei s.
Book books = carte cri
Litera s semn al pluralului substantivelor, al persoanei a I-a singular a
verbelor i al genitivului saxon/sintetic al substantivelor, se citete:
[s] cnd este precedat de consoane nesonore/surde book books =
carte cri to speak he speaks = a vorbi el vorbete the economist s
pen] = stiloul economistului
[z] cnd este precedat de o consoan sonor chair chairs = scaun
scaune to receive he receives = a primi el primete the girl s
owers
=
orile fetei;
[iz] cnd este precedat de s, z, ch, sh sau consoane uiertoare/
sibilante; bench benches = banc bnci bus buses = autobuz autobuze
fox foxes = vulpoi vulpoi
George s books = crile lui George to teach he teaches = a preda/
explica el pred/explic to wash he washes = a (se) spla el se spal
Unele substantive terminate n y, precedat de consoan primesc s la
plural, dar pe y l transform n ie.
Baby babies = copila copilai beauty beauties = frumusee
frumusei city cities = ora orae etc.
Substantivele terminate n y formeaz pluralul prin simpla adugare la
sfritul lor a literei s dac n faa lui y se a
o vocal:
Boy boys = biat biei day days = zi zile play plays = pies
piese toy toys = jucrie jucrii etc
Substantivele care se termin n f sau formeaz pluralul prin
adugarea lui s:
Chief chiefs = ef e cli cli s = stnc stnci grief griefs =
suprare/mhnire suprri/mhniri
Dar iat i excepii:
Calf calves = viel viei half halves = jumtate jumti knife
knives = cuit cuite leaf leaves = frunz frunze life lives = via viei
loaf loaves = franzel franzele shelf shelves = raft rafturi thief
thieves = ho hoi wife wives = soie soii wolf wolves = lup lupi
Substantivele terminate n o formeaz pluralul astfel:
A) unele adaug terminaia es:
Hero heroes = erou eroi mosquito mosquitoes = nar nari
negro negroes = negru negri potato potatoes = cartof carto tomato
tomatoes = tomat tomate volcano volcanoes = vulcan vulcani b)
altele adaug doar litera s:

Casino casinos = cazino cazinouri cuckoo cuckoos = cuc cuci


embryo embryos = embrionembrioni kangaroo kangaroos = cangur
canguri piano pianos = pian piane radio radios = radio radiouri photo
photos = fotograe fotograi studio studios = studio studiouri
1.2.3.2. Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor businessman
businessmen = om/oameni de afaceri child children = copil copii die
dice = zar zaruri
Englishman Englishmen = englez englezi reman remen =
pompier pompieri sherman shermen = pescar pescari foot feet =
lab labe gentleman gentlemen = domn domni gentlewoman
gentlewomen = doamn doamne goose geese = gsc g te louse lice
= pduche pduchi man men = brbat brba i mouse mice = oarece
oareci postman postmen = posta postai sportsman sportsmen =
sportiv sportivi tooth teeth = dinte/msea din i/msele woman women
= femeie femei
1.2.3.3. Plurale strine
Greceti:
Analysis analyses = analiz analize axis axes = ax axe basis
bases = baz baze crisis crises = criz crize diagnosis diagnoses =
diagnostic diagnostice metropolis metropolises = metropol metropole
sphinx sphinxes = snx snci octopus octopuses/octopi = caracati
caracati e
Latineti:
Agendum agenda = agend agende alga algae = alg alge
aquarium/aquariums = acvariu acvarii bacillus bacilli = bacil bacili
candelabrum candelabra = candelabru candelabre erratum errata =
erat erate gymnasium gymnasiums = gimnaziugimnazii mausoleum
mausoleums = mausoleu mausolee stimulus stimuli = stimul stimuli
stratum strata = strat straturi
1.2.3.4. Plurale asimilate n limba englez arena arenas = aren
arene circus circuses = circ circuri dilemma dilemmas = dilem dileme
diploma diplomas = diplom diplome drama dramas = dram drame
genius geniuses = geniu genii idea ideas = idee idei minus minuses
= minus minusuri opera operas = oper opere umbrella umbrellas =
umbrel umbrele
1.2.3.5. Pluralul substantivelor compuse blackboard blackboards =
tabl table motel motels = motel moteluri mother n law mothers
n law = soacr soacre passer by passers by = pieton pietoni son
n law sons n law = ginere gineri
1.2.3.6. Pluralul frac iilor zecimale one quarter three quarters = un
sfert trei sferturi one third two thirds = o treime dou treimi one fth
two fths = o cincime dou cincimi one seventh two sevenths = o eptime
dou eptimi
1.2.3.7. Pluralul unor abrevieri

Member of Parliament (M. P.) Members of Parliament (M. P.s) =


membru al parlamentului, membri ai parlamentului
Mountain (Mt.) Mountains (Mts) = munte muni
Post Oce (P. O.) Post Oces (P. O.s) = ociu potal ocii
potale.
1.2.3.8. Substantive numai cu form de plural spectacles = glasses =
ochelari, trousers = pantaloni, clothes = haine, scissors = foarfeci
1.2.3.9. Substantive numai cu form de singular advice = sfat,
equipment = echipament/utilaj, furniture = mobil, information = informaie/
informaii, knowledge = cunotine, news = tiri, money = bani
1.2.3.10. Substantive cu aceeai form pentru singular i plural sheep
= oaie oi, sh = pete peti, deer = cprioar cprioare,
Portughese = portughez portughezi, Chinese = chinez chinezi
1.2.4. Cazurile substantivelor (The Cases of the Nouns)
Cazul este categoria gramatical prin care se exprim raporturi
sintactice ntre cuvinte prin modicarea formelor acestora.
1.2.4.1. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case)
Este cazul subiectului i rspunde la ntrebrile: who? = cine? What? =
= ce?
The boy is playing n the garden. = Biatul se joac n grdin.
Who is playing n the garden? = Cine se joac n grdin?
I saw John.
Who saw John?
I did. = Eu l-am vzut pe John.
Cine l-a vzut pe John?
Eu.
The book is on the table.
What is on the table?
The book is. = Cartea este pe mas.
Ce este pe mas?
Cartea.
Alice and Gabi are n the street.
Who is/are n the street?
Alice and Gabi are. = Alice i Gabi sunt pe strad.
Cine este pe strad?
Alice i Gabi.
1.2.4.2. Cazul vocativ (The Vocative Case)
Este cazul adresrii sau al chemrii.
George, will you help me? = George, vrei s m ajui?
Come here, my boy! = Vino aici, ule!
1.2.4.3. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case)
Este cazul atributului i rspunde la ntrebrile: whose? = al cui? A cui?
Ai cui? Ale cui? Which? = care? Which of? = care dintre? What? = ce/care?
Cazul genitiv este de patru feluri:
A) saxon/sintetic b) prepoziional/analitic c) dublu d) implicit/aglutinant

1.2.4.3.1. Genitivul saxon/sintetic (The Saxon Genitive or the Possesive


Case)
Se formeaz la singular cu (apostrof) plus litera s i se ntrebuineaz
cu substantive masculine i feminine.
All Shakespeares plays = toate piesele lui Shakespeare
John Majors diplomacy = diplomaia lui John Major the boys friend =
prietenul biatului this mans gift = talentul acestui om
La plural sau dac posesorul se termin n s se adaug doar apostroful.
The boys friend = prietenul bieilor the childrens ball = mingea
copiilor the boys ball = mingea bieilor
Dickens novels = romanele lui Dickens
Genitivul saxon se mai folosete i n unele structuri cum ar :
A Midsummer Nights Dream = Visul unei nopi de var at a stones
throw = la o distan de o aruncare de piatr at Shakespeares = la
Shakespeare acas the nights coolness = rcoarea nopii the house of my
sisters husband = casa soului surorii mele the suns heat = cldura soarelui
the seas roar = vuietul mrii to go to the barbers = a merge la frizerie to his
hearts content = pe pofta inimii lui todays news = tirile de azi without a
moments rest = fr o clip de odihn a talk of ten minutes = a ten minutes
talk = o discuie de zece minute a two miles walk = a walk of two miles = o
plimbare de dou mile
Englands football team = echipa de fotbal a Angliei
I must go to Mr. Browns house. = Trebuie s merg la domnul Brown
acas to be at ones wits/wits end = a n ncurctur, a la captul
puterilor
1.2.4.3.2. Genitivul prepoziional/analitic (The Prepositional/Analitical
Genitive)
Se formeaz cu prepoziia of i se folosete cu substantive de toate
genurile.
The smell of the ower/owers = mirosul orii/orilor the friend of the
boy = the boys friend = prietenul biatului the friends of the boys = the
boys friends = prietenii bieilor the friend of the boys = the boys friend =
prietenul bieilor the friends of the boy = the boys friends = prietenii
biatului some books of my friend = nite cri ale prietenului meu a friend of
mine/yours/his/hers = un prieten al meu/tu/lui/ei a friend of ours/yours/
theirs = un prieten al nostru/vostru/lor a brother of my friend = un frate al
prietenului meu a book of my sister = o carte a surorii mele one of my good
friends = unul din bunii mei prieteni one of my best friends = unul din cei mai
buni prieteni ai mei this interesting book of Helens = aceast carte
interesant a Elenei a dancing couple = a couple that/which is dancing = un
cuplu care danseaz a burning house = a house that is burning = o cas care
arde a sleeping dog = a dog that/which is sleeping = un cine care doarme
the boy between John and Nick = the boy who is between John and Nick = =
biatul dintre John i Nick = biatul care este ntre John i Nick.
The man n the street = omul de pe strad, omul de rnd, omul obinuit
a boy of eleven (years) = un biat de unsprezece ani a man with grey hair =

un om cu pr crunt the girl with glasses = fata cu ochelari the girl wearing
glasses = fata care poart ochelari my friends friend = prietenul prietenului
meu my friends friend = prietenul prietenilor mei my friends friends =
prietenii prietenului meu my friends friends = prietenii prietenilor mei a walk
of ten minutes = a ten minute walk = o plimbare de zece minute our walk of
ten minutes = our ten minute walk = plimbarea noastr de zece minute a
drive of ten miles = a ten mile drive = o plimbare de zece mile cu maina a
joumey of two days = a two day joumey = o cltorie de dou zile my holiday
of two weeks = my two week holiday = vacana mea de dou sptmni
1.2.4.3.3. Genitivul dublu (Group Possesive) my friends birthday/the
birthday of my friend = ziua de natere a prietenului meu her sister, Alices
blue eyes = ochii albatri ai surorii sale, Alice his son-ln-laws birthday = ziua
de natere a ginerelui su/lui my friend, Toms birthday = ziua de natere a
prietenului meu, Tom someone elses birthday = ziua de natere a altcuiva
that boys friends book = cartea prietenului biatului aceluia = cartea
prietenului acelui biat.
1.2.4.3.4. Genitivul implicit/aglutinant (The Implicit Genitive)
The United Nations Organisation = Organizaia Naiunilor Unite
Students Organisation = Organizaia studenilor ignition timing =
reglarea aprinderii a heart disease = o boal de inim
1.2.4.4. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case)
Cazul dativ este cazul complementului indirect i rspunde la
ntrebrile: to whom? = who (m). to? = cui? For whom? = who (m). for? =
pentru cine? To what.? = what. to? = la ce? Etc.
I give Alice two books. = I give two books to Alice. = Eu i dau lui Alice
dou cri. = Eu i dau dou cri lui Alice.
To whom do I give two books? = Who (m) do I give two books to? = Cui
dau eu dou cri?
Everybody is working for him. = Toi lucreaz pentru el.
For whom is everybody working? = Pentru cine lucreaz toi?
Who (m) is everybody working for? = Pentru cine lucreaz toi?
I am referring to John. = Eu m refer la John.
Who (m) am I referring to? = To whom am I referring? = La cine m
refer eu?
Dativ acuzativ acuzativ dativ
I have brought John a book. = I have brought a book to John.
I-am adus lui John o carte. = I-am adus o carte lui John.
Din exemplul de mai sus se observ c, atunci cnd n propoziie
acuzativul (compl. Direct) st naintea dativului (compl. Indirect), se folosete
obligatoriu particula to.
Alte exemple:
I oered my wife some owers. = I oered some owers to my wife =
I-am oferit soiei mele nite ori. = I-am oferit nite ori soiei mele.
The book belongs to me. = Cartea mi aparine mie.
The book does not belong to me. = Cartea nu-mi aparine mie.
Does the book belong to me? = mi aparine mie cartea?

To whom does the book belong? = Who (m) does the book belong to?
= Cui i aparine cartea?
He forgives us our mistake. = El ne iart nou greeala noastr.
His coming is a mystery to me. = Venirea lui este un mister pentru
mine.
The advantage is obvious to them. = Avantajul le este evident.
What relation are you to this boy? = Ce rud eti tu cu acest biat?
This computer is superior to other computers. = Acest calculator este
superior altor calculatoare.
The matter is open to discussion. = Chestiunea este deschis discuiei.
Give my friend that book, please! = Give that book to my friend,
please! = D-l prietenului meu cartea aceea, te rog!
I am going to write to my friend. = Am de gnd s-l scriu prietenului
meu.
Do not be cruel to animals! = Nu crud fa de animale!
You must not be blind to his mistakes. = Nu trebuie s i orb fa de
greelile lui.
His uncle gave him a present. = Unchiul su/lui i-a dat un cadou.
1.2.4.5. Cazul acuzativ (The Accusative Case)
Este cazul complementului direct i rspunde la ntrebrile whom? = pe
cine? What? = ce?
I see the boy every day. = l vd pe biat n ecare zi.
Whom do I see every day? = Pe cine vd eu n ecare zi?
You see the book on the table. = Tu vezi cartea pe mas.
What do you see on the table? = Ce vezi tu pe mas?
My sister is looking for a book. = Sora mea caut o carte.
What is my sister looking for? = Ce caut sora mea?
1.2.5. Declinarea substantivelor (The Declension of the Nouns)
Trecerea unui substantiv (sau pronume) prin toate cazurile la numrul
singular i la numrul plural poart numele de declinare.
1.2.5.1. Declinarea cu articol nehotrt a unui substantiv masculin i a
unui substantiv feminin singular plural
N.
A boy = un biat boys = biei a girl = o fat girls = fete
G.
Of a boy = a boys = al, a, ai, ale unui biat of boys = boys = al, a, ai,
ale, unor biei, de biei of a girl = a girls = al, a, ai, ale unei fete of girls =
girls = al, a, ai, ale, unor fete, de fete
D.
To) a boy = unui biat to) boys = unor biei
To) a girl = unei fete to) girls = unor fete
A.
A boy = un biat boys = biei a girl = o fat girls = fete
V.
Boy! = biete! Biatule!
Girl! = fat!

Boys! = biei!
Girls! = fetelor!
1.2.5.2. Declinarea substantivelor cu articol hotrt
Singular plural
N.
The boy = biatul the boys = bieii the girl = fata the girls = fetele
G.
Of the boy = the boys = al, a, ai, ale biatului of the boys = the boys
= al, a, ai, ale bieilor of the girl = the girls = al, a, ai, ale fetei of the girls
= the girls = al, a, ai, ale fetelor
D.
To) the boy = biatului to) the boys = bieilor
To) the girl = fetei to) the girls = fetelor
A.
The boy = biatul the boys = bieii the girl = fata the girls = fetele
V.
Declinarea substantivelor neutre
Singular plural
N.
A table = o mas tables = mese the table = masa the tables = mesele
G.
Of a table = al, a, ai, ale unei mese of tables = de mese of the table =
al, a, ai, ale mesei of the tables = al, a, ai, ale meselor
D.
To a table = unei mese to tables = la/unor mese to the table = mesei to
the tables = meselor
A.
A table = o mas tables = mese the table = masa the tables = mesele
V.
ADJECTIVUL (THE ADJECTIVE)
Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care calic/determin un substantiv
sau un echivalent al unui substantiv.
n limba englez adjectivele stau naintea substantivelor sau dup
verbul to be i nu se acord n gen, numr i caz cu substantivele pe care le
determin.
The interesting book is on the table. = Cartea interesant este pe
mas.
1.3.1. Clasicarea adjectivelor
1. Calitative (of Quality/Descriptive)
2. Posesive (Possessive)
3. Interogativ relative (Interrogative-Relative)
4. Demonstrative (Demonstrative)
5. Cantitativ/nehotrte (Quantitative-Lndenite)
1.3.1.1. Adjective calitative (Adjectives of Quality) clever = detept,
deteapt, detepi, detepte a clever boy = un biat detept a clever girl =

o fat deteapt clever boys = biei detepi clever girls = fete detepte
interesting = interesant, interesant, interesani, interesante good = bun,
bun, buni, bune etc.
1.3.1.2. Adjective posesive (Possessive Adjectives) my = meu, mea,
mei, mele your = tu, ta, ti, tale his = lui, su, sa, si, sale, dnsului her =
ei, su, sa, si, sale, dnsei its = lui/ei, su/sa, si/sale our = nostru, noastr,
notri, noastre your = vostru, voastr, votri, voastre, dumneavoastr their
= lor, dnilor, dnselor, dumnealor my friend = prietenul meu my friends =
prietenii mei your friend = prietenul tu your friends = prietenii ti his friend
= prietenul lui/dnsului his friends = prietenii lui/dnsului her friend =
prietenul ei/dnsei her friends = prietenii ei/dnsei its friend = prietenul lui/ei
its friends = prietenii lui/ei our friend = prietenul nostru our friends =
prietenii notri your friend = prietenul vostru/dv. your friends = prietenii
votri/dv.
Their friend = prietenul lor/dnilor their friends = prietenii lor/dnilor
1.3.1.3. Adjective interogativ-relative (Interrogative-Relative Adjectives)
1.3.1.3.1. Interogative which = care? Pe care?
Which boy? = care (al ctelea) biat? (which boys? = care (ai ctelea)
biei?) which girl? = care (a cta) fat? (which girls? = care (ale ctelea)
fete?) which house? = care (a cta) cas? (which houses? = care (ale ctelea)
case?) which tree? = care (al ctelea) copac? (which trees? = care (ai
ctelea) copaci?) which of? = care dintre? (selectiv) which of the boys? =
care dintre biei?
Which of the girls? = care dintre fete?
Which of the houses? = care dintre case?
Which of the trees? = care dintre copaci?
What? = ce? Care?
What boy? = ce/care biat? What boys? = ce/care biei?
What girl? = ce/care fat? What girls? = ce/care fete?
What house? = ce/care cas? What houses? = ce/care case?
What tree? = ce/care copac? What trees? = ce/care copaci?
What kind/sort of? = ce fel de? What kind of boy? = ce fel de biat?
(what kind of boys? = ce fel de biei?) what kind of girl? = ce fel de fat?
(what kind of girls? = ce fel de fete?) what kind of house? = ce fel de cas?
(what kind of houses? = ce fel de case?) what kind of tree? = ce fel de copac?
(what kind of trees? = ce fel de copaci?
Whose? = al, a, ai, ale cui?
Whose boy? = al cui biat? Whose boys? = ai cui biei?
Whose girl? = a cui fat? Whose girls? = ale cui fete?
Whose house? = a cui cas? Whose houses? = ale cui case?
Whose tree? = al cui copac? Whose trees? = ai cui copaci?
1.3.1.3.2. Relative who = care; the boy who knows you = biatul care
te cunoate whose = al, a, ai, ale crui/crei/cror the boy whose father. =
biatul al crui tat. the boy whose mother. = biatul a crui mam. the boy

whose parents. = biatul ai crui prini. the girl whose parents. = fata ai
crei prini the boys whose father. = bieii al cror tat. the boys whose
mother. = bieii a cror mam. the boys whose fathers. = bieii ai cror tai
the boys whose parents. = bieii ai cror prini the girl whose mother. =
fata a crei mam. the girl whose father. = fata al crei tat. the girls whose
mother. = fetele a cror mam the girls whose father. = fetele al cror tat
the girls whose parents. = fetele ai cror prini the girls whose mothers. =
fetele ale cror mame the girls whose fathers. = fetele ai cror tai the house
whose colour. = casa a crei culoare the house whose roof. = casa al crei
acoperi the houses whose colour. = casele a cror culoare the houses whose
roof. = casele al cror acoperi the houses whose colours. = casele ale cror
culori the houses whose roofs. = casele ale cror acoperiuri the tree whose
leaf. = copacul a crui frunz the tree whose leaves. = copacul ale crui
frunze the trees whose leaves. = copacii ale cror frunze
The boy, whose book is on the table, is my brother. = Biatul, a crui
carte este pe mas, este fratele meu.
The playwright, whose play is Hamlet, is Shakespeare. = Dramaturgul,
a crui pies este Hamlet, este Shakespeare.
To whom = cruia, creia, crora the boy to whom you recommend the
book = biatul cruia i recomanzi cartea the girl to whom you recommend a
book = fata creia i recomanzi o carte the boys to whom you recommend a
book = bieii crora le recomanzi o carte the girls to whom you recommend
a book = fetele crora le recomanzi o carte whom = pe care the boy whom
you see = biatul pe care l vezi the girl whom you see = fata pe care o vezi
the boys whom you see = bieii pe care i vezi the girls whom you see =
fetele pe care le vezi that/which = care, pe care the colour that/which you
like = culoarea care i place which of [wit~ ov] = care dintre, cui dintre
He knows which of us lives here. = El tie care dintre noi locuiete aici.
What [wot] = ce/ct/care
Tell him what answer to give. = Spune-l ce rspuns s dea.
Tell me what time it is. = Spune-mi ct e ceasul.
I know what book you like. = tiu ce/care carte i place.
What kind/sort of = ce fel de
I know what kind/sort of man he is. = tiu ce fel de om este el.
1.3.1.4. Adjective demonstrative (Demonstrative Adjectives)
This = acest, acesta; aceast, aceasta this boy = acest biat, biatul
acesta this girl = aceast fat, fata aceasta this tree = acest copac, copacul
acesta this book = aceast carte, cartea aceasta these = aceti, acetia;
aceste, acestea these boys = aceti biei, bieii acetia these girls = aceste
fete, fetele acestea these trees = aceti copaci, copacii acetia these books
= aceste cri, crile acestea
That = acel, acela; acea, aceea that boy = acel biat, biatul acela that
girl = acea fat, fata aceea that tree = acel copac, copacul acela that book
= acea carte, cartea aceea those = acei, aceia; acele, acelea those boys =
acei biei, bieii aceia those girls = acele fete, fetele acelea those books =

acele cri, crile acelea those trees = acei copaci, copacii aceia the one =
acel/acela care, cel ce/care; cea/aceea care
The one, who knows us, is here. = Cel/cea care ne cunoate este aici.
It = acela, aceea
Was it you? = Tu ai fost acela/aceea?
The former = primul (din doi), cel dinti (din doi), prima (din dou), cea
dinti (din dou) the latter = (cel de-) al doilea, ultimul (din doi), (cea de-) a
doua, ultima (din dou)
John and William are friends. The former is a farmer, the latter is an
engineer. = John i William sunt prieteni. Primul este fermier, al doilea este
inginer.
The rst = cel, cea, cei, cele dinti, primul, prima, primii, primele
He is my rst friend. = El este primul meu prieten. = El este cel dinti
prieten al meu.
The rst boy = primul biat the rst boys = primii biei the rst girl =
prima fat the rst girls = primele fete the rst book = prima carte the rst
books = primele cri the rst tree = primul copac the rst trees = primii
copaci the last = cel, cea, cei, cele din urm, ultimul, ultima, ultimii, ultimele
Is this your last decision? = Este aceasta ultima ta hotrre?
The last boy = ultimul biat the last boys = ultimii biei the last girl =
ultima fat the last girls = ultimele fete the last book = ultima carte the last
books = ultimele cri the last tree = ultimul copac the last trees = ultimii
copaci the other = cellalt, cealalt, ceilali, celelalte the other boy = cellalt
biat the other girl = cealalt fat the other house = cealalt cas the other
boys = ceilali biei the other girls = celelalte fete the other houses =
celelalte case another = alt, alt, o alt, alte another boy = alt biat another
girl = alt fat another tree = alt copac another house = alt cas another
news = alte tiri another good news = alte tiri bune
He will be staying n England for another year. = El va sta n Anglia nc
un an.
Such = astfel de, asemenea, aa such a boy = un astfel de biat, un
asemenea biat such a girl = o astfel de fat, o asemenea fat such boys =
aa biei, astfel de biei, asemenea biei such girls = aa fete, astfel de
fete, asemenea fete such people = aa oameni, astfel de oameni people such
as = oameni cum ar , oameni ca de exemplu
We hope never to have another such experience. = Sperm s nu mai
avem niciodat o astfel de experien.
The same = acelai, aceeai, aceiai, aceleai the same boy = acelai
biat the same girl = aceeai fat the same book = aceeai carte the same
tree = acelai copac the same boys = aceiai biei the same girls = aceleai
fete the same books = aceleai cri the same trees = aceiai copaci one and
the same = unul i acelai; una i aceeai.
One and the same boy = unul i acelai biat; one and the same girl =
una i aceeai fat one and the same book = una i aceeai carte; one and
the same tree = unul i acelai copac the very = chiar, tocmai, nsui, nsi
the very boy who/that = chiar/nsui/tocmai biatul care; he very girl who/

that = chiar/nsi/tocmai fata care the very book which/that = chiar/tocmai


cartea care; the very boys who/that = chiar/tocmai bieii care the very girls
who/that = chiar/tocmai fetele care the very books which/that = chiar/tocmai
crile care
This is the very book I needed. = Aceasta este chiar cartea de care
aveam nevoie.
1.3.1.5. Adjective cantitative/NEHOTRTE (The Quantitative/
INDEFINITE Adjectives) some = unii, unele, nite, vreun, vreo
Se folosete n propoziiile armative. Cnd apare n propoziiile
interogative se sper s se obin un rspuns armativ.
I see some people n the street. = Vd nite oameni pe strad.
Come to see us some Sunday! = Vino/venii pe la noi ntr-o (zi de)
duminic!
Do you see some people n the street? = Vezi nite oameni pe strad?
I should drink some water, not some wine. = A bea nite ap, nu nite
vin.
I know him to some degree. = l cunosc ntr-o oarecare msur.
Some agree with me and some dont. = Unii sunt de acord cu mine, iar
alii nu.
They will nd out the truth some day. = Ei vor aa adevrul ntr-o bun
zi.
This matter has some importance. = Chestiunea aceasta are oarecare
importan.
You will meet some person or other. = Vei ntlni o persoan sau alta.
Anyn propoziiile armative = orice, ece
He can come at any hour of the day. = El poate veni la orice or din zi.
You may like any book. = i poate plcea orice carte.
You can/may come any time. = Poi veni oricnd.
Any? n propoziiile interogative = orice? Fiece? Vreun? Vreo?
Do you like any book? = i place orice carte?
Have you got any friends? = Ai vreun prieten? Ai ceva prieteni?
Can you lend me any of those books? = mi poi mprumuta vreuna
dintre crile acelea?
Any n propoziiile negative = nici un, nici o
I cannot nd any excuse. = Nu pot gsi nici o scuz.
We do not see any house. = Noi nu vedem nici o cas.
He does not see any boy. = El nu vede nici un biat.
No numai n propoziiile negative = nici un, nici o
n limba englez se folosete o singur negaie n propoziie.
I see no boy, no girl and no house. = Nu vd nici un biat, nici o fat i
nici o cas.
No man could do it. = Nici un om n-o putea face.
He will spare no pains. = El nu va crua nici un efort.
No admittance = intrarea interzis no smoking = fumatul interzis
I can nd no other solution. = Nu pot gsi nici o alt soluie.
Few = puini, puine

I see few boys, few girls and few houses. = Eu vd puini biei, puine
fete i puine case.
Few of us/you/them = puini/puine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele a few = puini/
destui, puine/destule
I have a few books. = Am puine/suciente cri.
He has a few friends. = Are puini/destui/ceva prieteni.
Quite a few = a good few = some few = many, a large number = muli/
multe
He has got quite a few friends. = Are destui/muli prieteni.
Little = puin, puin; mic, mic, mici
I drink little tea and little coee. = Eu beau puin ceai i puin cafea.
He has little time for reading. = El are puin timp pentru citit.
The little boy drinks little lemonade. = Bieelul bea puin limonad.
The little ones = cei mici a little = puin/destul, puin/destul, (cte)
ceva
A little is better than none. (prov.) = Mai bine puin dect deloc. = Mai
bine ceva dect nimic.
We have a little beer and a little wine. = Avem ceva bere i ceva vin.
To know a little of everything = a ti cte ceva din toate
The little girl is a little better now. = Fetia face ceva mai bine acum.
Much = mult, mult
There is much tea n the teapot. = Este mult ceai n ceainic.
Many = muli, multe
There are many people n the park. = Sunt muli oameni n parc.
Many of us/you/them = muli/multe dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.
Plenty of = mult, mult, muli, multe.
We have plenty of time. = Avem timp din belug. = Avem timp
berechet.
A lot of = o mulime de.
We have a lot of books. = Noi avem o mulime de cri.
Each = ecare (luat n parte)
Each man knows their story. = Fiecare om tie povestea lor.
Each of us/you/them = ecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele every = ecare, toi/
toate
Every man knows their story. = Fiecare om tie povestea lor.
We can go to the library every day. = Putem merge la bibliotec n
ecare zi.
Several = civa, cteva, mai muli/multe
We shall spend several days and nights n the mountains. = Vom
petrece cteva zile i nopi la munte.
He has several friends. = El are civa prieteni.
Several of us/you/them = civa dintre noi/voi/ei/ele
Several of us went home on foot. = Mai muli dintre noi au mers acas
pe jos.
Enough = destul, destul, sucient, sucient
There is enough bread on the table. = Este sucient pine pe mas.

Certain = anumii, anumite, unii, unele certain boys = unii/anumii


biei certain girls = unele/anumite fete certain books = unele/anumite cri
a certain = un anumit, o anumit, un anume/oarecare, o anume/oarecare a
certain boy = un anume/anumit/oarecare biat a certain girl = o anume/
anumit/oarecare fat a certain Mr. Jones = un anumit/oarecare domn Jones
a certain Mrs. Jones = o anumit/oarecare doamn Jones a certain Miss. Jones
= o anumit/oarecare domnioar Jones
1.3.2. Comparaia adjectivelor i adverbelor (The Comparison of
Adjectives and Adverbs)
Comparaia adjectivelor i adverbelor este:
A) regulat/sintetic (cele scurte) b) analitic (cele lungi) c) mixt
(sintetic i analitic) d) neregulat
Comparaia adjectivelor se realizeaz la urmtoarele grade:
1) pozitiv, cnd nsuirea unui obiect/substantiv nu se raporteaz la nici
un alt termen. Pozitivul este asemuit cu nominativul substantivelor i cu
innitivul verbelor.
2) comparativ, prin care se exprim superioritatea (comparativ de
superioritate), egalitatea (comparativ de egalitate) sau inferioritatea
(comparativ de inferioritate) unui obiect/substantiv fa de altul.
3) superlativ (lat.: superlativus; super = deasupra, latus = dus/ridicat)
prin care se arat c nsuirea obiectului/substantivului se a e n cea mai
mare msur/intensitate (superlativul relativ), e n foarte mare msur/
intensitate (superlativul absolut). Adjectivele monosilabice dubleaz
consoana nal cnd aceasta este precedat de vocal scurt.
1.3.2.1. Comparaia sintetic/regulat gradul pozitiv comparativ de
superioritate superlativ relativ superlativ absolut big bigger the biggest very
big mare mai mare cel mai mare foarte mare dry drier the driest very dry
uscat mai uscat cel mai uscat foarte uscat easy easier the easiest very easy
uor mai uor cel mai uor foarte uor fat fatter the fattest very fat gras mai
gras cel mai gras foarte gras great greater the greatest very great mare,
mre mai mare cel mai mare foarte mare happy happier the happiest very
happy fericit mai fericit cel mai fericit foarte fericit hard harder the hardest
very hard tare, dur mai tare cel mai tare foarte tare hot hotter the hottest
very hot erbinte mai erbinte cel mai erbinte foarte erbinte kind kinder
the kindest very kind amabil mai amabil cel mai amabil foarte amabil long
longer the longest very long lung mai lung cel mai lung foarte lung nice nicer
the nicest very nice plcut/drgu mai plcut cel mai plcut foarte plcut
short shorter the shortest very short scurt/scund mai scurt cel mai scurt
foarte scurt small smaller the smallest very small mic/modest mai mic cel
mai mic foarte mic strong stronger the strongest very strong tare mai tare cel
mai tare foarte tare tall taller the tallest very tall nalt mai nalt cel mai nalt
foarte nalt thick thicker the thickest very thick gros mai gros cel mai gros
foarte gros thin thinner the thinnest very thin subire/slab mai subire cel mai
subire foarte subire, etc.

1.3.2.2. Compara!ia analitic a adjectivelor i adverbelor pozitiv


comparativ de superioritate superlativ relativ superlativ absolut abject more
abject the most abject very abject abject/josnic
Mai josnic cel mai josnic foarte josnic abrupt more abrupt the most
abrupt very abrupt abrupt
Mai abrupt cel mai abrupt foarte abrupt active more active the most
active very active activ mai activ cel mai activ foarte activ amiable
More amiable the most amiable very amiable prietenos mai prietenos
cel mai prietenos foarte prietenos attractive more attractive the most
attractive very attractive atrgtor mai atrgtor cel mai atrgtor foarte
atrgtor beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful very beautiful frumoas
mai frumoas cea mai frumoas foarte frumoas curious
More curious the most curious very curious curios
Mai curios cel mai curios foarte curios foolish more foolish the most
foolish very foolish prost (esc) mai prost (esc) cel mai prost (esc) foarte prost
(esc) huge more huge the most huge very huge uria/imens mai imens cel
mai imens foarte imens severe more severe the most severe very severe
sever/aspru mai sever cel mai sever foarte sever sincere
More sincere the most sincere very sincere sincer
Mai sincer cel mai sincer foarte sincer skilled
More skilled the most skilled very skilled priceput mai priceput cel mai
priceput foarte priceput sociable
More sociable the most sociable very sociable sociabil mai sociabil cel
mai sociabil foarte sociabil unt more unt the most unt very unt nepotrivit
mai nepotrivit cel mai nepotrivit foarte nepotrivit unjust more unjust the most
unjust very unjust injust/nejust mai injust cel mai injust foarte injust urbane
More urbane the most urbane very urbane manierat mai manierat cel
mai manierat foarte manierat untidy more untidy the most untidy very untidy
dezordonat mai dezordonat cel mai dezordonat foarte dezordonat
Din analiza exemplelor de mai sus rezult c la gradul comparativ de
superioritate adjectivele cu compara!ie analitic se ajut de adverbul more,
la superlativul relativ de adverbul most, iar la superlativul absolut de
adverbele very, extremely, awfully, quite etc.
1.3.2.3. Adjective cu compara!ie mixt (sintetic i analitic) pozitiv
comparativ de superioritate superlativ relativ superlativ absolut able more
able the most able very able abler the ablest capabil mai capabil cel mai
capabil foarte capabil ample more ample the most ample very ample ampler
the amplest amplu
Mai amplu cel mai amplu foarte amplu empty more empty the most
empty very empty emptier the emptiest gol mai gol cel mai gol foarte gol
strange
More strange the most strange very strange stranger the strangest
ciudat
Mai ciudat cel mai ciudat foarte ciudat stupid more stupid the most
stupid very stupid stupider the stupidest stupid
Mai stupid cel mai stupid foarte stupid etc.

1.3.2.4. Compara$ia neregulat a adjectivelor i adverbelor


Comparativ de superioritate superlativ relativ superlativ absolut good/
well better the best very good/well bun/bine mai bun/bine cel mai bun/bine
foarte bun/bine bad/ill worse the worst very bad/ill ru mai ru cel mai ru
foarte ru little less the least very little pu$in/mic mai pu$in/mic cel mai pu$in/
mic foarte pu$in/mic much/many more the most very much/many mult/mul$i
mai mult/mul$i cel mai mult/cei mai mul$i foarte mult/mul$i old older/elder the
oldest/eldest very old btrn/vechi mai btrn/vechi cel mai btrn/vechi
foarte btrn/vechi near nearer the nearest very near aproape mai aproape
cel mai aproape foarte aproape late later the latest very late trziu
Mai trziu cel mai trziu foarte trziu latter = ultimul din doi the last =
ultimul far farther/further the farthest/furthest very far departe mai departe
cel mai departe foarte departe n inner the inmost n interior mai n interior
cel mai n interior/luntric
The innermost = luntric la maximum out outer/utter the outermost n
exterior mai n exterior cel mai n exterior
The utmost, uttermost = n exterior la maximum up upper the upmost
sus mai sus cel mai (de) sus
The uppermost = sus la maximum beneath nether the nethermost
dedesubt mai dedesubt cel mai de dedesubt hind hinder the hindmost din
spate mai din spate cel mai din spate
The hindermost = ultimul din spate fore former the foremost n fa$
Mai n fa$ cel mai din fa$/dinainte
The rst = primul
1.3.2.5. Comparativul de egalitate
Se realizeaz cu ajutorul conjunc$iilor corelative: as. as. = tot aa de.
ca. /la fel de. ca.
As interesting as. = la fel de interesant ca. as beautiful as. = la fel de
frumos ca as beautifully as. = la fel de frumos ca as near as. = la fel de
aproape ca. as old as. = la fel de btrn/vechi ca as strange as. = la fel de
ciudat/straniu ca.
Unele astfel de comparative de egalitate au devenit idiomuri:
As quick as thought = iute ca gndul as sweet as honey = dulce ca
mierea as swift as an arrow = iute ca sgeata as white as snow = alb ca
zpada etc.
1.3.2.6. Comparativul de inferioritate
Se realizeaz cu ajutorul conjunc$iilor corelative: not so. as. = nu aa
de. ca. sau less. than. = mai pu$in. dect/ca
This lm is not so interesting as that one. = Filmul acesta nu este aa
de interesant ca acela.
This man is not so old as that man. = Omul acesta nu este aa de
vrstnic/btrn ca omul acela.

That house is not so big as this house. = Casa aceea nu este aa (de)
mare cum este casa aceasta.
Mary is less beautiful than Alice. = Mary este mai pu%in frumoas ca
Alice.
1.3.2.7. Comparativul de intensitate
Const din dou comparative de superioritate legate ntre ele prin
conjunc%ia and i se traduc prin structura din ce n ce mai.
Better and better = din ce n ce mai bine worse and worse = din ce n
ce mai ru more and more = din ce n ce mai mult less and less = din ce n
ce mai pu%in ()/mic () fewer and fewer = din ce n ce mai pu%ini/pu%ine
bigger and bigger = din ce n ce mai mare/mari etc.
More and more interesting = din ce n ce mai interesant/interesant/
interesan%i/interesante more and more important = din ce n ce mai
important/important/importan%i/importante more and more beautifully = din
ce n ce mai frumos more and more carefully = din ce n ce mai atent/grijuliu
etc.
1.3.2.8. Pozitivul cu comparativul de superioritate much better (than).
= mult mai bine/bun (ca/dect). much worse (than). = mult mai ru (ca/
dect). much more (than). = mult mai mult (ca/dect). much less (than). =
mult mai pu%in (ca/dect). much older (than). = mult mai n vrst (ca/dect).
much easier (than). = mult mai uor (ca/dect). much more di&cult (than).
= mult mai dicil/greu (ca/dect). much more beautiful (than). = mult mai
frumoas (ca/dect). much more interesting (than). = mult mai interesant
(ca/dect). much more important (than). = mult mai important (ca/dect).
much more beutifully (than). = mult mai frumos (ca/dect). much more
carefully (than). = mult mai atent (ca/dect). a little better (than). = pu%in
mai bine/bun (ca/dect). a little worse (than). = pu%in mai ru (ca/dect). a
little more (than). = pu%in mai mult (ca/dect). a little less (than). = pu%in mai
pu%in (ca/dect). a little older (than). = pu%in mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect). a
little earlier (than). = pu%in mai devreme (ca/dect). a little later (than). =
pu%in mai trziu (ca/dect). a little easier (than). = pu%in mai uor (ca/dect).
a little more di&cult (than). = pu%in mai dicil/greu (ca/dect). a little more
beautiful (than). = pu%in mai frumoas (ca/dect).
A little more interesting (than). = pu%in mai interesant (ca/dect).
A little more important (than). = pu%in mai important (ca/dect). a little
more beautifully (than). = pu%in mai frumos (ca/dect). a little more carefully
(than). = pu%in mai atent/grijuliu (ca/dect).
1.3.2.9. By far + comparativul de superioritate = cu mult mai. by far
better (than). = cu mult mai bun/bine (ca/dect). by far worse (than). = cu
mult mai ru (ca/dect). by far more (than). = cu mult mai mult (ca/dect).
by far less (than). = cu mult mai pu%in (ca/dect). by far older (than). = cu
mult mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect). by far earlier (than). = cu mult mai
devreme (ca/dect). by far later (than). = cu mult mai trziu (ca/dect). by
far easier (than). = cu mult mai uor (ca/dect). by far more di&cult (than).
= cu mult mai dicil (ca/dect). by far more beautiful (than). = cu mult mai
frumos (ca/dect). by far more interesting (than). = cu mult mai interesant

(ca/dect). by far more important (than). = cu mult mai important (ca/dect).


by far more beautifully (than). = cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect). by far more
carefully (than). = cu mult mai atent/prudent (ca/dect). a good/great deal
better (than). = cu mult mai bine (ca/dect). a good/great deal worse (than).
= cu mult mai ru (ca/dect). a good/great deal more (than). = cu mult mai
mult (ca/dect). a good/great deal less (than). = cu mult mai pu(in (ca/dect).
a good/great deal older (than). = cu mult mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect). a
good/great deal earlier (than). = cu mult mai devreme (ca/dect). a good/
great deal later (than). = cu mult mai trziu (ca/dect). a good/great deal
easier (than). = cu mult mai uor (ca/dect). a good/great deal more di)cult
(than). = cu mult mai dicil (ca/dect). a good/great deal more beautiful
(than). = cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect). a good/great deal more interesting
(than). = cu mult mai interesant (ca/dect). a good/great deal more
important (than). = cu mult mai important (ca/dect). a good/great deal more
beautifully (than). = cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect). a good/great deal more
carefully (than). = cu mult mai atent/prudent (ca/dect).
1.3.2.10 Structuri constnd din dou comparative de superioritate (cu
ct. cu att.) the earlier, the better = cu ct mai devreme, cu att mai bine
The earlier you come, the better it is. = Cu ct vii/veni(i mai devreme,
cu att mai bine.
The more you leam, the more you forget. = Cu ct nve(i mai mult, cu
att ui(i mai mult.
The later, the worse = cu ct mai trziu, cu att mai ru
The later you arrive, the worse it is. = Cu ct ajungi mai trziu, cu att
este mai ru.
The more beautifully Alice will sing, the more money she will get. = Cu
ct Alice va cnta mai frumos, cu att mai mul(i bani va ctiga.
His *at is a little cheaper than yours. = Apartamentul lui este pu(in mai
ieftin dect al tu.
Your *at is a lot cheaper than mine. = Apartamentul tu este mult mai
ieftin dect al meu.
Our *at is somewhat cheaper than theirs. = Apartamentul nostru este
ntructva/pu(in mai ieftin dect al lor.
1.3.2.1. Superlativul absolut
Se formeaz cu adverbele: very (foarte), extremely (extrem de), quite
(total, complet, cu totul), perfectly (perfect), extraordinary (extraordinar de),
inconceivably (incredibil de), exceedingly (excesiv/nemaipomenit de),
fantastically (fantastic de), enormously/immensely (enorm/imens de),
tremendously/awfully (ngrozitor/teribil de), innitely (innit de), terribly
(teribil de), terrically (nortor de) etc.
Awfully hot = ngrozitor/cumplit de cald
We are awfully sorry. = Ne pare nespus de ru
They have changed enormously. = Ei s-au schimbat enorm.
Quite well = foarte bine very well = foarte bine extremely well =
extrem de bine exceedingly good = excesiv de bun innitely small = innit/
nemsurat de mic exceedingly di)cult = excesiv de greu, din cale afar de

dicil perfectly well = perfect de bine terribly boring = teribil/nortor de


plictisitor a matchless playwright = un dramaturg fr pereche quite right =
perfect adevrat/just enough adjectiv enough food = food enough = hran
sucient/destul to have money enough = to have enough money = a avea
destui bani enough adverb de compara+ie
I am warm enough. = mi este destul de cald.
The exercise is di,cult enough. = Exerci+iul este destul de greu.
What is good for you is good enough for me. = Ce este valabil pentru
tine este perfect valabil i pentru mine.
Enough este singurul adverb de compara+ie care st dup adjectivul pe
care l determin.
This beer is good enough. = Berea aceasta este destul de bun.
1.3.2.12. Compara+ia adjectivelor compuse pozitiv comparativ de
superioritate superlativ relativ superlativ absolut well-paid better-paid the
best-paid very well-paid bine pltit mai bine pltit cel mai bine pltit foarte
bine pltit good-looking better-looking the best-looking very good-looking
artos mai artos cel mai artos foarte artos sweet-natured
More sweet natured the most sweet -natured very sweetnatured bun
la su-et mai bun la su-et cel mai bun la su-et foarte bun la su-et shortsighted more short sighted the most short -sighted very short-sighted miop
mai miop cel mai miop foarte miop
John is a good/great deal more careful than Bill. = John este mult mai
atent/prudent dect Bill.
Bill is a good/great deal less careful than John. = Bill este mult mai
pu+in prudent dect John.
He is a little less careful than his brother. = El este pu+in mai pu+in
prudent dect fratele lui.
He loves her more than I (do). = El o iubete pe ea mai mult dect o
iubesc eu.
He loves her more than me. = El o iubete pe ea mai mult dect pe
mine.
They know her better than I (do). = Ei o cunosc pe ea mai bine dect/ca
mine.
They know her better than me. = Ei o cunosc pe ea mai bine dect pe
mine.
1.4. PRONUMELE (THE PRONOUN)
Pronumele este partea de vorbire care nlocuiete un substantiv (o
in+, un obiect etc.).
1.4.1. Clasicare
1. Personale (the Personal Pronouns)
2. Interogative (the Interrogative Pronouns)
3. Relative (the Relative Pronouns)
4. Posesive (the Possessive Pronouns)
5. Demonstrative (the Demonstrative Pronouns)

6. Impersonale/Generale (the Impersonal/General Pronouns)


7. Re.exive (the Re.exive Pronouns)
8. Emfatice (the Emphatic Pronouns)
9. Nehotrte (the Indenite Pronouns)
10. Reciproce (the Reciprocal Pronouns)
1.4.1.1. Pronumele personale (The Personal Pronouns)
I = eu we = noi you = tu you = voi, dumneavoastr (dv.) he = el,
dnsul, dumnealui they = ei, ele, dnii, dnsele, dumnealor she = ea,
dnsa, dumneaei it = el, ea
1.4.1.2. Pronumele interogative (The Interrogative Pronouns)
N. who? = cine? (N. = nominativ)
Who knows him? = Cine l cunoate pe el?
G. Whose? = al, a, ai, ale cui? (G. = genitiv)
Whose is this house, his or hers? = A cui este aceast cas, a lui sau a
ei?
Whose is this little boy? = Al cui este acest bie/el?
Whose is this little girl? = A cui este acest feti/?
Whose are these books? = Ale cui sunt aceste cr/i?
Whose are these children? = Ai cui sunt aceti copii?
D. to whom? = who (m). to? = cui? La cine? (D. = dativ)
To whom do you give this book? = Who (m) do you give this book to? =
Cui i dai aceast carte?
To whom are you referring? = Who (m) are you referring to? = La cine
te referi?
To whom does the book belong? = Who (m) does the book belong to?
= Cui i apar/ine cartea?
To) me = mie (to) us = nou to) you = /ie (to) you = vou to) him = lui
(to) them = lor, dnilor, dnilor/dnselor to) her = ei to) it = lui/ei to) my
friend = prietenului meu (to) our friend = prietenului nostru to) your friend =
prietenului tu (to) your friend = prietenului vostru to) his friend =
prietenului lui (to) their friend = prietenului lor to) her friend = prietenului ei
to) my friends = prietenilor mei
I write my friends a letter=I write a letter to my friends=Eu scriu
prietenilor mei o scrisoare=Scriu o scrisoare prietenilor mei.
For whom? = who (m). for? = pentru cine?
For whom must you buy the book? = Who (m) must you buy the book
for? = Pentru cine trebuie s cumperi cartea?
About whom? = who (m). about? = despre cine?
They are talking about Jim. = Ei vorbesc/discut despre Jim.
Who (m) are they talking about? = About whom are they talking? =
Despre cine vorbesc ei?
About me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = despre mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/
ei/ele) after whom? = who (m). after? = dup cine?
Jim is running after them. = Jim alearg dup ei.
After whom is Jim running? = Who (m) is Jim running after? = Dup cine
alearg Jim?

After me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = dup mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/ei/


ele) before whom? = who (m). before? = n fa0a cui? = naintea cui?
He was sitting before us. = El edea n fa0a noastr.
Before whom was he sitting? = n fa0a cui edea el?
Before me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = naintea mea/ta/lui/ei/noastr/
voastr/lor before my/your/his/her/our/your/their eyes = naintea ochilor mei/
ti/lui/ei/notri/votri/lor) behind whom? = who (m). behind? = n spatele cui?
He was sitting behind me. = El edea n spatele meu.
Behind whom was he sitting? =Who (m) was he sitting behind? = n
spatele cui sttea el?
Beside whom? = who (m). beside? = alturi de cine?
Beside whom was he sitting? = Alturi de cine edea el?
He was sitting beside me. = El edea alturi de mine.
Beside whose friend? = alturi de prietenul cui?
Beside my friend = alturi de prietenul meu) between whom? = who
(m). between? = ntre cine?
Between his (two) friends = ntre cei (doi) prieteni ai lui between John
and Nick = ntre John i Nick beyond whom? = who (m). beyond? = dincolo
de cine?
Beyond me = dincolo de mine beyond us = dincolo de noi beyond you
= dincolo de tine beyond you = dincolo de voi beyond him/her/it = dincolo de
el/ea beyond them = dincolo de ei/ele) by whom? = who (m). by? = de
(ctre) cine?
By me = de mine by us = de noi by you = de tine by you = de voi/dv.
By him/her/it = de el/ea by them = de ei/ele) by whose friend? = de
prietenul cui?
By my friend =de prietenul meu by our friend = de prietenul nostru by
your friend = de prietenul tu by your friend = de prietenul vostru by his
friend = de prietenul lui/su by their friend = de prietenul lor by her friend =
de prietenul ei/su by this boys friend/by the friend of this boy = de prietenul
acestui biat by this girls friend/by the friend of this girl = de prietenul
acestei fete by these boys friend/by the friend of these boys = de prietenul
acestor bie0i by these girls friend/by the friend of these girls = de prietenul
acestor fete by this boys friends/by the friends of this boy = de prietenii
acestui biat by this girls friends/by the friends of this girl = de prietenii
acestei fete by this boys friends/by the friends of these boys = de prietenii
acestor bie0i by this girls friends/by the friends of these girls = de prietenii
acestor fete) for whom? = who (m) for? = pentru cine?
For whom are you buying the book? = Who (m) are you buying the
book for? = Pentru cine cumperi (tu) cartea?
For me = pentru mine for us = pentru noi for you = pentru tine for you
= pentru voi for him/her/it = pentru el/ea for them = pentru ei/ele for whose
friend? = pentru prietenul cui?
For whose friend is John working? = Pentru prietenul cui lucreaz John?
For my friend = pentru prietenul meu) from whom? = who (m) from? =
de la cine?

From me = de la mine from us = de la noi from you = de la tine from


you = de la voi from him/her/it = de la el/ea from them = de la ei/ele from
whose friend? = de la prietenul cui? = de la al cui prieten?
From my friend = de la prietenul meu) near whom? = who (m). near?
= lng cine?
Near me = lng mine near us = lng noi near you = lng tine near
you = lng voi near him/her/it = lng el/ea near them = lng ei/ele)
John was sitting near this mans friend. = John edea lng prietenul
acestui om.
Near whom was John sitting? = Who (m) was John sitting near? = Lng
cine edea John?
Of whom? = who (m). of? = de cine?; despre cine?
To get rid of somebody = a se descotorosi/scpa de cineva
I must get rid of that drunk man. = Trebuie s m descotorosesc de
omul acela but/beat.
Who (m) must I get rid of? = Of whom must I get rid? = De cine trebuie
s scap eu?
On/upon whom? = who (m). on/upon? = de cine?
To depend on/upon = a depinde de
Our going on the trip depends on John. = Plecarea noastr n excursie
depinde de John.
On/upon whom does our going on the trip depend? = Who (m) does our
going on the trip depend on/upon? = De cine depinde plecarea noastr n
excursie?
On/upon me = de mine)
On/upon whose friend does our going on the trip depend? = Whose
friend does our going on the trip depend on/upon? = De prietenul cui depinde
plecarea noastr n excursie?
With whom? = who (m). with? = cu cine?
I am playing tennis with John. = Eu joc tenis cu John.
Who (m) am I playing tennis with? = With whom am I playing tennis? =
Cu cine joc eu tenis?
With me = cu mine with us = cu noi with you = cu tine with you = cu
voi with him/her/it = cu el/ea with them = cu ei/ele) with whose friend? = cu
prietenul cui?
They are going on the trip with my friend. = Ei merg n excursie cu
prietenul meu.
With whom are they going on the trip? = Who (m) are they going on the
trip with? = Cu cine merg ei n excursie?
With my friend = cu prietenul meu without whom? = fr cine?
Without me = fr mine without us = fr noi without you = fr tine
without you = fr voi without him/her/it = fr el/ea without them = fr ei/
ele) without whose friend? = fr prietenul cui?
Without my friend = fr prietenul meu
Whose friend were you there without? = Fr prietenul cui ai fost
acolo?)

A. whom? = pe cine? (A. = acuzativ)


This is the boy whom I saw. = Acesta este biatul pe care l-am vzut
eu.
I see John n the street. = l vd pe John pe strad.
Whom do I see n the street? = Pe cine vd eu pe strad?
John sees me n the street. = John m vede pe mine pe strad.
Whom does John see n the street? = Pe cine vede John pe strad?
Me = pe mine her = pe ea/dnsa us = pe noi you = pe tine it = pe el/
ea you = pe voi him = pe el/dnsul them = pe ei/ele/)
John sees my friend n the street. = John l vede pe prietenul meu pe
strad.
John sees my friends brother n the street. = John l vede pe fratele
prietenului meu pe strad.
What? = ce?
What is this? = Ce este acesta/aceasta?
What are these? = Ce sunt acetia/acestea?
What is there on the table? = Ce este pe mas? = Ce se a1/gsete pe
mas?
What is your name? = Cum te cheam?
What time is it? = Ct este ceasul?
What kind/sort of? = ce fel de?
What kind/sort of man is he? = Ce fel de om este el?
What kind/sort of lms do you like? = Ce fel de lme 3i plac?
1.4.1.3. Pronumele relative (The Relative Pronouns) who = cine, care.
He does not know who must come to see us. = El nu tie cine trebuie
s vin pe la noi.
I know the boy who can play tennis well. = Eu l tiu/cunosc pe biatul
care tie s joace tenis bine.
Whose = al cui, a cui, ai cui, ale cui.
We are playing with Johns ball but we dont know whose they are
playing with. = Noi ne jucm cu mingea lui John dar nu tim cu a cui se joac
ei.
To whom = who (m). to = cui
I dont know who (m) I shall give this book to. = Nu tiu cui s-l dau
cartea aceasta.
Do you know who (m) he is referring to? = 6tii la cine se refer el?
Whom = pe cine, pe care
I know whom you appreciate very much. = Eu tiu pe cine apreciezi tu
foarte mult.
He could not guess whom he might see there. = Nu putea bnui pe cine
va putea vedea acolo.
Which = care, pe care
She has many books, but she doesnt know which she must read for the
examination. = Ea are multe cr3i, dar nu tie pe care trebuie s-o citeasc
pentru examen.

Her house, of which roof is of tiles, was built ve years ago. = Casa, al
crei acoperi este de 7igl, a fost construit acum cinci ani.
1.4.1.4. Pronumele posesive (The Possessive Pronouns) mine = al meu,
a mea, ai mei, ale mele.
Johns friend is n Bucharest and mine is n Berlin. = Prietenul lui John
este n Bucureti, iar al meu este n Berlin.
Johns sister is n Bucharest and mine is n Berlin. = Sora lui John este n
Bucureti, iar a mea este n Berlin.
Johns friends are n Bucharest and mine are n Berlin. = Prietenii lui
John sunt n Bucureti, iar ai mei sunt n Berlin.
Johns sisters are n Bucharest and mine are n Berlin. = Surorile lui John
sunt n Bucureti, iar ale mele sunt n Berlin.
Yours = al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale.
My car is white and yours is blue. = Automobilul meu este alb, iar al tu
este albastru.
My house is n the country and yours is n the town. = Casa mea este la
7ar, iar a ta este la ora.
My children are n the mountains and yours are at the seaside. = Copiii
mei sunt la munte, iar ai ti sunt la mare.
Our daugthers are at school and yours are at the university. = Fiicele
noastre sunt la coal, iar ale voastre sunt la universitate.
His = al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui
My friend is an engineer and his is an economist. = Prietenul meu este
inginer, iar al lui este economist.
Our daughter is a school-girl and his is a student. = Fiica noastr este
elev, iar a lui este student.
Her books are n English and his are n Romanian. = Cr7ile ei sunt n
englez, iar ale lui sunt n romn.
Hers = al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei
My friend speaks French but hers doesnt. = Prietenul meu vorbete
fran7uzete, dar al ei nu.
My sister works on a farm but hers doesnt. = Sora mea lucreaz la o
ferm, dar a ei nu.
Our children are noisy but hers arent. = Copiii notri sunt glgioi, iar
ai ei nu (sunt).
Our books are old but hers arent. = Cr7ile noastre sunt vechi, dar ale
ei nu (sunt).
Ours = al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre.
Your sister is Mary and ours is Beverly. = Sora voastr este Mary iar a
noastr este Beverly.
Your boys play tennis but ours dont. = Bie7ii votri joac tenis, dar ai
notri nu joac.
Your daughters read many books but ours dont. = Fiicele voastre citesc
multe cr7i, ns/dar ale noastre nu (citesc).
Yours [yOz] = al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale
My friends live here, yours dont. = Prietenii mei locuiesc aici, ai ti nu.

Theirs = al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor.


Our son is here but theirs isnt. = Fiul nostru este aici, dar al lor nu
(este).
Our daughter is not here but theirs is. = Fiica noastr nu este aici, dar
a lor este.
Our sons dont study German but theirs do. = Fiii notri nu studiaz
germana, dar ai lor studiaz.
1.4.1.5. Pronumele demonstrative (The Demonstrative Pronouns) this
= acesta, aceasta
That book is yours and this (one) is mine. = Cartea aceea este a ta, iar
aceasta este a mea.
That = acela, aceea
This book is mine and that (one) is yours. = Cartea aceasta este a mea,
iar aceea este a ta.
These = acetia, acestea
Those books are mine and these (ones) are yours. = Cr8ile acelea sunt
ale mele, iar acestea sunt ale tale.
Those players are good but these (ones) are better. = Juctorii aceia
sunt buni, dar acetia sunt mai buni.
Those = aceia, acelea
These players are very good but those (ones) arent. = Juctorii acetia
sunt foarte buni, dar aceia nu sunt.
1.4.1.6. Pronumele impersonale (The Impersonal Pronouns) one, you
One could work there. = S-ar putea lucra acolo. = Se putea lucra acolo.
You should always be careful when crossing the road. = S i totdeauna
atent la traversarea drumului.
One can leam a lot of things here. = Se pot nv8a o mul8ime de lucruri
aici.
You should always behave decently. = Trebuie s te por8i totdeauna
decent.
1.4.1.7. Pronumele re9exive (The Re9exive Pronouns) myself = m
ourselves = ne yourself = te yourselves = v himself = se themselves = se
herself =se oneself = se itself = se
Cu ajutorul pronumelorre9exive se formeaz diateza re9exiv a
verbelor.
To enjoy oneself = a se distra
I enjoy myself = eu m distrez
De re8inut c verbelor re9exive din limba romn nu le corespund
totdeauna verbe re9exive n limba englez.
Eu m mir/ntreb = I wonder; verbul to wonder n limba englez nu este
re9exiv.
1.4.1.8. Pronumele emfatice/de ntrire (The Emphatic Pronouns)
myself = eu nsumi, personal, chiar eu yourself = tu nsu8i, personal, chiar tu
himself = el nsui, personal, chiar el herself = ea nsi, personal, chiar ea
itself = el nsui, ea nsi, personal, chiar el/ea ourselves = noi nine,

nsene, chiar noi yourselves = voi niv, nsev, chiar voi themselves = ei
nii, ele nsele, chiar ei/ele
I must do it myself = trebuie s-o fac eu nsumi
1.4.1.9. Pronumele nehotrte (The Indenite Pronouns) another = alt,
alt;
One man says yes, another says no. = Un om zice da, altul zice nu.
Each = ecare
We received two books each. = Am primit cte dou cr:i ecare.
Each of us/you/them = ecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele the other = cellalt,
cealalt, ceilal:i, celelalte
John likes this book but I like the other (one). = Lui John i place cartea
aceasta, ns mie mi place cealalt.
John likes this book but I prefer the other (one). = Lui John i place
cartea aceasta, dar eu o prefer pe cealalt.
Others = al:ii, altele
Others know better than you. = Al:ii tiu mai bine ca/dect tine.
The others = ceilal:i, celelalte
The others did not come by bus. = Ceilal:i n-au venit cu autobuzul.
I do not see the others. = Eu nu-l vd pe ceilal:i. = Eu nu le vd pe
celelalte.
One = unul, una, un, o; se
You do not have any book but I have one. = Tu nu ai nici o carte, dar eu
am una.
Can you tell one from the other? = l po:i deosebi pe unul de cellalt?
My neighbours have two sons whom everybody admires; I admire ones
common sense and the others diligence. = Vecinii mei au doi i pe care i
admir toat lumea; eu admir bunul sim: al unuia i hrnicia celuilalt.
He is considered as one of the family. = El este considerat drept unul
de-al familiei/casei.
One of us/you/them = unul/una dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.
All = tot, toat, to:i, toate; totul
He must tell you all or nothing. = El trebuie s-:i spun tot sau nimic.
I cannot buy it all. = Nu pot s-l/s-o cumpr tot/toat.
All he wants is money. = Tot ce vrea el sunt banii.
All of us/you/them = we/you/they all = noi/voi/ei to:i/ele toate.
Either = oricare din doi/dou
You may buy either. = l/Opo:i cumpra pe oricare.
Either of us = oricare din/dintre noi doi/dou either of you = oricare din/
dintre voi doi/dou either of them = oricare din/dintre ei/ele doi/dou).
Neither = nici unul, nici una, nici un, nici o (din doi/dou)
One can see neither. = Nu se poate vedea nici unul/una.
Neither of us/you/them = nici unul/una din (tre) noi/voi/ei/ele.
Both = ambii, ambele, amndoi, amndou
You may read either of them both are interesting. = Le po:i citi pe
oricare din ele ambele sunt interesante.

Both of us/you/them = noi/voi/ei doi/amndoi, noi/voi/ele dou/


amndou.
Several = mai mul;i/multe, c;iva, cteva
You can see many books on the table, but several are mine. = Po;i
vedea multe cr;i pe mas, dar cteva sunt ale mele.
Several of us/you/them = c;iva/cteva dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.
Few = pu;ini, pu;ine
I only found few. = Am gsit doar pu;ini/pu;ine.
Few of us/you/them = pu;ini/pu;ine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.
A few = pu;ini/destui, pu;ine/destule
I have found a few. = Am gsit destui/destule.
Quite a few = a good few = foarte mul;i/multe
I have found quite a few. = Am gsit un mare numr. = Am gsit foarte
mul;i/multe.
Little = pu;in, pu;in, mic, mic.
I have done little for them. = Am fcut pu;in pentru ei/ele.
The little of what Ive done, matters a lot. = Pu;inul din ct/ce am fcut
eu, conteaz mult.
Your house is big, but mine is a little one. = Casa ta este mare, ns a
mea este mic.
How are your little ones? = Ce fac cei mici ai ti?
A little [`litl] = pu;in/destul/ceva, pu;in/destul/ceva
You only have little tea but I have a little. = Tu ai doar/numai pu;in ceai,
ns eu am ceva/ctva.
Much [m {t~] = mult, mult
You have got little tea but I have got much. = Tu ai pu;in ceai, ns eu
am mult.
Many [meni] = mul;i, multe many of us/you/them = mul;i dintre noi/voi/
ei, multe dintre ele
You have only got few books but Ive got many. = Tu ai doar pu;ine
cr;i, ns eu am multe.
Some = nite, unii, unele, ceva, pu;in, pu;in, c;iva, cteva.
Some are good and some are bad. = Unele sunt bune, iar altele sunt
rele. Unii sunt buni, iar al;ii sunt ri.
Any = orice, ece, oricare,; nici unul, nici una.
He doesnt like any. = Lui nu-l place oricare. = Lui nu-l place nici unul/
una.
Youve got much money, but I havent got any. = Tu ai bani mul;i, dar
eu n-am nici sfan;. = Tu ai bani mul;i, dar eu nu am deloc.
Somebody = cineva; cineva?
I can see somebody at the gate. = Pot s vd pe cineva la poart.
Do you see somebody? = Vezi pe cineva?
Anybody
A. = oricine I can ask anybody. = Pot ntreba pe oricine.
I. = cineva Do you see anybody? = Vezi pe cineva?
N. = nimeni I cannot ask anybody. = Nu pot ntreba pe nimeni.

Nobody = nimeni
I see nobody. = Nu vd pe nimeni.
Something = ceva; ceva?
I see something. = Vd ceva.
Do you see something? = Vezi ceva? (Cnd rspunsul este armativ).
Anything
= orice I buy anything. = Cumpr orice.
= orice?; ceva?
Are you going to buy anything? = Ai de gnd s cumperi ceva/orice?
= orice; nimic I<m not going to buy anything. = N-am de gnd s
cumpr nimic.
Nothing = nimic
I bought nothing. = Nu am cumprat nimic.
Someone [`s {mw {n] = careva, cineva
You must ask someone. = Trebuie s ntrebi pe careva.
Anyone
= oricare You may/can ask anyone. = Po=i ntreba pe careva/oricine.
= oricare?
Can I ask anyone? = Pot ntreba pe oricare/careva?
= oricare I cannot ask anyone. = Nu pot ntreba pe oricare/nimeni.
No one = nobody = nimeni; none= not one/any = nici unul/una
You can ask no one. = Nu po=i ntreba pe nimeni.
Everybody = to=i, toat lumea, ecare
I saw everybody laughing. = I-am vzut pe to=i rznd.
Everything = totul, tot
He can understand everything. = Poate n=elege tot.
Somebody else = altcineva
I see somebody else. = Vd pe altcineva.
Anybody else
= oricine altcineva Give it to anybody else! = D-l-o oricui altcuiva!
= oricine altcineva?
Could you play with anybody else? = Puteai juca cu oricine altcineva?
= nimeni altcineva I was not seen by anybody else. = N-am fost vzut
de nimeni altcineva.
Nobody else = nimeni altcineva
Nobody else can do it. = Nimeni altcineva n-o poate face.
Something else = altceva
We must buy something else. = Trebuie s cumprm altceva.
Anything else = orice altceva:
They may do anything else. = Ei pot face orice altceva.
Nothing else = nimic altceva
I saw nothing else. = N-am vzut nimic altceva.
1.4.1.10. Pronumele reciproce (Reciprocal Pronoun) each other = unul
pe cellalt (dou persoane)
The two neighbours help each other. = Cei doi vecini se ajut unul pe
cellalt.

One another = unul pe cellalt (minimum trei persoane)


The three brothers help one another. = Cei trei fra>i se ajut unul pe
cellalt.
1.4.2. Declinarea pronumelui personal
n schema care urmeaz este inclus i cazul genitiv dei pronumele
personal n cazul genitiv este pronume posesiv, nu personal.
Numrul singular
N. I = eu you = tu he = el she = ea it = el/ea
G. my = meu your = tu his = lui her = ei its = lui/ei mine = al meu
yours = al tu his = al lui hers = al ei its = al lui/ei
D. (to) me = mie (to) you = tie (to) him = lui (to) her = ei (to) it = lui/ei
A. me = pe mine you = pe tine him = pe el her = pe ea it = pe el/ea
numrul plural
N. we = noi you = voi/dv. they = ei/ele, dnii/dnsele
G. Our = nostru your = vostru/dv. their = lor, dnilor/dnselor ours =
al nostru yours = al vostru/dv. theirs = al lor, al dnilor/dnselor
D. (to) us = nou (to) you = vou/dv. (to) them = lor, dnilor/dnselor
A. us = pe noi you = pe voi/dv. them = pe ei/ele, pe dnii/dnsele
1.5. NUMERALUL (The Numeral)
Este partea de vorbire prin care se exprim un numr de obiecte/in>e
etc. Sau ordinea acestora.
1.5.1. Clasicare
1. Cardinale (Cardinal Numerals)
2. Colective (Collective Numerals)
3. Ordinale (Ordinal Numerals)
4. Distributive (Distributive Numerals)
5. Frac>ionare (Fractional Numerals)
6. Adverbiale (Adverbial Numerals)
7. Multiplicative (Multiplicative Numerals)
8. Nehotrte (Indenite Numerals)
1.5.1.1. Numeralul cardinal (The Cardinal Numeral)
Exprim un numr exact/ntreg de obiecte sau in>e ncepnd de la
zero ctre plus sau minus innit.
La telefon zero/0 se pronun> ca litera O [_, la tenis se spune love (all),
n tiin>e se folosete cuvntul zero.
Cnd ne referim la ani exprimm: 1907 = nineteen oh seven.
Exprimarea temperaturii se realizeaz astfel: 0 se pronun> zero
10 = ten degrees below zero.
Cnd se exprim scorul la jocurile de fotbal 0 se pronun> nil [nil] sau
nothing.
La tenis: Nstase leads by two sets to love. (2 0) = Nstase conduce
cu dou seturi la zero.
Numerele de telefon (Telephone Numbers) se scriu cu spa>ii ntre
grupele de cifre.
E. G. 04 62 5142

0 n numerele telefonice se pronun? [_. Numerele se rostesc separat,


iar cifrele duble se rostesc folosindu-se cuvntul double
01 23 456 = oh one double two three four ve six. = zero unu doi doi
trei patru cinci ase.
Cifre triple (Triple/Treble Figures): 7 5 = seven ve double ve = apte
cinci cinci cinci.
Un numr ca 5 se rostete: double ve double ve
1 one [w {n] = unu, una 1 eleven [i`levn] = unsprezece
2 two [tu] = doi, dou 12 twelve [twelv] = doisprezece
3 three [SrI] = trei 13 thirteen [`S|`tIn] = treisprezece
4 four [fo] = patru 14 fourteen [`fo`tIn] = paisprezece
5 ve [faiv] = cinci 15 fteen [`f`tIn] = cincisprezece
6 six [siks] = ase 16 sixteen [`siks`tIn] = aisprezece
7 seven [`sevn] = apte 17seventeen [`sevn`tIn] = aptesprezece
8 eight [eit] = opt 18 eighteen [`ei`tIn] = optsprezece
9 nine [nain] = nou 19 nineteen [`nain`tIn] = nousprezece
10 ten [ten] = zece 20 twenty [`twenti] = douzeci
21 twenty-one = douzeci i unu/una 40 forty [`foti] = patruzeci
2 twenty-two = douzeci i doi/dou 50 fty [`fti] = cincizeci
23 twenty-three=douzeci i trei 60 sixty [`siksti] = aizeci
24 twenty-four = douzeci i patru 70 seventy [`sevnti] = aptezeci
25 twenty-ve = douzeci i cinci 80 eighty [`eiti] = optzeci
26 twenty-six = douzeci i ase 90 ninety [`nainti] = nouzeci
27 twenty-seven = douzeci i apte 10 one hundred [h {ndr] = o sut
28 twenty-eight = douzeci i opt 101 one hundred and one = o sut
unu
29 twenty-nine = douzeci i nou 102 one hundred and two = o sut
doi
30 thirty [`S|ti] = treizeci
125 one hundred and twenty ve = o sut douzeci i cinci
20 two hundred = dou sute
257 two hundred and fty seven = dou sute cincizeci i apte
1,0 one thousand = o mie
1,06 ten sixty six = one thousand and sixty six = o mie aizeci i ase
2,567 two thousand ve hundred and sixty seven =dou mii cinci sute
aizeci i apte
10,0 ten thousand = zece mii
10,0 one hundred thousand = o sut de mii
123,547 one hundred and twenty three thousand ve hundred and
forty seven = o sut douzeci i trei de mii cinci sute patruzeci i apte
1,0,0 one million = un milion = 1.0.0
2,0,0 two million = dou milioane = 2.0.0
1,0,0,0 one milliard/billion = un miliard = 1.0.0.0
3,0,0,0 three milliard/billion = trei miliarde = 3.0.0.0
1,0,0,0,0 one trillion = un trilion = 1.0.0.0.0
1,0,0,0,0,0 one quadrillion = un catralion

1,0,0,0,0,0,0 one quintillion = un chintilion


1.5.1.2. Numeralul ordinal (The Ordinal Numeral)
1st the rst [f|st] = primul, prima
2nd the second [`sek] = al doilea, a doua
3rd the third [S|d] = al treilea, a treia
4th the fourth [fos] = al patrulea, a patra
5th the fth [fs] = al cincilea, a cincea
6th the sixth [siksS] = al aselea, a asea
7th the seventh [`sevns] = al aptelea, a aptea
8th the eighth [eits] = al optulea, a opta
9th the ninth [nains] = al noulea, a noua
10th the tenth [tens] = al zecelea, a zecea
1th the eleventh [i`levns] = al unsprezecelea, a unsprezecea
12th the twelfth [`twelfs] = al doisprezecelea, a dousprezecea
13th the thirteenth [`S|`tIns] = al treisprezecelea, a treisprezecea
14th the fourteenth [`fo`tIns] = al paisprezecelea, a paisprezecea
15th the fteenth [`f`tIns] = al cincisprezecelea, a cincisprezecea
16th the sixteenth [`siks`tIns] = al aisprezecelea, a aisprezecea
17th the seventeenth [`sevn`tIns] = al aptesprezecelea, a
aptesprezecea
18th the eighteenth [`ei`tIns] = al optsprezecelea, a optsprezecea
19th the nineteenth [`nain`tIns] = al nousprezecelea, a
nousprezecea
20th the twentieth [`twenti] = al douzecilea, a douzecea
21st the twenty rst = al douzeci i unulea, a douzeci i una
2nd the twenty second = al douzeci i doilea, a douzeci i doua
23rd the twenty third = al douzeci i treilea, a douzeci i treia
24th the twenty fourth = al douzeci i patrulea, a douzeci i patra
25th the twenty fth = al douzeci i cincilea, a douzeci i cincea
26th the twenty sixth = al douzeci i aselea, a douzeci i asea
27th the twenty seventh = al douzeci i aptelea, a douzeci i aptea
28th the twenty eighth = al douzeci i optulea, a douzeci i opta
29th the twenty ninth = al douzeci i noulea, a douzeci i noua
30th the thirtieth [`S|tiis/`S|ti] = al treizecilea, a treizecea
40th the fortieth [`fotiis `foti] = al patruzecilea, a patruzecea
50th the ftieth [`ftiis `fti] = al cincizecilea, a cincizecea
60th the sixtieth [`sikstiis `siksti] = al aizecilea, a aizecea
70th the seventieth [`sevntiis `sevnti] = al aptezecilea, a aptezecea
80th the eightieth [`eitiis `eiti] = al optzecilea, a optzecea
90th the ninetieth [`naintiis `nainti] = al nouzecilea, a nouzecea
10th the one hundredth [`h {ndr`h {ndrids] = al o sutlea, a o suta
101st the one hundred and rst = al o sut unulea, a o sut una
102nd the one hundred and second = al o sut doilea, a o sut doua
which? = al ctelea, a cta, ai ctelea, ale ctelea?
Which boy is John? = Al ctelea biat este John?
Which girl is Jane? = A cta fat este Jane?

Which boat is theirs? = A cta barc este a lor?


I know which he is. = Eu tiu al ctelea este el.
Do you know which she is? = @tii tu a cta este ea?
Quarter = a fourth (and twenty three = nou supra cinci sute douzeci
i trei; 4.53 = four point ve three = 4,53 = patru virgul cincizeci i trei
1.5.1.3. Numeralul fracAionar (The Fractional Numeral)
1.5.1.3.1. FracAia (The Fraction) ordinar (Vulgar)- zecimal (Decimal)
= a/one half (o doime); = a/one third (o treime); = a/one quarter = a
fourth (un sfert); = three fourths = three quarters (trei ptrimi, apte; = nine
over ve hundred and twenty three = nou supra cinci sute douzeci i trei;
4.53 = four point ve three = 4,53 = patru virgul cincizeci i trei
1.5.1.3.2. Semnele matematice
+ plus = and = plus; empty set= mulAime vid; minus = minus; pi
[pai] = 3,14; multiplied = nmulAit; angle = unghi
: divided by = mprAit la; B = minute = minut; = second = secund;
= equal to = egal cu; = not equal to = neegal cu, diferit de; log = logarithm
= logaritm; < less than = mai mic dect/ca; integral (of) = integral; > more
than = mai mare dect/ca; triangle = triunghi; less than or equal to = mai
mic sau egal cu; innity = innit; more than or equal to = mai mare sau egal
cu; square root = rdcin ptrat; ll = parallel to = paralel cu; perpendicular
to = perpendicular pe;
= Percentage Sign = la sut (procent); 5
= ve
per cent = cinci la sut = 5 la sut; 5.5
= ve point ve per cent = cinci
virgul cinci la sut.
= ve and a half per cent = cinci i jumtate la sut
1.5.1.3.3. OperaAiunile aritmetice (Arithmetical operations)
2 + 2 = 4 two plus/and two makes/equals/is/are four = doi plus doi fac
patru
2 = 8 ten minus two makes/equals eight = zece minus/fr doi fac opt
5 x 5 = 25 Five times ve makes/is twenty-ve. = Five multiplied by
ve equals (25) twenty-ve. = Five ves is twenty-ve. = Cinci ori cinci fac
douzeci i cinci.
4 x 3 = 12 se citete: Four threes are twelve. = Three fours are twelve.
= Patru ori trei fac doisprezece.
25: 5 = 5 Five into twenty ve makes/equals ve. = Twenty-ve divided
by ve is ve. = Douzeci i cinci mprAit la cinci fac cinci.
1.5.1.3.4. Exprimarea datei (Dates)
Se realizeaz cu ajutorul numeralelor ordinale i cardinale.
February 14th, 1989 = 14th February 1989 = the fourteenth of
February 1989 =14.2.1989 = 14 februarie 1989 =14-L-l989
n limba englez american data apare astfel: February 14, 1989, deci
numele lunii se scrie naintea numrului zilei.
What date is it today? = n ct este astzi?
What day is it today? = Ce zi este astzi?
Today is Sunday. = Astzi este duminic.
On Monday Ill go to Cetate. = Luni voi merge la Cetate.

4 B. C. (Before Christ) = 4 nainte de Cristos, 4 naintea erei noastre


A. D. 105 = A. D. one hundred oh ve. (A. D. = Anno Domini = n the
year of Lord) = 105 era noastr = 105 dup Cristos.
1.5.1.3.5. Lunile anului (The Months of the Year)
January (Jan.) = ianuarie; February (Feb.) = februarie; March (Mar.) =
martie; April (Apr.) = aprilie; May = mai; June = iunie; July = iulie; August =
august; September (Sept.) = septembrie; October (Oct.) = octombrie;
November (Nov.) = noiembrie; December (Dec.) = decembrie
1.5.1.3.6. Zilele sptmnii (The days of the Week)
Sunday (Sun.) = duminic; Monday (Mon.) = luni; Tuesday (Tue.) =
mari; Wednesday (Wed.) = miercuri; Thursday (Thurs.) = joi; Friday (Fri.) =
vineri; Saturday (Sat.) = smbt
n limba englez, zilele i lunile anului se scriu numai cu majuscul.
1.5.1.4. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral)
Conine o mulime exprimat printr-un singular.
Couple = cuplu; team = echip; pair = pereche; dozen = duzin; score
= douzeci; polgross = 12 duzini; a couple of cherries = dou ciree; to walk
n pairs = a se plimba perechi; a pair of shoes = o pereche de panto; half a
score = zece; a pair of trousers = o pereche de pantaloni; two score years =
patruzeci de ani; ICve met many happy pairs. = Am ntlnit multe perechi
fericite.
1.5.1.5. Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numerals) double =
twofold = dublu = ndoit triple = threefold = triplu fourfold = mptrit tenfold
= nzecit a hundredfold = nsutit a thousandfold = nmiit once = o dat ten
times = de zece ori twice = de dou ori fty times = de cincizeci de ori thrice
= de trei ori a hundred times = de o sut de ori four times = de patru ori a
thousand times = de o mie de ori ve times = de cinci ori
He has a suitcase with a double bottom. = El are un geamantan cu fund
dublu.
1.5.1.6. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) one at a time
= cte unul o dat one by one = unul cte unul two at a time = cte doi o
dat two by two, by twos = doi cte doi three at a time = cte trei o dat
three by three, by threes = trei cte trei four at a time = cte patru o dat
four by four, by fours = patru cte patru ve at a time = cte cinci o dat ve
by ve, by ves = cinci cte cinci by the dozen = la duzin ten at a time =
zece o dat, cte zece one hundred at a time = o sut o dat, cte o sut
every other minute = din dou n dou minute every other hour = hourly =
din dou n dou ore = la ecare dou ore every three hours = din trei n trei
ore = la trei ore o dat every ve hours = din cinci n cinci ore, la interval de
cinci ore
I see groups of ve children. = Vd grupuri de cte cinci copii.
1.5.1.7. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral) once = o dat
rstly = n primul rnd twice = de dou ori ten times = de zece ori secondly
= n al doilea rnd four times = de patru ori three times = de trei ori thirdly
= n al treilea rnd

Ct este ceasul/ora? (What time is it? WhatDs the time?) minute = minut
quarter = sfert half = jumtate watch = ceas de mn past = i clock = ceas
de perete to = fr face = cadran long hand = orar alarm clock = ceas
detepttor short hand = minutar second hand = secundar
It is ve (minutes) past twelve. = Este doisprezece i cinci (minute).
It is ten (minutes) past twelve. = Este doisprezece i zece (minute).
It is a quarter past twelve. = Este doisprezece i un sfert.
It is half past twelve. = Este doisprezece i jumtate.
It is a quarter to one. = Este unu fr un sfert.
It is ten (minutes) to one. = Este unu fr zece (min.).
It is two oDclock. = Este ora dou.
It is fast = grbete, o ia nainte, merge nainte it is slow = ntrzie,
rmne/merge n urm
My watch is ve minutes slow. = Ceasul meu merge/rmne cu cinci
minute n urm.
Your watch is ve minutes fast. =Ceasul tu o ia nainte cu cinci
minute.
My watch keeps a good time. = Ceasul meu merge bine.
His watch goes wrong. = Ceasul lui merge greit/prost.
1.5.1.10. Uniti de msur (Measures)
1 inch (in.) = 2,54 cm = 1/36 yard = 1/12 foot
12 inches = 1 foot = 30,48 cm = 0,3048 m
3 feet (ft.) = 1 yard = 91 cm = 0,91 m = 1 yd
1 mile = 1,760 yards = 1609,35 m
1 mile = 80 chains
1 link = 7.92 inches = 20,168 cm
1 chain = 10 links = 20,168 m
1 furlong= 10 chains = 20,1 m
1 rod = 5,029 m
1 league = 3 miles
1 fanthom= 6 feet = 1,82 m
1 cable = 608 feet = 185,31 m
1 sea mile = 6,080 feet = 1851,85 m

on (gal) = 4 quarts = 8 pints


States = 3,784 litres

England = 4,54 litres; United

1.6. VERBUL (THE VERB)


Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprim o aciune, o activitate sau
un proces i are urmtoarele categorii gramaticale: timp, aspect, numr,
persoan, diatez i mod. Timpul verbului este categoria gramatical prin
care se precizeaz momentul desfurrii aciunii. Exist trei timpuri de baz:
prezent, trecut i viitor. Aspectul exprim gradul de ndeplinire a aciunii. n
limba englez exist dou aspecte:
A) aspectul comun, prin care se exprim o aciune general, o aciune
terminat sau o aciune de scurt durat.
I play tennis. = Eu joc tenis (n general sau de obicei).
B) aspectul continuu, care exprim o aciune n desfurare deci o
aciune neterminat.
I am playing tennis. = Joc tenis (acum).
Diateza realizeaz relaia dintre subiect i complementul direct. Exist
trei diateze: activ, pasiv i reEexiv.
n cazul diatezei active aciunea subiectului se ndreapt asupra
complementului direct.;
The boy is reading the lesson. = Biatul citete lecia.
n cadrul diatezei pasive aciunea svrit de subiectul logic se
rsfrnge asupra subiectului gramatical.
The lesson is read by the boy. = Lecia este citit de biat.
Din exemplul de mai sus se observ c n limba englez diateza pasiv
se formeaz cu verbul auxiliar to be plus participiul trecut al verbului de
conjugat (adic a I-a form de baz a verbului de conjugat). Verbul to be se
conjug, iar verbul de conjugat la participiul trecut nu-i modic forma.
La diateza reEexiv aciunea se rsfrnge asupra autorului ei, adic
asupra subiectului.
The cat washes itself. = Pisica se spal.
Modul este categoria gramatical a verbului prin care se precizeaz
felul aciunii i anume dac aciunea este real, sigur, ireal, probabil,
posibil, imposibil.
n limba englez exist patru moduri personale (Finite Forms) i trei
moduri nepersonale (Non Finite Forms).
Personale
Indicative

Subjunctive

are toate timpurile

prezent, past i past perfect

Conditional prezent i perfect


Moduri
Imperative prezent
Nepersonale

ve

prezent i perfect

Participle

Gerund

prezent i perfect

prezent, past i perfect

1.6.1. Clasicarea verbelor


Innitiv prezent trecut simplu participiu trecut
1. Auxiliare to be was/were been
=a
To have had had
= a avea
To do did done
= a face
Shall should
= trebuie s
Will would
= a vrea
To let let let
= a lsa
2. Modale can (to be able to) could
= a putea, a ti
May (to be permitted/allowed to) might
= a avea voie s =
A-l permis s)
Must (to have to) (to be obliged to) must)
= trebuie, a trebui s) = a obligat s)
Shall should
= a trebui s, a se cuveni s
Will would
= a dori, a vrea
Ought to ought to)
= ar trebui s
Dare
= a ndrzni
Need need
= obinuia s
To be to was, were to been to
= a urma s
Used to
= obinuia s
3. Principale regulate to ask asked asked
= a ntreba
To like liked liked
= a-l plcea
To answer answered answered

spunde
To use used used
= a ntrebuina
Etc.
Neregulate to go
Went
Gone
= a merge
To see
Saw
Seen
= a vedea
Etc.
4. Auxiliar
Modale shall will can should would could etc.
Verbele auxiliare ajut celelalte verbe s-i formeze aspectul continuu,
diateza pasiv, timpurile compuse, unele moduri. Ele devin instrumente
gramaticale pierzndu-i sensul lexical.
Eu am o carte = Eu posed o carte.
n exemplul de mai sus verbul am (a avea) n limba romn este verb
principal, dar n exemplul: Eu am citit o carte, verbul am este auxiliar, cci
ajut verbul citit s-i formeze timpul perfect compus. Este clar c nu putem
spune: Eu posed citit o carte, n care verbul a poseda s e sinonim cu verbul
a avea.
Verbele modale dau verbelor principale mpreun cu care se folosesc
nuane lexicale speciale. n exemplul I must go. = Eu trebuie s merg, verbul
must exprim obligaia efecturii aciunii. Verbul can implic nuana
capabilitii i permisiunii, iar verbul may ideea de permisiune i posibilitate.
He can speak English. = El tie/poate vorbi englezete; He may come.
= El poate veni. = Lui i este permis s vin.
Verbele modale se mai numesc defective cci nu au forme proprii e
pentru innitiv prezent, e pentru trecut, e pentru participiul trecut, situaie
n care se nlocuiesc cu sinonimele lor. Ele nu au particula innitival to i nu
folosesc aceast particul dup ele (excepii: used to, ought to). Ca i verbele
auxiliare ele formeaz interogativul schimbndu-i locul cu subiectul
propoziiei. Verbele auxiliare i modale din limba englez au i forme
prescurtate/contrase. Unii gramaticieni includ verbele auxiliare i modale ntro singur categorie G aceea de verbe speciale. Ele formeaz negativul prin
simpla adugare a negaiei not dup ele i interogativul schimbndu-i locul
cu subiectul n propoziie.
Verbele can, may, must, ought to, dare, need i used to sunt auxiliare
n ntrebrile disjunctive.
I am not at home. = Eu nu sunt acas. I cannot go. = Eu nu pot merge.

xiliare i modale contribuie la formarea ntrebrilor


disjunctive (Tag/Tail Questions), cele care se traduc n limba romn prin nu-l
aa? Aa-l?
You are at home, arenHt you? = Eti acas, nu-l aa?
You are not at home, are you? = Nu eti acas, nu-l aa?
He leams English, doesnHt he? = nva englezete, nu-l aa?
Tot ele particip la formularea rspunsurilor scurte ale ntrebrilor
generale. ntrebrile generale sunt cele care pot primi rspunsuri scurte: da,
nu.
Are they at home ? Yes; Yes, they are. = Sunt ei acas? Da.; Da,
sunt.
Particip la completarea structurii and so.
They are n the park.And so are we. = Ei sunt n parc. Ii noi.
Paul can speak English.And so can Alice. And so can we. = Paul
tie s vorbeasc englezete. Ii Alice (tie). Ii noi (tim).
Paul cannot ski. Neither can we. = We canHt either . = Paul nu tie
s schieze. Nici noi (nu tim).
They saw the house. But I didnHt. = Ei au vzut casa. Dar/ns eu nu.
Dar eu n-am vzut-o.
Verbele auxiliare i cele modale, mult folosite n vorbire, se ntlnesc i
n limbajul care exprim o surpriz (mai ales neplcut).
He wonHt come with us. = El nu va veni cu noi.
Oh, he wonHt, wonHt he? = Zu (domHle)? = Chiar aa?
John canHt give you the money today. Oh, he canHt, canHt he? = John
nu-i poate da banii astzi. J Nu mai spune!; Cum aa?; Zu domHle?
Verbele modale, ca i verbele auxiliare, nu primesc terminaia s la
persoana a I-a singular i nu au aspectul continuu.
1.6.2. Modurile personale ale verbelor
1.6.2.1. Modul indicativ
Este modul aciunilor reale i cuprinde toate timpurile.
1.6.2.1.1. Timpul prezent (The Present Tense)
Este forma I de baz a verbelor. Exprim aciuni generale repetate,
stri, un obicei prezent etc. Se folosete i n propoziiile condiionale de tipul
I. Normal timpul prezent coincide cu momentul vorbirii.
Uneori, prezentul simplu se poate referi la viitor: Tommorow is AnnHs
birthday. = Mine este ziua de natere a Anei.
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la indicativ prezent
TO BE = a (A = armativ, N = negativ, I = interogativ)
A || I am = IHm= eu sunt = eu s you are = youHre = tu eti he/she/it is
= heHs/sheHs/itHs = el/ea este = el/ea e we are = weHre = noi suntem you
are= youHre = voi suntei they are = theyHre = ei/ele sunt
N || I am not = I arenHt = eu nu sunt you are not = you arenHt = tu nu
eti he/she/it is not= he/she/it isnHt = el/ea nu este we are not = we arenHt =
noi nu suntem you are not = you arenHt = voi nu suntei they are not = they
arenHt = ei/ele nu sunt
I || am I? = eu sunt? Are we? = noi suntem?

you? = tu eti? Are you? =voi suntei?


Is he/she/it? = el/ea este? Are they? =ei/ele sunt?
I K N am I not? = arenLt I? = nu sunt eu? = eu nu-s?
Are you not? = arenLt you? = nu eti tu?
Is he/she/it not? = isnLt he/she/it? = nu este el/ea?
Are we not? = arenLt we? = nu suntem noi?
Are you not? = arenLt you? = nu suntei voi?
Are they not? = arenLt they? = nu sunt ei/ele?
Funciile verbului TO BE
1. A) verb auxiliar pentru formarea aspectului continuu: I am reading.
= Eu citesc (acum).
B) verb auxiliar pentru formarea diatezei pasive I am seen. = Eu sunt
vzut.
2. Verb modal: to be to = a urma/trebui s = a s; I am to read. =
Trebuie/urmeaz s citesc.
3. Verb principal K atunci cnd este urmat de un adverb de loc; We are
at home. = Noi suntem acas.
They are n the park. = Ei/Ele sunt n parc.
TO HAVE = a avea
A || I have = ILve = I have got [got] = ILve got = eu am you have =
youLve = you have got = youLve got = tu ai he/she/it has = heLs/sheLs/itLs =
he/she/it has got = heLs/sheLs/itLs got = el/ea are we have = weLve = we have
got = weLve got = noi avem you have = youLve = you have got = youLve got
= voi avei they have = theyLve = they have got = theyLve got = ei/ele au
N || I have not (I havenLt) = I have not (havenLt) got = eu nu am you
have not (you havenLt) = you have not (havenLt) got = tu nu ai he/she/it has
not (he/she/it hasnLt) = he/she/it has not (hasnLt) got = el/ea nu are we have
not (we havenLt) = we have not (havenLt) got = noi nu avem you have not
(you havenLt) = you have not (havenLt) got = voi nu avei they have not (they
havenLt) = they have not (havenLt) got = ei/ele nu au sau
I do not have = I donLt have = eu nu am you do not have = you donLt
have = tu nu ai he/she/it does not have = he/she/it doesnLt have = el/ea nu
are we do not have = we donLt have = noi nu avem you do not have = you
donLt have = voi nu avei they do not have = they donLt have = ei/ele nu au
I || have I? = have I got? = do I have? = eu am? = am e?
Have you? = have you got? = do you have? = tu ai? = ai tu?
Has he/she/it? = has he/she/it got? = does he/she/it have? = el/ea are?
Have we? = have we got? = do we have? = noi avem? = avem noi?
Have you? = have you got? = do you have? = voi avei? = avei voi?
Have they? = have they got? = do they have? = ei/ele au? = au ei/ele?
I K N || have I not? = havenLt I? = have I not (havenLt I) got? = do I not
(donLt I) have? = eu nu am? = eu n-am? = nu am eu?
Have you not? =havenLt you? =have you not (havenLt you) got? =do
you not (donLt you) have? = tu nu ai= tu n-ai? =nu ai tu?

ot? = hasnMt he/she/it? = has he/she/it not (hasnMt he/


she/it) got? = does he/she/it not (doesnMt he/she/it) have? = el/ea nu are? =
nu are el/ea?
Have we not? =havenMt we? = have we not (havenMt we) got? = do we
not (donMt we) have? = noi nu avem? = noi n-avem? = nu avem noi?
Have you not? = havenMt you? = have you not (havenMt you) got? = do
you not (donMt you) have? = voi nu avei? = voi n-avei? = nu avei voi?
Have they not? = havenMt they? = have they not (havenMt they) got? =
do they not (donMt they) have? = ei/ele nu au? = nu au ei/ele?
Funciile verbului TO HAVE
1. Verb auxiliar pentru formarea timpurilor The Present Perfect i The
Past Perfect
I have come for two hours. = Am venit de dou ore.
I had come for two hours. =Venisem de dou ore.
2. Verb modal: to have to = must = trebuie
I must sing. = I have to sing. = Eu trebuie s cnt. = Eu am de cntat.
He had to leam every day. = El trebuia s nvee n ecare zi.
3. Verb principal: a) to have = to possess = a avea/poseda
We have a house. = We possess a house. = Avem o cas. = Posedm o
cas.
They have had that house for ten years. = Ei au casa aceea de zece
ani.
B) to have = a mnca, a bea, a servi, a se distra etc.
We have breakfast at eight oMclock. = Servim micul dejun la ora opt.
TO DO = a face
A || I do= eu fac we do = noi facem you do = tu faci you do = voi facei
he/she/it does = el/ea face they do = ei/ele fac
N || I do not do (I donMt do) = eu nu fac we do not do (we donMt do) =
noi nu facem you do not do (you donMt do) = tu nu faci you do not do (you
donMt do) = voi nu facei he/she/it does not do (doesnMt do) = el/ea nu face
they do not do (they donMt do) = ei/ele nu fac
I || do I do? = eu fac? Do we do? = noi facem?
Do you do? = tu faci? Do you do? = voi facei?
Does he/she/it do? =el/ea face? Do they do? = ei/ele
I N N || do I not do? = donMt I do? = eu nu fac? = nu fac eu?
Do you not do? = donMt you do? = tu nu faci? = nu faci tu?
Does he/she/it not do? = doesnMt he/she/it do? = ea/el nu face? = nu
face el/ea?
Ca verb auxiliar, verbul to do nu se traduce. Traducerea lui ns, ca i
traducerea verbelor to be i to have s-a fcut totui pentru motive practice.
Funciile verbului TO DO
1. Verb auxiliar
Do you understand? = nelegi?
He does not understand. = El nu nelege.
2. Verb de ntrire (emfatic)
I do like grammar. = mi place gramatica foarte mult.


)
Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul prezent
La prezent, verbele modale au aceeai form pentru toate persoanele.
CAN = to be able to= a putea, a ti, a n stare s
A|| I can (swim) = I am able to (swim) = eu pot/tiu/sunt n stare s
(not) etc.
N || I cannot (swim) = I canOt (swim) = I am not able to (swim) = I arenOt
able to (swim) = eu nu pot/tiu/sunt n stare s (not) etc.
I || Can I (swim)? = Am I able to (swim)? = pot/tiu eu s (not)? = sunt
eu n stare s (not)? Etc.
I P N || Can I not (swim)? = CanOt I (swim)? = Am I not able to (swim)?
= ArenOt I able to (swim)? = eu nu tiu/pot s (not)? = eu nu sunt n stare s
(not)? Etc.
Verbul CAN exprim:
A) abilitatea sau capacitatea:
Can = to be able to = to know how to = to have the ability/power/skill
to = a putea/ti = a n stare s = a ti cum s
I can speak ve languages. = Qtiu s vorbesc cinci limbi.
He cannot speak French. = El nu tie s vorbeasc franuzete.
B) P posibilitatea P la armativ i interogativ
They can be n the park. = Ei pot n parc.
They can have been n the park. = Se poate/Este posibil ca ei s fost
n parc.
Imposibilitatea P la negativ:
They canOt be n the park. = Ei nu pot n parc.
This story cannot be true. = Povestea aceasta nu poate adevrat.
She canOt be under thirty. = Nu poate avea sub treizeci de ani.
He canOt have said that. = El nu poate s spus asta. = Nu se poate ca
el s spus asta.
C) o invitaie sau o rugminte:
Can you shut the window, please? = Poi, te rog, s nchizi fereastra?
Can you possibly come to my birthday party? = Poi cumva veni la
petrecerea de ziua mea de natere?
How can you possibly ask such a thing? = Cum poi ntreba aa ceva?
D) permisiunea (n limbajul colocvial) i devine sinonim cu may, dar
pentru politee se prefer may.
Can = may = to be free to = to have permission to = to be allowed/
permitted to = a putea, a liber s, a avea permisiunea s
You can/may use my umbrella. = Poi folosi umbrela mea.
I can swim n that lake. = I am free to swim n that lake. = Pot nota n
lacul acela. = Sunt liber s not n lacul acela.

tiv can exprim interdicia sau imposibilitatea R (canSt = be


forbidden/prohibited to) cannot = to be incapable/unable to = a incapabil
s
You canSt go on the trip. = Nu poi merge n excursie.
It canSt be six oSclock. = Nu poate ora ase.
MAY = to be permitted/allowed to= a avea voie s, a-l permis/
ngduit s
A || I may (go) = I am permitted/allowed to (go) = eu am voie/pot s
(merg) = mie mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc
N|| I may not (go) = I am not permitted/allowed to (go) = eu nu am voie
s (merg) = mie nu-mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
Forma maynSt este considerat desuet i, n consecin, practic
nefolosit.
I || May I (go)? = am I permitted/allowed to (go)? =eu am voie/pot s
(merg)? = mie mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
I-N || May I not (go)? = am I not permitted/allowed to (go)? = eu nu am
voie/nu pot s (merg)? = mie nu-mi este permis/ngduit s (merg)? Etc.
Verbul MAY exprim:
A) R permisiunea n prezent May I come inT? = R Pot intra, Pot s intru?; UYes, you may.T = Da, poi;
UYes, of courseT =Da, desigur =Da, bineneles.
You may leave if you like,T John said. = Poi pleca dac doreti, zise el.
Devine n vorbire indirect:
John said that I might leave if I liked. = John said that I was allowed to
leave if I liked. = John a zis c pot pleca dac doresc. = John a zis c-mi este
ngduit s plec dac doresc.
Interdicia se exprim prin may not:
You may not use my umbrella. = Nu poi folosi umbrela mea.
B) posibilitatea:
He may come late if the traVcSs heavy. = El poate veni trziu dac
circulaia este intens.
He may have come yesterday. = Este posibil ca el s venit ieri.
She may be leaming her lessons. = Ea poate i nva leciile.
He may not be able to pay his rent. = Poate c el nu este n stare s-i
plteasc chiria.
C) probabilitatea/incertitudinea sau curiozitatea:
What may he be? = Ce poate el?
I may have left my umbrella on the train. = Probabil/Poate mi-am uitat
umbrela n tren.
He may come. = Probably he comes. = El poate veni. = Probabil el
vine.
ntrebrile referitoare la posibilitate se formuleaz cu ajutorul verbului
can nu al lui may.
Can he have lost his way? = Se poate ca el s se ratcit? = Este
posibil ca el s se rtcit?
D) o urare:

you live long! = S trieti!


May your dreams come true! = S i se mplineasc visurile/dorinele!
MUST= to have to = trebuie
A || I must (speak) = eu trebuie s (vorbesc) etc
N || I must not (speak) = I mustnWt (speak) = eu nu trebuie s (vorbesc)
etc.
I || Must I (speak)? = trebuie eu s (vorbesc)? Etc.
I X N || Must I not (speak)? = mustnWt I (speak)? = eu nu trebuie s
(vorbesc)? Etc.
Verbul MUST exprim:
A) obligaia/necesitatea:
You must leam permanently. = Tu trebuie s nvei permanent.
You must leam. = You have to leam. = You have (youWve) got to leam.
ntre must i have to exist ns urmtoarea deosebire: must exprim
o obligaie/necesitate pornit din partea subiectului (I must go to bed
because I am very sleepy. = Trebuie s merg la culcare pentru c mi este
foarte somn.) Have to exprim o obligaie impus subiectului din afar, deci
o obligaie extern (You have to be there at eight oWclock. = Tu trebuie s i
acolo la ora opt.)
You must not cross now. = You are not allowed/permitted to cross now.
= Tu nu trebuie s traversezi acum = N-ai voie s traversezi acum.
Must he go now? = Has he to go now? = Does he have to go now? =
Trebuie el s plece/mearg acum?
Must not exprim interdicia:
You must not interrupt meY, he said. = Nu trebuie s m ntrerupi, a zis
el.
Devine n vorbirea indirect:
He said that I mustnWt interrupt him. = El a zis c nu trebuie s-l
ntrerup. Sau:
He said that I didnWt have to interrupt him. = El a zis c nu trebuie s-l
ntrerup.
B) probabilitatea:
He must know me. = Probabil/poate (c) m cunoate. = Trebuie s m
tie.
Being late they must be at home. = Fiind trziu probabil c sunt acas.
You must have paid a lot of money for this car. = Probabil c ai pltit
muli bani pentru maina aceasta. = Trebuie s pltit muli bani pentru
maina aceasta.
SHAL = se cade/cuvine/merit s, trebuie s
A || I shall (intervene) = eu se cade/cuvine s (intervin)
You shall (intervene) = tu se cade/cuvine s (intervii)
He/she shall (intervene) = el/ea se cade/cuvine s (intervin)
We shall (intervene) = noi se cade/cuvine s (intervenim)
You shall (intervene) = voi se cade/cuvine s (intervenii)
They shall (intervene) = ei/ele se cade/cuvine s (intervin)

shall not (intervene) = I shanZt (intervene) = eu nu se cade s


(intervin) = eu nu trebuie s (intervin) etc.
I || Shall I (intervene)? = se cade/trebuie s (intervin) eu? = s
(intervin) eu? Etc.
I [ N || Shall I not (intervene)? = ShanZt I (intervene)? = eu s nu
(intervin)? = eu nu trebuie s (intervin)? Etc.
Prin shall se exprim:
A) permisiunea/invitaia:
You shall stay here as long as you like. = S stai aici ct i place. = Poi
s stai aici ct i place.
B) promisiunea:
You shall have a holiday n the mountains if you work hard. = O s ai o
vacan la munte dac o s munceti cum trebuie.
C) obligaia:
You shall do as he tells you. = S faci cum i spune el.
You shall always be punctual. = S i totdeauna punctual.
He shall never break his promise! = S nu-i calce niciodat
promisiunea!
What shall I do now? = Ce s fac acum?
WIL = a vrea, a dori
A || I will (leam) = eu vreau s (nv); You will (leam) = tu vrei s
(nvei)
He/she will (leam) = el/ea vrea s (nvee), etc.
N || I will not (leam) = I wonZt (leam) = eu nu vreau s (nv) etc.
I || Will I (leam)? = eu vreau s (nv)? = vreau eu s (nv)? Etc.
I [ N || Will I not (leam)? = WonZt I (leam)? = eu nu vreau s (nv)?
Etc.
Prin verbul modal will se adreseaz o invitaie sau o dorin.
Will you have a cup of tea? = Doreti/Vrei o ceac de ceai?
You may come to see us if you will. = Poi veni pe la noi dac vrei.
OUGHT TO = ar trebui s, s-ar cuveni s (obligaie moral)
A || I ought to go = eu trebuie s merg = eu se cuvine s merg; You
ought to go = tu ar trebui s mergi = tu s-ar cuveni s mergi; He/she ought
to go = el/ea ar trebui s mearg = el/ea se cuvine s mearg etc.
N || I ought not to go = I oughtnZt to go = eu nu ar trebui s merg = eu
n-ar trebui s merg etc.
I || Ought I to go? = ar trebui eu s merg? = s-ar cuveni eu s merg?
Etc.
I [ N|| Ought I not (oughtnZt I) to go? = eu nu ar trebui s merg? = n-ar
trebui eu s merg? Etc.
You ought to tell her the truth. = Se cuvine s-l spui adevrul.
You ought to have told her the truth. = S-ar cuvenit s-l spui
adevrul.
Ought to este sinonim cu should i exprim recomandarea, necesitatea
sau obligaia moral.

ou ought to help your parents if they are very old. = Se cuvine s-i
ajui prinii dac sunt foarte btrni.
You oughtn\t to take his umbrella without asking for permission. = Tu nu
trebuie s-l iei umbrela fr s ceri voie.
He knew he ought to help us. = ]tia c trebuie s ne ajute.
DARE = a ndrzni, a se ncumeta exist ns i verbul principal to dare
^ dared/durst ^ dared = a ndrzni)
A || La armativ verbul dare se conjug n maniera verbelor principale:
I dare = eu ndrznesc; you dare = tu ndrzneti he/she/it dares = el/ea
ndrznete etc.
N || I dare not go = I daren\t go = I don\t dare (to) go = eu nu
ndrznesc s merg etc.
I || Dare I go? = do I dare (to) go? = ndrznesc eu s merg? = eu
ndrznesc s merg? Etc
I-N || Dare I not go? = don\t I dare (to) go? = nu ndrznesc eu s merg?
= eu nu ndrznesc s merg? Etc.
Dare (to) = to be brave enough to = a ndrzni = a sucient de
curajos pentru a
I dare go there alone. = ndrznesc s merg acolo singur.
Dare = to take the risk of = a ndrzni, a risca s, a nfrunta
They dare all the dangers. = Ei nfrunt toate pericolele.
Dare = to provoke somebody into a demonstration of courage
Dare you jump over that fence? = ndrzneti s sari peste gardul
acela?
Dare + say = ndrznesc s spun
I dare say you can\t swim across that lake. = ndrznesc s spun c nu
poi traversa lacul acela not.
NED = a nevoie/necesar s, a trebui s
N || I need not go = I needn\t go = eu nu este nevoie s merg etc.
I || Need I go? = este nevoie s merg eu? Etc.
I-N || Need I not (needn\t I) go? = nu este nevoie s merg eu? = eu nu
este nevoie s merg? Etc.
Necesitate/nevoie
La armativ need se folosete cu adverbele hardly, scarcely, only:
I need hardly tell you something. = Simt o mare nevoie s-i spun ceva.
You need only be present. = Este nevoie s i doar prezent.
Verbul need la negativ presupune lipsa obligaiei sau necesitii.
I needn\t tell you everything. = Nu este nevoie s-i povestesc totul.
I needn\t go yet. = nc nu este nevoie s plec.
Needn\t ^ n vorbirea indirect:
You needn\t come until I tell you_, he said. = ^ Nu este nevoie s vii
pn nu-i spun eu, a zis el. Devine n vorbire indirect:
He said that I needn\t come until he told me. = El a zis c nu este
nevoie s vin pn nu-mi spune el.
TO BE TO = a /trebui/urma s

ou are to be there at six o`clock. = S i acolo la ora ase. = Trebuie/


Urmeaz s i acolo la ora ase.
What am I to do now? = Ce urmeaz/trebuie s fac eu acum?
What is to be done now? = Ce este de fcut acum?
I should have told you if we had been to go there. = ai-a spus dac
noi ar fost s mergem acolo.
TO HAVE GOT TO = trebuie (folosit mult n limbajul colocvial american)
I have got to go now. = Acum trebuie s plec.
n exemplul I will leam the lesson (Vreau s nv lecia) verbul will se
pronun accentuat, punndu-se astfel n eviden valoarea sa semantic.
n exemplul You will leam the lesson (Tu vei nva lecia) verbul will
este auxiliar i se pronun fr accent. n schimb verbul leam care urmeaz
dup el se pronun accentuat.
n exemplul He may never come (El poate s nu vin niciodat) verbul
may exprim o nuan de posibilitate/ndoial: El poate veni, dar suntem
lsai s credem c mai degrab nu va veni.
He may never come. = It is possible that he will never come.
Concluzie: Verbele can, may, must, shall, will, need, ought to se
ntlnesc urmate e de innitiv scurt prezent, e de innitiv scurt perfect.
He may have come. = E posibil ca el s venit.
He must have been rich. = El trebuie s fost bogat.
She can have gone on the trip. = Ea poate s mers n excursie.
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la prezent, aspectul comun, diateza
activ
TO SE = a vedea (dup acest model se conjug toate verbele
principale)
A || I see = eu vd we see = noi vedem you see = tu vezi you see = voi
vedei he/she/it sees = el/ea vede they see = ei/ele vd
N || I do not see = I don`t see = eu nu vd you do not see = you don`t
see = tu nu vezi he/she/it does not see = he/she/it doesn`t see = el/ea nu
vede we do not see = we don`t see = noi nu vedem you do not see = you
don`t see = voi nu vedei they do not see = they don`t see =ei/ele nu vd,
dnii/dnsele nu vd
I || do I see? = eu vd? Do we see? = noi vedem?
Do you see? = tu vezi? Do you see? = voi vedei?
Does he/she/it see? = el/ea vede? Do they see? = ei/ele vd?
I b N || do I not see? = don`t I see? = eu nu vd? = nu vd eu?
Do you not see? = don`t you see? = tu nu vezi? = nu vezi tu?
Does he/she/it not see? = doesn`t he/she/it see? = el/ea nu vede? Etc.
TO DARE = a ndrzni, a provoca
A || I dare = eu ndrznesc etc.
N || I do not (don`t) dare = eu nu ndrznesc etc.
I || Do I dare? = ndrznesc eu? Etc.
I b N || Do I not (don`t I) dare? = eu nu ndrznesc? = nu ndrznesc eu?
Etc.

t multe pericole.
They dare me to do it but I donct dare = Ei m provoac s-o fac, dar eu
nu ndrznesc.
I do not dare to break my promise = Eu nu ndrznesc s-mi calc
promisiunea.
John does not dare to go there, does he? = John nu ndrznete s
mearg/plece acolo, nu-l aa? = John nu are curaj s mearg acolo, aa-l?
To need = a necesar/nevoie s, a necesita/cere/presupune, a avea
nevoie de etc.
This work needs much skill. = Aceast treab cere/presupune mult
ndemnare/pricepere.
A || I need = eu am nevoie we need = noi avem nevoie you need = tu
ai nevoie you need = voi avei nevoie he/she/it needs = el/ea are nevoie they
need = ei/ele au nevoie
N || I do not (I donct) need = eu nu am nevoie = mie nu mi trebuie etc.
I || Do I need? = eu am nevoie? = am eu nevoie? = mie mi trebuie? =
mi trebuie mie? Etc.
I d N || Do I not need? = donct I need? = eu nu am nevoie? = nu am eu
nevoie? = mie nu mi trebuie? = nu mi trebuie mie? Etc.
They donct need our help, do they? = Ei nu au nevoie de ajutorul
nostru, nu-l aa?
Do they need any help? = Au ei nevoie de vreun ajutor?
Plants need rain. = Plantele au nevoie de ploaie.
I need much time. = Am nevoie de mult timp. = mi trebuie mult
vreme.
You needed such a book. = Tu ai avut nevoie de o astfel de carte.
I need to do something. = Trebuie s fac ceva. = Simt nevoia s fac
ceva.
He does not need to work. = El nu este nevoit s lucreze/munceasc.
Did they need anything? = Le trebuia lor ceva? = Aveau ei nevoie de
ceva?
D. Conjugarea verbelor la prezent d aspectul continuu d diateza activ
Aspectul continuu al verbului exprim aciuni de durat sau n
desfurare, deci aciuni neterminate. Se formeaz cu auxi-liarul to be plus
participiul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Aspect continuu au numai verbele
principale iar la prezent aceste aci-uni neterminate se efectueaz de regul
n momentul vorbirii. Uneori momentul desfurrii lor este imaginat
coinciznd cu prezentul.
I am writing a letter. = Scriu o scrisoare (acum).
I am leaving tomorrow. = Plec mine.
TO SPEAK = a vorbi
A || I am speaking = eu vorbesc we are speaking = noi vorbim you are
speaking = tu vorbeti you are speaking = voi vorbii he/she is speaking = el/
ea vorbete they are speaking = ei/ele vorbesc
N || I am not speaking = I arenct speaking = eu nu vorbesc you are not
speaking = you arenct speaking = tu nu vorbeti he/she is not speaking = he/

she/it isnet speaking = el/ea nu vorbete we are not speaking = we arenet


speaking = noi nu vorbim you are not speaking = you arenet speaking = voi
nu vorbii they are not speaking = they arenet speaking = ei/ele nu vorbesc
I || am I speaking? = eu vorbesc? Are we speaking? = noi vorbim?
Are you speaking? = tu vorbeti? Are you speaking? = voi vorbii?
Is he/she/it speaking? = el/ea vorbete? Are they speaking? = ei/ele
vorbesc?
I f N || am I not speaking? = arenet I speaking? = eu nu vorbesc?
Are you not speaking? = arenet you speaking? = tu nu vorbeti?
Is he/she not speaking? = isnet he/she speaking? = el/ea nu vorbete?
Are we not speaking? = arenet we speaking? = noi nu vorbim?
Are you not speaking? = arenet you speaking? = voi nu vorbii?
Are they not speaking? = arenet they speaking? = ei/ele nu vorbesc?
To will
A || I am willing to (read) = eu vreau s (citesc) etc.
N || I am not (I arenet) willing to (read) = eu nu vreau s (citesc) etc.
I || Am I willing to (read)? = eu vreau s (citesc)? = vreau eu s
(citesc)? Etc.
I f N || Am I not willing to (read)? = arenet I willing to (read)? = eu nu
vreau s (citesc)? = nu vreau eu s (citesc)? Etc.
E. Conjugarea verbelor la prezent f diateza pasiv f aspectul comun
TO BE SEN = a vzut
A ||
I am seen = eu sunt vzut () you are seen = tu eti vzut () he/she/it
is seen = el/ea este vzut () we are seen = noi suntem vzui/vzute you
are seen = voi suntei vzui/vzute they are seen = ei/ele sunt vzui/vzute
N || I am not seen = I arenet seen = eu nu sunt vzut ()
You are not seen = you arenet seen = tu nu eti vzut ()
He/she/it is not seen = he/she/it isnet seen = el/ea nu este vzut ()
We are not seen = we arenet seen = noi nu suntem vzui/vzute
You are not seen = you arenet seen = voi nu suntei vzui/vzute
They are not seen = they arenet seen = ei/ele nu sunt vzui/vzute
I || Am I seen? = eu sunt vzut ()? = sunt eu vzut ()?
Are you seen? = tu eti vzut ()? = eti tu vzut ()?
Is he/she/it seen? = el/ea este vzut ()? = este el/ea vzut ()?
Are we seen? = noi suntem vzui/vzute? = suntem noi vzui/vzute?
Are you seen? = voi suntei vzui/vzute? = suntei voi vzui/vzute?
Are they seen? = ei/ele sunt vzui/vzute? = sunt ei/ele vzui/vzute?
I f N || Am I not seen? = arenet I seen? = eu nu sunt vzut/()? = nu-s
eu vzut/()?
Are you not seen? = arenet you seen? = tu nu eti vzut/()? = nu eti
tu vzut/()?
Is he/she/it not seen? = isnet he/she/it seen? = el/ea nu este vzut ()?
= nu-l el/ea vzut ()?
Are we not seen? = arenet we seen? = noi nu suntem vzui/vzute? =
nu suntem noi vzui/vzute?

you not seen? = arengt you seen? = voi nu suntei vzui/? = nu


suntei voi vzui/vzute?
Are they not seen? = arengt they seen? = ei/ele nu sunt vzui/vzute?
= nu-s ei/ele vzui/vzute?
F. Conjugarea verbelor la prezent h diateza pasiv h aspectul continuu
TO BE BEING LOKED AT = a privit ()
A || I am being looked at = eu sunt privit ()
You are being looked at = tu eti privit ()
He/she/it is being looked at = el/ea este privit ()
We are being looked at = noi suntem privii/privite
You are being looked at = voi suntei privii/privite
They are being looked at = ei/ele sunt privii/privite
N || I am not being looked at = I arengt being looked at = eu nu sunt
privit ()
You are not being looked at = you arengt being looked at = tu nu eti
privit ()
He/she/it is not being looked at = he/she/it isngt being looked at = el/ea
nu este privit () etc.
I || Am I being looked at? = sunt eu privit ()? Etc
I-N || Am I not being looked at? = arengt I being looked at? = eu nu sunt
privit ()? Etc.
Today he is being a good boy. = Astzi/azi el este biat cuminte.
G. Conjugarea verbelor reiexive la timpul prezent h aspectul comun
TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra/amuza
A || I enjoy myself = eu m distrez we enjoy ourselves = noi ne distrm
You enjoy yourself = tu te distrezi you enjoy yourselves = voi v distrai
He enjoys himself = el se distreaz they enjoy themselves = ei/ele se
distreaz
She enjoys herself = ea se distreaz
It enjoys itself = el/ea se distreaz
N || I do not enjoy myself = I dongt enjoy myself = eu nu m distrez etc.
I || Do I enjoy myself? = eu m distrez? = m distrez eu? Etc.
I h N || Do I not enjoy myself? = dongt I enjoy myself? = eu nu m
distrez? Etc.
H. Conjugarea verbelor reiexive la timpul prezent h aspectul continuu
to BE enjoyING oneself = a se distra/amuza
A || I am enjoying myself = eu m distrez/amuz (n acest moment,
acum) etc.
N || I am not enjoying myself = eu nu m distrez/amuz etc.
I || Am I enjoying myself? = eu m distrez/amuz? = m distrez/amuz
eu? Etc.
I h N || Am I not enjoying myself? = arengt I enjoying myself? = eu nu
m distrez/amuz? = nu m distrez/amuz eu? Etc.
Recapitulare: Schema conjugrii verbelor la modul indicativ, timpul
prezent, aspectul comun.


tiv (A)
Negativ (N)
Interogativ
I)
InterogativNegativ (I-N)
Verbe auxiliare
I am = eu sunt etc.
I am not = eu nu sunt
Am I? = eu sunt?
Am I not? = eu nu sunt?
Verbe modale
I can (go) = eu pot s (merg) etc.
I cannot (go) = I canjt (go) = eu nu pot s (merg) etc.
Can I (go)? = pot eu s (merg)? Etc.
Can I not (go)? = Canjt I (go)? = eu nu pot s (merg)? Etc.
Verbe principale
I go = eu merg etc
I do not go = I donjt go = eu nu merg etc.
Do I go? = eu merg? = etc.
Do I not go? = Donjt I go? = eu nu merg? Etc.
Verbele principale/noionale se conjug la negativ, interogativ,
respectiv interogativ-negativ, cu ajutorul verbului to do.
1.6.2.1.2. The Present Perfect
Se traduce n limba romn prin prezent, perfect simplu, perfect
compus.
The Present Perfect se formeaz cu auxiliarul to have, care se conjug
la prezent plus participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.
The Present Perfect exprim o aciune:
1. Trecut terminat: I have seen them today. = I-am vzut astzi.
2. Trecut terminat n momentul vorbirii: Where have you been? =
Unde ai fost (pn acum)?
3. Trecut neterminat: He has leamed English for three years. = nva
englezete de trei ani.
How long have you leamed English? = De ct timp nvei tu englezete?
Since when have you leamed English? = De cnd nvei tu englezete?
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la timpul The Present Perfect
Verbele auxiliare nu se conjug la Present Perfect. Verbele to be, to
have i to do se pot conjuga la acest timp atunci cnd ele sunt verbe
principale, aa cum se vede mai jos:
TO BE = a
A || I have been = Ijve been = eu sunt = eu s you have been = youjve
been = tu eti he/she/it has been= hejs/shejs/itjs been = el/ea este = el/ea i/
e we have been = wejve been = noi suntem you have been = youjve been =
voi suntei they have been = theyjve been = ei/ele sunt

ve not been = I havenkt been = eu nu sunt = eu nu-s you have


not been = you havenkt been = tu nu eti he/she/it has not been = he/she/it
hasnkt been = el/ea nu este = el/ea nu-l = el/ea nu e we have not been = we
havenkt been = noi nu suntem you have not been = you havenkt been = voi
nu suntei they have not been = they havenkt been = ei/ele nu sunt = ei/ele
nu-s
I || have I been? = eu sunt? = sunt eu?
Have you been? = tu eti? = eti tu?
Has he/she/it been? = el/ea este/e/i?
Have we been? = noi suntem? = suntem noi?
Have you been? = voi suntei? = suntei voi?
Have they been? = ei/ele sunt? = sunt ei/ele?
I l N || have I not been? = havenkt I been? = eu nu sunt? = nu sunt eu?
= eu nu-s?
Have you not been? = havenkt you been? = tu nu eti? = nu eti tu?
Has he/she/it not been? = hasnkt he/she/it been? = el/ea nu este? = nu
este el/ea?
Have we not been? = havenkt we been? = noi nu suntem? = nu suntem
noi?
Have you not been? = havenkt you been? = voi nu suntei? = nu suntei
voi?
Have they not been? = havenkt they been? = ei/ele nu sunt? = nu sunt
ei/ele?
I have had = eu am; eu am avut etc.
I have done = am fcut etc.
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul The Present Perfect
Can l could l o l o = to be able to
A || I have been able to. = pot s. = sunt n stare s. etc.
N || I have not been able to. = nu pot s. = nu sunt n stare s. etc.
I || Have I been able to.? = pot eu s.? = sunt eu n stare s.? Etc.
I l N || Have I not been able to.? = nu pot eu s.? = nu sunt eu n stare
s.? Etc.
How long have you been able to speak English? = De cnd tii/poi tu
s vorbeti englezete?
How long have you been allowed to drive a car? = De ct timp po/ai
voie tu s conduci maina?
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale l diateza activ, aspectul comun
TO COME = a veni
A || I have come = eu am venit you have come = tu ai venit he/she/it
has come = el/ea a venit etc.
N || I have not come = I havenkt come = eu nu am venit etc.
I || have I come? = am venit eu? = eu am venit? Etc.
I-N || have I not come? = havenkt I come? = eu nu am venit? Etc.
I have come for two hours. = Am venit de dou ore.
How long have I come? = De ct timp am venit eu?

ve come since one omclock. = Am venit de la ora unu.


Since when have I come? = De cnd am venit eu?
He has known her since 1970. = El o cunoate din 1970.
Since when has he known her? = De cnd o cunoate el?
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale n diateza pasiv, aspectul comun
I have been seen. = Eu sunt vzut. Etc.
E. Conjugarea verbelor reoexive n aspect continuu
I have been enjoying myself = eu m distrez, etc.
Where have you been? = Unde ai fost tu (pn acum)?
I have just come. = Eu tocmai am venit.
I havenmt had dinner yet. = nc n-am servit cina.
I have seen them today. = Azi i-am vzut. = Eu i-am vzut azi.
He has been busy lately. = El a fost ocupat n ultimul timp.
We have leamed English for one year. = Noi nvm englezete de un
an.
He has known her for a long time. = El o cunoate de mult timp.
He has been avaricious all his life. = El a fost zgrcit toat viaa lui.
We have been living n this city for twenty years. = Locuim/trim n
acest ora de douzeci de ani.
We have been living here ever since then. =Locuim/trim aici chiar de
atunci.
Have you bought a car yet? = Ai cumprat deja o main?
How long have you been waiting for me? = De ct timp m atepi?
I have been waiting for you for ve minutes. = Te atept de cinci
minute.
I have been waited for for ve minutes. = Sunt ateptat de cinci
minute.
Since when have you been waiting for me? = De cnd m atepi?
I have been waiting for you since ten omclock. = Te atept de la ora
zece.
I have never seen a live dinosaur, have you? = N-am vzut niciodat un
dinozaur viu, dar tu?
Acest timp, The Present Perfect se folosete mult n conversaii, scrisori,
ziare i la radio deoarece faptele relatate au o legtur important cu
prezentul. El apare n propoziiile n care se ntlnesc adverbe de timp ca: just
= tocmai/doar/abia, yet = deja/nc, recently = de curnd/recent, today =
azi/astzi, lately = n ultimul timp, this week/month = sptmna/luna
aceasta, this year = anul acesta, since/from that hour = de la ora aceea,
since/from that day = din ziua aceea, since/from that moment = din
momentul acela, for a long time = de mult timp, de mult vreme, for long =
de mult, for a few moments = de cteva clipe, for a few minutes = de cteva
minute, since/from Sunday = de duminic, since/from 1989 = din 1989 etc.
They have been friends since recently. = Ei sunt prieteni de curnd.
I have lived n this town till now/today. = Am locuit n acest ora pn
acum/azi.

s? = De ct timp jucm noi tenis?


I have been living n Craiova since 1970. = Eu locuiesc/triesc n
Craiova din 1970.
We have been playing tennis since ve oqclock. =Jucm tenis de la ora
cinci.
Since when have we been playing tennis? = De cnd jucm noi tenis?
The book has been being read for two hours. = Cartea este citit de
dou ore.
The match has been being watched for thirty minutes. = Meciul este
privit de treizeci de minute.
The matter has been being discussed for fteen minutes. = Problema
se discut de cincisprezece minute.
TO PLAY = a se juca
A || I have been playing [pleiiN] = eu (m) joc
You have been playing = tu (te) joci
He/she/it has been playing = el/ea (se) joac etc.
N || I have not been playing = I havenqt been playing = eu nu (m) joc
etc.
I || Have I been playing? = eu (m) joc? Etc.
I p N || Have I not been playing? = havenqt I been playing? = eu nu (m)
joc? Etc.
How long have you been reading the letter? = De ct timp citeti
scrisoarea?
I know what he has been doing today. = Eu tiu ce a fcut el azi/astzi.
1.6.2.1.3. The Past Tense
Se traduce prin imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus i exprim o
aciune trecut terminat.
I saw her yesterday. = Am vzut-o ieri.
Este a doua form de baz a verbului (vezi lista de baz a verbelor!).
Verbele principale sunt 1) regulate i 2) neregulate.
1. Regulate p la forma a I-a i a I-a de baz primesc terminaia -ed.
Terminaia -ed se citete:
[t] cnd este precedat de o consoan nesonor/surd; asked [`Askt],
looked [lukt]
[d] cnd este precedat de o consoan sonor; received [ri`sIvd],
proved [`pruvd]
[id] cnd este precedat de literele t sau d; added [`Edid], wanted
[`wontid]
2. Neregulate (vezi lista la sfritul crii)
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la Past Tense
TO BE p was/were p been

ost, eu eram we were = noi am fost, noi eram you


were = tu ai fost, tu erai you were = voi/dv. ai fost, voi/dv. erai he/she/it was
= el/ea era/a fost they were = ei/ele au fost, ei/ele erau
N || I was not = I wasnrt = eu nu am fost = eu nu eram you were not =
you werenrt = tu nu ai fost = tu nu erai he/she/it was not = he/she/it wasnrt
= el/ea nu a fost = el/ea nu era etc.
I || was I? = eu am fost? = eu eram?
Were you? = tu ai fost? = tu erai?
Was he/she/it? = el/ea a fost? = el/ea era? Etc.
I s N || was I not? = wasnrt I? = eu nu am fost? = eu nu eram?
Were you not? = werenrt you? = tu nu ai fost? = tu nu erai?
Was he/she/it not? = wasnrt he/she/it? = el/ea nu a fost? = el/ea nu
era? Etc.
TO HAVE s had s had
A || I had = eu am avut, eu aveam you had = tu ai avut, tu aveai he/
she/it had = el/ea a avut, el/ea avea we had = noi am avut, noi aveam you
had = voi/dv. ai avut, voi/dv. aveai they had = ei/ele au avut, ei/ele aveau
N || I had not = I hadnrt = eu nu am avut = eu n-am avut = eu nu
aveam etc
I || had I? = eu am avut? Eu aveam? Etc.
I s N || had I not? = hadnrt I? = eu nu am avut? = eu nu aveam? Etc.
TO DO s did s done
A || I did = eu am fcut, eu fceam we did = noi am fcut, noi fceam
you did = tu ai fcut, tu fceai you did = voi/dv. ai fcut, voi/dv. fceai he/
she/it did = el/ea a fcut, el/ea fcea they did = ei/ele au fcut, ei/ele fceau
N || I did not do = I didnrt do = eu nu am fcut, eu nu fceam etc.
I || Did I do? = eu am fcut? Eu fceam? Etc.
I s N || Did I not do? = didnrt I do? = eu nu am fcut? Eu nu fceam?
Etc.
Should este auxiliar pentru The Future n the Past, persoana I singular i
plural, precum i pentru formarea modului condiional (prezent i perfect)
would este auxiliar pentru The Future n the Past pers. I s I i condiional. El l
poate nlocui pe should la pers. I sg. i pl. att la timpul The Future n the Past
ct i la modul condiional.
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la Past Tense could
A || I could (go) = I was able to (go) = eu puteam/eram n stare s
(merg)
You could (go) = you were able to (go) = tu puteai/erai n stare s
(mergi)
He/she/it could (go) = he/she/it was able to (go) = el/ea putea/era n
stare s (mearg) etc.
N || I could not (go) = I couldnrt (go) = I was not able to (go) = I wasnrt
able to (go) = eu nu puteam (merge) = eu nu eram n stare s (merg) etc.
I || could I (go)? = was I able to (go)? = eu puteam s (merg)? =
puteam eu s (merg)? = eu eram n stare s (merg)? = eram eu n stare s
(merg)? Etc.

could I not (go)? = couldnut I (go)? = was I not able to (go)? =


wasnut I able to (go)? = eu nu puteam (merge)? = eu nu eram n stare s
(merg)? Etc.
Verbul could exprim:
Abilitatea n trecut;
I could speak German last year = I was able to speak German last year
= vtiam s vorbesc germana anul trecut.
B) o invitaie sau o rugminte (condiional prezent)
Could you (possibly) come to my birthday party? = Ai putea (puteai)
veni la petrecerea de ziua mea de natere?
Could you lend me your umbrella? = Ai putea s-mi mprumui umbrela
ta?
C) permisiunea/posibilitatea n trecut
They could go on a trip. = Ei puteau merge n excursie.
Might
Verbul might, adic a I a form de baz a verbului may care la timpul
prezent printre altele exprim i permisiunea, poate exprima permisiunea la
trecut atunci cnd may devine might transformat din vorbire direct n
vorbire indirect.
May I go on the tripw, asked Mary. = t Pot merge n excursie, ntreb
Mary.
Devine n vorbirea indirect:
Mary asked if she might go on the trip. = Mary asked if she was allowed
to go on the trip. = Mary a ntrebat dac poate s mearg n excursie. = Mary
a ntrebat dac i este ngduit s mearg n excursie.
Verbul might exprim:
A) posibilitatea n prezent (might ind auxiliar modal la condiional
prezent): He might be there. = Ar putea acolo.
Might he still be there? = Ar putea acolo nc? = Ar putea tot acolo?
B) posibilitatea n trecut: You might have succeeded if you had tried. =
Tu ai putut reui dac ai ncercat. = S-ar putut s reueti dac ai
ncercat. I knew he might be late. = vtiam c este posibil s ntrzie.
C) interdicia n trecut: She said that we might not go on that trip. =
She said that we were not allowed to go on that trip. = Ea a zis c noi nu
putem merge n excursia aceea. = Ea a zis c nou nu ne este ngduit/
permis s mergem n excursia aceea.
D) o manier politicoas de a cere permisiunea: (folosit la condiional
prezent)
Might I ask you something? = A putea s te/v ntreb ceva? Might I
use your phone? = A putea folosi telefonul tu?
Had to = A TREBUI SA
A || I had to (go) = eu trebuia s (merg) you had to (go) = tu trebuia s
(mergi) he/she/it had to (go) = el/ea trebuia s (mearg) etc
N || I had not to (go) = I hadnut to (go) = I did not (didnut) have to (go)
= eu nu trebuia s (merg) = eu nu a (n-a) trebuit s (merg) etc.
I || had I to (go)? = did I have to (go)? = eu trebuia s (merg)? Etc
t

ot to (go)? = did I not have to (go)? = eu nu trebuia s


(merg)? Etc.
SHOULD = trebuia, se cuvenea s
Should este a doua form de baz (adic Past Tense) a verbului shall i
exprim o obligaie, sau o recomandare n trecut.
We should leam. = Trebuia s nvm. = Se cuvenea s nvm.
n aceast situaie should este sinonim cu ought to.
A || I should (go) = eu trebuia s (merg) (se cuvenea s merg) you
should (go) = tu trebuia s (mergi) he/she/it should (go) = el/ea trebuia s
(mearg) etc
N || I should not (go) = I shouldnxt (go) = eu nu trebuia s (merg) etc.
I || should I (go)? = trebuia eu s (merg)? Etc.
I-N || should I not (go)? = shouldnxt I (go)? = nu trebuia eu s (merg)?
Etc.
Should + innitiv perfect = obligaie n trecut
You should have told us the truth. = You ought to have told us the truth.
= Ar trebuit s ne spui adevrul.
You shouldnxt have refused their help. = N-ar trebuit s le refuzat
ajutorul.
Would = a voi
A || I would (see) = eu voiam s (vd); eu vedeam, obinuiam s (vd)
you would (see) = tu voiai s (vezi); tu vedeai, obinuiai s (vezi) he/she/it
would (see) = el/ea voia s (vad); el/ea vedea, obinuia s (vad) etc
N || I would not (see) = I wouldnxt (see) = eu nu voiam s (vd); eu nu
vedeam etc.
I || would I (see)? = voiam eu s (vd)?; obinuiam eu s (vd)?
Vedeam eu? Eu vedeam? Etc.
I y N || would I not (see)? = wouldnxt I (see)? = eu nu voiam s (vd)?
= nu voiam eu s (vd)?; eu nu obinuiam s (vd)? Etc.
Would este a I-a form de baz a verbului will.
I understood he would not see them. = Am neles c nu voia s-l vad.
Verbul would exprim:
A) y aciune repetat n trecut (would = used to)
He would go swimming with other boys. = He used to go swimming
with other boys. = El obinuia s noate cu ali biei.
B) y dorin n trecut He would go on the trip. = El dorea s mearg n
excursie.
Need
Se folosete la negativ i interogativ urmat de innitiv fr particula to.
Neednxt urmat de innitiv perfect exprim c s-a petrecut ceva nenecesar.
You neednxt have gone there. = Nu era necesar/nevoie s mers acolo.
I knew I need not repeat the question. = ztiam c nu e nevoie s repet
ntrebarea.
You neednxt have cooked our dinner because we are going to dine out
with friends tonight. = Nu era necesar s pregtit cina pentru c vom cina
cu prietenii n ora disear.

)
? = eu era nevoie/necesar s merg? = era necesar s
{

(merg)? Etc.
I | N || Need I not (go)? =needn{t I (go)? = eu nu era necesar/nevoie s
(merg)? = n-aveam eu nevoie s (merg)?
Used to = would
A nu se confunda acest verb cu verbul principal regulat to use | used |
used = a ntrebuina, a folosi. Se traduce n limba romn prin timpul
imperfect, iar sensul i este dat de verbul principal pe lng care funcioneaz
n propoziie.
A || I used to (play) = I would (play) = eu jucam = eu obinuiam s (joc)
You used to (play) = you would (play) = tu jucai = tu obinuiai s (joci)
He/she used to (play) = he/she would (play) = el/ea juca = el/ea
obinuia s (joace) etc
N || I use (d) n{t to (play) = I wouldn{t (play) = eu nu obinuiam s (joc)
etc
I || Use (d) I to (play)? = would I (play)? = obinuiam eu s (joc)? Etc
I-N || Use (d) n{t I to (play)? = wouldn{t I (play)? = eu nu obinuiam s
(joc)? Etc
To be used to = a obinuit/nvat cu/s
He was used to their dogs. = El era obinuit/nvat cu cinii lor.
He was used to catch sh. = El era nvat/obinuit s prind pete.
To get used to = a se nva/obinui cu
We got used to these working conditions. = Trebuia s ne obinuim cu
aceste condiii de munc.
There used to be some tents on this ground last summer, use (d) n{t
there? = Erau nite corturi pe terenul acesta vara trecut, nu-l aa?
Didn{t use to | este form colocvial; use (d) n{t to este forma literar
Alte structuri modale:
Had better = mai bine s
We had better arrived there earlier than later. = Mai bine s ajungem
acolo mai devreme dect mai trziu.
Would rather. than. = a prefera s. dect s.
I would rather walk than take a taxi. = A prefera s merg pe jos dect
s iau un taxi.
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale | aspectul comun, diateza activ
TO SE | SAW | SEN (verb principal neregulat)
A ||
I saw= eu am vzut, eu vedeam you saw = tu ai vzut, tu vedeai he/
she/it saw = el/ea a vzut, el/ea vedea we saw = noi am vzut, noi vedeam
you saw = voi ai vzut, voi vedeai they saw = ei/ele au vzut, ei/ele vedeau
N || I did not see = I didn{t see = eu nu am vzut you did not see = you
didn{t see = tu nu ai vzut he/she/it did not see = he/she/it didn{t see = el/ea
nu a vzut etc.

see? = eu am vzut? = am vzut eu? Etc.


I } N || did I not see? = didn~t I see? = eu nu am (n-am) vzut? Etc.
TO ANSWER } ANSWERED } ANSWERED = a rspunde (verb regulat)
A || I answered = eu am rspuns we answered = noi am rspuns you
answered = tu ai rspuns you answered = voi ai rspuns he/she/it answered
= el/ea a rspuns they answered = ei/ele au rspuns
N || I did not answer = I didn~t answer = eu nu am rspuns you did not
answer = you didn~t answer = tu nu ai rspuns he/she/it did not answer = he/
she/it didn~t answer = el/ea nu a rspuns etc.
I || did I answer? = eu am rspuns? = am rspuns eu? Etc.
I } N || did I not answer? = didn~t I answer? = eu nu am rspuns? Etc.
To dare } dared } dared = a indrazni, a provoca
A || I dared = eu am ndrznit we dared = noi am ndrznit you dared
= tu ai ndrznit you dared = voi ai ndrznit he/she/it dared = el/ea a
ndrznit they dared = ei/ele au ndrznit
N || I did not dare = I didn~t dare = eu nu am (n-am) ndrznit etc.
I || did I dare? = eu am ndrznit? = am ndrznit eu? Etc.
I } N || did I not dare? = didn~t I dare? = eu nu am ndrznit? = n-am
ndrznit eu? Etc.
They dared me to do it but I didn~t dare. = Ei m-au provocat s-o fac, dar
eu n-am avut curajul.
I did not dare to break my promise/word. = Nu am ndrznit s-mi calc
promisiunea/cuvntul.
John did not dare to go there, did he? = John n-a ndrznit s mearg/
plece acolo, nu-l aa? = John nu a avut curaj s plece acolo, aa-l?
To need } needed } needed= a necesita, a solicita
This work needed much skill. = Treaba aceasta a necesitat/solicitat/
presupus mult ndemnare/pricepere.
A || I needed = eu am avut nevoie = mie mi-a trebuit you needed = tu
ai avut nevoie = ie i-a trebuit he/she/it needed = el/ea a avut nevoie = lui/ei
i-a trebuit we needed = noi am avut nevoie = nou ne-a trebuit you needed
= voi ai avut nevoie = vou v-a trebuit they needed = ei/ele au avut nevoie
= lor le-a trebuit
N || I did not need = I didn~t need = eu nu am avut nevoie = mie nu mia trebuit etc.
I || did I need? = eu am avut nevoie? = am avut eu nevoie? = mi-a
trebuit mie? = mie mi-a trebuit? Etc.
I } N || did I not need? = didn~t I need? = eu nu am avut nevoie? = nam avut eu nevoie? = mie nu mi-a trebuit? = nu mi-a trebuit mie? Etc.
They didn~t need our help, did they? =Ei nu au avut nevoie de ajutorul
nostru, nu-l aa? =Lor nu le-a trebuit ajutorul nostru, aa-l?
Did they need any help? = Au avut ei nevoie de vreun ajutor? = Le-a
trebuit lor vreun ajutor?
Plants and animals needed rain. = Plantele i animalele aveau nevoie
de ploaie.

ot of time = Am avut nevoie de mult timp. = Ne-a trebuit


mult vreme.
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale  diateza activ, aspectul continuu
TO SPEAK  SPOKE  SPOKEN = a vorbi
A ||
I was speaking = eu vorbeam you were speaking = tu vorbeai he/she
was speaking = el/ea vorbea we were speaking = noi vorbeam you were
speaking = voi vorbeai they were speaking = ei/ele vorbeau
N || I was not (wasnt) speaking = eu nu vorbeam etc.
I || was I speaking? = vorbeam/am vorbit eu? Etc.
I-N || was I not (wasnt I) speaking? = nu vorbeam eu? Etc.
E. Conjugarea verbelor principale  diateza pasiv, aspectul comun
TO SE  SAWSEN
A ||
I was seen = eu am fost vzut () you were seen = tu ai fost vzut ()
he/she/it was seen = el/ea a fost vzut () we were seen = noi am fost vzui/
vzute you were seen = voi ai fost vzui/vzute they were seen = ei/ele au
fost vzui/vzute
N || I was not seen = I wasnt seen = eu nu am fost vzut () etc.
I || was I seen? = eu am fost vzut? = am fost eu vzut ()? Etc.
I  N || was I not seen? = wasnt I seen? = eu nu am fost vzut ()? Etc.
F. Conjugarea verbelor principale  diateza pasiv, aspectul continuu
TO BE BEING LOKED AT (by smb.) = a privit (de cineva)
A ||
I was being looked at = eu eram privit () you were being looked at =
tu erai rivit () he/she/it was being looked at = el/ea era privit () we were
being looked at = noi eram privii/privite you were being looked at = voi erai
privii/privite they were being looked at = ei erau privii/privite
N || I was not being looked at = I wasnt being looked at = eu nu eram
privit () etc.
I || was I being looked at? = eram eu privit ()? Etc.
I-N || was I not being looked at? = wasnt I being looked at? = eu nu
eram privit ()? Etc.
G. Conjugarea verbelor reexive  aspectul comun to enjoy  enjoyed 
enjoyed ONESELF = a se distra
A || I enjoyed myself = eu m-am distrat/amuzat you enjoyed yourself =
tu te-ai distrat/amuzat he/she/it enjoyed himself/herself/itself = el/ea s-a
distrat/amuzat we enjoyed ourselves = noi ne-am distrat/amuzat you enjoyed
yourselves = voi v-ai distrat/amuzat they enjoyed themselves = ei/ele s-au
distrat/amuzat
N || I did not enjoy myself = I didnt enjoy myself = eu nu m-am distrat
etc.
I || did I enjoy myself? = eu m-am distrat? = m-am distrat eu? Etc.
I  N || did I not enjoy myself? = didnt I enjoy myself? = eu nu m-am
distrat? Etc.

Conjugarea verbelor reexive aspectul continuu


TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra
A || I was enjoying myself = eu m distram/amuzam you were enjoying
yourself = tu te distrai/amuzai he was enjoying himself = el se distra/amuza
she was enjoying herself = ea se distra/amuza it was enjoying itself = el/ea
se distra/amuza we were enjoying ourselves = noi ne distram/amuzam you
were enjoying yourselves = voi v distrai/amuzai they were enjoying
themselves = ei/ele se distrau/amuzau
N || I was not (wasnt) enjoying myself = eu nu m distram etc.
I || was I enjoying myself? = eu m distram? = m distram eu? Etc.
I N || was I not (wasnt I) enjoying myself? = eu nu m distram? Etc.
I saw him a moment ago. = L-am vzut acum o clip. = L-am vzut mai
nainte.
The boys always played tennis n the afternoon. = Bieii jucau
totdeauna tenis dup amiaza/masa.
I met them on Sunday afternoon. = I-am ntlnit duminic dup amiaz/
mas.
I entered the house as soon as it began to rain. = Am intrat n cas de
ndat ce a nceput s plou.
They ate lunch together every day. = Ei au servit prnzul mpreun n
ecare zi.
The Past Tense apare n propoziiile n care se ntlnesc adverbe de
timp ca: yesterday = ieri, the day before yesterday = alaltieri, two days/
weeks/months/ago = acum dou zile/sptmni/luni, last time = ultima dat/
oar, last week/month = sptmna/luna trecut, last year = anul trecut etc.
Did you see John earlier this week? = L-ai vzut pe John mai pe la
nceputul sptmnii acesteia?
De reinut urmtoarele perechi de exemple corecte:
I saw John today. = I have seen John today. = L-am vzut pe John azi.
I saw John this week/month. = I have seen John this week/month. = Lam vzut pe John sptmna/luna aceasta.
I saw John recently. = I have seen John recently. = L-am vzut pe John
recent.
1.6.2.1.4. Mai mult ca perfect (The Past Perfect)
Exprim o aciune trecut terminat anterioar altei aciuni trecute
terminate. Se formeaz cu had plus participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.
It had begun to rain (1)/when I entered the house (2). = ncepuse s
plou cnd am intrat n cas.
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la The Past Perfect to be was/were
been
A || I had been = eu fusesem we had been = noi fusesem you had been
= tu fusesei you had been = voi fusesei he/she/it had been = el/ea fusese
they had been = ei/ele fuseser
N || I had not been = I hadnt been = eu nu fusesem etc.
I || had I been? = eu fusesem? = fusesem eu? Etc.

ot been? = hadnt I been? = eu nu fusesem? = nu

fusesem eu? Etc.


To have had had
A || I had had = eu avusesem we had had = noi avusesem you had had
= tu avusesei you had had = voi avusesei he/she/it had had = el/ea avusese
they had had = ei/ele avuseser
N || I had not had = I hadnt had = eu nu avusesem etc.
I || had I had? = eu avusesem? = avusesem eu? Etc.
I N || had I not had? = hadnt I had? = eu nu avusesem? = nu
avusesem eu? Etc.
To do did done
A || I had done = eu fcusem we had done = noi fcusem you had done
= tu fcusei you had done = voi fcusei he/she/it had done = el/ea fcuse
they had done = ei/ele fcuser
N || I had not done = I hadnt done = eu nu fcusem etc.
I || had I done? = eu fcusem? = fcusem eu? Etc.
I N || had I not done? = hadnt I done? = eu nu fcusem? = nu
fcusem eu? Etc.
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul The Past Perfect can could
0 = to be able to
A || I had been able to (play) = eu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s
(joc) you had been able to (play) = tu putusei/tiusei/fusesei n stare s (joci)
he/she/it had been able to (play) = el/ea putuse/tiuse/fusese n stare s
(joace) we had been able to (play) = noi putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare
s (jucm) you had been able to (play) = voi putusei/tiusei/fusesei n stare
s (jucai) they had been able to (play) = ei/ele putuser/tiuser/fuseser n
stare s (joace)
N || I hadnt been able to (play) = eu nu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n
stare s (joc) etc.
I || had I been able to (play)? = eu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare
s (joc)? Etc.
I N || had I not been able to (play)? = hadnt I been able to (play)? =
eu nu putusem/tiusem s (joc)? = eu nu fusesem n stare s (joc)? Etc.
May might 0 = to be permited/allowed to
A || I had been permitted/allowed to (play) = eu avusesem voie/
putusem s (joc) = mie mi fusese permis ngduit s (joc) you had been
permitted/allowed to (play) = tu avusesei voie/putusei s (joci) = ie i fusese
permis/ngduit s (joci) he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (play) = el/
ea avusese voie s (joace) = el/ea putuse s (joace) = lui/ei i fusese permis/
ngduit s (joace) we had been permitted/allowed to (play) = noi avusesem
voie s (jucm) = noi putusem s (jucm) = nou ne fusese permis/ngduit
s (jucm) you had been permitted/allowed to (play) = voi avusesei voie s
(jucai) = voi putusei s (jucai) = vou v fusese permis/ngduit s (jucai)
they had been permitted/allowed to (play) = ei/ele avuseser voie s (joace)
= ei/ele putuser s (joace) = lor le fusese permis/ngduit s (joace)

ot been permitted/allowed to (play) = I hadnt been


permitted/allowed to (play) = eu nu avusesem voie s (joc) = nu putusem s
(joc) = mie nu-mi fusese permis/ngduit s (joc) etc.
I || Had I been permitted/allowed to (play)? = avusesem eu voie s
(joc)? = putusem eu s (joc)? = mi fusese mie permis/ngduit s (joc)? Etc.
I N || had I not been permitted/allowed to (play)? = hadnt I been
permitted/allowed to (play)? = eu nu avusesem voie s (joc)? = eu nu
putusem s (joc)? = nu-mi fusese mie permis/ngduit s (joc)? Etc.
Must 0 0 = to have to
A || I had had to (play) = eu trebuise s (joc) you had had to (play) = tu
trebuise s (joci) he/she/it had had to (play) = el/ea trebuise s (joace) we
had had to (play) = noi trebuise s (jucm) you had had to (play) = voi
trebuise s (jucai) they had had to (play) = ei/ele trebuise s (joace)
N || I had not had to (play) = I hadnt had to (play) = eu nu trebuise s
(joc) etc.
I || had I had to (play)? = trebuise eu s (joc)? Etc.
I N || had I not had to (play)? = hadnt I had to (play)? = eu nu
trebuise s (joc)? = nu trebuise eu s (joc)? Etc.
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale aspectul comun, diateza activ to
speak spoke spoken
A || I had spoken = eu vorbisem we had spoken = noi vorbisem you had
spoken = tu vorbisei you had spoken = voi vorbisei he/she had spoken = el/
ea vorbise they had spoken = ei/ele vorbiser
N || I had not spoken = I hadnt spoken = eu nu vorbisem etc.
I || had I spoken? = eu vorbisem? = vorbisem eu? Etc.
I N || had I not spoken? = hadnt I spoken? = eu nu vorbisem? = nu
vorbisem eu? Etc.
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale aspectul continuu, diateza activ
TO SPEAK SPOKE-SPOKEN
A ||
I had been speaking = eu vorbisem you had been speaking = tu
vorbisei he/she had been speaking = el/ea vorbise we had been speaking =
noi vorbisem you had been speaking = voi vorbisei they had been speaking
= ei/ele vorbiser
N || I had not been speaking = I hadnt been speaking = eu nu
vorbisem etc.
I || had I been speaking? = eu vorbisem? = vorbisem eu? Etc.
I N || had I not been speaking? = hadnt I been speaking? = eu nu
vorbisem? = nu vorbisem eu? Etc.
E. Conjugarea verbelor principale diateza pasiv, aspectul comun
TO BE ASKED = a ntrebat
A || I had been asked = eu fusesem ntrebat you had been asked = tu
fusesei ntrebat he/she had been asked = el/ea fusese ntrebat () we had
been asked = noi fusesem ntrebai you had been asked = voi fusesei
ntrebai they had been asked = ei/ele fuseser ntrebai/ntrebate

ot been asked = I hadnt been asked = eu nu fusesem


ntrebat etc.
I || had I been asked? = eu fusesem ntrebat? = fusesem eu ntrebat?
Etc.
I N || had I not been asked? = hadnt I been asked? = eu nu fusesem
ntrebat? = nu fusesem eu ntrebat? Etc.
Exist cazuri cnd The Past Perfect se traduce prin The Past Tense.
I was at home when he had come to see me. = Eram acas cnd a
venit el pe la mine.
n exemplul: El a zis c ne ateapt de cinci minute. Verbul ateapt
din limba romn, care este la prezent se traduce n limba englez prin Past
Perfect: He said that he had been waiting for us for ve minutes.
1.6.2.1.5. Viitorul simplu (The Simple Future)
Exprim o aciune posterioar timpului prezent (adic momentului
vorbirii).
Se formeaz cu auxiliarele shall/will la persoana I singular i plural i
will la celelalte persoane, plus innitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat.
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la viitor simplu to be = a
A || I shall/will be = Ill be = eu voi = eu o s u you will be = youll
be = tu vei = tu o s i he/she/it will be = hell/shell/itll be = el/ea o s e
we shall/will be = well be = noi vom = o s m you will be = youll be =
voi vei = voi o s i they will be = theyll be = ei/ele vor = ei/ele o s e
N || I shall/will not be = I shant be = eu nu voi = eu n-o s u you will
not be = you wont be = tu nu vei = tu n-o s i he/she/it will not be = he/
she/it wont be = el/ea nu va = el/ea n-o s e etc.
I || shall/will I be? = eu voi ? = eu o s u? = voi eu? = o s u eu?
Etc.
I N || shall/will I not be? = shant/wont I be? = eu nu voi ? = nu voi
eu? = eu n-o s u? Etc.
To have
A || I shall/will have = Ill have = eu voi avea = eu o s am you will
have = youll have = tu vei avea = tu o s ai he/she/it will have = hell/shell/
itll have = el/ea va avea = el/ea o s aib we shall/will have = well have =
noi vom avea = noi o s avem you will have = youll have = voi vei avea =
voi o s avei they will have = theyll have = ei/ele vor avea = ei/ele o s
aib
N || I shall/will not have = I shant/wont have = eu nu voi avea = n-o s
am you will not have = you wont have = tu nu vei avea = tu n-o s ai he/
she/it will not have = he/she/it wont have = el/ea nu va avea = n-o s aib
etc.
I || shall/will I have? = eu voi avea? = voi avea eu? = eu o s am? Etc.
I N || shall/will I not have? = shant/wont I have? = eu nu voi avea? =
nu voi avea eu? = eu n-o s am? = n-o s am eu? Etc.
To do
A || I shall/will do = Ill do = eu voi face = eu o s fac you will do= youll
do = tu vei face = tu o s faci he/she/it will do = hell/shell/itll do = el/ea o

s fac we shall/will do= well do] =noi vom face=o s facem they will do =
theyll do = ei/ele vor face=ei/ele o s fac
N || I shall/will not do = I shant/wont do = eu nu voi face = eu n-o s
fac you will not do = you wont do = tu nu vei face = tu n-o s faci he/she/it
will not do = he/she/it wont do = el/ea nu va face = el/ea n-o s fac etc.
I || shall/will I do? = eu voi face? = voi face eu? = eu o s fac? = o s
fac eu? Etc.
I N || shall/will I not do? = shant/wont I do? = eu nu voi face? = nu
voi face eu? = eu n-o s fac? = n-o s fac eu? Etc.
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul viitor simplu can could 0 =
to be able to
A ||
I shall/will be able to (swim) = Ill be able to (swim) = eu voi putea/ti
s (not) = eu voi n stare s (not) you will be able to (swim) = youll be
able to (swim) = tu vei putea/ti s (noi) = tu vei n stare s (noi) he/she/
it will be able to (swim) = hell/shell/itll be able to (swim) = el/ea va putea/
ti s (noate) = el/ea va n stare s (noate) we shall/will be able to (swim)
= well be able to (swim) = noi vom putea/ti s (notm) = noi vom n
stare s (notm) you will be able to (swim) = youll be able to (swim) = voi
vei putea/ti s (notai) = voi vei n stare s (notai) they will be able to
(swim) = theyll be able to (swim) = ei/ele vor putea/ti s (noate) = ei/ele
vor n stare s (noate)
N ||
I shall/will not be able to (swim) = I shant/wont be able to (swim) = eu
nu voi putea/ti s (not) = eu nu voi n stare s (not) you will not be able
to (swim) = you wont be able to (swim) = tu nu vei putea/ti s (noi) = tu
nu vei n stare s (noi) he/she/it will not be able to (swim) = he/she/it
wont be able to (swim) = el/ea nu va putea/ti s (noate) = el/ea nu va n
stare s (noate) etc.
I || shall/will I be able to (swim)? = eu voi putea/ti s (not)? = eu voi
n stare s (not)? Etc.
I-N || shall/will I not be able to (swim)? = shant/wont I be able to
(swim)? = eu nu voi putea/ti s (not)? = eu nu voi n stare s (not)? = eu
n-o s u n stare s (not)? Etc.
May-might 0 = to be permitted/allowed to
A ||
I shall/will be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu voi avea voie s (merg) =
eu voi putea s (merg) = mie mi va permis/ngduit s (merg) = eu o s
pot s (merg) you will be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu vei avea voie s
(mergi) = tu vei putea s (mergi) = ie i va permis/ngduit s (mergi) =
tu o s poi s (mergi) he/she/it will be permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea va
avea voie s (mearg) = el/ea va putea s (mearg) = lui/ei i va permis/
ngduit s (mearg) = el/ea o s poat s (mearg) we shall/will be
permitted/allowed to (go) = noi vom avea voie s (mergem) = noi vom putea
s (mergem) = nou ne va permis/ngdui s (mergem) = noi o s putem
s (mergem) you will be permitted/allowed to (go) = voi vei avea voie s

) voi vei putea s (mergei) = vou v va permis/ngduit s


(mergei) = voi o s putei s (mergei) they will be permitted/allowed to (go)
= ei/ele vor avea voie s (mearg) = ei/ele vor putea s (mearg) = lor le va
permis/ngduit s (mearg) = ei/ele o s poat s (mearg)
N ||
I shall/will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = I shant/wont be
permitted/allowed to (go) = eu nu voi avea voie s (merg) = eu nu voi putea
s (merg) = mie nu-mi va permis/ngduit s (merg) = eu n-o s am voie s
(merg) you will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = you wont be permitted/
allowed to (go) = tu nu vei avea voie s (mergi) = tu nu vei putea s (mergi)
= ie nu-i va permis/ngduit s (mergi) = tu n-o s ai voie s (mergi) he/
she/it will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = he/she/it wont be permitted/
allowed to (go) = el/ea nu va avea voie s (mearg) = el/ea nu va putea s
(mearg) = lui/ei nu-l va permis/ngduit s (mearg) = el/ea n-o s aib
voie s (mearg) etc.
I || shall/will I be permitted/allowed to (go)? = eu voi avea voie s
(merg)? = voi avea eu voie s (merg)? = mi va mie permis/ngduit s
(merg)? =eu o s pot (merge)? Etc.
I-N || shall/will I not be permitted/allowed to (go)? = shant/wont I be
permitted/allowed to (go)? = eu nu voi avea voie s (merg)? = eu nu voi
putea s (merg)? = eu nu voi putea (merge)? = mie nu-mi va permis/
ngduit s (merg)? Etc.
Must MUST 0 = to have to
A ||
I shall/will have to (go) = Ill have to (go) = eu va trebui s (merg) = eu
o s trebuiasc s (merg) you will have to (go) = youll have to (go) = tu va
trebui s (mergi) = tu o s trebuiasc s (mergi) he/she/it will have to (go) =
hell/shell/itll have to (go) = el/ea va trebui s (mearg) = el/ea o s
trebuiasc s (mearg) we shall/will have to (go) = well have to (go) = noi va
trebui s (mergem) = noi o s trebuiasc s (mergem) you will have to (go)
= youll have to (go) = voi va trebui s (mergei) = voi o s trebuiasc s
(mergei) they will have to (go) = theyll have to (go) = ei/ele va trebui s
(mearg) = ei/ele o s trebuiasc s (mearg)
N ||
I shall/will not have to (go) = I shant/wont have to (go) = eu nu va
trebui s (merg) = eu n-o s trebuiasc s (merg) you will not have to (go) =
you wont have to (go) = tu nu va trebui s (mergi) = tu n-o s trebuiasc s
(mergi) he/she/it will not have to (go) = he/she/it wont have to (go) = el/ea
nu va trebui s (mearg) = el/ea n-o s trebuiasc s (mearg) etc.
I || shall/will I have to (go)? = eu va trebui s (merg)? = va trebui eu s
(merg)? Etc.
I N || shall/will I not have to (go)? = shant/wont I have to (go)? = eu
nu va trebui s (merg)? = nu va trebui eu s (merg)? = eu n-o s trebuiasc
s (merg)? Etc.
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale diateza activ, aspectul comun to
speak

shall/will speak = Ill speak = eu voi vorbi = eu o s vorbesc you


will speak = youll speak = tu vei vorbi = tu o s vorbeti he/she will speak =
hell/shell speak = el/ea va vorbi = el/ea o s vorbeasc we shall/will speak
= well speak = noi vom vorbi = noi o s vorbim you will speak = youll speak
= voi vei vorbi = voi o s vorbii they will speak = theyll speak = ei/ele vor
vorbi = ei/ele o s vorbeasc
N || I shall/will not speak = I shant/wont speak = eu nu voi vorbi = eu
n-o s vorbesc you will not speak = you wont speak = tu nu vei vorbi = tu
n-o s vorbeti he/she will not speak = he/she wont speak = el/ea nu va
vorbi = el/ea n-o s vorbeasc etc.
I || shall/will I speak? = eu voi vorbi? = voi vorbi eu? = eu o s vorbesc?
Etc.
I-N || shall/will I not speak? = shant/wont I speak? = eu nu voi vorbi?
= nu voi vorbi eu? = eu n-o s vorbesc? = n-o s vorbesc eu? Etc.
To dare dared dared
A || I shall/will dare = Ill dare = eu voi ndrzni = eu o s ndrznesc
you will dare = youll dare = tu vei ndrzni = tu o s ndrzneti he/she/it will
dare = hell/shell/itll dare= el/ea va ndrzni = el/ea o s ndrzneasc we
shall/will dare = well dare = noi vom ndrzni = noi o s ndrznim you will
dare = youll dare = voi vei ndrzni = voi o s ndrznii they will dare =
theyll dare = ei/ele vor ndrzni = ei/ele o s ndrzneasc
N || I shall/will not dare = I shant/wont dare = eu nu voi ndrzni = eu
n-o s ndrznesc etc.
I || shall/will I dare? = eu voi ndrzni? = voi ndrzni eu? = o s
ndrznesc eu? Etc.
I-N || shall/will/will I not dare? = shant/wont I dare? = eu nu voi
ndrzni? = nu voi ndrzni eu? = eu n-o s ndrznesc? = n-o s ndrznesc
eu? Etc.
They will not dare to break their word. = Ei nu vor ndrzni s-i calce
cuvntul.
I shall/will not dare to go there alone. = Eu nu voi ndrzni s merg
acolo singur (). = Eu nu voi avea curaj s plec/merg acolo singur ().
To need needed needed
A ||
I shall/will need = Ill need = eu voi avea nevoie = mie mi va trebui =
eu o s am nevoie = mie o s-mi trebuiasc you will need = youll need = tu
vei avea nevoie = ie i va trebui = tu o s ai nevoie = ie o s-i trebuiasc
he/she/it will need = hell/shell/itll need = el/ea va avea nevoie = lui/ei i va
trebui = el/ea o s aib nevoie = lui/ei o s-l trebuiasc we shall/will need =
well need = noi vom avea nevoie = nou ne va trebui = noi o s avem
nevoie = nou o s ne trebuiasc you will need = youll need = voi vei avea
nevoie = vou v va trebui = voi o s avei nevoie = vou o s v trebuiasc
they will need = theyll need = ei/ele vor avea nevoie = lor le va trebui = ei/
ele o s aib nevoie = lor o s le trebuiasc
N ||

shall/will not need = I shant/wont need = eu nu voi avea nevoie =


mie nu-mi va trebui = eu n-o s am nevoie = mie n-o s-mi trebuiasc etc.
I || shall/will I need? = eu voi avea nevoie? = voi avea eu nevoie? = eu
o s am nevoie? = o s am eu nevoie? = mie mi va trebui? = mi va trebui
mie? = mie o s-mi trebuiasc? = o s-mi trebuiasc mie? Etc.
I-N || shall/will I not need? = shant/wont I need? = eu nu voi avea
nevoie? = nu voi avea eu nevoie? = eu n-o s am nevoie? = n-o s am eu
nevoie? = mie nu-mi va trebui? = nu-mi va trebui mie? = mie n-o s-mi
trebuiasc? = n-o s-mi trebu-lasc mie? Etc.
Plants and animals will always need rain. = Plantele i animalele vor
avea totdeauna nevoie de ploaie.
Will you need any help? = Vei avea tu nevoie de vreun ajutor?
What will you need? = De ce vei avea nevoie? = Ce v va trebui?
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale diateza activ, aspectul continuu
TO SPEAK
A || I shall/will be speaking = Ill be speaking = eu voi vorbi = eu o s
vorbesc you will be speaking = youll be speaking = tu vei vorbi = tu o s
vorbeti he/she will be speaking = hell/shell be speaking = el/ea va vorbi =
el/ea o s vorbeasc we shall/will be speaking = well be speaking = noi vom
vorbi = noi o s vorbim you will be speaking = youll be speaking = voi vei
vorbi = voi o s vorbii they will be speaking = theyll be speaking = ei/ele
vor vorbi = ei/ele o s vorbeasc
N || I shall/will not be speaking = I shant/wont be speaking = eu nu voi
vorbi = eu n-o s vorbesc etc.
I || shall/will I be speaking? = eu voi vorbi? = voi vorbi eu? = eu o s
vorbesc? Etc.
I-N || shall/will I not be speaking? = shant/wont I be speaking? = eu nu
voi vorbi? Etc.
E. Conjugarea verbelor principale diateza pasiv to be admired
A || I shall/will be admired = Ill be admired = eu voi admirat = eu o
s u admirat you will be admired = youll be admired = tu vei admirat =
tu o s i admirat he/she/it will be admired = hell/shell/itll be admired = el/
ea va admirat () = el/ea o s e admirat () we shall/will be admired =
well be admired = noi vom admirai = noi o s m admirai you will be
admired = youll be admired = voi vei admirai = voi o s i admirai they
will be admired = theyll be admired = ei/ele vor admirai/admirate = ei/ele
o s e admirai/admirate
N || I shall/will not be admired = I shant/wont be admired = eu nu voi
admirat = eu n-o s u admirat etc.
I || shall/will I be admired? = eu voi admirat? = voi eu admirat? =
eu o s u admirat? = o s u eu admirat?
I-N || shall/will I not be admired? = shant/wont I be admired? = eu nu
voi admirat? = nu voi eu admirat? = eu n-o s u admirat? = n-o s u eu
admirat? Etc.
1.6.2.1.6. Viitorul anterior (The Future Perfect)

xprim o aciune viitoare care se petrece naintea altei aciuni


viitoare. Se formeaz cu auxiliarele shall/will plus innitivul scurt perfect al
verbului de conjugat.
By ve oclock, when you come, I shall have written the letter. = Pn
la (cel trziu) ora cinci, cnd vei veni tu, eu voi scris scrisoarea.
I shall/will have been = eu voi fost
I shall/will not have been = eu nu voi fost
Shall/Will I have been? = voi fost eu? = eu voi fost?
Shall/Will I not have been? = eu nu voi fost? = nu voi fost eu?
I shall/will have had to = eu va trebuit s etc.
Conjugarea verbelor principale la viitor anterior
TO COME = a veni
A ||
I shall/will have come = eu voi venit you will have come = tu vei
venit he/she/it will have come = el/ea va venit we shall/will have come =
noi vom venit you will have come = voi vei venit they will have come =
ei/ele vor venit
N || I shall/will not have come = I shant/wont have come = eu nu voi
venit etc.
I || shall/will I have come? = eu voi venit? = voi venit eu? Etc.
I-N || shall/will I not have come? = shant/wont I have come? = eu nu
voi venit? Etc.
1.6.2.1.7. Viitor n trecut (The Future n the Past)
Exprim o aciune viitoare comunicat ntr-un moment trecut i se
folosete n fraze. Se traduce n limba romn prin timpul viitor simplu.
Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should/would la persoana I singular i plural
i would la celelalte persoane plus innitivul scurt prezent al verbului de
conjugat.
You told me (1) that you would come (2). = Mi-ai spus c vei veni.
Did I tell you that I should/would come? = i-am spus eu c voi veni?
TO COME = a veni
A || I should/would come = eu voi veni we should/would come = noi
vom veni you would come = tu vei veni you would come = voi vei veni he/
she/it would come = el/ea va veni they would come = ei/ele vor veni
N || I should/would not come = I shouldnt/wouldnt come = eu nu voi
veni you would not come = you wouldnt come = tu nu vei veni = tu n-o s
vii he/she/it would not come = he/she/it wouldnt come = el/ea nu va veni =
el/ea n-o s vin etc.
I || should/would I come? = eu voi veni? Etc.
I-N || should/would I not come? = shouldnt/wouldnt I come? = eu nu
voi veni? Etc.
1.6.2.1.8. Viitorul apropiat (THE NEAR FUTURE = THE FUTURE oF
INTENTION)
Se formeaz cu construcia to be going to (a avea de gnd s = a
inteniona s) din care verbul to be se conjug la pre-zent, Past Tense i Past
Perfect, mpreun cu innitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat. Aceast

construcie exprim o aciune ce urmeaz s aib loc la scurt timp dup ce a


fost anunat. Se traduce i prin viitor.
1) I am going to play tennis. = Am de gnd s joc tenis. = voi juca
tenis.
2) I was going to play tennis. = Aveam de gnd s joc tenis.
3) I had been going to play tennis. = Avusesem de gnd s joc tenis.
Alte modaliti de exprimare a viitorului:
A) prin intermediul adverbelor de timp care conin ideea de viitor
They are coming tomorrow, not tonight. = Ei vin (vor veni) mine, nu
disear.
B) cu ajutorul verbului to be to = a urma s
When are they to be married? = Cnd urmeaz ei s se cstoreasc?
They are to be married n August. = Ei urmeaz s se cstoreasc n
august.
What are you to do after that? = Ce vei face dup aceea?
What was I to do? = Ce era s fac? = Ce aveam de fcut? = Ce trebuia
s fac?
I did not know what they were to do. = Eu nu am tiut ce urma s fac
ei.
We are to pay the cost of the ticket. = Urmeaz s pltim costul
biletului.
C) cu construcia/structura to be about to = a pe punctul de a, a
gata s
They are about to leave. = Ei sunt gata s plece. = Sunt gata de
plecare. = Sunt pe punctul de plecare. = Ei stau s plece.
D) cu ajutorul structurii to be going to = a avea de gnd s, a
inteniona s:
He is going to be 25 years old next year. = El va avea 25 de ani anul
urmtor.
Do you think it is going to rain? = Crezi c va ploua?
I suppose this house is going to be expensive. = Presupun c aceast
cas va scump.
1.6.2.2. Modul subjonctiv (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOD)
Se folosete n propoziii cu sensuri negative. Exprim:
A) o condiie ireal, care se poate realiza sau nu
If I were there, I should help you. = Dac a acolo, te-a ajuta.
B) o concesie probabil:
He wouldnt nd me even if he came earlier. = Nu m-ar gsi chiar dac
ar veni mai devreme.
C) o dorin:
He wished he had more friends. = Ar dori s aib mai muli prieteni.
I wish I were there. = A dori s u acolo.
Se ntrebuineaz:
Dup conjuncii ca: if = dac, if only = numai dac, even if = chiar
dac, as if = ca i cnd/cum, de parc, as though = ca i cum, lest = ca s
nu, however = orict de, however (little) = orict de (puin), however (much)

orict de (mult), however (few) = orict de (puini), however (many) =


orict de (muli), however (late) = orict de (trziu), whatever = orice,
indiferent care, oricare, if need be = dac e nevoie/necesar etc.
Dup verbul wish sau expresiile its time (or its high time) = este
timpul s, it is necessary = este necesar, it is probable/likely = este probabil,
it is possible = este posibil, it is right = este drept/corect, it is wrong = este
greit/nedrept etc.
It was ordered that computers be used. = S-a ordonat s se foloseasc/
ntrebuineze calculatoarele.
Come what may, he said. = S se ntmple ce s-o ntmpla, a zis el.
Fie ce-o , a zis el.
So be it, Mary repeated. = Aa s e, a repetat Mary.
If need be, we send you a coach, he said. = Dac este necesar, v
trimitem un autocar, a zis el.
Iat o subdiviziune a subjonctivului din punct de vedere formal:
1) Subjonctiv prezent (The Present Subjunctive or Subjunctive I) Se
traduce prin conjunctiv prezent sau condiional-optativ prezent. Ca form
coincide cu innitiv scurt prezent toate persoanele avnd aceeai form.
Exemplu:
It is vital that you go there now. = Este vital ca tu s mergi acolo acum.
So be it. = Aa s e.
If need be = dac este nevoie
2) Subjonctiv trecut (The Simple Past Subjunctive or Subjunctive I)
Its time we went home. = E timpul s mergem acas.
I wish I were there. = A vrea s u acolo.
3) Subjonctiv perfect (The Past Perfect Subjunctive or Subjunctive I)
If I had bought the book I should have read it. = Dac a cumprat
cartea a citit-o.
Comparai cele dou moduri:
Subjonctiv indicativ if I were here = dac a aici if I was here = dac
eu eram aici f you were here = dac tu ai aici if you were here = dac tu
erai aici if he/she/it were here=dac el/ea ar aici if he/she/it was here =
dac el/ea era aici if we were here = dac noi am aici if we were here =
dac noi eram aici if you were here = dac voi ai aici if you were here =
dac voi erai aici if they were here = dac ei/ele ar aici if they were here
= dac ei/ele erau aici
He does not remember if/whether I was there. = El nu-i amintete
dac eu eram acolo.
If I were there I should/would play tennis. = Dac a acolo a juca
tenis.
If need be I would come earlier. = If it were necesary I would come
earlier. = Dac ar necesar a veni mai devreme.
1.6.2.2.1. Subjonctivul I (The Subjunctive I)
n limba romn se traduce prin condiional optativ prezent i exprim
un fapt ireal. (ex. If I had money I would buy a car. = Dac a avea bani a

cumpra o main. Se nelege din acest exemplu c nu pot cumpra main


pentru c nu am bani.)
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la Subjunctive I to be = a
A || if I were = dac eu a if we were = dac noi am if you were =
dac tu ai if you were = dac voi ai if he/she/it were = dac el/ea ar if
they were = dac ei/ele ar
I || were I. = s u eu, de-a eu. were we. = s m noi, de-am noi.
were you. = s i voi, de-ai voi. were you. = s i tu, de-ai tu. were they.
= s e ei/ele, de-ar ei/ele. were he/she/it. = s e el/ea, de-ar el/ea.
N || if I were not = if I werent = dac eu nu a = dac eu n-a etc.
I-N || were I not = werent I = s nu u eu = de n-a eu etc.
To have = a avea
A || if I had = dac eu a avea if we had = dac noi am avea if you had
= dac tu ai avea if you had = dac voi ai avea if he/she/it had = dac el/ea
ar avea if they had = dac ei/ele ar avea
I || had I = s am eu = de-a avea eu had you = s ai tu = de-ai avea
tu had he/she/it = s aib el/ea, de-ar avea el/ea had we = s avem noi = deam avea noi had you = s avei voi = de-ai avea voi had they = s aib ei/
ele = de-ar avea ei/ele
N || if I had not = if I hadnt = dac eu nu a avea = dac eu n-a avea
etc.
I-N || had I not = hadnt I = s n-am eu = de n-a avea eu etc.
To do = a face
A || if I did = dac eu a face if we did = dac noi am face if you did =
dac tu ai face if you did = dac voi ai face if he/she/it did = dac el/ea ar
face if they did = dac ei/ele ar face
I || did I do = s fac eu = de-a face eu etc.
N || if I did not do = if I didnt do = dac eu nu a face = dac eu n-a
face etc.
I-N || did I not do = didnt I do = s nu fac eu = de n-a face eu etc.
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la Subjunctive I can could 0 = to be
able to
A || if I could (go) = if I were able to (go) = dac eu a putea (merge) =
dac eu a n stare s (merg) you could (go) = if you were able to (go) =
dac tu ai putea (merge) = dac tu ai n stare s (mergi) he/she/it could
(go) = if he/she/it were able to (go) = dac el/ea ar putea (merge) = dac el/
ea ar n stare s if we could (go) = if we were able to (go) = dac noi am
putea (merge) = dac noi am n stare s (mergem) if you could (go) = if
you were able to (go) = dac voi ai putea (merge) = dac voi ai n stare
s (mergei) if they could (go) = if they were able to (go) = dac ei/ele ar
putea (merge) = dac ei/ele ar n stare s
I || could I (go) = were I able to (go) = s pot eu (merge) = s pot eu s
(merg) = de-a putea eu (merge) could you (go) = were you able to (go) = s
poi tu (merge) could he/she/it (go) = were he/she/it able to (go) = s poat
el/ea (merge) could we (go) = were we able to (go) = s putem noi (merge)

could you (go) = were you able to (go) = s putei voi (merge) could they
(go) = were they able to (go) = s poat ei/ele (merge)
N || if I could not (go) = if I couldnt (go) = if I were not able to go = if I
werent able to (go) = dac eu n-a putea s (merg) = dac n-a n stare s
(merg) etc.
I-N || could I not (go) = couldnt I (go) = were I not able to (go) =
werent I able to (go) = s nu pot eu s (merg) = de n-a putea eu s (merg)
etc.
May might 0 = to be permitted/allowed to
A || if I might (go) = if I were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac eu a
avea voie s (merg) = dac mie mi-ar permis/ngduit s if you might (go)
= if you were permitted/allowed to (go) = dac tu ai avea voie s (mergi) =
dac ie i-ar permis/ngduit s if he/she/it might (go) = if he/she/it were
permitted/allowed to (go) = dac el/ea ar avea voie s (mearg) = dac lui/ei
i-ar permis/ngduit s (mearg) if we might (go) = if we were permitted/
allowed to (go) = dac noi am avea voie s (mergem) = dac nou ne-ar
permis/ngduit s (mergem) if you might (go) = if you were permitted/
allowed to (go) = dac voi ai avea voie s (mergei) = dac vou var
permis/ngduit s (mergei) if they might (go) = if they were permitted/
allowed to (go) = dac ei/ele ar avea voie s (mearg) = dac lor le-ar
permis/ngduit s (mearg)
I || might I (go) = were I permitted/allowed to (go) = s am eu voie s
(merg) = de mi-ar mie permis/ngduit s (merg) might you (go) = were
you permitted/allowed to (go) = s ai tu voie s (mergi) = de i-ar ie
permis/ngduit s (mergi) might he/she/it (go) = were he/she/it permitted/
allowed to (go) =s aib el/ea voie s (mearg) =de i-ar lui/ei permis/
ngduit s (mearg) might we (go) = were we permitted/allowed to (go) = s
avem noi voie s (mergem) = de ne-ar nou ngduit s might you (go) =
were you permitted/allowed to (go) = s avei voi voie s (mergei) = de v-ar
vou is/ngduit s might they (go) = were they permitted/allowed to (go)
= s aib ei/ele voie s (mearg) = de le-ar lor permis/ngduit s
N || if I might not (go) = if I mightnt (go) = if I were not permitted/
allowed to (go) = if I werent permitted/allowed to (go) = dac eu n-a avea
voie s (merg) = dac mie nu mi-ar permis/ngduit s (merg)
I-N || might I not (go) = mightnt I (go) = were I not permitted/allowed
to (go) = werent I permitted/allowed to (go) = s nu am eu voie s (merg) =
s nu-mi e mie permis/ngduit s (merg) = de n-a avea eu voie s (merg)
= de nu mi-ar mie permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
Must 0 0 = to have to
A || if I had to (go) = dac eu ar trebui s (merg) if you had to (go) =
dac tu ar trebui s (mergi) if he/she/it had to (go) = dac el/ea ar trebui s
(mearg) if we had to (go) = dac noi ar trebui s (mergem) if you had to
(go) = dac voi ar trebui s (mergei) if they had to (go) = dac ei/ele ar
trebui s (mearg)
I || had I to (go) = s trebuiasc eu s (merg) = de-ar trebui eu s
(merg) had you to (go) = s trebuiasc tu s (mergi) = de-ar trebui tu s

)
/she/it to (go) = s trebuiasc el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar trebui
el/ea s (mearg) had we to (go) = s trebuiasc noi s (mergem) = de-ar
trebui noi s (mergem) had you to (go) = s trebuiasc voi s (mergei) = dear trebui voi s (mergei) had they to (go) = s trebuiasc ei/ele s (mearg)
= de-ar trebui ei/ele s (mearg)
N || if I had not to (go) = if I hadnt to (go) = dac eu nu ar trebui s
(merg) = dac eu n-ar trebui s (merg) etc.
I-N || had I not to (go) = hadnt I to (go) = s nu trebuiasc eu s
(merg) = de n-ar trebui eu s (merg) etc.
Shall should 0
A || if I should (go) = dac eu ar trebui s (merg); dac s-ar ntmpla s
(merg) eu if you should (go) = dac tu ar trebui s (mergi); dac s-ar
ntmpla s (mergi) tu if he/she/it should (go) = dac el/ea ar trebui s
(mearg); dac s-ar ntmpla s (mearg) el/ea etc.
I || should I (go) = s trebuiasc eu s (merg) = de-ar trebui eu s
(merg) should you (go) = s trebuiasc tu s (mergi) = de-ar trebui tu s
(mergi) should he/she/it (go) = s trebuiasc el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar trebui
el/ea s (mearg) etc.
N || if I should not (go) = if I shouldnt (go) = dac eu n-ar trebui s
(merg) etc.
I-N || should I not (go) = shouldnt I (go) = s nu trebuiasc eu s
(merg) = de n-ar trebui eu s (merg) etc.
Will would 0
A || if I would (go) = dac eu a vrea s (merg) if you would (go) = dac
tu ai vrea s (mergi) if he/she/it would (go) = dac el/ea ar vrea s
I || if we would (go) = dac noi am vrea s (mergem) if you would (go)
= dac voi ai vrea s (mergei) if they would (go) = dac ei/ele ar vrea s
(mearg) would I (go) = s vreau eu s (merg) = de-a vrea eu s (merg)
would you (go) = s vrei tu s (mergi) = de-ai vrea tu s (mergi) would he/
she/it (go) = s vrea el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar vrea el/ea s (mearg) would
we (go) = s vrem noi s (mergem) = de-am vrea noi s (mergem) would you
(go) = s vrei voi s (mergei) = de-ai vrea voi s (mergei) would they (go)
= s vrea ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar vrea ei/ele s (mearg)
N || if I would not (go) = if I wouldnt (go) = dac eu nu a vrea s
(merg) = dac eu n-a vrea s (merg) etc.
I-N || would I not (go) = wouldnt I (go) = s nu vreau eu s (merg) etc.
To be was/were been to
A || if I were to (go) = dac eu ar /urma s (merg) if you were to (go)
= dac tu ar /urma s (mergi) if he/she/it were to (go) = dac el/ea ar /
urma s (mearg) if we were to (go) = dac noi ar /urma s (mergem) if you
were to (go) = dac voi ar /urma s (mergei) if they were to (go) = dac ei/
ele ar /urma s (mearg)
I || were I to (go) = s e eu s (merg) = de-ar s (merg) eu were you
to (go) = s e tu s (mergi) = de-ar s (mergi) tu were he/she/it to (go) =
s e el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar s (mearg) el/ea were we to (go) = s e
noi s (mergem) = de-ar s (mergem) noi were you to (go) = s e voi s

)
s (mergei) voi were they to (go) = s e ei/ele s
(mearg) = de-ar s (mearg) ei/ele
N || if I were not to (go) = if I werent to (go) = dac eu nu ar s
(merg) = dac eu n-ar s (merg) etc.
I-N || were I not to (go) = werent I to (go) = s nu e eu s (merg/plec)
= de n-ar s (merg/plec) eu etc.
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive I aspectul comun,
diateza activ to see saw seen
A || if I saw = dac eu a vedea if we saw = dac noi am vedea if you
saw = dac tu ai vedea if you saw = dac voi ai vedea if he/she/it saw =
dac el/ea ar vedea if they saw = dac ei/ele ar vedea
N || if I did not see = if I didnt see = dac eu nu a vedea = dac eu na vedea etc.
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive Iaspectul continuu,
diateza activ
TO SING
A || if I were singing = dac eu a cnta if you were singing = dac tu ai
cnta if he/she/it were singing = dac el/ea ar cnta if we were singing =
dac noi am cnta if you were singing = dac voi ai cnta if they were
singing = dac ei/ele ar cnta
I || were I singing = de-a cnta eu = s cnt eu were you singing = deai cnta tu = s cni tu were he/she/it singing = de-ar cnta el/ea = s cnte
el/ea were we singing = de-am cnta noi = s cntm noi were you singing
= de-ai cnta voi = s cntai voi were they singing = de-ar cnta ei/ele =
s cnte ei/ele
N || if I were not singing = if I werent singing = dac eu nu a cnta =
dac eu n-a cnta etc.
I-N || were I not singing = werent I singing = de n-a cnta eu = s nu
cnt eu etc.
1.6.2.2.2. Subjonctivul perfect (The Past Perfect Subjunctive or
Subjunctive I)
Se traduce prin conjunctiv/condiional perfect.
If I had gone home. = Dac eu a mers acas.
Had I gone home. = S mers eu acas. = De-a mers eu acas.
Subjonctivul perfect exprim o presupunere sau un fapt care nu
concord cu realitatea. Se folosete n subordonata condiional de tipul I.
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la Subjunctive I to be was/were
been
A || if I had been = dac eu a fost if we had been = dac noi am
fost if you had been = dac tu ai fost if you had been = dac voi ai fost if
he/she/it had been= dac el/ea ar fost if they had been = dac ei/ele ar
fost
I || had I been = s fost eu = de-a fost eu had we been = s fost
noi = de-am fost noi had you been = s fost tu = de-ai fost tu had you
been = s fost voi = de-ai fost voi had he/she/it been = s fost el/ea =
de-ar fost el/ea had they been = s fost ei/ele = de-ar fost e

ot been = if I hadnt been = dac eu nu a fost = dac


eu n-a fost etc.
I-N || had I not been = hadnt I been = s nu fost eu = de n-a fost
eu etc.
To have had had
A || if I had had = dac eu a avut if we had had = dac noi am
avut if you had had = dac tu ai avut if you had had = dac voi ai avut if
he/she/it had had = dac el/ea ar avut if they had had = dac ei/ele ar
avut
I || had I had = s avut eu = de-a avut eu had we had = s avut
noi = de-am avut noi had you had = s avut tu = de-ai avut tu had you
had = s avut voi = de-ai avut voi had he/she/had = s avut el/ea =
de-ar avut el/ea had they had = s avut ei/ele = de-ar avut ei/ele
N || if I had not had = if I hadnt had = dac eu nu a avut = dac eu
n-a avut etc.
I-N || had I not had = hadnt I had = s nu avut eu = de n-a avut
eu etc.
To do did done
A || if I had done = dac eu a fcut if we had done = dac noi am
fcut if you had done = dac tu ai fcut if you had done = dac voi ai
fcut if he/she/it had done = dac el/ea ar fcut if they had done = dac ei/
ele ar fcut
I || had I done = s fcut eu = de-a fcut eu had we done = s
fcut noi = de-am fcut noi had you done = s fcut tu = de-ai fcut tu
had you done = s fcut voi = de-ai fcut voi had he done = s fcut
el/ea = de-ar fcut el/ea had they done = s fcut ei/ele = de-ar fcut
ei/ele
N || if I had not done = if I hadnt done = dac eu nu a fcut = dac
eu n-a fcut etc.
I-N || had I not done = hadnt I done = s nu fcut eu = de n-a
fcut eu etc.
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la Subjunctive I can could 0 = to be
able to
A || if I had been able to (go) = dac eu a putut s (merg) = dac eu
a fost n stare s (merg) if you had been able to (go) = dac tu ai putut
s (mergi) = dac tu ai fost n stare s (mergi) if he/she/it had been able to
(go) = dac el/ea ar putut s (mearg) = dac el/ea ar fost n stare s
(mearg) if we had been able to (go) = dac noi am putut s (mergem) =
dac noi am fost n stare s (mergem) if you had been able to (go) = dac
voi ai putut s (mergei) = dac voi ai fost n stare s (mergei) if they
had been able to (go) = dac ei/ele ar putut s (mearg) = dac ei/ele ar
fost n stare s (mearg)
I || had I been able to (go) = s fost eu n stare s (merg) = de-a
putut eu s (merg) = s putut eu s (merg) = de-a fost eu n stare s
(merg) had you been able to (go) = s fost tu n stare s (mergi) = de-ai
putut tu s (mergi) = s putut tu s (mergi) = de-ai fost tu n stare s

)
/she/it been able to (go) = s fost el/ea n stare s (mearg)
= de-ar putut el/ea s (mearg) = s putut el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar
fost el/ea n stare s (mearg) had we been able to (go) = s fost noi n
stare s (mergem) = de-am putut noi s (mergem) = s putut noi s
(mergem) = de-am fost noi n stare s (mergem) had you been able to (go)
= s fost voi n stare s (mergei) = de-ai putut voi s (mergei) = s
putut voi s (mergei) = de-ai fost voi n stare s (mergei) had they been
able to (go) = s fost ei/ele n stare s (mearg) = de-ar putut ei/ele s
(mearg) = s putut ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar fost ei/ele n stare s
(mearg)
N || if I had not been able to (go) = if I hadnt been able to (go) = dac
eu nu a (n-a) putut s (merg) = dac eu nu a (n-a) fost n stare s
(merg) etc.
I-N || had I not been able to (go) = hadnt I been able to (go) = s nu
fost eu n stare s (merg) = de n-a putut eu s (merg) = s nu putut eu
s (merg) = de n-a fost eu n stare s (merg) etc.
May might = to be permitted/allowed to
A || if I had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac eu a avut voie s
(merg) = dac eu a putut s (merg) = dac mie mi-ar fost permis/
ngduit s (merg) if you had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac tu ai
avut voie s (mergi) = dac tu ai putut s (mergi) = dac ie i-ar fost
permis/ngduit s (mergi) if he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (go) =
dac el/ea ar avut voie s (mearg) = dac el/ea ar putut s (mearg) =
dac lui/ei i-ar fost permis/ngduit s (mearg) if we had been permitted/
allowed to (go) = dac noi am avut voie s (mergem) = dac noi am
putut s (mergem) = dac nou ne-ar fost permis/ngduit s (mergem) if
you had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac voi ai avut voie s
(mergei) = dac voi ai putut s (mergei) = dac vou v-ar fost permis/
ngduit s (mergei) if they had been permitted/allowed to (go) = dac ei/ele
ar avut voie s (mearg) = dac ei/ele ar putut s (mearg) = dac lor lear fost permis/ngduit s (mearg)
I || had I been permitted/allowed to (go) = s avut eu voie s (merg)
= s putut eu s (merg) = s-mi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) = dea avut eu voie s (merg) = de-a putut eu s merg = de mi-ar fost mie
permis/ngduit s (merg) had you been permitted/allowed to (go) = s
avut tu voie s (mergi) = s putut tu s (mergi) = s-i fost ie permis/
ngduit s (mergi) = de-ai avut tu voie s (mergi) = de-ai putut tu s
(mergi) = de i-ar fost ie permis/ngduit s (mergi) had he/she/it been
permitted/allowed to (go) = s avut el/ea voie s (mearg) = s putut el/
ea s (mearg) = s-l fost lui/ei permis/ngduit s (mearg) = de-ar avut
el/ea voie s (mearg) = de-ar putut el/ea s (mearg) = de i-ar fost lui/ei
permis/ngduit s (mearg) had we been permitted/allowed to (go) = s
avut noi voie s (mergem) = s putut noi s (mergem) = s ne fost nou
permis/ngduit s (mergem) = de-am avut noi voie s (mergem) = de-am
putut noi s (mergem) = de ne-ar fost nou permis/ngduit s (mergem)
had you been permitted/allowed to (go) = s avut voi voie s (mergei) =

s putut voi s (mergei) = s v fost vou permis/ngduit s (mergei)


= de-ai avut voi voie s (mergei) = de-ai putut voi s mergei= de v-ar
fost vou permis/ngduit s (mergei) had they been permitted/allowed to
(go) = s avut ei/ele voie s (mearg) = s putut ei/ele s (mearg) = s
le fost lor permis/ngduit s (mearg) = de-ar avut ei/ele voie s
(mearg) = de-ar putut ei/ele s mearg = de le-ar fost lor permis/
ngduit s (mearg)
N || if I had not been permitted/allowed to (go) = if I hadnt been
permitted/allowed to (go) = dac eu nu a (n-a) avut voie s merg = dac
eu nu a (n-a) putut s (merg) = dac mie nu mi-ar fost permis/ngduit
s (merg) etc.
I-N || had I not been permitted/allowed to (go) = hadnt I been
permitted/allowed to (go) = s nu avut eu voie s (merg) = s nu putut
eu s (merg) = s nu-mi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) = de n-a
avut eu voie s (merg) = de n-a putut eu s (merg) = de nu mi-ar fost
mie permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
Must 0 0 = to have to
A || if I had had to (go) = dac eu ar trebuit s (merg) if you had had
to (go) = dac tu ar trebuit s (mergi) if he/she/it had had to (go) = dac el/
ea ar trebuit s (mearg) if we had had to (go) = dac noi ar trebuit s
(mergem) if you had had to (go) = dac voi ar trebuit s (mergei) if they
had had to (go) = dac ei/ele ar trebuit s (mearg)
I || had I had to (go) = s trebuit eu s (merg) = de-ar trebuit eu s
(merg) had you had to (go) = s trebuit tu s (mergi) = de-ar trebuit tu s
(mergi) had he/she/it had to (go) = s trebuit el/ea s (mearg) = de-ar
trebuit el/ea s (mearg) had we had to (go) = s trebuit noi s (mergem)
= de-ar trebuit noi s (mergem) had you had to (go) = s trebuit voi s
(mergei) = de-ar trebuit voi s (mergei) had they had to (go) = s
trebuit ei/ele s (mearg) = de-ar trebuit ei/ele s (mearg)
N || if I had not had to (go) = if I hadnt had to (go) = dac eu nu ar (nar) trebuit s (merg) etc.
I-N || had I not had to (go) = hadnt I had to (go) = s nu trebuit eu s
(merg) = de n-ar trebuit eu s (merg) etc.
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive I aspectul comun,
diateza activ to see saw seen
A || if I had seen = dac eu a vzut if we had seen = dac noi am
vzut if you had seen = dac tu ai vzut if you had seen = dac voi ai
vzut if he/she/it had seen = dac el/ea ar vzut if they had seen = dac ei/
ele ar vzut
I || had I seen = s vzut eu = de-a vzut eu had you seen = s
vzut tu = de-ai vzut tu had he/she/it seen = s vzut el/ea = de-ar
vzut el/ea had we seen = s vzut noi = de-am vzut noi had you seen
= s vzut voi = de-ai vzut voi had they seen = s vzut ei/ele = dear vzut ei/ele
N || if I had not seen = if I hadnt seen = dac eu nu a (n-a) vzut
etc.

ot seen = hadnt I seen = s nu vzut eu = de n-a


vzut eu etc.
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive I diateza activ,
aspectul continuu
TO SING = a cnta
A || if I had been singing = dac eu a cntat if you had been singing
= dac tu ai cntat if he/she/it had been singing = dac el/ea ar cntat if
we had been singing = dac noi am cntat if you had been singing = dac
voi ai cntat if they had been singing = dac ei/ele ar cntat
I || had I been singing = s cntat eu = de-a cntat eu had you
been singing = s cntat tu = de-ai cntat tu had he/she/it been singing
= s cntat el/ea = de-ar cntat el/ea had we been singing = s cntat
noi = de-am cntat noi had you been singing = s cntat voi = de-ai
cntat voi had they been singing = s cntat ei/ele = de-ar cntat ei/ele
N || if I had not been singing = if I hadnt been singing = dac eu nu a
(n-a) cntat etc.
I-N || had I not been singing = hadnt I been singing = s nu cntat eu
= de n-a cntat eu etc.
You would have found us at home if you had come to see us. = Ne-ai/ai
gsit acas dac ai/ai venit pe la noi.
Modul subjonctiv apare dup verbe care exprim sugestii, propuneri,
comenzi sau ordine:
I suggest that he begin (s) to leam his lessons. = Sugerez ca el s-i
nvee leciile.
I suggest (ed) that he should (ought to) go tomorrow. = Sugerez (Am
sugerat) ca el s plece mine.
I suggested that they come/came/should come at six oclock. = Am
sugerat ca ei s vin la ora ase.
It was necessary (that) he be/was/should be there. = Era necesar ca el
s e acolo.
Subjunctive I i Subjunctive I se folosesc dup verbul wish i dup if
only.
I wish you had much money. = A vrea ca tu s ai bani muli.
I wish you had had much money. = A vrea ca tu s avut bani muli.
If only you had much money. = Mcar dac ai avea bani muli.
If only you were with us here now. = Mcar dac ai cu noi aici.
1.6.2.3. Modul condiional (The Conditional Mood)
1.6.2.3.1. Condiionalul prezent (The Present Conditional)
Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should (pentru persoana I singular i plural)
i would (pentru celelalte persoane) plus innitivul scurt prezent al verbului
de conjugat. Se traduce n limba romn prin optativ prezent.
n zilele noastre auxiliarul would se folosete la toate persoanele
nlocuindu-l astfel pe should i exprim o opiune, o dorin sau o invitaie la
timpul prezent.
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la condiional prezent to be = a

should/would be = Id be = eu a we should/would be = wed be


= noi am you would be = youd be = tu ai you would be = youd be = voi
ai he/she/it would be = hed/shed/itd be = el/ea ar they would be =
theyd be = ei/ele ar
N || I should/would not be = I shouldnt/wouldnt be = eu nu a = eu
n-a etc.
I || should/would I be? = eu a ? = a eu? Etc.
I-N || should/would I not be? = shouldnt/wouldnt I be? = eu nu a (na) ? = nu a (n-a) eu? Etc.
To have = a avea
A || I should/would have = Id have = eu a avea you would have =
youd have = tu ai avea he/she/it would have = hed/shed/itd have = el/ea
ar avea we should/would have = wed have = noi am avea you would have =
youd have = voi ai avea they would have = theyd have = ei/ele ar avea
N || I should/would not have = I shouldnt/wouldnt have = eu nu a (na) avea etc.
I || should/would I have? = eu a avea? = a avea eu? Etc.
I-N || should/would I not have? = shouldnt/wouldnt I have? = eu nu a
(n-a) avea? Etc.
To do = a face
A || I should/would do = Id do = eu a face we should/would do = wed
do = noi am face you would do = youd do = tu ai face you would do = youd
do = voi ai face he/she/it would do = hed/shed/itd do = el/ea ar face they
would do = theyd do = ei/ele ar face
N || I should/would not do = I shouldnt/wouldnt do = eu nu a (n-a)
face etc.
I || should/would I do? = eu a face? = a face eu? Etc.
I-N || should/would I not do? = shouldnt/wouldnt I do? = eu nu a (na) face? = nu a (n-a) face eu? Etc.
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la condiional prezent can could 0 =
to be able to
A || I could (go) =I should/would be able to (go) =eu a putea s (merg)
=eu a putea (merge) =eu a n stare s you could (go) = you would be
able to (go) = tu ai putea s (mergi) = tu ai putea (merge) = tu ai n stare
s he/she/it could (go) = he/she/it would be able to (go) = el/ea ar putea s
(mearg) = el/ea ar putea (merge) = el/ea ar n stare s (mearg) we could
(go) = we should/would be able to (go) = noi am putea s (mergem) = noi
am putea (merge) = noi am n stare s (mergem) you could (go) = you
would be able to (go) = voi ai putea s (mergei) = voi ai putea (merge) =
voi ai n stare s (mergei) they could (go) = they would be able to (go) =
ei/ele ar putea s (mearg) = ei/ele ar putea (merge) = ei/ele ar n stare s
(mearg)
N || I could not (go) = I couldnt (go) = I should/would not be able to
(go) = I shouldnt/wouldnt be able to (go) = eu nu a (n-a) putea s (merg)
= eu nu a n stare s (merg) etc.

could I (go)? = should/would I be able to (go)? = a putea eu s


(merg)? = a putea eu (merge)? = a eu n stare s (merg)? Etc.
I-N || could I not (go)? = couldnt I (go)? = should/would I not be able to
(go)? = shouldnt/wouldnt I be able to (go)? = eu nu a putea s (merg)? =
n-a putea s (merg) eu? = eu nu a n stare s (merg)? = n-a eu n
stare s (merg)? Etc.
n exemplul: I could go verbul could exprim i permisiunea, nu numai
capabilitatea. n acest caz could = might. n limbajul colocvial can l
nlocuiete des pe may.
May might 0 = to be permitted/allowed to
A || I might (go) = I should/would be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu a
avea voie s (merg) = eu a putea s (merg) = mie mi-ar permis/ngduit
s (merg) you might (go) = you would be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu ai
avea voie s (mergi) = tu ai putea s (mergi) = ie i-ar permis/ngduit s
(mergi) he/she/it might (go) = he/she/it would be permitted/allowed to (go) =
el/ea ar avea voie s (mearg) = el/ea ar putea s (mearg) = lui/ei i-ar
permis/ngduit s (mearg) we might (go) = we should/would be permitted/
allowed to (go) = noi am avea voie s (mergem) = noi am putea s (mergem)
= nou ne-ar permis/ngduit s (mergem) you might (go) = you would be
permitted/allowed to (go) = voi ai avea voie s (mergei) = voi ai putea s
(mergei) = vou v-ar permis/ngduit s (mergei) they might (go) = they
would be permitted/allowed to (go) = ei/ele ar avea voie s (mearg) = ei/
ele ar putea s (mearg) = lor le-ar permis/ngduit s (mearg)
N || I might not (go) = I mightnt (go) = I should/would not be
permitted/allowed to (go) = I shouldnt/wouldnt be permitted/allowed to (go)
= eu nu a avea voie s (merg) = eu nu a putea s (merg) = mie nu mi-ar
permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
I || might I (go)? = should/would I be permitted/allowed to (go)? = a
avea eu voie s (merg)? = a putea eu s (merg)? = a putea eu (merge)? =
mi-ar mie permis/ngduit s (merg)? Etc.
I-N || might I not (go)? = mightnt I (go)? = should/would I not be
permitted/allowed to (go)? = shouldnt/wouldnt I be permitted/allowed to
(go)? = nu a (n-a) avea eu voie s (merg)? = nu a (n-a) putea eu s
(merg)? = nu mi-ar mie permis/ngduit s (merg)? = mie nu mi-ar
permis/ngduit s (merg)? Etc.
Must 0 0 = to have to
A || I should/would have to (go) = Id have to (go) = eu ar trebui s
(merg) you would have to (go) = youd have to (go) = tu ar trebui s (mergi)
he/she/it would have to (go) = hed/shed/itd have to (go) = el/ea ar trebui s
(mearg) we should/would have to (go) = wed have to (go) = noi ar trebui s
(mergem) you would have to (go) = youd have to (go) = voi ar trebui s
(mergei) they would have to (go) = theyd have to (go) = ei/ele ar trebui s
(mearg)
N || I should/would not have to (go) = I shouldnt/wouldnt have to (go)
= eu nu ar trebui s (merg) etc.

should/would I have to (go)? = eu ar trebui s (merg)? = ar trebui eu


s (merg)? Etc.
I-N || should/would I not have to (go)? = eu nu ar trebui s (merg)? =
n-ar trebui eu s (merg)? Etc.
Shall should = a trebui s, a se cuveni/cdea s.
A || I should (go) = eu ar trebui s (merg) you should (go) = tu ar trebui
s (mergi) he/she/it should (go) = el/ea ar trebui s (mearg) we should go =
noi ar trebui s (mergem) you should (go) = voi ar trebui s (mergei) they
should (go) = ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg)
N || I should not (go) = I shouldnt (go) = eu nu ar trebui s (merg) = eu
n-ar trebui s (merg), etc.
I || should I (go)? = ar trebui eu s (merg)? Etc.
I-N || should I not (go)? = shouldnt I (go)? = eu nu ar trebui s (merg)?
= n-ar trebui eu s (merg)? Etc.
Verbul should se foloseste dup how, why i when.
How should they know? = De unde s tie ei?
Verbul should exprim:
A) probabilitatea: They should be n the mountains. = Ar trebui s e
la munte. = Probabil sunt la munte.
If he should come tell him Ive bought the tickets. = Dac cumva vine
spune-l c am cumprat biletele. = Dac se ntmpl s vin spune-l c am
cumprat biletele.
B) necesitatea sau sfatul: You should go to the dentist now. = Ar
trebui s te duci la dentist acum.
You shouldnt waste your time. = N-ar trebui s-i iroseti timpul.
Will would 0 = a vrea
A || I would (go) = eu a vrea s (merg) we would (go) = noi am vrea s
(mergem) you would (go) = tu ai vrea s (mergi) you would (go) = voi ai
vrea s (mergei) he/she/it would (go) = el/ea ar vrea s (mearg) they would
(go) = ei/ele ar vrea s (mearg)
N || I would not (go) = I wouldnt (go) = eu nu a vrea s (merg) = eu
n-a vrea s (merg) etc.
I || would I (go)? = a vrea eu s (merg)? = eu a vrea s (merg)? Etc.
I-N || would I not (go)? = wouldnt I (go)? = eu nu a vrea s (merg)? =
n-a vrea eu s (merg)? Etc.
Verbul would exprim:
A) dorin n prezent: He would go on the trip. = El ar vrea s mearg
n excursie.
B) comenzi politicoase: Would you open that door, please? = Ai vrea
s deschidei ua aceea, v rog?
Would + mind:
Would you mind opening that door, please? = V-ar deranja/supra dac
ai deschide ua aceea, v rog?
Would you mind my smoking? = V deranjeaz dac fumez?
I should/would go home = a merge acas = condiional prezent; aici
should/would este auxiliar

should/would go home = ar trebui s merg acas; aici should/would


este auxiliar modal, modul condiional
I should/would go home = trebuia s merg acas; aici should/would
este modal, modul indicativ if I should/would go home = dac ar trebui s
merg acas; aici should/would este auxiliar modal, modul subjonctiv prezent
if I should/would go home = dac trebuia s merg acas; should/would este
modal, modul indicativ if I should/would go home = dac s-ar ntmpla s
merg; should/would este auxiliar modal, condiional prezent
I would go home = a vrea s merg acas; would aici este auxiliar
modal, modul condiional
I would go home = obinuiam s merg acas = mergeam acas; would
este aici modal, modul indicativ
I would go home = voiam s merg acas; la fel would este modal,
modul indicativ, Past Tense if I would go home = dac a vrea s merg acas;
would este auxiliar modal if I would go home = dac voiam s merg acas;
would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense if I would go home = dac
obinuiam s merg acas = dac mergeam acas = la fel would este modal,
modul indicativ, Past Tense
I might go home = a avea voie s merg acas; aici might este auxiliar
modal, modul condiional
I might go home = aveam voie s merg acas; might este modal, Past
Tense ought to 0 0
A || I ought to (go) = eu ar trebui s (merg/plec) = eu s-ar cuveni/cdea
s (merg/plec) you ought to (go) = tu ar trebui s (mergi/pleci) = tu s-ar
cuveni/cdea s (mergi/pleci) he/she/it ought to (go) = el/ea ar trebui s
(mearg/plece) = el/ea s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mearg/plece) we ought to (go)
= noi ar trebui s (mergem/plecm) = noi s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mergem/
plecm) you ought to (go) = voi ar trebui s (mergei/plecai) = voi s-ar
cuveni/cdea s (mergei/plecai) they ought to (go) = ei/ele ar trebui s
(mearg/plece) = ei/ele s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mearg/plece)
N || I ought not to (go) = I oughtnt to (go) = eu nu ar trebui s (merg/
plec) = eu nu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (merg)
I || ought I to (go)? = eu ar trebui s (merg/plec)? = eu s-ar cuveni/
cdea s (merg/plec)? = s-ar cuveni eu s
I-N || ought I not to (go)? = oughtnt I to (go)? = eu nu ar trebui s
(merg/plec)? = eu nu s-ar cuveni s (merg)?
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale diateza activ, aspectul comun to
see = a vedea
La condiional i la viitorul n trecut, la persoana I-a singular i plural se
folosete att auxiliarul should [~ud] ct i would [wud], iar la persoanele a
I-a i a I-a se folosete doar would.
A || I should/would see = Id see = eu a vedea he/she/it would see =
hed/shed/itd see = el/ea ar vedea you would see = youd see = tu ai vedea
we should/would see = wed see = noi am vedea you would see = youd see
= voi ai vedea they would see = theyd see = ei/ele ar vedea

should/would not see = I shouldnt/wouldnt see = eu nu a vedea


etc.
I || should/would I see? = eu a vedea? = a vedea eu? Etc.
I N || should/would I not see? = shouldnt/wouldnt I see? = eu nu a
(n-a) vedea? Etc.
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale diateza activ, aspectul continuu to
play = a (se) juca
A || I should/would be playing = eu a juca we should/would be playing
= noi am juca you would be playing = tu ai juca you would be playing = voi
ai juca he/she/it would be playing = el/ea ar juca they would be playing = ei/
ele ar juca
N || I should/would not be playing = I shouldnt/wouldnt be playing =
eu nu a (n-a) juca etc.
I || should/would I be playing? = a juca eu? = eu a juca? Etc.
I N || should/would I not be playing? = shouldnt/wouldnt I be playing?
= eu nu a (n-a) juca? Etc.
To dare = a ndrzni
A || I should/would dare = Id dare = eu a ndrzni = eu m-a ncumeta
you would dare = youd dare = tu ai ndrzni = tu te-ai ncumeta he/she
would dare = hed/shed dare = el/ea ar ndrzni = el/ea s-ar ncumeta we
should/would dare = wed dare = noi am ndrzni = noi ne-am ncumeta you
would dare = youd dare = voi ai ndrzni = voi v-ai ncumeta they would
dare = theyd dare = ei/ele ar ndrzni = ei/ele s-ar ncumeta
N || I should/would not dare = I shouldnt/wouldnt dare = eu nu a (na) ndrzni = eu nu m-a ncumeta etc.
I || should/would I dare? = a ndrzni eu? = eu a ndrzni? = eu m-a
ncumeta? Etc.
I N || should/would I not dare? = shouldnt/wouldnt I dare? = eu nu a
(n-a) ndrzni? = eu nu m-a ncumeta
To need = a avea nevoie
A || I should/would need = Id need = eu a avea nevoie = mie mi-ar
trebui you would need = youd need = tu ai avea nevoie = ie i-ar trebui he/
she/it would need = hed/shed/itd need = el/ea ar avea nevoie = lui/ei i-ar
trebui we should/would need = wed need = noi am avea nevoie = nou near trebui you would need = youd need = voi ai avea nevoie = vou v-ar
trebui they would need = theyd need = ei/ele ar avea nevoie = lor le-ar
trebui
N || I should/would not need = I shouldnt/wouldnt need = eu nu a
avea nevoie = mie nu mi-ar trebui = mie nu mi-ar necesar etc.
I || should/would I need? = eu a avea nevoie? = a avea eu nevoie? =
mie mi-ar trebui? = mi-ar trebui mie? = mie mi-ar necesar? Etc.
I N || should/would I not need? = shouldnt/wouldnt I need? = eu nu
a (n-a) avea nevoie? = nu a (n-a) avea eu nevoie? = mie nu mi-ar trebui?
Etc.
E. Conjugarea verbelor principale diateza pasiv to be seen = a
vzut; (to be invited = a invitat etc.)

should/would be seen = Id be seen = eu a vzut () you would


be seen = youd be seen = tu ai vzut () he/she/it would be seen = hed/
shed/itd be seen = el/ea ar vzut () we should/would be seen = wed be
seen = noi am vzui/vzute you would be seen = youd be seen = voi ai
vzui/vzute they would be seen = theyd be seen = ei/ele ar vzui/
vzute
N || I should/would not be seen = I shouldnt/wouldnt be seen = eu nu
a (n-a) vzut () etc.
I || should/would I be seen? = eu a vzut ()? = a eu vzut ()?
Etc.
I N || should/would I not be seen? = shouldnt/wouldnt I be seen? =
eu nu a (n-a) vzut ()? Etc.
F. Conjugarea verbelor reexive aspectul comun to enjoy onesELF =
a se distra
A || I should/would enjoy myself = Id enjoy myself = eu m-a distra you
would enjoy yourself = youd enjoy yourself = tu te-ai distra he would enjoy
himself = hed enjoy himself = el s-ar distra she would enjoy herself = shed
enjoy herself = ea s-ar distra it would enjoy itself = itd enjoy itself = el/ea sar distra we should/would enjoy ourselves = wed enjoy ourselves = noi neam distra you would enjoy yourselves = youd enjoy yourselves = voi v-ai
distra they would enjoy themselves = theyd enjoy themselves = ei/ele s-ar
distra
N || I should/would not enjoy myself = I shouldnt/wouldnt enjoy myself
= eu nu m-a distra etc.
I || should/would I enjoy myself? = eu m-a distra? = m-a distra eu?
Etc.
I N || should/would I not enjoy myself? = shouldnt/wouldnt I enjoy
myself? = eu nu m-a distra? Etc.
G. Conjugarea verbelor reexive aspectul continuu to enjoy oneself =
a se distra
A || I should/would be enjoying myself = Id be enjoying myself = eu
m-a distra you would be enjoying yourself = youd be enjoying yourself = tu
te-ai distra he would be enjoying himself = hed be enjoying himself = el s-ar
distra she would be enjoying herself = shed be enjoying herself = ea s-ar
distra we should/would be enjoying ourselves = wed be enjoying ourselves
= noi ne-am distra you would be enjoying yourselves = youd be enjoying
yourselves = voi v-ai distra they would be enjoying themselves = theyd be
enjoying themselves =ei/ele s-ar distra
N || I should/would not be enjoying myself = I shouldnt/wouldnt be
enjoying myself = eu nu m-a distra etc.
I || should/would I be enjoying myself? = eu m-a distra? = m-a distra
eu? Etc.
I N || should/would I not be enjoying myself? = shouldnt/wouldnt I be
enjoying myself? = eu nu m-a distra?
1.6.2.3.2. Condiionalul perfect (The Perfect Conditional)

ormeaz cu auxiliarele should/would (pers. I singular i plural) i


would (pers. a I-a i a I-a singular i plural) plus innitivul perfect al verbului
de conjugat i se traduce prin optativ perfect n limba romn.
A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la condiional perfect to be was
been = a
A || I should/would have been = eu a fost we should/would have
been = noi am fost you would have been = tu ai fost you would have
been = voi ai fost he/she/it would have been = el/ea ar fost they would
have been = ei/ele ar fost
N || I should/would not have been = I shouldnt/wouldnt have been =
eu nu a (n-a) fost etc.
I || should/would I have been? = eu a fost? = a fost eu? Etc.
I N || should/would I not have been? = shouldnt/wouldnt I have
been? = eu nu a (n-a) fost? = nu a (n-a) fost eu? Etc.
To have had had = a avea
A || I should/would have had = eu a avut we should/would have had
= noi am avut you would have had = tu ai avut you would have had = voi
ai avut he/she/it would have had = el/ea ar avut they would have had =
ei/ele ar avut
N || I should/would not have had = I shouldnt/wouldnt have had = eu
nu a (n-a) avut etc.
I || should/would I have had? = eu a avut? = a avut eu? Etc.
I N || should/would I not have had? = shouldnt/wouldnt I have had?
= eu nu a (n-a) avut? = nu a (n-a) avut eu? Etc.
To do did done = a face
A || I should/would have done = eu a fcut we should/would have
done = noi am fcut you would have done = tu ai fcut you would have
done = voi ai fcut he/she/it would have done = el/ea ar fcut they
would have done = ei/ele ar fcut
N || I should/would not have done = I shouldnt/wouldnt have done =
eu nu a (n-a) fcut etc.
I || should/would I have done? = eu a fcut? = a fcut eu?
I-N || should/would I not have done? = shoulndt/wouldnt I have done?
= eu n-a fcut? = nu a fcut eu?
B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la condiional perfect can could o =
to be able to
A || I should/would have been able to (go) = eu a fost n stare s
(merg) you would have been able to (go) = tu ai fost n stare s (mergi) he/
she/it would have been able to (go) = el/ea ar fost n stare s (mearg) we
should/would have been able to (go) = noi am fost n stare s (mergem)
you would have been able to (go) = voi ai fost n stare s (mergei) they
would have been able to (go) = ei/ele ar fost n stare s (mearg)
I could have gone = eu puteam s mers we could have gone = noi
puteam s mers you could have gone = tu puteai s mers you could have
gone = voi puteai s mers he/she/it could have gone = el/ea putea s
mers they could have gone = ei/ele puteau s mers

should/would not have been able to (go) = I shouldnt/wouldnt


have been able to (go) = eu nu a (n-a) fost n stare s (merg) = eu nu a
putut s (merg) etc.
I could not have gone = I couldnt have gone = eu nu puteam s
mers etc.
I || should/would I have been able to (go)? = a fost eu n stare s
(merg)? Etc.
Could I have gone? = puteam eu s mers? Etc.
I N || should/would I not have been able to (go)? = shouldnt/wouldnt
I have been able to (go)? = nu a (n-a) fost eu n stare s (merg)? = n-a
putut eu s (merg)? Etc.
Could I not have gone? = couldnt I have gone? = nu puteam eu s
mers? Etc.
May might o = to be permitted/allowed to
A || I should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = eu a avut
voie s (merg) = a putut s (merg) = mie mi-ar fost permis/ngduit s
(merg) you would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = tu ai avut voie s
(mergi) = tu ai putut s (mergi) = ie i-ar fost permis/ngduit s (mergi)
he/she/it would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea ar avut voie s
(mearg) = el/ea ar putut s (mearg) = lui i-ar fost permis/ngduit s
(mearg) we should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = noi am
avut voie s (mergem) = noi am putut s (mergem) = nou ne-ar fost
permis/ngduit s (mergem) you would have been permitted/allowed to (go)
= voi ai avut voie s (mergei) = voi ai putut s (mergei) = vou v-ar
fost permis/ngduit s (mergei) they would have been permitted/allowed to
(go) = ei/ele ar avut voie s (mearg) = ei/ele ar putut s (mearg) = lor
le-ar fost permis/ngduit s (mearg)
I might have gone = eu puteam s mers you might have gone = tu
puteai s mers he/she/it might have gone = el/ea putea s mers we
might have gone = noi puteam s mers you might have gone = voi puteai
s mers they might have gone = ei/ele puteau s mers
N || I should/would not (shouldnt) have been permited/allowed to (go)
= eu nu a avut voie s (merg) = eu nu a putut s (merg) = mie nu miar fost permis/ngduit s (merg) etc.
I might not (I mightnt) have gone = eu nu puteam s mers etc.
I || should/would I have been permitted/allowed to (go)? = eu a avut
voie s (merg)? = eu a putut s (merg)? = eu a putut (merge)? = mie
mi-ar fost permis/ngduit s (merg)? Etc.
Might I have gone? = puteam eu s mers? = eu puteam s mers?
Etc.
I N || should/would I not (shouldnt/wouldnt I) have been permitted/
allowed to (go)? = eu nu a avut voie s (merg)? = nu a (n-a) avut eu
voie s (merg)? = eu nu a (n-a) putut s (merg)? = eu nu a (n-a)
putut (merge)? = mie nu mi-ar fost permis/ngduit s (merg)? = nu mi-ar
fost mie permis/ngduit s.?

ve gone? = mightnt I have gone? = nu puteam eu s


mers? = eu nu puteam s mers?
Must o o = to have to
A || I should/would have had to (go) = eu ar trebuit s (merg) you
would have had to (go) = tu ar trebuit s (mergi) he/she/it would have had
to (go) = el/ea ar trebuit s (mearg) we should/would have had to (go) =
noi ar trebuit s (mergem) you would have had to (go) = voi ar trebuit s
(mergei) they would have had to (go) = ei/ele ar trebuit s (mearg)
N || I should/would not have had to (go) = eu nu ar trebuit s (merg)
etc.
I || should/would I have had to (go)? = eu ar trebuit s (merg)? = ar
trebuit eu s (merg)? Etc.
I N || should/would I not have had to (go)? = shouldnt/wouldnt I have
had to (go)? = eu nu ar (n-ar) trebuit s (merg)? = nu ar (n-ar) trebuit eu
s (merg)? Etc.
Shall should o
A || I should have (come) = eu se cuvenea (trebuia) s (venit) you
should have (come) = tu se cuvenea (trebuia) s (venit) he/she/it should
have (come) = el/ea se cuvenea (trebuia) s (venit) we should have (come)
= noi se cuvenea (trebuia) s (venit) you should have (come) = voi se
cuvenea (trebuia) s (venit) they should have (come) = ei/ele se cuvenea
(trebuia) s (venit)
N || I should not (shouldnt) have (come) = eu nu se cuvenea (nu
trebuia) s (venit) etc.
I || should I have (come)? = eu se cuvenea (trebuia) s (venit)? = se
cuvenea (trebuia) s (venit) eu? Etc.
I N || should I not (shouldnt I) have (come)? = eu nu se cuvenea (nu
trebuia) s (venit)? = nu trebuia (nu se cuvenea) s (venit) eu? Etc.
Will would o
A || I would have (come) = eu voiam s (venit) you would have
(come) = tu voiai s (venit) he/she/it would have (come) = el/ea voia s
(venit) we would have (come) = noi voiam s (venit) you would have
(come) = voi voiai s (venit) they would have (come) = ei/ele voiau s
(venit)
N || I would not (wouldnt) have (come) = eu nu voiam s (venit) etc.
I || would I have (come)? = voiam eu s (venit)? Etc.
I N || would I not (wouldnt I) have (come)? = eu nu voiam s
(venit)? Etc.
Ought to
A || I ought to have come = eu s-ar cuvenit s vin = eu se cuvenea s
venit you ought to have come = tu s-ar cuvenit s vii = tu se cuvenea s
venit he/she/it ought to have come = el/ea s-ar cuvenit s vin = el/ea se
cuvenea s venit we ought to have come = noi s-ar cuvenit s venim =
noi se cuvenea s venit you ought to have come = voi s-ar cuvenit s
venii = voi se cuvenea s venit they ought to have come = ei/ele s-ar
cuvenit s vin = ei/ele se cuvenea s venit

ought not (oughtnt) to have come = eu nu s-ar cuvenit s vin


= eu nu se cuvenea s venit etc.
I || ought I to have come? = eu s-ar cuvenit s vin? = eu se cuvenea
s venit? Etc.
I N || ought I not (oughtnt I) to have come? = eu nu s-ar cuvenit s
vin? = eu nu se cuvenea s venit? Etc.
Did he/she tell you why you ought to do it? = i-a spus el/ea ie de ce
trebuie (se cuvine/cade) s-o faci? = i-a spus el/ea ie de ce trebuia (se
cuvenea/cdea) s-o faci?
Did he/she tell you that you ought to have done it? = i-a spus el/ea ie
c se cuvine/cuvenea s-o fcut?
Ought your friend to have been an engineer? = Se cuvenea prietenul
tu s e inginer? = Se cuvenea prietenul tu s fost inginer?
If I were you I should/would leam more. = Dac a n locul tu a
nva mai mult.
If I had seen you I might have helped you. = Dac te-a vzut a
putut s te ajut.
Had I known him I should/would have helped him. = S-l cunoscut, la ajutat.
Even if they had been there, they couldnt have helped us. = Chiar
dac ei ar fost acolo nu ar putut s ne ajute.
C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la condiional perfect diateza activ
to read = a citi
A || I should/would have read = eu a citit we should/would have read
= noi am citit you would have read = tu ai citit you would have read = voi
ai citit he/she would have read = el/ea ar citit they would have read =
ei/ele ar citit
N || I should/would not have read = I shouldnt/wouldnt have read = eu
nu a citit = eu n-a citit etc.
I || should/would I have read? = eu a citit? = a citit eu? Etc.
I N || should/would I not have read? = shouldnt/wouldnt I have read?
= eu nu a (eu n-a) citit? = nu a (na) citit eu? Etc.
D. Conjugarea verbelor principale la condiional perfectdiateza pasiv
to be seen = a vzut
A || I should/would have been seen = eu a fost vzut () you would
have been seen = tu ai fost vzut () he/she/it would have been seen = el/
ea ar fost vzut () we should/would have been seen = noi am fost vzui/
vzute you would have been seen = voi ai fost vzui/vzute they would
have been seen = ei/ele ar fost vzui/vzute
N || I should/would not have been seen = I shouldnt/wouldnt have
been seen = eu nu a (eu n-a) fost vzut () etc.
I || should/would I have been seen? = eu a fost vzut ()? = a fost
eu vzut ()? Etc.

should/would I not have been seen? = shouldnt/wouldnt I have


been seen? = eu nu a (eu n-a) fost vzut ()? = nu a (n-a) fost eu
vzut ()? Etc.
E. Conjugarea verbelor reexive la condiional perfect to enjoy oneself
= a se distra
A || I should/would have enjoyed myself = eu m-a distrat you would
have enjoyed yourself = tu te-ai distrat he would have enjoyed himself = el
s-ar distrat she would have enjoyed herself = ea s-ar distrat we should/
would have enjoyed ourselves = noi ne-am distrat you would have enjoyed
yourselves = voi v-ai distrat they would have enjoyed themselves = ei/ele
s-ar distrat
N || I should/would not (I shouldnt/wouldnt) have enjoyed myself = eu
nu m-a distrat etc.
I || should/would I have enjoyed myself? = eu m-a distrat? = m-a
distrat eu? Etc.
I N || should/would I not have enjoyed myself? = shouldnt/wouldnt I
have enjoyed myself? = eu nu m-a distrat? = nu m-a distrat eu? Etc.
Exemple care conin verbe la subjonctiv i condiional:
I should/would come if I could come. = A veni dac a putea s vin.
We should/would come if we should/would come. = Am veni dac ar
trebui s venim.
They would come if they might come. = Ei ar veni dac le-ar permis
s vin.
I should/would have come if I had had time. = Eu a venit dac a
avut timp.
We should/would have come if we had had to come. = Noi am venit
dac ar trebuit s venim.
He would have come if it had not been so late. = El ar venit dac n-ar
fost aa trziu.
We should/would have given you the books if we have found you at
home. = V-am dat crile dac v-am gsit acas.
If he hadnt told me the truth, I shouldnt/wouldnt have given him
anything. = Dac nu mi-ar spus adevrul, nu i-a dat nimic.
He wishes he were rich. = El ar vrea s e bogat. (dar nu este)

1.6.2.4. Modul imperativ (The Imperative Mood)


Exprim un sfat, un ndemn, un ordin, o sugestie, o recomandare, o
rugminte, o dorin, o urare etc.
Come here! = Vino/Venii aici!
Wait a moment! = Ateapt/Ateptai o clip!
Speak louder! = Vorbete/Vorbii mai tare!
Rugmini, ordine, recomandri, urri sau comenzi pot adresate i
persoanelor I i I. n acest caz se apeleaz la auxiliarul let care este urmat de
un pronume sau substantiv n acuzativ i apoi de un verb la innitiv scurt
prezent.
A || let me go! = s merg/plec eu! = s m duc eu!

Go! = mergi/pleac! = du-te!


Let him go! = s mearg/plece el! = s se duc el!
Let her go! = s mearg/plece ea! = s se duc ea!
Let it go! = s mearg/plece el/ea! = s se duc el/ea!
Let us go! = lets go! = s mergem/plecm noi! = s ne ducem noi!
Go! = mergei/plecai! = ducei-v!
Let them go! = s mearg/plece ei/ele! = s se duc ei/ele!
N || do not (dont) let me go! = let me not go! = s nu merg/plec eu!
Do not (dont) go! = nu te duce! = nu pleca!
Do not (dont) let him go! = let him not go! = s nu mearg/plece el! =
el s nu se duc!
Do not (dont) let her go! = let her not go! = s nu mearg/plece ea! =
ea s nu se duc!
Do not (dont) let it go! = let it not go! = s nu mearg/plece el/ea! =
el/ea s nu se duc!
Do not (dont) let us go! = s nu plecm/mergem! = s nu ne ducem!
Do not (dont) go! = nu plecai/mergei! = (s) nu v ducei!
Do not (dont) let them go! = let them not go! = s nu plece/mearg ei/
ele! = s nu se duc!
Modul imperativ are doar timpul prezent.
Do come to see us! = Insist s vii pe la noi! Este o form accentuat de
imperativ.
Do be careful what you are doing! = Fii foarte atent ce faci!
Trust n God and He will watch over you! = Crede n Dumnezeu, iar El
va veghea asupra ta!
1.6.3. Modurile impersonale ale verbului (The Non-Finite Forms of the
Verb = The Verbals)
Modurile impersonale ale verbului sunt: innitiv, gerund i participiu.
1.6.3.1. Modul innitiv (The Innitive Mood)
Se traduce prin innitiv, conjunctiv, gerunziu, supin, iar n limba
englez substituie subjonctivul.
They asked me to do it (Mi-au cerut s-o fac), n loc de They asked me
that I (should) do it.
Innitivul exprim scopul i se traduce prin conjunctivul romnesc.
He has come to give me a book. = El a venit s-mi dea mie o carte.
We have come to school to leam. = Am venit la coal s nvm.
We go to church to pray. = Mergem la biseric s ne rugm.
They have a lot of books to read. = Ei/Ele au o mulime de cri de citit
(n acest exemplu se traduce prin supin).
To be or not to be, this is the question (Shakespeare: Hamlet). = A
sau a nu , aceasta-l ntrebarea.
n aceste ultime dou exemple innitivul din limba englez s-a tradus n
limba romn tot prin innitiv.
Exist posibilitatea de a intercala ntre particula innitival to i verb un
adverb.

tly inuence = a inuena mult to humbly thank = a mulumi


umil to again express = a exprima din nou to rightly intervene = a interveni
corect.
Aceast form se numete n limba englez The Split Innitive.
Unele verbe la innitiv pot ntlnite, ca i n limba romn, la
nceputul unor proverbe.
To go through re and water. = A trece prin foc i ap.
To be n the ninth heaven. = A n al noulea cer.
To kill two birds with one stone. = A nimeri doi iepuri dintr-o lovitur.
To go to the dogs. = A se duce de rp, a se ruina.
To hang by a hair. = A atrna de un r de pr.
Clasicarea innitivului
INFINITIV
Prezent
Scurt diateza activ aspectul comun look (privi)
Aspectul continuu be looking (privi)
Diateza pasiv aspectul comun be looked at ( privit)
Aspectul continuu be being looked at ( privit)
Lung diateza activ aspectul comun to look (a privi)
Aspectul continuu to be looking (a privi)
Diateza pasiv aspectul comun to be looked at (a privit)
Aspectul continuu to be being looked at (a privit)
Perfect
Scurt diateza activ aspectul comun have looked at ( privit)
Aspectul continuu have been looking at ( privit)
Diateza pasiv aspectul comun have been looked at ( fost privit)
Aspectul continuu have been being looked at ( fost privit)
Lung diateza activ aspectul comun to have looked at (a privit)
Aspectul continuu to have been looking at (a privit)
Diateza pasiv aspectul comun to have been looked at (a fost privit)
Aspectul continuu to have been being looked at (a fost privit)
1.6.3.1.2. Construcii innitivale
A. Acuzativ cu innitiv
I want him to come earlier. = Vreau ca el s vin mai devreme.
I want the boy to come earlier. = Vreau ca biatul s vin mai devreme.

sus pronumele him i substantivul the boy sunt n


cazul acuzativ i sunt urmate de verbul to come la modul innitiv. Aceast
structur este posibil numai dup verbe care exprim:
1. Percepii ale simurilor: to feel (a simi), to hear (a auzi), to notice (a
observa), to see (a vedea), to watch (a urmari) etc.
I saw him enter the house. = L-am vzut c intr n cas.
He heard her play the piano. = El a auzit-o cntnd la pian.
You will watch us play tennis. = Ne vei privi pe noi jucnd tenis.
2. Ordin, permisiune, intenie, obligaie etc.: to allow (a ngdui/admite,
a da voie), to command (a comanda), to compel (a obliga/fora/sili), to let (a
lsa), to make (a face), to order (a ordona/porunci), to permit (a permite), to
persuade (a convinge/determina), to request (a pretinde/cere) etc.
I permit them to play n the garden. = Le permit s se joace n grdin.
I want him to leam, not to play. = Vreau ca el s nvee, nu s se joace.
Will you allow us to visit the museum? = Ne permitei s vizitm
muzeul?
John didnt allow them to make any noise. = John nu le-a permis s fac
nici un zgomot.
He let them walk n the park. = El i-a lsat s se plimbe n parc.
Dont make us laugh! = Nu ne face/facei s rdem!
3. Dorin, plcere, antipatie etc.: to bear (a suporta/ndura/suferi), to
desire (a dori/pofti), to detest (a detesta), to hate (a ur), to like (a-l plcea),
to love (a iubi, a-l drag), to notice (a observa, a bga de seam), to
perceive (a observa, a nelege), to smell (a mirosi), to taste (a avea gust de),
to want (a vrea), to wish (a dori, a tnji dup).
Id love you to come and see us. = Mi-ar drag s vii pe la noi.
A || John wants me to go. = John vrea ca eu s merg.
John wants you to go. = John vrea ca tu s mergi.
John wants him to go. = John vrea ca el s mearg.
John wants her to go. = John vrea ca ea s mearg.
John wants us to go. = John vrea ca noi s mergem.
John wants you to go. = John vrea ca voi s mergei.
John wants them to go. = John vrea ca ei/ele/dnii/dnsele s mearg.
N || John does not (doesnt) want me to go. = John nu vrea ca eu s
merg etc.
I || Does John want me to go? = Vrea John ca eu s merg? Etc.
I N ||Does John not (Doesnt John) want me to go? = John nu vrea ca
eu s merg? Etc.
He asked them to be quiet and listen to him. = El le-a cerut s tac i
s asculte la el.
I saw him not only play the guitar but also dance. = L-am vzut nu
numai cntnd la chitar ci i dansnd.
He wanted him to do it, not me. = El a vrut ca el s-o fac, nu eu.
Do you wish them to stay or to leave? = Vrei ca ei s stea sau s plece?
He taught me to swim. = El m-a nvat s not.
They wamed me not to come late. = M-au avertizat s nu vin trziu.

cannot allow/permit her to do that. = Nu-l pot ngdui/permite ei s


fac asta.
All the neighbours thought her to be a communist. = Toi vecinii o
presupuneau/bnuiau pe ea a comunist.
I declared myself to be against war. = M-am declarat a contra/
mpotriva rzboiului.
Did you teach him to drive the car? = L-ai nvat s conduc maina?
I did not deny her to be beautiful and to sing beautifully. = N-am negat
c ea este frumoas i cnt frumos.
Do you know him to be honest? = l tii pe el a (ca ind, c este)
cinstit?
B. Acuzativ cu innitiv scurt
Dup verbe ca: to feel (a simi), to hear (a auzi), to let (a lsa), to make
(a face), to notice (a observa), to see (a vedea), to watch (a privi/viziona), se
folosete innitiv scurt cnd sunt folosite la diateza activ i innitiv lung
dac sunt la diateza pasiv.
I felt the wind blow. = Am simind vntul sund.
Did you hear him say that? = L-ai auzit spunnd-o?
Why dont you let me solve the problem by myself? = De ce nu m lai
s rezolv problema singur?
Who makes you laugh? = Cine te face s rzi?
I noticed him enter (into) the bookshop. = L-am zrit intrnd n librrie.
They saw us buy some books. = Ne-au vzut cumprnd nite cri.
You can watch us swim. = Poi s ne priveti notnd.
He was heard to say something. = El a fost auzit zicnd ceva.
Someone was heard to sing a song. = Cineva a fost auzit cntnd un
cntec.
He was allowed to do what he wanted. = A fost lsat s fac ce vrea.
C. Construcia/Structura for + pronume/substantiv n acuzativ +
innitiv
It is easy for him to understand. = Pentru el este uor de neles. = Lui
i este uor s neleag.
Este de fapt tot acuzativ cu innitiv, dar este precedat de prepoziia for.
Se folosete dup structurile impersonale there is (este, se a/
gsete), there are (sunt, se a/gsesc), here is (iat), here are (iat), it is
early (este devreme), it is easy (este uor), it is dicult (este greu), it is
important (este important), it is late (este trziu), it is necessary (este
necesar), it is right (este drept/just), it is wrong (este nedrept/nejust/greit)
etc.
Here are some books for me to read. = Iat nite cri pentru mine s
citesc.
It is too early for us to go to the station. = Este prea devreme pentru
noi s mergem la gar.
Was it too late for you to leam that language? = Era prea trziu ca tu s
nvei limba aceea?

othing for me to do there. = Nu era nimic pentru mine de


fcut acolo.
It is better for you to leave now. = Este mai bine ca tu s pleci acum. =
Este mai bine pentru tine s pleci acum.
Conjugarea structurii it is easy for me to learn
A || It is easy for me to leam. = Mie mi este uor s nv.
It is easy for you to leam. = ie i este uor s nvei.
It is easy for him to leam. = Lui i este uor s nvee.
It is easy for her to leam. = Ei i este uor s nvee.
It is easy for it to leam. = Lui/Ei i este uor s nvee.
It is easy for us to leam. = Nou ne este uor s nvm.
It is easy for you to leam. = Vou v este uor s nvai.
It is easy for them to leam. = Lor le este uor s nvee.
N || It is not (isnt) easy for me to leam. = Mie nu-mi este uor s nv.
Etc.
I || Is it easy for me to leam? = mi este mie uor s nv? Etc.
I N || Is it not (isnt it) easy for me to leam? = Nu-mi este mie uor s
nv? Etc.
It was easy for me to leam. = Mie mi-a fost uor s nv. It had been
easy for me to leam. = Mie mi fusese uor s nv.
It would be easy for me to leam. = Mie mi-ar uor s nv.
D. Nominativ cu innitiv
Este varianta pasiv a acuzativului cu innitiv i se folosete dup
aceleai grupe de verbe.
1: I want him to play the piano. = Vreau ca el s cnte la pian. Este
acuzativ cu innitiv. Iat cum se transform el n nominativ cu innitiv:
2: He is wanted to play the piano by me. = Se dorete ca el s cnte la
pian de ctre mine.
Subiectul din exemplul 1adic I devine n exemplul 2 complement de
agent (deci subiect logic).
Verbul want din exemplul 1 i schimb diateza din activ n pasiv.
Pronumele him din exemplul 1, care era la acuzativ trece n exemplul 2
la cazul nominativ i devine subiectul propoziiei.
By me = de (ctre) mine by us = de (ctre) noi by you = de (ctre) tine
by you = de (ctre) voi/dv.
By him/her/it = de (ctre) el/ea by them = de (ctre) ei/ele by whom?
= de (ctre) cine?
By whom was he wanted to play the piano? = Who (m) was he wanted
to play the piano by? = De (ctre) cine s-a dorit s cnte el la pian?
They were expected to come much earlier. = Erau ateptai s
soseasc mult mai devreme.
Dup verbele to prove (a dovedi, a se dovedi), to turn out (a se dovedi),
to happen (a se ntmpla) i to seem (a se prea) nominativul cu innitiv este
o construcie activ, nu pasiv.
She proves to be a good tennis player. = Ea se dovedete a o bun
juctoare de tenis.

Conjugarea structurii I am known to be la prezent


A ||
I am known to be. = se tie/cunoate c eu sunt. = eu sunt cunoscut a
. = eu sunt cunoscut ca ind. you are known to be. = se tie/cunoate c tu
eti. = tu eti cunoscut a . = tu eti cunoscut ca ind.
He is known to be. = se tie/cunoate c el este. = el este cunoscut a
. = el este cunoscut ca ind. she is known to be. = se tie/cunoate c ea
este. = ea este cunoscut a . = ea este cunoscut ca ind. it is known to be.
= se tie/cunoate c el/ea este. = el/ea este cunoscut () a . = el/ea este
cunoscut () ca ind. we are known to be. = se tie/cunoate c noi suntem
cunoscui ca ind. you are known to be. = se tie/cunoate c voi suntei
cunoscui ca ind. they are known to be. = se tie/cunoate c ei/ele sunt
cunoscui ca ind.
N || I am not known to be. = eu nu se tie/cunoate c sunt cunoscut ca
ind. etc.
I || am I known to be.? = eu se tie/cunoate c sunt.? = se cunoate/
tie c eu sunt.? = sunt eu cunoscut ca ind.? Etc.
I N || am I not known to be.? = eu nu se tie/cunoate c sunt.? = nu
sunt eu cu-noscut a .? = eu nu sunt cunoscut ca ind.? Etc.
I was known to be. = se tia/cunotea c eu sunt. = eu eram cunoscut
a . = eu eram cunoscut ca ind.
I had been known to be. = se tiuse/cunoscuse c eu sunt. = eu
fusesem cu-noscut a . if I were known to be. = dac s-ar ti/cunoate c eu
sunt.
If I had been known to be. = dac s-ar tiut/cunoscut c eu sunt. =
dac eu a fost cunoscut ca ind.
1.6.3.2. Modul participiu (The Participle Mood)
Diateza activ diateza pasiv prezent seeing = vznd beeing seen =
ind vzut
Speaking = vorbind
Participiu trecut seen = vzut seen = vzut
Spoken = vorbit perfect having seen = vznd having been seen =
ind vzut
Having spoken = vorbind

schema i exemplicarea de mai sus se vede c participiul are trei


timpuri, iar pentru unele verbe are forme pentru diatezele activ i pasiv.
1. Participiul prezent mpreun cu verbul to be, care se conjug,
formeaz, aa cum s-a artat, aspectul continuu al verbelor.
I am speaking. = Eu vorbesc (acum).
Participiul prezent se mai traduce n limba romn i prin modul
gerunziu.
We watched them playing football. = I-am privit jucnd fotbal.
The boy running is John = The boy, who is running, is John. = Biatul,
care alearg, este John.
We came to know each other playing tennis. = Am ajuns s ne
cunoatem jucnd tenis.
Participiul prezent este un adjectiv verbal.
A singing bird = o pasre cnttoare the coming days = zilele care vin
the rising generation = generaia care se ridic n the coming years = n anii
care vin running water = ap curgtoare the winning horse = calul ctigtor
the rising/setting sun = soarele care rsare/apune to keep somebody waiting
= a face pe cineva s atepte
I did not keep him waiting. = Nu l-am fcut s atepte.
To nd somebody doing something = a gsi pe cineva fcnd ceva
I found her writing a letter. = Am gsit-o scriind o scrisoare.
To leave somebody doing something = a lsa pe cineva fcnd ceva
I left them playing n the garden. = I-am lsat jucndu-se n grdin.
I felt the earth shaking. = Am simit pmntul cltinndu-se.
To see somebody doing something = a vedea pe cineva fcnd ceva
She is watching her baby sleeping. = Ea i supravegheaz copilul care
doarme.
Did you catch him stealing anything? = L-ai prins furnd ceva?
Keep on singing! = Cntai mai departe!
I can feel the wind blowing. = Pot simi vntul sund.
I like to listen to the birds singing. = mi place s ascult la psri
cntnd.
We left her leaming her lessons. = Am lsat-o nvndu-i leciile.
He wrote the exercise while singing a song. = A scris exerciiul cntnd
un cntec.
I noticed him smiling happily at them. = L-am zrit/observat zmbind
fericit ctre ei.
Did you see us swimming n the lake? = Ne-ai/ne-ai vzut (pe noi)
notnd n lac?
Searching n the library I came across an interesting book. = Cutnd
prin bibliotec, am dat peste o carte interesant.
We were watching the setting sun and the waves receding from the
shore. = Priveam soarele care apunea i valurile ce se retrgeau de la rm.
A man leaming to swim should be very cautious. = Un om care nva
s noate ar trebui s e foarte precaut.

ticipiul trecut (The Past Participle) este a I-a form de baz a


verbelor, form care intr n alctuirea timpurilor The Present Perfect i The
Past Perfect.
3. Participiul perfect (The Perfect Participle)
Having given him the book, I went home. = Dup ce i-am dat (lui)
cartea, (eu) am plecat acas.
Structura aceasta const din participiul prezent al verbului to have
urmat de un verb la participiul trecut.
Having been read the book was retumed to the library. = After the book
had been read it was retumed to the library. = Dup ce a fost citit cartea a
fost napoiat la bibliotec.
1.6.3.2.1. Construcii participiale
A. Acuzativ cu participiu
Everybody admired him driving his car. = Toat lumea l-a admirat
conducn-du-i maina.
Nobody heard her playing the piano or singing any song. = Nimeni n-a
auzit-o cntnd la pian sau cntnd vreun cntec.
I did not hear the bell ringing. = N-am auzit clopoelul (soneria) sunnd.
B. Nominativ cu participiu
Were you heard singing a song? = Ai fost (tu) auzit cntnd un cntec?
Was the bell heard ringing? = A fost clopoelul (soneria) auzit ()
sunnd?
C. Nominativul absolut
The door being locked, we went to bed. = Ua ind ncuiat, ne-am dus
la culcare.
We may go swimming while the sun is shining. = Putem merge s
notm n timp ce soarele strlucete.
D. Participiul absolut
Judging by appearances is not the best method. = A judeca dup
aparene nu este cea mai bun metod.
Exemple cu structuri care conin verbe la participiul trecut:
We saw a deserted village. = Am vzut un sat prsit
He found the window shut. = El a gsit fereastra nchis.
Can you make your presence felt? = i poi face prezena simit?
You should make yourself respected. = Ar trebui s te faci respectat.
She felt herself admired. = S-a simit admirat.
You must have your hair cut. = Trebuie s-i scurtezi/tunzi prul.
1.6.3.3. Modul gerunziu (The Gerund Mood)
Este un substantiv verbal i seamn ca form cu participiul.
His coming was expected. = Venirea lui era ateptat.
Seeing is believing. = Faptul de a vedea (vzutul) nseamn a crede.
Diateza activ diateza pasiv
Gerund prezent seeing = vznd being seen = ind vzut perfect
having seen = dup ce a vzut having been seen = dup ce a fost vzut
Acest substantiv verbal apare de obicei dup verbe cu prepoziii ca:
To accuse of = a acuza de

ccused of being late. = A fost acuzat de ntrziere.


We accuse him of having committed a crime. = l acuzm pentru
comiterea unei crime.
To be afraid of = a se teme de
They were afraid of coming across a tiger. = Se temeau s nu dea
peste un tigru.
To be astonished at = a uimit/uluit de
Were you astonished at seeing the shark? = Erai uimii la vederea
rechinului?
To be aware of = a-i da seama de, a contient de
We were aware of Johns being cleverer than Nick. = Eram contieni de
faptul c John era mai detept dect Nick.
To be fond of = a amator de
He is fond of swimming and shing. = Este amator de not i pescuit.
To be good at = a bun/priceput la
Tom is good at driving cars. = Tom este bun/priceput la conducerea
mainilor.
To be impressed by = a impresionat de
Everybody was impressed by his scoring the goal. = Toi erau
impresionai de nscrierea golului de ctre el.
To be interested n = a-l interesa
He is interested n leaming English. = l intereseaz nvarea limbii
engleze.
To be proud of = a mndru de
Are you proud of your sons winning the prize? = Eti mndru de
ctigarea premiului de ctre ul tu?
To be satised with = a mulumit de
We are satised with winning the prize. = Suntem mulumii de
ctigarea premiului.
To appologize for = a-i cere iertarea pentru
You must appologize to him for not replying to his letter. = Trebuie s-i
ceri iertarea de la el pentru a nu-l rspuns la scrisoare.
To begin by = a ncepe prin a
I ought to begin by thanking you for. = Se cuvine s ncep prin a-i
mulumi pentru. to complain of = a se plnge de
We are complaining of having such bad weather. = Ne plngem (de
faptul) c avem o vreme aa de proast.
To contribute to = a contribui la
He contributed to our winning the prize. = El a contribuit la ctigarea
premiului de ctre noi.
To be crazy about = a nebun/mort/topit dup
John is crazy about shing. = John este nebun dup pescuit.
To count (up) on = to rely on = a se baza/bizui pe = a conta pe
You can count/rely on our helping you. = Poi s te bazezi/bizuieti pe
faptul c noi te ajutm.
To depend on/upon = a depinde de

oes everything depend on his winning a scholarship? = Depinde totul


de ctigarea unei burse de ctre el?
To forgive for = a ierta pentru
We forgive you for your being late. =Te iertm pentru ntrzierea ta.
To insist on = a insista asupra
Need you insist on her writing her homework? = Este nevoie s insiti
asupra scrierii temei sale de ctre ea?
To long for = a tnji dup
We are longing for a short holiday. = Tnjim dup o scurt vacan.
To prevent from = a mpiedica/preveni s
You must prevent your son from making mistakes. = Trebuie s-l previi
pe ul tu s nu fac greeli.
To refer to = a se referi la
Did he refer to his coming to see us? = S-a referit el la venirea lui pe la
noi?
To resort to = a recurge la
He mustnt resort to stealing however poor he were. = El nu trebuie s
recurg la furat orict de srac ar .
To be sated with = a stul/dezgustat de
We arent sated with shing and swimming, are we? = Noi nu suntem
plictisii/stui de pescuit i not, nu-l aa?
To see to = a avea grij de, a se ocupa de
See to making some tea, will you? = Vezi/ocup-te s faci nite ceai, te
rog.
To succeed n = a reui s
He succeeded n leaming the poem by heart. = El a reuit s nvee
poezia pe de rost.
To thank for = a mulumi pentru
Thank you for comming. = Mulumesc c ai venit.
To think of = a se gndi la
We are thinking of going on a trip. = Ne gndim s mergem ntr-o
excursie.
1.6.3.3.1. Gerund prezent (The Present Gerund)
Gerund prezent (sau indenit) este, cum s-a putut observa i n
exemplele de mai sus, precedat:
A) e de adjective posesive, ca n structurile:
My coming = venirea mea my being late = ntrzierea mea etc.
B) e de unele substantive cu prepoziii:
He is known for his art of writing. = El este cunoscut pentru arta lui de
a scrie.
Let me tell you about their surprise at seeing us! = S-i povestesc
despre surpriza lor la vederea noastr.
I know his interest n leaming. = i cunosc interesul pentru nvtur.
I like the idea of building a house here. = mi place ideea de a construi
o cas aici.

te astfel de substantive cu prepoziii dup care se poate folosi


gerund-ul sunt:
The art of (living) = arta de a (tri) astonishment at = uimire fa de
condence n = ncredere n dependence on = dependen fa de
disappoiniment at = dezamgire la experience n = experien n fear of =
team de idea of = idee de a interest n = interes fa de risk of = riscul de a
mode of (living) = modul de a (tri) surprise at = surpriz la
Gerund-ul prezent se traduce e prin gerunziu, e printr-un substantiv,
e prin innitiv sau conjunctiv.
I prefer watching football matches. = Eu prefer vizionarea meciurilor de
fotbal.
He went on smoking and drinking coee. = El a continuat s fumeze i
s bea cafea.
Please excuse my saying so. = Te rog s m scuzi c zic/spun aa.
Do you mind opening the window? = Te/V deranjeaz dac deschid
fereastra?
Did you mind my opening the window? = Te-a/V-a deranjat c am
deschis fereastra?
Do you enjoy dancing? = i place mult s dansezi?
Willing and wishing are two dierent things, arent they? = A vrea/voi i
a dori sunt dou lucruri diferite, nu-l aa?
Any work needs correcting. = Oricare lucrare are nevoie s e
corectat.
I like swimming not mountain climbing. = mi place notul nu alpinismul.
Some women hate shing. = Unele femei detest pescuitul.
1.6.3.3.2. Gerund perfect (The Perfect Gerund)
He does not remember having said such a thing. = El nu-i amintete
s spus/zis aa ceva.
Do you remember having invited them there? = i aminteti s-l
invitat pe ei acolo?
Iat n continuare o list de verbe dup care se folosete gerund-ul:
To admit = a admite, to allow/permit = a ngdui/permite, to anticipate
= a anticipa, to attempt = a ncerca, to advice = a sftui, to avoid = a evita,
cant bear = a nu putea suferi, to consider = a considera, to continue = a
continua, to deny = a nega, to enjoy = a savura, to excuse = a scuza, to
nish = a termina, to forgive = a ierta, to hate = a ur, to imagine = a
imagina, to intend = a inteniona, to like = a-l plcea, to love = a iubi, a-l
drag, to mean = a nsemna; a vrea s spun, to mind = a supra, to miss =
a pierde; a-l dor de, to postpone = a amna, to prefer = a prefera, to
propose = a propune, to regret = a regreta, to remember = a-i aminti, to
risk =a risca, to start = a porni, to stop = a opri, to suggest = a sugera, to try
= a ncerca, used to = obinuia s.
Tot gerund se mai folosete dup expresii ca:
Its no use = its no good = n-are rost/sens s
Its no use going now. = N-are rost s mergem acum.

Cant stand = a nu suferi/nghii/suporta


I cant stand wasting time. = Nu pot suferi irosirea timpului.
Cant help = a nu putea s nu, a nu avea ncotro
I cant help laughing when I see you making faces. = Nu pot s nu rd
cnd te vd strmbndu-te.
1.6.4. Conjugarea expresiilor there is, there are there is = este, se a,
exist, se gsete.
There are = sunt, se a, exist, se gsesc.
Timpul prezent (The Present Tense)
A || There is a book on the table. = Este (Se a/gsete) o carte pe
mas.
There are two books on the table. = Sunt (Se a/gsesc) dou cri pe
mas.
N || There is not (there isnt) a book on the table. = Nu este (Nu se a)
o carte pe mas.
There are not (there arent) two books on the table. = Nu sunt (nu se
a) dou cri pe mas.
I || Is there a book on the table? = Este (se a) o carte pe mas?
Are there two books on the table? = Sunt (se a) dou cri pe mas?
I N || Is there not (isnt there) a book on the table? = Nu este (nu se
a) o carte pe mas?
Are there not (arent there) two books on the table? =Nu sunt (nu se
a) dou cri pe mas?
Timpul prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Present Perfect)
A || There has been a book on the table. = Este o carte pe mas.
There have been two books on the table. = Sunt dou cri pe mas.
N || There has not (hasnt) been a book on the table. = Nu este (nu se
a) o carte pe mas.
There have not (havent) been two books on the table. = Nu sunt (nu se
a) dou cri pe mas.
I || Has there been a book on the table? = Este (se a) o carte pe
mas?
Have there been two books on the table? = Sunt (se a) dou cri pe
mas?
I N || Has there not (hasnt there) been a book on the table? = Nu este
(nu se a) o carte pe mas?
Have there not (havent there) been two books on the table? = Nu sunt
(nu se a) dou cri pe mas?
Timpul imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Past Tense)
A || There was a book on the table. = A fost (s-a aat) o carte pe mas.
There were two books on the table. = Au fost (s-au aat) dou cri pe
mas. Erau dou cri pe mas.
N || There was not (there wasnt) a book on the table. = Nu a fost (nu
s-a aat) o carte pe mas.
There were not (there werent) two books on the table. = Nu au fost (nu
s-au aat) dou cri pe mas.

there a book on the table? = A fost (s-a aat) o carte pe mas?


Were there two books on the table? = Au fost (s-au aat) dou cri pe
mas?
I N || Was there not (wasnt there) a book on the table? = Nu a (n-a)
fost (nu s-a aat) o carte pe mas?
Were there not (werent there) two books on the table? = Nu au (n-au)
fost (nu s-au aat) dou cri pe mas?
Timpul mai mult ca perfect (The Past Perfect)
A || There had been a book on the table. = Fusese (se aase) o carte pe
mas.
There had been two books on the table. = Fuseser (se aaser) dou
cri pe mas.
N || There had not (there hadnt) been a book on the table. = Nu fusese
(nu se aase) o carte pe mas.
There had not (there hadnt) been two books on the table. = Nu
fuseser (nu se aaser) dou cri pe mas.
I || Had there been a book on the table? = Fusese (se aase) o carte pe
mas?
Had there been two books on the table? = Fuseser (se aaser) dou
cri pe mas?
I N || Had there not (hadnt there) been a book on the table? = Nu
fusese (nu se aase) o carte pe mas?
Had there not (hadnt there) been two books on the table? = Nu
fuseser (nu se aaser) dou cri pe mas?
Timpul viitor simplu (The Simple Future)
A || There will (therell) be a book on the table. = Va (o s e) o carte
pe mas = Se va aa o carte pe mas.
There will (therell) be two books on the table. = Vor (o s e) dou
cri pe mas = Se vor aa dou cri pe mas.
N || There will not be (there wont be) a book on the table. = Nu va
(n-o s e) o carte pe mas. = Nu se va aa (n-o s se ae) o carte pe mas.
There will not be (there wont be) two books on the table. = Nu vor
(n-o s e) dou cri pe mas. = Nu se vor aa (n-o s se ae) dou cri pe
mas.
I || Will there be a book on the table? = Va (o s e) o carte pe mas?
= Se va aa (o s se ae) o carte pe mas?
Will there be two books on the table? = Vor (o s e) dou cri pe
mas? = Se vor aa dou cri pe mas?
I N || Will there not (wont there) be a book on the table? = Nu va o
carte pe mas? = Nu se va aa o carte pe mas?
Will there not (wont there) be two books on the table? = Nu vor (n-o
s e) dou cri pe mas? = Nu se vor aa (n-o s se ae) dou cri pe
mas?
Timpul viitor anterior (The Future Perfect)
A || There will (therell) have been a book on the table. = Va fost o
carte pe mas. = Se va aat o carte pe mas.

ooks on the table. = Vor fost dou

cri pe mas.
N || There will not (there wont) have been a book on the table. = Nu va
fost o carte pe mas. = Nu se va aat o carte pe
There will not (there wont) have been two books on the table. = Nu vor
fost dou cri pe mas.
I || Will there have been a book on the table? = Va fost (se va aat)
o carte pe mas?
Will there have been two books on the table? =Vor fost (se vor
aat) dou cri pe mas?
I N || Will there not (wont there) have been a book on the table? = Nu
va fost (nu se va aat) o carte pe mas?
Will there not (wont there) have been two books on the table? = Nu
vor fost (nu se vor aat) dou cri pe mas?
Timpul viitor n trecut (The Future n the Past)
A || There would be a book on the table. = Va (se va aa) o carte pe
mas.
There would not (wouldnt) be a book on the table. = Nu va (nu se va
aa) o carte pe mas.
There would not (wouldnt) be two books on the table. = Nu vor (nu
se vor aa) dou cri pe mas.
Timpul viitor apropiat/inteniei (The Near Future)
A || There is going to be a book on the table. = Va (o s e) o carte pe
mas.
There are going to be two books on the table. = Vor (o s e) dou
cri pe mas.
N || There is not going to be a book on the table. = Nu va (n-o s e)
o carte pe mas.
There are not going to be two books on the table. = Nu vor (n-o s
e) dou cri pe mas.
I || Is there going to be a book on the table? = Va (o s e) o carte pe
mas?
Are there going to be two books on the table? = Vor (o s e) dou
cri pe mas?
I N || Is there not (isnt there) going to be a book on the table? = Nu
va (n-o s e) o carte pe mas?
Are there not (arent there) going to be two books on the table? = Nu
vor (n-o s e) dou cri pe mas?
Expresiile there is i there are combinate cu verbele modale la Present
Tense
Cu verbul can-could = a putea/ti, a posibil
A || There can be a book on the table. = Poate (se poate aa) o carte
pe mas.
There can be two books on the table. = Pot (se pot aa) dou cri pe
mas.

cannot (there cant) be a book on the table. = Nu poate (nu


se poate aa) o carte pe mas.
There cannot (there cant) be two books on the table. = Nu pot (nu se
pot aa) dou cri pe mas.
I || Can there be a book on the table? = Poate (se poate aa) o carte
pe mas?
Can there be two books on the table? = Pot (se pot aa) dou cri pe
mas?
I N || Can there not (cant there) be a book on the table? = Nu poate
(nu se poate aa) o carte pe mas?
Can there not (cant there) be two books on the table? = Nu pot (nu
se pot aa) dou cri pe mas?
Cu verbul may might = a putea, a voie/permis
A || There may be a book on the table. = Poate (este voie s e) o
carte pe mas.
There may be two books on the table. = Pot (este voie s e) dou
cri pe mas.
N || There may not (there maynt) be a book on the table. = Nu poate
(nu este voie s e) o carte pe mas.
There may not be two books on the table. = Nu pot (nu este voie s
e) dou cri pe mas.
I || May there be a book on the table? = Poate (este voie s e) o
carte pe mas?
May there be two books on the table? = Pot (este voie s e) dou
cri pe mas?
I N || May there not be a book on the table? = Nu poate (nu este
voie s e) o carte pe mas?
May there not be two books on the table? = Nu pot (nu este voie s
e) dou cri pe mas?
Cu verbul must = to have to = trebuie s = a trebui s
A || There must be a book on the table. = Trebuie s e o carte pe
mas.
There must be two books on the table. = Trebuie s e dou cri pe
mas.
N || There must not (there mustnt) be a book on the table. = Nu
trebuie s e (nu trebuie s se ae) o carte pe mas.
There must not (there mustnt) be two books on the table. = Nu trebuie
s e dou cri pe mas.
I || Must there be a book on the table? = Trebuie s e (trebuie s se
ae) o carte pe mas?
Must there be two books on the table? = Trebuie s e dou cri pe
mas?
I N || Must there not (musnt there) be a book on the table? = Nu
trebuie s e (nu trebuie s se ae) o carte pe mas?
Must there not (musnt there) be two books on the table? = Nu trebuie
s e dou cri pe mas?

xpresiile there is i there are combinate cu verbele modale la Past


Tense
A || There could be a book on the table. = Putea o carte pe mas. =
Putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas.
There could be two books on the table. = Puteau dou cri pe mas.
= Puteau s se ae dou cri pe mas.
N || There could not (there couldnt) be a book on the table. = Nu putea
o carte pe mas. = Nu putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas.
There could not (there couldnt) be two books on the table. = Nu
puteau dou cri pe mas. = Nu puteau s se ae dou cri pe mas.
I || Could there be a book on the table? = Putea o carte pe mas? =
Putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas?
Could there be two books on the table? = Puteau dou cri pe mas?
= Puteau s se ae dou cri pe mas?
I N || Could there not (couldnt there) be a book on the table? = Nu
putea o carte pe mas? = Nu putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas?
Could there not (couldnt there) be two books on the table? = Nu
puteau dou cri pe mas? = Nu puteau s se ae dou cri pe mas?
A || There might be a book on the table. = Putea (era voie s e) o
carte pe mas.
There might be two books on the table. = Puteau (era voie/permis s
e) dou cri pe mas.
N || There might not (there mighnt) be a book on the table. = Nu putea
(nu era voie s e) o carte pe mas.
There might not (there mightnt) be two books on the table. = Nu
puteau (nu era voie s e) dou cri pe mas.
I || Might there be a book on the table? = Putea (era voie s e) o
carte pe mas?
Might there be two books on the table? = Puteau (era voie s e)
dou cri pe mas?
I N || Might there not (mighnt there) be a book on the table? = Nu
putea (nu era voie s e) o carte pe mas?
Might there not be two books on the table? = Nu puteau (nu era voie
s e) dou cri pe mas?
A || There had to be a book on the table. = Trebuia s e (trebuia s se
ae) o carte pe mas.
There had to be two books on the table. = Trebuia s e dou cri pe
mas.
Expresiile there is i there are combinate cu verbele modale la Future
Tense
A || There will possibly be a book on the table. = Va putea o carte pe
mas.
There will possibly be two books on the table. = Vor putea dou cri
pe mas.
N || There will not (there wont) possibly be a book on the table. = Nu
va putea o carte pe mas.

ot (there wont) possibly be two books on the table. = Nu


vor putea dou cri pe mas.
I || Will there possibly be a book on the table? = Va putea o carte pe
mas?
Will there possibly be two books on the table? = Vor putea dou cri
pe mas?
I N || Will there not (wont there) possibly be a book on the table? =
Nu va putea (s se ae) o carte pe mas?
Will there not (wont there) possibly be two books on the table? = Nu
vor putea (s se ae) dou cri pe mas?
Expresiile there is i there are combinate cu verbele modale la Future n
the Past
A || There could be a book on the table. = Va putea o carte pe mas.
There could be two books on the table. = Vor putea dou cri pe
mas.
N || There could not be (there couldnt be) a book on the table. = Nu va
putea o carte pe mas.
There could not be (there couldnt be) two books on the table. = Nu vor
putea dou cri pe mas.
Exemplu: He told me that there could be a book on the table. = El mi-a
spus c va putea o carte pe mas.
A || There might be a book on the table. = Va putea o carte pe mas.
There might be two books on the table. = Vor putea dou cri pe
mas.
N || There might not (there mightnt) be a book on the table. = Nu va
putea o carte pe mas. = Nu va permis s e o carte pe mas.
There might not (there mightnt) be two books on the table. = Nu vor
putea dou cri pe mas. = Nu va permis s e dou cri pe mas.
A || There had to be a book on the table. = Va trebui s e o carte pe
mas.
There had to be two books on the table. = Va trebui s e dou cri pe
mas.
N || There had not (there hadnt) to be a book on the table. = Nu va
trebui s e o carte pe mas.
There had not (there hadnt) to be two books on the table. = Nu va
trebui s e dou cri pe mas.
I-N || I didnt nd out whether there might be a book on the table. = Nam aat dac va putea o carte pe mas.
I didnt nd out whether there would be a book on the table. = Nu am
aat dac va o carte pe mas.
Expresiile there is i there are la Condiionalul prezent
A || There would be a book on the table. = Ar (s-ar aa) o carte pe
mas.
There would be two books on the table. = Ar (s-ar aa) dou cri pe
mas.

ould not be a book on the table. = Nu ar o carte pe mas.


= Nu s-ar aa o carte pe mas.
There would not be two books on the table. = Nu ar dou cri pe
mas. = Nu s-ar aa dou cri pe mas.
I || Would there be a book on the table? = Ar o carte pe mas?
Would there be two books on the table? = Ar dou cri pe mas?
I N || Would there not be a book on the table? = Nu ar o carte pe
mas? = Nu s-ar aa o carte pe mas?
Expresiile there is i there are la Condiionalul perfect
A || There would have been a book on the table. = Ar fost o carte pe
mas.
There would have been two books on the table. = Ar fost dou cri
pe mas.
N || There would not have been a book on the table. = Nu ar fost o
carte pe mas. = Nu s-ar aat o carte pe mas.
There would not have been two books on the table. = Nu ar fost dou
cri pe mas.
I || Would there have been a book on the table? = Ar fost o carte pe
mas? = S-ar aat o carte pe mas?
Would there have been two books on the table? = Ar fost dou cri
pe mas? = S-ar aat dou cri pe mas?
I N || Would there not have been a book on the table? = Nu ar fost
o carte pe mas? = Nu s-ar aat o carte pe mas?
Would there not have been two books on the table? = Nu ar fost dou
cri pe mas?
Expresiile there is i there are la Subjunctive I
A || If there were a book on the table. = Dac ar o carte pe mas. =
Dac s-ar aa o carte pe mas
If there were two books on the table. = Dac ar dou cri pe mas.
= Dac s-ar aa dou cri pe mas.
N || If there were not a book on the table. = Dac nu ar o carte pe
mas. = Dac nu s-ar aa o carte pe mas.
If there were not two books on the table. = Dac nu ar dou cri pe
mas. = Dac nu s-ar aa dou cri pe mas.
Expresiile there is i there are la Subjunctive I
A || If there had been a book on the table. = Dac ar fost o carte pe
mas. = Dac s-ar aat o carte pe mas.
If there had been two books on the table. = Dac ar fost dou cri pe
mas = Dac s-ar aat dou cri pe mas.
N || If there had not been a book on the table. = Dac n-ar fost o
carte pe mas. = Dac nu s-ar aat o carte pe mas.
If there had not been two books on the table. = Dac n-ar fost dou
cri pe mas. = Dac nu s-ar aat dou cri pe
Alte exemple cu there is i there are:
We should not want there to be new wars. = Nu am vrea s e noi
rzboaie.

you want there to be another festival? = Vrei s e un alt festival?


There can be no doubt about it. = Nu poate nici o ndoial n aceast
privin.
He doesnt want there to be any misunderstanding. = El nu vrea s e
nici o nenelegere.
1.6.5. Schema recapitulativ a verbului
Formele de baz ale verbului sunt:
I
I
I
IV
Present Innitive
Past Tense
Past Participle
Present Participle/Gerund to see saw seen seeing
MODUL INDICATIV (THE INDICATIVE MOD)
1) The Present Simple (prezent) = subiect + I (fr particula to)
I see. = Eu vd.
2) The Present Perfect (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus) =
subiect + have + I
I have seen. = Am vzut.
3) The Past Tense (imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus) = subiect
+I
I saw. = Am vzut/vedeam/vzui.
4) The Past Perfect Tense (mai mult ca perfect, perfect compus) =
subiect + had + I
I had seen. = Vzusem.
5) The Future Tense (viitor) = subiect + shall/will + I
I shall/will see. = Voi vedea; Ill see. = O s vd.
6) The Future n the Past (viitor) = subiect + should/would + I
I should/would see = Voi vedea.
7) The Future Perfect (viitor anterior) = subiect + shall/will + have + I
I shall/will have seen (something). = Voi vzut (ceva).
8) Near Future (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus, imperfect, mai
mult ca perfect) = subiect + to be going to + I
I am going to see. = Am de gnd s vd. = Voi vedea. (deci viitor)
I was going to see. = Aveam de gnd s vd.
I had been going to see. = Avusesem de gnd s vd.
MODUL CONDIIONAL (THE CONDITIONAL MOD)
1) Present Conditional (Optativ prezent) = subiect + should/would + I
I should/would come. = Eu a veni.
2) The Perfect Conditional (optativ trecut) = subiect + should/would +
have + I
I should/would have seen. = A vzut.
MODUL SUBJONCTIV (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOD)
1) The Subjunctive I (condiional optativ prezent) = if + subiect + I

saw. = Dac a vedea. Etc.


2) The Subjunctive I (condiional optativ trecut) = if + subiect + had + I
If I had had time. = Dac a avut timp. etc.
DIATEZA PASIV
The Passive Voice (diateza pasiv) = if + to be + I
I am seen. = Sunt vzut.
ASPECTUL CONTINU
The Continuous/Denite Progressive Aspect (aspectul continuu) =
subiect + to be + IV
I am speaking. = Vorbesc (acum).
1.6.6. TIMPUL i TIMPUL GRAMATICAL (TIME aND TENSE)
Se tie c timpul trece i este ireversibil. El se scurge/trece dinspre
viitor spre trecut, aa cum se vede n schema de mai jos:
Viitorul devine prezent, iar prezentul devine trecut.
Aciunile prezente ale verbelor coincid n principal cu momentul vorbirii;
aciunile trecute sunt anterioare prezentului, iar cele viitoare sunt posterioare
prezentului.
ADVERBUL (THE ADVERB)
Adverbul (lat: ad = lng, verbum = verb = cuvnt) determin un verb,
un alt adverb sau un adjectiv.
1.7.1. Clasicare
1.7.1.1. Adverbe de mod (Adverbs of Manner)
Adverbele de mod rspund la ntrebarea how? = cum?
Upside-down = cu faa n jos, somehow = cumva, willingly = bucuros,
uently = uent/curgtor, by chance = din ntmplare, accidentally =
accidental, beautifully = frumos, deliberately = deliberat, completely =
complet, extremely = extrem, fast = iute, hardly = greu/abia, how = ct/cum,
little = puin, much = mult, rather = cam, scarcely = abia, very = foarte, well
= bine, badly = ru, unawares = deodat/pe neateptate, quickly = repede,
fast = iute, slowly = lent/rar/ncet, aloud = tare/cu voce tare
1.7.1.2. Adverbe de timp (Advervbs of Time)
Adverbele de timp rspund la ntrebarea when? = cnd?
Afterwards = dup aceea, daily = zilnic, early = devreme, formerly =
odinioar, immediately = imediat, meanwhile = ntre timp, never = niciodat,
now = acum, presently = imediat, yearly = anual, recently = recent,
sometimes = uneori, soon = curnd, yesterday = ieri, often = adesea, late =
trziu, then = atunci, always = totdeauna, last month = luna trecut, before
= nainte, after = dup, today = azi/astzi, just = tocmai/abia, at present = n
prezent, at last = n cele din urm/n ne, by now = pn acum, already =
deja, still = nc, once = odinioar/cndva, when = cnd, just now = chiar
acum, so far = pn aici/acum, sooner or later = mai curnd sau mai trziu
etc.
1.7.1.3. Adverbe de loc (Adverbs of Place)
Adverbele de loc rspund la ntrebarea where? = unde?
Behind = n spate, far = departe, here = aici, near = aproape, there =
acolo, inside = n interior, upstairs = la etaj, along = de-a lungul, up and

own = n sus i n jos, here and there = ici i colo, abroad = n strintate,
under = dedesubt, somewhere = undeva, nowhere = nicieri, niciunde,
anywhere = oriunde, everywhere = pretutindeni, southwards = ctre sud,
homeward = spre/ctre cas, where = unde etc.
1.7.1.4. Adverbe de cauz (Adverbs of Cause/Reason)
Adverbele de cauz rspund la ntrebarea why? = de ce?
That is why = iat de ce, therefore = pentru acest motiv, de aceea, for
the reason that = pentru motivul c etc.
1.7.1.5. Adverbe de scop (Adverbs of Purpose)
Adverbele de scop rspund la ntrebarea for what purpose? = cu ce
scop?
For this purpose = cu acest scop, for the mere purpose of = pentru
simplul motiv de a, etc.
1.7.1.6. Adverbe de cantitate/grad (Adverbs of Quantity)
Adverbele de cantitate/grad rspund la ntrebrile how much? = ct?
How little? = ct de puin? Etc.
Almost = aproape/aproximativ, enormously = enorm, entirely = n
ntregime, little = puin, much = mult, quite = chiar/total, really = ntradevr/cu adevrat, so = astfel/aa, suciently = sucient, enough = destul/
sucient, too = prea/sucient, very = foarte etc.
Alte adverbe:
Especially = mai ales, n special at most = cel mult precisely = precis
exactly = exact at latest = cel mai trziu also = de asemenea even = chiar at
earliest = cel mai devreme at least = cel puin only = numai, doar however
= totui, cu toate acestea consequently = ca urmare surely = sigur of course
= desigur at any rate = n orice caz at worst = n cel mai ru caz
Reversibilitatea prilor de vorbire Familii de cuvinte verb substantiv
adjectiv adverb to amuse = a amuza amusement = amuzare amusing =
amuzant, care amuz amusingly = amuzant
Amuser = care amuz, nveselete amusive = hazliu
Amusingness = amuzare
To attract = a atrage attraction = atracie attractable = care se poate
atrage attractingly = atrgtor attractive = atrgtor attractively = n mod
atrgtor
Attractibility = atracie
To brighten = brightness = strlucire, agerime brightly = luminos
brightly = strlucitor, a lumina, a nviora
Brightened = nviorat, luminat brilliance = strlucire brilliant =
eminent, splendid, strlucitor brilliantly = splendid, eminent brilliantness =
splendoare
To care = a-l plcea, care = grij careful = atent, grijuliu carefully = cu
atenie a dori; a-l psa carefulness = atenie careless = neglijent carelessly
= neglijent carelessness = nepsare, neglijen
To change = a schimba changeableness = nestatornicie changeable =
schimbtor changeably = schimbtor

Changeless = neschimbat
Changed = schimbat to cloud = a innora cloudiness = nnourare cloudy
= noros cloudily = nebulos
Cloudless = fr nori, senin cloudlessly = clar
Cloudlessness = senintate clouded = noros
To compare = a compara compare/comparison = comparaie
comparative = comparativ comparably = comparativ
Verb substantiv adjectiv adverb
Comparative = comparativ (grad) comparable = comparabil
comparatively = comparativ
Comparation = comparaie compared = comparat
Comparability = comparabilitate
To continue = a continua continuity = continuitate continuous =
continuu continuously = continuu
Continued = continuat
To deepen = a adnci, deepness = adncime, profunzime deep =
adnc deeply = profund, adnc
Deepened = adncit, cufundat
To disagree = a displace disagreement = antipatic, neplcut
disagreeably = neplcut
Disagreeableness = aspect neplcut
To hope = a spera hope = speran hopeful = plin de speran;
promitor hopefully = promitor
Hopefulness = speran, ncredere
Hopelessness = disperare hopeless = disperat hopelessly = fr
speran, to live = a tri, a vieui liveliness = vioiciune, animaie livable = cu
care se poate tri lively = vioi
Life = via livelong = trainic
To open = a deschide openness = deschidere, sinceritate open =
deschis openly = deschis
Opener = deschiztor
To pain = a durea pain = durere painful = dureros painfully = dureros
Painfulness = durere
To taste = a gusta taste = gust tasty = gustos tastily = gustos
Tastefulness = bun gust tasteful = gustos tastefully = cu gust
Tastelessness = lips de gust tasteless = fr gust tastelessly = fr
gust to tidy = a ordona tidiness = ordine tidy = curat, ngrijit tidily = ordonat
to use = a folosi use = uz, folosin used = folosit, ntrebuinat
Usage = ntrebuinare
Usefulness = utilitate useful = util usefully = util
Uselessness = inutilitate
Uselessly = inutil
Comparaia adverbelor
1.7.3.1. Comparaia neregulat a adverbelor

Comparaia neregulat a adverbelor este explicat la capitolul


comparaia adjectivelor pozitiv comparativ de superioritate superlativ relativ
well bine better mai bine the best cel mai bine badly -ru worse mai
ru the worst cel mai ru far departe farther mai departe the farthest
cel mai departe further mai departe the furthest cel mai departe much
mult more mai mult the most cel mai mult near aproape nearer mai
aproape the nearest cel mai aproape little mult less mai puin the least
cel mai puin late trziu later mai trziu the latest cel mai trziu up sus upper mai sus upmost cel mai sus
1.7.3.2. Comparaia analitic a adverbelor pozitiv comparativ de
superioritate superlativ relativ attractively atrgtor more attractively mai
atrgtor the most attractively cel mai atrgtor beautifully frumos more
beautifully mai frumos the most beautifully cel mai frumos bestiallybestial more bestially mai bestial the most bestially cel mai bestial
carefully-atent more carefully mai atent the most carefully cel mai atent
fortunately norocos more fortunately mai norocos the most fortunately
cel mai norocos quickly rapid more quickly mai rapid the most quickly
cel mai rapid charmingly fermector more charmingly mai fermector the
most charmingly cel mai fermector uently uent more uently mai
uent the most uently cel mai uent gratefully recunosctor more
gratefully mai recunosctor the most gratefully cel mai recunosctor
willingly bucuros more willingly mai bucuros the most willingly cel mai
bucuros
1.7.3.3. Comparaia sintetic a adeverbelor pozitiv comparativ de
superioritate superlativ relativ cleanly curat cleanlier mai curat the
cleanliest cel mai curat early devreme earlier mai devreme the earliest
cel mai devreme hard greu harder mai greu the hardest cel mai greu
low deprimat lower mai deprimat the lowest cel mai deprimat
Multe adverbe i adjective se folosesc dup verbul to be i dup
verbele modale, ind nume predicative. Se tie c verbul to be poate
predicat n propoziie doar cnd este urmat de un adverb de loc:
To be black = a negru to be cold = a frig to be bloody = a afurisit
to be concise = a concis to be careful = a grijuliu/atent to be hard = a
greu
Toate aceste cuvinte black, bloody, careful, cold, concise etc. Pot e
adjective, e adverbe, faptul depinznd de cuvntul pe lng care stau i l
determin, iar de comparat se compar aa cum se arat n tabelele
prezentate n capitolul comparaia adjectivelor, respectiv comparaia
adverbelor.
Mary has put on her very best dress. = Mary i-a mbrcat chiar cea
mai bun rochie a ei.
Alice sees quite well, but John sees far better. = Alice vede foarte bine,
ns John vede i mai bine.
John speaks French the best. = John vorbete franuzete cel mai bine.
Jane does not sing so beautifully. = Jane nu cnt aa de frumos.
We havent seen him lately. = Nu l-am vzut n ultimul timp.

ook is a lot more interesting than that. = Aceast carte este mult
mai interesant dect aceea.
That book is very very interesting. = Cartea aceea este foarte foarte
interesant.
1.7.4. Locul adverbelor
Adverbele cu ajutorul crora se formeaz gradul superlativ absolut stau
totdeauna naintea adjectivelor sau adverbelor.
Very well = foarte bine quite right = perfect adevrat
Adverbul enough este singurul adverb care st dup adjective sau
adverbe
She sings beautifully enough. = Ea cnt destul/sucient de frumos.
1.7.4.1. Locul adverbelor de timp afterward (s) = dup aceea
I saw them afterwards. = I-am vzut dup aceea.
Again = din nou, iar, iari; once more = nc o dat
I saw him again. = L-am vzut din nou.
Again/time and again = very often = mereu = foarte adesea
You must try again and again. = Trebuie s ncerci mereu.
Always = totdeuna, ntotdeauna
I am always at home on Sundays. = Sunt totdeauna acas duminica.
The sun always rises n the east. = Soarele rsare totdeauna n est.
You must always remember these rules. = Trebuie s-i aminteti mereu
aceste reguli.
Before = nainte; at an earlier time = ntr-un moment anterior
I had read that book before. = Citisem cartea aceea nainte.
Ever = vreodat
Do you ever go to see them? = Te duci vreodat pe la ei?
Have you ever tried? = Ai ncercat vreodat?
Never = niciodat; at no time = on no occasion = cu nici un prilej
I have never tried. = N-am ncercat niciodat.
I never go to seeaside alone. = Nu merg niciodat singur la mare.
He is never at home after eight oclock. = El nu este niciodat acas
dup ora opt.
I can never understand what he says. = Nu neleg niciodat ce zice el.
Never do things by halves. (prov.) = S nu faci niciodat lucrurile pe
jumtate.
Never too old to leam. (prov.) = Nu suntem niciodata prea btrni s
nvm.
0ften = adesea; many times = de multe ori
I often go to see them. = Merg adesea pe la ei.
How often do you visit them? = Ct de des i vizitezi?
I have often been there. = Am fost adesea acolo.
Rarely = seldom= rareori
You can seldom see such animals. = Rareori poi vedea asemenea
animale.
I rarely agree with them. = Rareori sunt de acord cu ei.
Sometimes = uneori = now and then = cnd i cnd

ontmes she makes good decisions. = Uneori ia hotrri bune.


Sometimes clemency is cruelty and cruelty is clemency. (prov.) =
Uneori clemena este cruzine, iar cuzimea este clemen.
I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau s-i spun ce cred
eu cu adevrat despre asta.
We are nearly always at home on Sundays. = Aproape totdeauna
suntem acas duminica.
We must talk about it beforehand. = Trebuie s discutm despre asta n
prealabil.
They are always asking for money. = Ei cer totdeauna bani.
He often goes to Paris. = El pleac adesea la Paris.
He has often been to Paris. = El a fost adesea la Paris.
He has been there quite often. = El a fost acolo chiar/foarte des.
As often as we try to nd out the truth. = Ori de cte ori ncercm s
am adevrul.
I have seldom met such good people. = Eu rareori am ntlnit/cunoscut
oameni aa buni.
We seldom go shopping. = Noi rareori mergem dup cumprturi.
What do you usually do on holidays? = Ce facei voi de obicei n
vacan?
I have sometimes seen them n the park. = I-am vzut uneori n parc.
The boys will be home very soon. = Bieii vor acas foarte curnd.
It will soon be ve years since he has leamed English. = Vor curnd
cinci ani de cnd nva el englezete.
They arrived at the theatre twenty minutes too soon. = Ei au ajuns la
teatru cu douzeci de minute mai repede/devreme.
The girl started to leam as soon as she received the books. = Fata a
nceput s nvee de ndat ce a primit crile.
No sooner said than done. = Zis i fcut.
No soonerhad I arrived home than it began to rain. = Nici n-am ajuns
acas c a i nceput s plou.
You will nd out the truth sooner or later. = Vei aa adevrul mai
devreme sau mai trziu.
We shall forget as long as we live. = Nu vom uita ct vom tri.
I expect my friends pretty soon. = i atept pe prietenii mei destul de
curnd.
What day is it today? = Ce zi este astzi?
Today is Saturday, not Sunday. = Azi este smbt, nu duminic.
Wheres todays newspaper? = Unde este ziarul de astzi?
Yesterdays newspaper is here, but todays isnt. = Ziarul de ieri este
aici, dar cel de azi nu este.
Today is Saturday, tomorrow will be Sunday and the day after tomorrow
will be Monday. = Azi este smbt, mine va duminic, iar poimine va
luni.
They only retumed home yesterday. = Ei s-au ntors acas doar/abia
ieri.

sterday was Friday and the day before yesterday was Thursday. = Ieri
a fost vineri, iar alaltieri a fost joi.
I read a book yesterday. = Yesterday I read a book. = Am citit o carte
ieri. = Ieri am citit o carte.
Where shall we be tomorrow moming/afternoon/evening/night? = Unde
vom mine diminea/dup mas/sear/noapte?
The announcement wont appear n tomorrows newspaper. = Anunul
nu va apare n ziarul de mine.
We shall meet at the theatre tonight at seven oclock. = Ne vom ntlni
la teatru disear la ora apte.
1.7.4.2. Locul adverbelor de mod
He was walking fast, not slowly. = El mergea repede, nu ncet briey =
pe scurt
He spoke about it briey. = El a vorbit despre asta pe scurt.
Did they do it deliberately? = Au fcut-o deliberat?
The letter must be written very carefully. = Scrisoarea trebuie scris
foarte atent.
You must leam to speak English uently. = Trebuie s nvei s vorbeti
englezete curgtor/uent.
I love this country very much. = Iubesc aceast ar foarte mult.
This lesson can easily be leamed. = Aceast lecie poate uor
nvat.
He almost always makes mistakes. = El aproape totdeauna face greeli.
Breakfast was almost ready. = Micul dejun era aproape gata.
It is almost time we started to play tennis. = Este aproape ora s
ncepem s jucm tenis.
Almost no one can believe such a thing. = Aproape nimeni nu poate
crede un asemenea lucru.
They were fully satised. = Ei erau pe deplin satisfcui/mulumii.
Our trip took fully ve days. = Excursia noastr a luat cinci zile ntregi.
I saw people who could hardly walk. = Am vzut oameni care abia
puteau merge.
That man can hardly speak. = Omul acela abia poate vorbi.
It is nearly seven oclock and were nearly ready. = Este aproape ora
apte, iar noi suntem aproape gata.
He is probably the best football player. = El este probabil cel mai bun
juctor de fotbal.
There are people who drive too quickly. = Sunt/Exist oameni care
conduc prea repede.
Quite = chiar, total, n ntregime
It is quite so. = Este chiar aa. = Este exact.
I know he is quite right. = tiu c are perfect dreptate.
He spoke n quite another tone. = Vorbi pe cu totul alt ton.
There are quite a few people n the street. = Sunt foarte muli oameni
pe strad.
Really = ntr-adevr, cu adevrat

you what I really think about it. = Vreau s-i spun ce cred
eu cu adevrat despre asta.
Scarcely = abia, greu, cu greutate
I can scarcely hear what you say. = Abia aud ce zici.
He could scarcely recognize me. = M-a recunoscut cu mare greutate.
=Abia dac m-a recunoscut.
It was really what he deserved. = A fost ntr-adevr ceea ce merita.
I strongly advise you to do it. = Te sftuiesc special s-o faci.
They felt truly grateful. = Se simeau ntr-adevr recunosctori.
They were watching a truly beautiful picture. = Admirau un tablou cu
adevrat frumos.
I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau s-i spun ce cred
eu cu adevrat despre asta.
We are nearly always at home on Sundays. = Aproape totdeauna
suntem acas duminica.
Din exemplele de mai sus se vede clar c adverbele: fully, hardly,
nearly, probably, quite, really, scarcely, strongly i au locul n general
naintea cuvntului pe care l determin.
We are fully satised. = Suntem total mulumii.
Our joumey took fully ve hours. = Cltoria noastr a durat cinci ore
ncheiate.
I hardly know that man. = Abia dac l cunosc pe omul acela.
They hardly ever go out. = They very seldom go out. = Ei ies din joi n
pati. Ei ies foarte rar.
I can hardly see that plane. = Abia dac pot vedea avionul acela.
He has hardly any money. = He has very little money. = El are foarte
puini bani.
Nearly all my friends came to my party. = Aproape toi prietenii mei au
venit la petrecerea mea.
We are nearly ready. = Suntem aproape gata.
He nearly always loses his gloves. = El aproape totdeauna i pierde
mnuile.
It is nearly ve oclock. = Este aproape ora cinci.
The little boy can nearly ski. = Bieelul aproape c tie s schieze.
She will probably pass the exam. = Probabil ea va trece la examen.
He was quite another man. = Era cu totul alt om.
They quite forgot about the whole story. = Au uitat total de ntrega
poveste.
He knows me quite well. = El m cunoate foarte bine.
I dont know what he really thinks of us. = Nu tiu ce crede n realitate
despre noi.
He really knows nothing. = El nu tie chiar nimic.
I scarcely/hardly hear that noise. = Abia aud zgomotul acela.
He strongly advises me to do it. = El m sftuiete insistent s-o fac.
She spoke loud/loudly and clear/clearly. = Ea vorbi tare i clar.

only bought the book (but he didnt read it). = El doar a cumprat
cartea (dar n-a citit-o).
He showed the book to me only. = El mi-a artat cartea doar mie.
He read only half of the book. = He only read half of the book. = El a
citit doar jumtate din carte.
The food tastes good. = Mncarea are gust bun.
She was looking at them with disgust. = Ea privea la ei cu dezgust.
Unhappy, she went back home. = Nefericit, ea merse napoi acas.
What is strange, it is he who insists. = Ce este ciudat, este c el insist.
They are smoking very heavily. = Ei fumeaz foarte mult.
That boy spoke extremely quickly. = Biatul acela a vorbit extrem de
repede.
John was playing surprisingly well. = John juca surprinztor de bine.
Johns friend reasoned extremely soundly. = Prietenul lui John judeca
extrem de sntos.
John received about double the amount he expected. = John a primit
aproape dublu suma la care se atepta.
We paid more than twenty lei for it. = Am pltit mai mult de douzeci
de lei pentru asta.
He didnt have more than one hundred lei on him. = Nu a avut mai mult
de o sut de lei la el.
I counted aproximately twenty ve new comers. = Am numrat
aproximativ douzeci i cinci de noi venii.
The bottle was three quarters full. = Sticla era trei sferturi plin.
They dont like it much. = Nu le place mult.
These are far more important problems. = Acestea sunt probleme mult
mai importante.
The rst thing is that he is not here. = Primul lucru este c el nu este
aici.
The heart that once truly loves never forgets. (prov.) = Dragostea
adevrat nu se uit niciodat.
He didnt expect us to be here. = El nu s-a ateptat ca noi s m aici.
Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
(prov.) = Cine se culc devreme i se scoal devreme ajunge sntos, bogat
i nelept.
By doing nothing, we leam to do ill. (prov.) = Lenea e mama tuturor
viciilor.
Four eyes see more than two. (prov.) = Patru ochi vd mai bine dect
doi.
1.7.4.3. Locul adverbelor de loc
Well be waiting inside, not outside. = Vom atepta nuntru, nu afar.
I found the book where I had put it. = Am gsit cartea unde am pus-o.
I saw John n the park. = L-am vzut pe John n parc.
They walked past my car. = Ei au trecut de maina mea.
They were walking about the town. = Ei se plimbau prin ora.
He was left well behind. = El a fost lsat mult n urm.

shall nd the book somewhere. = Vom gsi cartea undeva.


The book may be anywhere. = Cartea poate oriunde.
We may walk everywhere. = Ne putem plimba peste tot.
1.7.4.4. Propoziii cu mai multe adverbe
I must give this book to your friend today at six oclock. = Trebuie s-l
dau aceast carte prietenului tu azi la ora ase.
It will be written by John later this week, perhaps on Saturday
afternoon. = Va scris () de John mai trziu sptmna aceasta, poate
smbt dup-mas.
They are requested to be quiet between twelve and ve oclock every
day. = Lor li se pretinde s e linitii ntre orele doisprezece i cinci dupamiaza n ecare zi.
My friends are living n the country somewhere near Cluj. = Prietenii
mei triesc la ar undeva lng Cluj.
It will be hard for her to live on her small pension from now on. = Va
greu pentru ea s triasc din mica ei pensie de acum nainte/ncolo.
We all are to meet them at the station tomorrow at a quarter past
twelve. = Noi toi urmeaz s-l ntlnim la gar mine la doisprezece i un
sfert.
1.8. PREPOZIIA (THE PREPOSITION) lat. prae = nainte, positia =
poziie)
Prepoziia este partea de vorbire care unete diferite uniti sintactice
n cadrul unei propoziii, realiznd relaii de timp, loc etc.
The book is on the table. = Cartea este pe mas.
He will be there at three oclock. = El va acolo la ora trei.
Prepoziiile sunt: simple: about, on, under etc.
Compuse: into, within, without etc.
Complexe: because of, instead of etc.
Locuiuni prepoziionale: by means of, n the middle of etc.
Termenii ntre care prepoziia realizeaz un raport au funcii sintactice
diferite. Ea leag un verb de complementul lui sau un substantiv de un
adjectiv sau adverb.
Prepoziia of este cea cu care se formeaz genitivul prepoziional/
analitic, iar prepoziia to este aceea a dativului prepoziional.
S-a vzut cu ocazia prezentrii declinrii substantivelor i conjugrii
verbelor c limba englez este o limb analitic. La conjugarea verbelor este
obligatorie prezena pronumelui personal alturi de verb pentru realizarea
persoanei acestuia.
n cazul substantivelor ns, prepoziiile preiau funciile terminaiilor
cazurilor limbilor sintetice. Ele sunt considerate instrumente gramaticale, dar
rolul lor este important. Cei ce doresc s tie bine limba englez, trebuie s
acorde o atenie la fel de mare i prepoziiei.
n limba englez prepoziia st e naintea substanivului sau altui
cuvnt cu care este n relaie, e la sfritul unei propoziii.
What is he talking about? = About what is he talking? = Despre ce
vorbete el?

)
talking about? = About whom is he talking? = Despre
cine vorbete el?
Whose friend are you talking about? = About whose friend are you
talking? = Despre prietenul cui vorbeti tu? = Despre al cui prieten vorbeti
tu?
What are you looking at? = At what are you looking? = La ce priveti
tu?
Who (m) is this poem by? = By whom is this poem? = De cine este
poezia aceasta?
Who (m) is this book written by? = By whom is this book written? = De
cine este scris cartea aceasta?
To whom must you give the book? = Who (m) must you give the book
to? = Cui trebuie s-l dai cartea?
He is the boy who (m) I must give the book to. = El este biatul cruia
trebuie s-l dau eu cartea.
The boy to whom I must. = Biatul cruia trebuie s.
n concluzie, prepoziiile n limba englez pot aprea n post poziie n:
ntrebrile care ncep cu cuvintele who, what, which
n subordonatele atributive
n unele exclamaii: What trouble theyve got into! = n ce ncurctur
au intrat!
n unele construcii pasive: He is looked for by us. Dar He is sought by
us este forma preferat
n propoziii innitivale: They are impossible to talk to. = Cu ei este
imposibil de discutat.
n propoziii/fraze armative care ncep cu who, what, which: What I am
looking at is Johns house. = La (ceea) ce privesc eu este casa lui John.
Cele mai importante prepoziii n limba englez sunt:
About = despre above = deasupra across = de-a curmeziul/latul along
= de-a lungul alongside = unul lng altul, alturi among = ntre around =
mprejur; vreo at = la before = nainte below = dedesubt beneath = sub; mai
jos de besides = n afar de beyond = dincolo de by = de, de ctre, prin for
= pentru n = n inside = nuntru into = n, spre near = lng
notwithstanding = cu toate c of = de on = pe opposite = peste drum de,
vizavi over = peste past = pe lng; dincolo de round = n jurul since = de,
de la throughout = prin, peste, dup to = la, ctre under = sub up = n susul;
ctre within = n, nuntrul; nu mai trziu de without = fr
1.8.1. Expresii/structuri idiomatice cu prepoziii, cu adverbe sau cu
adjective about = cam, n jurul; despre; prin etc.
About the town = prin ora a joumey about the world = o cltorie prin
lume it is about two oclock = este n jurul orei dou to have money about
oneself = a avea bani asupra sa above = deasupra a plane above the clouds
= un avion deasupra norilor above my head = deasupra capului meu across
= peste, de-a curmeziul a bridge across the Danube = un pod peste Dunre
to sail across the ocean = a naviga peste ocean to walk across a street = a
traversa (pe jos) o strad to be able to swim across = a n stare s

traverseze not the hotel across the road = hotelul de peste drum after
(prep.) = dup, de etc.
After breakfast = dup micul dejun day after day = zi de zi after ve
o clock = dup ora cinci soon after ve o clock = imediat/curnd dup ora
cinci after all his care = cu/dup toat grija lui time after time = deseori,
foarte adesea to run after somebody = a alerga dup cineva to inquire after
smb. = a ntreba de cineva after (adv.) = dup
They came two days after. = Ei au venit dou zile dup aceea.
Soon after = curnd dup aceea against = contra, mpotriva against
the enemy = mpotriva dumanului against the laws = mpotriva/contra
legilor a race against time = o curs contra cronometru to swim against the
stream = a nota contra curentului to marry against one s will = a se cstori
mpotriva voinei proprii to hit one s head against a wall = a se lovi cu capul
de un perete to lean against a wall = a se rezema de un perete to save
money against a rainy day = a economisi bani albi pentru zile negre along =
de-a lungul, pe, etc.
To walk along the road = a merge pe drum along a valley = de-a lungul
unei vi along the sea shore = de-a lungul rmului among/amongst = ntre/
printre etc among us = ntre noi (ntre trei sau mai muli) among his friends
= ntre prietenii lui a house among the trees = o cas ntre copaci to hide
among the bushes = a se ascunde ntre/printre tuuri they divided the
money among themselves = au mprit banii ntre ei a city among the
largest cities of the world = un ora printre cele mai mari orae ale lumii
amongst the most important reasons = printre cele mai importante cauze
lots of 4owers amongst the trees = multe 4ori ntre/printre copaci
I chose him from among those boys. = L-am ales pe el dintre bieii
aceia.
Around (prep.) = n jurul, prin etc.
A trip around the country = o cltorie prin ar
Put a coat around the baby! = Pune o hain pe copil! =] nvelete
copilul cu o hain!
The planets move around the sun. = Planetele se mic n jurul
soarelui.
To sail around the world = a naviga n jurul lumii n a voyage around the
world = ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii to sit around the table = a edea n jurul
mesei
She had a scarf around her neck. = Ea avea o earf n jurul gtului.
He showed us around the house. = Ne-a prezentat casa lui. = Ne-a
condus prin casa lui.
Around (adv.) = de jur mprejur etc.
Is an island a land with water all around? = Este o insul un uscat/
pmnt nconjurat de ape?
Winter will soon be around again. = Iarna se va instala din nou.
We could have fruit all the year around. = Am putea avea fructe tot
timpul anului.
To have a wall all around = a avea un zid de jur mprejur

Come around to see us tomorrow! = Trecei/Venii mine pe la noi!


At = la etc.
At noon = la prnz at day break = la revrsatul zorilor, n zori at that
time = la/pe vremea aceea at random = la ntmplare, haotic to be at school
= a la coal at what time? = la ce or?
At one/two etc. Oclock = la ora unu/dou etc.
At any moment = n orice clip at my command = la ordinul meu, la
comanda mea at the age of = la vrsta de at the same time = n acelai timp
at rst = la nceput at last = n cele din urm, n nal to be at smb.s mercy
= a la mila cuiva at the end of a book = la sfritul unei cri at the end of
the week = la sfrtul sptmnii before (prep.) = nainte de etc.
Two days before Easter = (cu) dou zile nainte de Pati since before
the war = de dinainte de rzboi before the war = nainte de rzboi to come
before the xed time = a veni nainte de ora xat before (adv.) = nainte
Ive met him before = l-am cunoscut (mai) nainte the day before = cu
o zi nainte before long = soon = curnd before (conj.) = nainte
You must eat smth. Before you go. = Trebuie s mnnci ceva nainte
de a pleca.
Tell him now before you forget. = Spune-l acum nainte de a uita.
That happened n the year 5 B. C. (B. C. = Before Christ) = Asta s-a
ntmplat n anul 5 nainte de Christos.
Behind (prep.) = n spatele to hide behind a tree = a se ascunde dup
un copac = a se ascunde n spatele unui copac to hide behind the door = a se
ascunde dup u to come out from behind the door = a iei de dup u
behind (adv.) = n spate, n urm, napoia etc.
To attack from behind = a ataca din spate to be behind with ones work
= a n urm cu lucrul to fall on ones behind = a cdea pe spate below
(prep.) = sub, dedesubt
The sun goes below the horizon. = Soarele se deplaseaz sub orizont.
A leg broken below the knee = un picior fracturat sub genunchi below
sea level = sub nivelul mrii to be below fty = a sub cincizeci de ani below
the average = sub nivelul mediu below (adv.) = sub, dedesubt
We could see the lake below. = Puteam s vedem lacul dedesubt.
He lived n the room below. = El locuia n camera de dedesubt.
Here below = on earth = pe pmnt beneath (prep.) = dedesubt, sub
beneath ones dignity = sub demnitatea cuiva beside = by the side of =
lng, alturi de a small park beside the river = un prcule lng ru to live
beside the sea = a tri lng mare, a locui pe rmul mrii besides (prep.) =
pe lng besides this = pe lng asta/aceasta.
Besides (adv.) = moreover = n addition to = n plus, pe deasupra
He is tired and besides, away from home. = Este obosit i n plus,
departe de cas.
Between (prep.) = ntre between Africa and Europe = ntre Africa i
Europa an understanding between us = o nelegere ntre noi between the
two World Wars = ntre cele dou rzboaie mondiale a war between two

countries = un rzboi ntre dou ri a comparison between two things = o


comparaie ntre dou lucruri between (adv.) = ntre
They visited the two museums with a quick lunch between. = Ei au
vizitat cele dou muzee cu un prnz rapid ntre ele.
Prepoziia/Adverbul between se folosete cnd este vorba de dou
elemente, persoane etc. Cnd este vorba de mai multe elemente se folosete
prepoziia among.
Beyond (prep.) = dincolo, etc a hill beyond the village. = un deal
dincolo de sat.
The country beyond the sea = ara de dincolo de mare
What is there beyond the stars? = Ce se a dincolo de stele?
Those apples are beyond reach. = Nu se poate ajunge la merele acelea.
It was a scene beyond description. = A fost o scen indescriptibil.
Beyond limits = peste limit beyond (adv.) = dincolo, peste etc.
Alaska and the lands beyond = Alaska i teritoriile de dincolo de ea
John loves her beyond measure. = John o iubete peste msur.
By (prep.) = lng, cu, dup, pe etc.
To sit by smb. = a edea lng cineva a house by the river = o cas
lng ru, o cas pe malul rului to have a day by the sea = a petrece o zi pe
malul mrii, a petrece o zi pe litoral to open by force = a deschide ceva cu
fora to travel by bus/train/plane/etc. = a cltori cu autobuzul/trenul/avionul/
etc.
To travel by ship/steamer = a cltori cu vaporul to travel by day not by
night = a cltori ziua nu noaptea to come by the nearest road = a veni pe
drumul cel mai apropiat to travel to Bucharest by Piteti = a cltori la
Bucureti prin Piteti to tell the time by the sun = a spune ora dup soare to
live by oneself = to live alone = a locui/tri singur to pay smth. by cheque =
a plti ceva cu cec by (adv.) = deoparte to put/lay/set smth. by = a pune
ceva deoparte by and by = later on = mai trziu, apoi; curnd, dup puin
timp by and large = on the whole = n mare, n ansamblu down (prep.) = n
jos, la vale to run/walk down a hill = a alerga/merge la vale pe un deal tears
running down her face = lacrimi rostogolindu-se pe chipul/faa ei
He is swimming down the river. = El noat n ru la vale.
To walk down the street = a merge la vale pe strad, a merge n josul
strzii down (adv.) = jos
The sun goes down n the west. = Soarele coboar la apus.
To be knocked down by a bus = a dobort la pmnt de un autobuz to
sit down = a sta jos, a se aeza during (prep.) = n timpul
They came to see us during our absence. = Au venit pe la noi n
absena noastr.
During our lifetime = n timpul vieii noastre during our holidays = n
timpul vacanei noastre except (prep.) = not including = apart from = cu
excepia every day except Saturday = n ecare zi cu excepia zilei de
smbt all my friends except Jim = toi prietenii mei cu excepia lui Jim for
(prep.) = de la, pentru etc.

omething good for food = ceva comestibil, ceva bun de mncare to


sail for Sidney = a naviga spre Sidney to be ready for smth. = a gata pentru
ceva for a time = (pentru) un timp
They have been here for a week. = Ei sunt aici de o sptmn.
To leave for school = a pleca la coal to go for a walk = a merge la o
plimbare to look for aid/help = a cuta ajutor from (prep.) = din, de la from
one place to another = dintr-un loc n altul to jump from the roof = a sri de
pe acoperi to be far from home = a departe de cas from ower to ower
= din oare n oare wine made of grapes = vin fcut din struguri from rst
to last = de la primul la ultimul n (prep.) = din, n, la the best tennis player n
the world = cel mai bun juctor de tenis din lume it is n the house = este n
cas to live n the country = a tri la ar to have a picnic n the woods = a
servi un picnic la pdure a holiday n the mountains = o vacan la munte to
lie n bed = a sta ntins n pat n (adv.) = nuntru, ntr-un to be n = a
nuntru (n cas/camer)
There is nobody in. = Nu este nimeni nuntru.
n conclusion = n concluzie n fact = de fapt n general = n general n
brief/short = pe scurt n a word = ntr-un cuvnt n the meantime, meanwhile
= ntre timp into (prep.) = n, nspre to come into the house/room = a intra n
cas/camer to fall into the river/lake = a cdea n ru/lac to get into
di5culties = a da de greuti/diculti to get into trouble = a da de bucluc/
necaz/belea to turn English into Romanian = a traduce din englez n romn
near (prep.) = lng, aproape de near the seashore = lng rmul mrii
near me or near my friend = lng mine sau lng prietenul meu to have a
dictionary near at hand = a avea un dicionar la ndemn near (adj.) =
apropiat there is a near way to = este un drum mai apropiat ctre the nearest
way to = cel mai apropiat drum spre near (adv.) = aproape the river/lake is
quite near = rul/lacul este foarte aproape to live nearby = a locui n
apropiere
Come near and listen to what I say! = Vino aproape i ascult la ce
spun!
Of (prep.) = de, cu, din etc.
Ten kilometers south of Constana = zece kilometri la sud de Constana
a book of proverbs = o carte de proverbe to die of hunger and thirst = a muri
de foame i sete a bottle full of wine = o sticl plin cu/de vin a family of ve
= o familie din cinci membri o2 [of] (adv.) the lake is six kilometers o2 =
lacul este la o deprtare de ase kilometri how far is it o2? = la ce distan/
deprtare este de aici?
The holidays are far o2 = e mult pn la vacan to take o2 ones coat
= a-i dezbrca haina to take o2 ones shoes = a-i descla pantoi to turn
the light o2 = a stinge lumina to take a day o2 = a-i lua o zi liber de la
serviciu o2 (prep.) to fall o2 the ladder/bicycle = a cdea de pe scar/
biciclet to fall o2 the horse = a cdea de pe cal to be o2 duty = a liber, a
nu la serviciu o2 (adj.) on the o2 chance that = n cazul n care, dac my o2
time = timpul meu liber an o2 season = un sezon mort/slab on (prep.) = pe
a book on the table = o carte pe mas a picture on the wall = un tablou pe

on her/his head = o plrie pe capul ei/lui to sit on the grass = a


sta jos pe iarb to write smth. On paper = a scrie ceva pe hrtie to go on foot
= a merge pe jos/picioare out of (prep.) = afar din, din to go/walk out of a
room = a iei dintr-o camer to do smth. Out of pity = a face ceva de/din mil
trees grow out of the earth = copacii cresc din pmnt to ask out of curiosity
= a ntreba de/din curiozitate to be out of work = a omer something out of
use = ceva ieit din uz over (prep) = peste, deasupra, asupra over their
heads = deasupra capetelor lor a bridge over the river = un pod peste ru to
be over forty = a avea mai mult de patruzeci de ani to have authority over
smb. = a avea autoritate asupra cuiva over (adv.)
I am to turn over the page. = Urmeaz s dau pagina.
To boil over with rage = a spumega de mnie over again = nc o dat
over and again = de mai multe ori to turn over the leaves of a book = a da/
ntoarce foile unei cri past (prep.) = peste i, trecut de half past one, two
etc. = unu, dou etc. "i jumtate past (adv.) to run past smb. = a trece n
fug pe lng cineva, a trece de cineva n fug round (adj.) = rotund a round
table = o mas rotund a round peg n a square hole = potrivit ca nuca n
perete round (prep.) = n jurul to run round a house = a alerga n jurul unei
case round the sun = n jurul soarelui since (prep. adv.) = de, din, de la
since four oclock = de la ora patru
I havent seen them since. = Nu i-am vzut de atunci.
Through (prep.) = pe, prin, printre to come n through the door = a
intra pe u to look through a telescope = a privi printr-un telescop to go
through life = a trece prin via throughout (prep.) = n, prin, peste
throughout our holidays = pe tot parcursul vacanei noastre to revise a book
throughout = a revizui o carte complet throughout this country = de-a lungul
i de-a latul acestei ri to (prep.) = la, ctre, spre this road leads to Braov.
= drumul acesta duce la Braov.
To go to school/church = a merge la coal/biseric to walk to school =
a merge la coal pe jos to go to school by bus = a merge la coal cu
autobuzul to go to the bakers = a merge la patiserie/brutrie to go to bed =
a merge la culcare to come to an end = to nish = a lua sfrit, a se termina
to turn to the right and to the left = a se ntoarce la dreapta i la stnga to go
from place to place = a merge dintr-un loc ntr-altul under (prep.) =
dedesubt, sub, mai jos de to swim under water = a nota pe sub ap to be
under arms = a sub arme under the age of fourteen = sub vrsta de
paisprezece ani to be under treatment = a sub ngrijire medical, a n
tratament under my, your etc. Feet = sub tlpile mele, tale etc.
To be under observation = a sub observaie this question under
examination = aceast chestiune n studiu under (adv.)
That boat went under. = Barca aceea a mers la fund.
Undemeath (prep.) = sub, dedesubtul
The ball rolled undemeath a table. = Mingea s-a rostogolit sub o mas.
Up (prep.) = ctre, spre, n susul to run up the hill = a alerga pe deal n
sus, a urca dealul n fug to walk up a hill/mountain = a urca un deal/munte
the ups and downs of life = vicisitudinile/valurile vieii up (adv. particle) to be

or sometime = a n picioare de ctva timp, a sculat de ctva timp to


be up till late = a nu se culca pn trziu
He lifted his head up. = El i-a ridicat capul.
Up with him! = Sus cu el! = S se scoale!
Times up. You must leave. = Timpul s-a terminat. Trebuie s pleci.
Upon = on (prep.) = pe, n many books upon that desk = multe cri pe
banca aceea a tree upon the top of the hill = un copac n/pe vrful dealului
We see two boats upon the lake. = Vedem dou brci pe lac.
Upon the surface of the sea = pe suprafaa mrii upon our word = pe
cuvntul nostru with (prep.) = cu n the mountains with my friends = la
munte cu prietenii mei to cut smth. With a knife = a tia ceva cu un cuit to
travel with smb. = a cltori cu cineva to walk with haste = a merge grbit to
go for a walk with smb. = a merge la plimbare cu cineva to discuss smth.
With smb. = a discuta ceva cu cineva to help smb. With smth. = a ajuta pe
cineva la ceva n comparison with = n comparaie cu n conection with = n
legtur cu within (prep.) = n, n cadrul/interiorul/limita
They are running within a circle = Ei alearg ntr-un cerc.
Within our room = n interiorul camerei noastre within a week/month =
n mai puin de o sptmn/lun within the law = n limita/limitele legii
without (prep.) = fr not to succeed without money = a nu reui fr bani to
escape without damage = a scpa nevtmat to be without help = a fr
ajutor, a lipsit de ajutor to do smth. Without success = a face ceva fr
succes to come without delay = a veni fr ntrziere to come without doubt
= a veni fr ndoial
It goes without saying. = Se nelege de la sine.
They passed without saying a word. = Ei au trecut fr a spune vreun
cuvnt.
I cannot speak German without mistakes. = Nu pot vorbi germana fr
greeli.
1.8.2. Verbe cu prepoziii obligatorii to accuse smb. Of smth. = a acuza
pe cineva de ceva to agree with smb. /smth. = a de acord cu cineva/ceva to
agree on = a de acord asupra to apologize for = a-i cere iertare pentru to
approve of smth. = a aproba ceva to arrive at/in = a ajunge la/n to ask smb.
For smth. = a cere cuiva ceva to be accustomed to smth. = a obinuit/
familiar cu ceva to be acquainted with smth. =a obinuit cu ceva to be
afraid of smb. /smth. = a se teme de cineva/ceva to be angry with smb. = a
suprat pe cineva to be anxious about smth. = a ngrijorat de ceva to be
astonished at = a uimit/uluit de to be aware of = a contient de, a-i da
seama de to be characteristic of = a caracteristic pentru to be close to = a
aproape/alturi de to be concemed with = a preocupat de to be condent
of = a ncreztor n to be crazy about = a nebun dup to be cruel to = a
crud cu, a crud/ru fa de to be dependent on/upon = a dependent de
to be deprived of = a lipsit/deposedat de to be dierent from = a diferit
de to be fond of = a amator de to be good at = a bun la, a se pricepe la
to be good/kind to = a amabil cu to be grateful to = a recunosctor fa
de to be indignant at = a indignat de to be of opinion that = a de prere

c to be bent on/upon = a hotrt s to be on the move = a n micare


to be impressed by = a impresionat de to be independent of = a
independent de to be indierent to = a indiferent fa de to be intent on =
a absorbit de to be interested n = a interesat de to be jealous of = a
gelos pe to be patient with = a rbdtor cu to be polite to = a politicos/
civilizat cu to be preoccupied by = a preocupat de to be proud of = a
mndru de to be satised with = a mulumit cu/de to be seized with = a
prins de to be similar to = a asemntor cu to be sorry for = a-l prea
ru pentru; a-i cere scuze to be superior to = a superior to be surprised
at = a surprins de to be typical of = a caracteristic pentru to beg for =
a ceri/implora to begin by = a ncepe prin to belong to = a aparine to
beware of = a se feri/pzi de to boast of = a se luda/fli cu to borrow from
= a mprumuta de la to call for = a cere, a necesita to call on smb. = a
vizita pe cineva to call at a place = a trece printr-un loc to care for = a ine
la, a-l plcea to compare to/with = a compara cu to complain of = a se
plnge/vita de to conceal from = a se ascunde de to congratulate on = a
felicita pentru to contribute to = a contribui la to count/rely on/upon = a se
bizui/baza pe/conta pe to cure of = a vindeca de to deal with = a se ocupa
cu/de to defend from = a apra de to depend on/upon = a depinde de to die
of = a muri de to dier from = a diferi de to do without = a se lipsi de, a
face fr to doubt of = a se ndoi de to embark on = a o porni ntr-o
direcie; to escape from = a scpa de to feed on = a hrni cu to ll with =
a umple cu to forgive for = a ierta pentru to glance at = a arunca o privire
la to go to = a merge la, a se duce la to go n for = a se prezenta la to hope
for = a spera la to indulge n = a se deda la, a se complace n; a ndemna
s to insist on = a insista asupra to interfere n = a interveni n, a se
amesteca n to introduce to = a prezenta (cuiva) to intrude on = a deranja,
a tulbura to knock at = a bate la to leave for = a pleca la to laugh at = a
rde de to laugh with joy = a rde de bucurie to lend to smb. = a da
mprumut cuiva to live on = a tri din/cu to long for = a tnji dup to look at
= a privi la to look after = a ngriji de, a avea grij de to look for = a cuta
to look into = a examina to look like = a semna cu to look on/upon = a
considera to look to = a se ngriji de to meet with = a ntmpina to mistake
for = a confunda cu, a lua drept to move from. to. = a se muta din. la/n. to
object to = a obiecta asupra/mpotriva to part with = a se despri de to
participate n = a participa la to pass for = a trece drept to peep at = a privi
pe furi la to pine for = a tnji dup to play at = a se juca de-a to prevent
from = a mpiedica/opri s to prot by smth. = a prota de ceva to protect
from = a proteja/apra de to provide with = a nzestra cu to pull at = a
trage la to put n (to) practice = a pune n practic to recover from = a-i
reveni dup, a se face bine dup to refer to = a se referi la to refrain from =
a se abine de la to remind smb. Of smth. = a aminti cuiva de ceva to resort
to smb. = a se adresa cuiva, a apela la cineva to retire from = a se retrage
din to reproach smb. With smth. = a reproa cuiva ceva to rush at smth. = a
se repezi la ceva to be sated with = a stul/dezgustat de to see to = a se
ngriji/ocupa de to send for = a trimite dup to separate from = a separa de

to smell of = a mirosi a to stand for = a reprezenta to stare at = a privi x/


intens la to start for = a porni ctre/spre to subtract from = a scdea din to
succeed n = a reui s to supply with = a aproviziona cu to take into
account/consideration = a lua n seam/consideraie to think about/of = a
se gndi la to threaten with = a amenina cu to transform/change into = a
transforma/schimba n to translate from. into. = a traduce din. n. to wait for
smb. = a atepta pe cineva to worry about = a-i face griji n privina
1.9. CONJUNC&IA (THE CONJUNCTION) lat.: conjunctio, con = mpreun;
junctio = legtur)
Este partea de vorbire care leag n propoziii cuvinte cu aceeai
funcie sintactic, sau
1.9.1. Clasicarea conjunciilor a) conjuncii simple: and, after, but etc.
B) conjuncii compuse: however, unless etc c) conjuncii corelative:
either. or.; neither. nor; both. and.; n order to; as if; as though
Dup funcii conjunciile sunt:
1.9.1.1. Conjuncii coordonatoare (Coordinating Conjunctions)
Conjunciile coordonatoare leag pri de propoziie cu aceeai valoare
sintactic sau propoziii de acelai fel.
1.9.1.1.1. Conjuncii copulative (Copulative Conjunctions) and = i, iar
I see a boy and a girl. = Vd un biat i o fat.
He went home and brought the book. = El a mers acas i a adus
cartea.
As well as = precum i
He speaks English as well as German. = El vorbete engleza precum i
germana both. and = att. ct i.
I like both English and German. = mi place att engleza ct i
germana.
Not only. but also = nu numai. ci i.
I like not only English but also German. = mi place nu numai engleza ci
i germana.
1.9.1.1.2. Conjuncii disjunctive (Disjunctive Conjunctions)
Conjunciile disjunctive exprim o alternativ.
Either. or = sau. sau., e. e.
He can speak either English or German. = El tie s vorbeasc e
engleza e germana.
Neither. nor = nici. nici.
I see neither him nor her. = Nu-l vd nici pe el, nici pe ea.
Otherwise = altfel, altminteri
The book is expensive, otherwise it is very useful. = Cartea este
scump, altminteri este foarte util.
Else (if not) = altfel (dac nu), or else = c/cci altfel, c dac nu
Hurry up or (else) you will miss the train. = Grbete-te, (c) altfel
pierzi trenul.
1.9.1.1.3. Conjuncii adversative (Adversative Conjunctions)
Conjunciile adversative exprim contrastul.

s, dar;
We want to buy a house but we don t have money. = Vrem s
cumprm o cas dar nu avem bani.
However = ns, dar totui
I didn t want to do it, however I did it. = N-am vrut s-o fac, dar am
fcut-o.
Nevertheless = totui, cu toate acestea
Mathematics is di
cult, nevertheless I like it. = Matematica este grea,
totui mi place.
Still = totui, ns, dar, cu toate acestea
It is expensive, still I ll buy it. = Este scump, totui o voi cumpra.
While = whereas = pe ct vreme, n timp ce, pe cnd
Your motorcar is old, while/whereas mine is new. = Maina ta este
veche, pe cnd a mea e/este nou.
Yet (nevertheless) = totui, cu toate acestea
These goods are expensive, and yet people buy them. = Aceste mrfuri
sunt scumpe i totui lumea le cumpr.
1.9.1.1.4. Conjuncii conclusive (Illative Conjunctions)
Conjunciile conclusive exprim o concluzie.
Accordingly = n consecin, deci, prin urmare, ca atare
I found the book I needed and accordingly I bought it. = Am gsit
cartea, de care aveam nevoie i, n consecin am cumprat-o.
Consequently = n consecin, aadar, prin urmare
I found the book interesting, consequently I bought it. = Am gsit
cartea interesant, aadar am cumprat-o.
So = aadar, de aceea, prin urmare, astfel c, aa c
I considered the book important, so I bought it. = Am considerat cartea
important, astfel c am cumprat-o.
Therefore = astfel cA, deci, de aceea, aadar, prin urmare, n
consecin
I didn t nd them n the park, therefore I went home. = Nu i-am gsit n
parc, aadar am plecat acas.
1.9.1.1.5. Conjuncii cauzale (Causal Conjunctions) for = cci, pentru
c, ntruct, deoarece, indc
It is very hot for it is August. = Este foarte cald cci este august.
Sunt rare ns cazurile cnd se ntlnesc n engleza vorbit astfel de
exemple/cazuri cu for cauzal.
1.9.1.2. Conjuncii subordonatoare (Subordinating Conjunctions)
Conjunciile subordonatoare leag o subordonat de regenta sa.
1.9.1.2.1. Conjuncii de loc (Conjunctions of Place) where = unde
You must come here where I live. = Trebuie s vii aici unde locuiesc/
triesc eu.
Wherever = oriunde
We ll live wherever it is possible. = Vom tri oriunde va posibil.
As far as = pn unde/la

shall/will go as far as you go. = Voi merge pn unde mergi tu.


Whence = de unde
I m going there whence you are coming. = Merg acolo de unde vii tu.
1.9.1.2.2. Conjuncii de timp (Conjunctions of Time) after = dup, dup
ce
I came after you had left. = Am venit dup ce ai plecat tu. = Am venit
dup ce plecasei tu.
Before = nainte de a
I must put down your telephone number before I forget it. = Trebuie smi notez numrul tu de telefon nainte de a-l uita.
The rst time = prima dat/oar cnd
I realized he was a serious man the rst time I saw him. = Mi-am dat
seama c este om serios cnd l-am vzut prima dat.
All the time = tot timpul ct
We are laughing all the time we are watching the play. = Rdem tot
timpul ct privim piesa.
As long as = ct timp
A man must leam as long as he lives. = Un om trebuie s nvee ct
timp triete.
As soon as = de ndat ce, imediat ce
I must nd out the truth as soon as I arrive. = Trebuie s a u adevrul
imediat ce sosesc.
Since = de cnd
I haven t seen him since he was a student. = Nu l-am vzut de cnd era
el student.
Ever since = chiar de cnd
I relized he was a good man ever since I met him. = Mi-am dat seama
c este om bun chiar de cnd l-am cunoscut.
Till = until = pn cnd, pn ce, pn la, pn s, pn
You must wait till they come. = Trebuie s atepi pn vin ei.
When = cnd
I shall tell you everything when you come. = i voi povesti totul cnd
vei veni.
Whenever = ori de cte ori
I realize she is an excellent singer whenever I listen to her. =] mi dau
seama c este o cntrea desvrit ori de cte ori o ascult.
While = ct timp, n timp ce
While there is life, there is hope. = Omul sper ct triete.
The moment = n momentul/clipa n care
I recognized him the moment I saw him. = L-am recunoscut n clipa n
care l-am vzut.
The very moment = chiar n momentul/clipa n care
I understood the real state of things the (very) moment I entered their
house. = Am neles adevrata stare a lucrurilor (chiar) n momentul n care
am intrat n casa lor.

Conjuncii de mod (Conjunctions of Manner)


Conjunciile de mod introduc subordonate modale.
As = cum, aa cum, dup cum, ntocmai cum, n acelai fel n care
He talks as he thinks. = Vorbete cum gndete.
He knows many things young as he is. = El tie multe lucruri aa tnr
cum este.
As if = as though = ca i cnd, de parc, parc s
He opend his mouth as if to say something. = A deschis gura parc s
spun ceva.
He greeted us as if he knew us. = Ne-a salutat ca i cnd ne-ar
cunoate.
Not so. as. = nu aa de. ca.
Your house is not so big as I thought. = Casa ta nu este aa mare cum
am crezut.
As. as = la fel de. ca., tot aa de ca.
She sang the song as beautifully as she could. = Ea a cntat cntecul
ct a putut de frumos.
So much as = aa de mult ct/ca
I do not like tennis so much as he does. = Mie nu-mi place tenisul aa
de mult ct lui.
So far as = n msura n care
You will buy the house so far as you can a ord it. = Vei cumpra casa n
msura n care i poi permite.
1.9.1.2.4. Conjuncii de cauz (Conjunctions of Cause)
Conjuncii de cauz introduc subordonatele cauzale.
Because = for the reason that = pentru c, pentru motivul c,
deoarece, ntruct
I bought the ball because it was cheap. = Am cumprat mingea pentru
c era ieftin.
Seeing that = vznd c
Seeing that it was raining I entered the house. = Vznd c plou am
intrat n cas.
Since = ntruct, deoarece, cci
Since it is raining, I must take my umbrella. = ntruct plou, trebuie
s-mi iau umbrela.
Now that = acum c, deoarece
Now that I have come I shall/will drink a cup of co ee. = Acum c am
venit, voi bea o ceac cu cafea.
1.9.1.2.5. Conjuncii de scop (Conjunctions of Purpose)
Conjunciile de scop introduc subordonatele nale.
n order to/that = cu scopul de a, ca s
We have come to school n order to leam. = Am venit la coal ca s
nvm.
Lest (+ should) = ca s nu
Turn on the light lest you should knock your head against smth.! =
Aprinde lumina ca s nu te loveti cu capul de ceva!

that = aa nct, ca s
Turn on the light so that I can see better! = Aprinde lumina ca s pot
vedea mai bine!
1.9.1.2.6. Conjuncii concesive (Conjunctions of Concession)
Conjunciile concesive introduc subordonatele concesive.
Though = although = dei, cu toate c
I shall/will go there although it is late. = Voi merge acolo dei este
trziu.
Even if = chiar dac
I shall go there even if it is very late. = Voi merge acolo chiar dac este
foarte trziu.
However (much) = orict de (mult)
You must buy it however much it costs. = Trebuie s-o cumperi indiferent
ct de mult cost.
No matter how = nu conteaz ct/cum, indiferent ct/cum
You must read it no matter how borring it is. = Trebuie s-o citeti
indiferent ct de plictisitoare este.
Boring as it is you must read it. = Plictisitoare aa cum este trebuie s-o
citeti.
n spite of = n ciuda
He succeeded n spite of all the diculties that he came across. = El a
reuit n ciuda tuturor dicultilor pe care le-a ntmpinat.
n spite of the fact that = n ciuda faptului c, dei, chiar dac
They failed n spite of their eorts. = Au euat n ciuda eforturilor lor.
Notwithstanding = dei, n ciuda/poda faptului c
They failed notwithstanding the eorts they made. = Ei au dat gre n
ciuda/poda eforturilor pe care le-au fcut.
1.9.1.2.6. Conjuncii condiionale (Conjunctions of Conditional)
Conjunciile condiionale introduc subordonatele condiionale.
If = dac
I shall not come if I dont have time. = Nu voi veni dac nu voi avea
timp.
If only = doar/numai dac
I shall come if only I have time. = Voi veni doar dac voi avea timp.
On condition that = cu condiia c
I shall come on the condition that I have time. = Voi veni cu condiia c
voi avea timp.
Provided that = cu condiia c
I shall come provided that I have time. = Voi veni cu condiia c voi
avea timp.
If and only if = dac i numai dac
I shall come if and only if I have time. = Voi veni dac i numai dac voi
avea timp.
As long as = att timp ct, dac
I shall not give you the money as long as you dont tell me the truth. =
Nu-i voi da banii atta timp ct nu-mi vei spune adevrul.

c nu
But for John, I would have gone. = Dac n-ar fost John a mers.
Unless = dac nu
I shall not give you the money unless you tell me the truth. = Eu nu-i
voi da banii dac nu-mi vei spune adevrul.
1.9.1.2.8. Conjuncii consecutive (Conjunctions of Result)
Conjunciile consecutive introduc subordonatele consecutive.
So. that. = aa de. nct., that = nct/c;
I lent you the book so that you could read it. = i-am mprumutat cartea
ca s-o poi citi.
Such. that. = aa/astfel de. nct/c.
Such was the force of the wind that we could not stand. = Aa mare era
fora vntului c noi nu puteam sta n picioare.
1.9.1.2.9. Conjuncii atributive (Attributive Clause Conjunctions)
Conjuncile atributive introduc subordonatele atributive sau relative.
That = care, pe care, de care (pentru persoane i lucruri)
This is the book that I need. = Aceasta este cartea de care am eu
nevoie.
He is the man that/who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoate pe
noi.
Who (pronume relativ) = care
He is the man who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoate.
Whose = al, a, ai, ale cui/crui/crei/cror
He is the playwright whose plays are eternal. = El este dramaturgul ale
crui piese sunt eterne.
To whom = who (m). to = cruia, creia, crora
The boy, to whom I must give this book, is my friend. = The boy, who
(m) I must give this book to, is my friend. = Biatul, cruia eu trebuie s-l dau
aceast carte, este prietenul meu.
Whom/that = pe care (pentru persoane)
The boys, whom/that you see, are Johns friends. = Bieii, pe care i
vezi, sunt prietenii lui John.
Which/that = care, pe care (pentru lucruri)
The house, which/that you see, is mine. = Casa, pe care o vezi, este a
mea.
1.9.1.2.10. Conjuncii subiective (Subject Clause Conjunctions)
Conjunciile subiective introduc subordonatele subiective.
That = c
That we have to work hard is a necessity. = C trebuie s muncim mult
este o necesitate.
Who = cine, care
Who knows the truth is not here. = Cine tie adevrul nu este aici.
What = ce
What I like is not to be found here. = Ce-mi place mie nu se gsete
aici.
When = cnd

comes depends on the weather. = Cnd vine el depinde de


vreme.
Why = de ce, din ce cauz
Why he has come is a mystery. = De ce a venit el este un mister.
What. for = for what = pentru ce
For what he has come is a mystery. = Pentru ce a venit el este un
mister.
How = cum
How he has done it is a mystery. = Cum a fcut-o este un mister.
Where = unde
Where we shall go is a mystery. = Unde vom merge este un mister.
Wherever = oriunde
Wherever we went would be a mystery/secret. = Oriunde am merge ar
un mister/secret.
Whenever = ori de cte ori
Whenever we went would be a mystery. = Ori de cte ori am merge ar
un mister.
Whose = al, a, ai, ale
Whose this book is is a mystery. = A cui este aceast carte este un
mister.
What kind/sort of = ce fel de
What kind/sort of man he is is a mystery. = Ce fel de om este el este un
mister.
Which = care
Which book I must buy is a mystery. = Care carte trebuie s-o cumpr
este un mister.
Which of = care dintre
Which of us will travel by train is a secret. = Care dintre noi va cltori
cu trenul este secret.
1.9.1.2.1. Conjuncii completive (Object Clause Conjunctions) that = c
You did not tell me that you would come earlier. = Nu mi-ai spus c vei
veni mai devreme.
Conjuncia that se poate omite: I knew you were very busy. = tiam c
eti foarte ocupat.
1.9.2. Alte cuvinte de legtur for instance = for example = de
exemplu/pild one = o dat
One, you would have more spare time. = O dat, ai avea mai mult timp
liber.
Two = doi, n al doilea rnd
Two, you would be better paid. = Doi, ai mai bine pltit.
Secondly, and far more importantly. = n al doilea rnd i mult mai
important. and to conclude. = i n ncheiere rst/rstly = n primul rnd, mai
nti second/secondly = n al doilea rnd third/thirdly = n al treilea rnd to
conclude = n ncheiere/concluzie for a start = pentru nceput
I want to begin by saying that. = Vreau s ncep prin a spune (spunnd)
c.

other thing is that. = Alt lucru este c.


Which is far more important. = Care este cu mult mai important.
There is still another thing. = Mai este nc un lucru.
The nal thing I must say is. = Ultimul lucru pe care trebuie s-l spun
este.
The second/third reason is. = Al doilea/treilea motiv este.
Also, its not. = De asemenea, nu este.
You didnt read that book. = I didnt read it either. = Neither did I. = Tu
nu ai citit cartea aceea. = Nici eu n-am citit-o.
You are n a hurry. Indeed we are. =  Voi v grbii. Ne grbim, ntradevr;  Da, aa este;  Sigur c da.
That reminds me of. = Asta mi amintete de.
By the way. = By the by. = Apropo.
n a word, briey. = ntr-un cuvnt, pe scurt.
My conclusion is that. = Concluzia mea este c.
That is. = That is to say. = Adic
This is another way of putting it. = Aceasta este un alt fel/mod de a-l
spune/exprima.
Such an example would be. = Un astfel de exemplu ar
As a result. = consequently. = Ca urmare; n consecin.
The consequence was that. = Consecina/urmarea a fost c.
The consequence of his being late was that. = Consecina/urmarea
ntrzierii lui a fost c. n other words = cu alte cuvinte n that case = n cazul
acela if so = dac e aa if not = dac nu
I would rather say = a spune/zice mai degrab a way of putting it = un
fel de a spune a better way of putting it = un fel mai bun de a zice
It would be better to. = Ar mai bine s.
On the one hand/side = pe de o parte; on the other hand/side = pe de
alt parte on the contrary = dimpotriv by contrast = prin contrast
Of course, he. = Desigur, el.
He is, of course. = El este, desigur. it is true that = este adevrat c
There is little doubt about that. = Este puin ndoial n privina
aceasta/aceea.
There is no doubt about that. = Nu este nici o ndoial n acest sens.
The truth is that. = Adevrul este c.
He will even read it. = El o va i citi. = El chiar o va citi.
He likes to spend his holidays at the seaside. So do we. = Lui i place
s-i petreac vacana la mare.
i nou.
We are at the seaside. So am I. =  Noi suntem la mare.
i eu.
He can speak French. So can we. =  El tie s vorbeasc
franuzete.
i noi.
He cannot speak French. Neither can we; We cant either . =  El
nu tie s vorbeasc franuzete.

st reason = primul motiv, prima cauz the rst suggestion =


prima sugestie
He feels so bad today. = El se simte aa (de) ru azi/astzi.
I do not feel that bad. = Eu nu m simt aa (de) ru.
I expected it to be this big. = M-am ateptat s e aa de mare.
n the same way as = n acelai fel ca much similar to = mult
asemntor cu
The girl other than Jane. = Alt fat dect Jane; Alt fat n afar de
Jane.
2. S I N T A X A (THE SYNTAX)
Gr.: syn = mpreun, cu; taxis = aranjament, aezare)
Sintaxa este aceea parte a gramaticii care se ocup cu studiul funciilor
cuvintelor n propoziii i cu studiul propoziiilor n fraz. Ea stabilete regulile
dup care se mbin propoziiile n fraz.
2.1. SINTAXA PROPOZIIEI (THE SYNTAX OF THE SENTENCE)
Propoziia este comunicarea n care se a un singur predicat. Din
punct de vedere formal propoziiile sunt simple i dezvoltate. Propoziia
simpl conine doar subiect i predicat. The boy leams. = Biatul nva.
2.1.1. Subiectul (The Subject)
Subiectul este partea propoziiei, care poate uneori autorul aciunii,
alteori obiect al aciunii svrite de altcineva. Subiect mai poate cineva/
ceva despre care se comunic ceva n propoziie. Rspunde la ntrebrile:
who? = cine?; what? = ce? n exemplul The boy leams cuvntul the boy este
subiect, iar cuvntul leams este predicat.
2.1.2. Predicatul (The Predicate)
Predicatul este partea de propoziie prin care se comunic ceva despre
subiect sau ce anume svrete/face subiectul.
Subiectul i predicatul sunt pri principale ale unei propoziii. Se poate
vorbi uneori despre propoziii cu mai multe subiecte sau cu subiect multiplu:
The boys and the girls leam to swim. = Bieii i fetele nva s noate.
n momentul n care ntr-o comunicare apar dou predicate,
comunicarea respectiv nu mai este propoziie ci fraz.
n cazul n care pe lng subiect i predicat exist i alte pri de
propoziie, propoziia respectiv nu mai este o propoziie simpl, ci o
propoziie dezvoltat: A clever student leams every day. = Un student
detept nva n ecare zi.
Predicatul unei propoziii este reprezentat printr-un verb la unul dintre
cele patru moduri personale ale verbului care sunt: indicativ, condiional,
subjonctiv i imperativ.
Predicatele sunt: a) verbale b) nominale
Predicatul verbal este reprezentat printr-un verb principal.
He studies chemisty. = El studiaz chimie. They will come by coach. =
Vor veni cu autocarul. He had seen the monastery. = El vzuse mnstirea.
Three and three makes six. = Trei plus trei fac ase.

catul nominal const dintr-un verb copulativ i un nume predicativ


Iat cteva verbe copulative: to be, to become, to continue, to get, to
grow, to seem etc.
Everybody grows old. = Toat lumea mbtrnete. = Toi mbtrnesc.
Nici verbele modale nu pot singure predicate n propoziii, ci
mpreun cu verbul pe care l preced.
I must go to church. = Trebuie s merg la biseric.
He is clever. = El este detept.
He must be clever. = Probabil c este detept.
Roses smell sweet. = Trandarii miros plcut.
Their pleasure is to swim. = Plcerea lor este s noate.
We are to leave right away. = Urmeaz/Trebuie s plecm imediat.
He could come any minute. = Ar putea veni n orice clip.
It is I. = Eu sunt. = Sunt eu.
Prile secundare ale propoziiei sunt atributul i complementul.
2.1.3. Atributul (The Atribute)
Atributul determin un substantiv i i are locul naintea lui.
She is singing a beautiful song. = Ea cnt un cntec frumos.
He is my friend. = El este prietenul meu.
He is my good friend. = El este prietenul meu cel bun. = El este bunul
meu prieten.
John is my best friend. = John este cel mai bun prieten al meu.
Uneori atributul st dup substantivul su.
They were the last to come. = Ei au fost ultimii care au venit.
You can ask the man n the street. = l poi ntreba pe omul de pe
strad.
The book read by me is interesting. = Cartea citit de mine este
interesant.
2.1.4. Complementul (THE OBJECT)
2.1.4.1. Complementul direct (The Direct Object)
Complementul direct este partea de propoziie asupra creia se
orienteaz aciunea subiectului. Se exprim prin substantive/pronume n
cazul acuzativ.
I am reading a book. = Eu citesc o carte. I = subiect; am reading =
predicat
What am I reading? = Ce citesc eu?
Who is reading a book? = Cine citete o carte? A book = complement
direct
I am reading an interesting book. = Eu citesc o carte interesant.
Interesting = = atribut
Locul complementului direct n propoziie este dup verbul su. Exist
i un complement intern (The Cognate Object), care st ntre verbul tranzitiv
i complementul direct propriu-zis.
To run a swift race = a face o curs rapid to dream an interesting
dream = a visa un vis interesant

complement direct:
I teach them grammar. = i nv pe ei gramatic.
I = subiect; teach = predicat
Who teaches them grammar? = Cine i nva pe ei gramatic? Them,
grammar = complemente directe
What do I do? = Ce fac eu? Whom do I teach grammar? = Pe cine nv
eu gramatic? What do I teach them? = Ce i nv eu pe ei?
I see people n the street. = Vd oameni pe strad. What do I see n the
street? = Ce vd eu pe strad? I see John n the street. = l vd pe John pe
strad. Whom do I see n the street? = Pe cine vd eu pe strad?
2.1.4.2. Complementul indirect (The Indirect Object)
Complementul indirect este cel asupra cruia aciunea subiectului se
ndreapt/rsfrnge indirect i este exprimat prin substantive sau pronume n
cazul dativ.
I shall buy a book for you. = Voi cumpra o carte pentru tine.
He bought the boy a book. = He bought a book to the boy. = El i-a
cumprat biatului o carte. = El i-a cumprat o carte biatului.
To whom did he buy it? = Who (m) did he buy it to? = Cui i-ai cumprato?
He bought a book for the boy. = El a cumprat o carte pentru biat.
Who (m) did he buy a book for? = For whom did he buy a book? =
Pentru cine a cumprat el o carte?
Complementul indirect rspunde la ntrebri ca:
To whom? = who (m). to? = cui?
For whom? = who (m). for? = pentru cine? Cui?
About whom? = who (m). about? = despre cine?
With whom? = who (m). with? = cu cine?
Without whom? = who (m). without? = fr cine?
Complementul indirect n limba englez poate alctuit cu unele
prepoziii ca to, for, about, with, without i atunci el poart numele de
complement indirect prepoziional, sau poate aprea fr prepoziie.
Neprepoziional:
I shall give you a book. = i voi da ie o carte. I shall buy you a book. =
i voi cumpra ie o carte.
Prepoziional:
I shall give a book to you. = i voi da o carte ie. I shall buy a book for
you. = Voi cumpra o carte pentru tine.
2.1.4.2.1. Verbe cu prepoziii pentru complemente indirecte to
accustom oneself to something = a se obinui cu ceva to administer smth. to
smb. = a administra/aplica ceva cuiva to announce smth. to smb. = a anuna
ceva cuiva to appear to = a prea to attribute smth. to smb. = a atribui ceva
cuiva to belong to = a aparine to communicate smth. to smb. = a comunica
ceva cuiva to conde smth. to smb. = a destinui ceva cuiva to convey smth.
to smb. = a comunica/transmite ceva cuiva to deliver smth. to smb. = a
nmna/livra ceva cuiva to describe smth. to smb. = a descrie ceva cuiva to
explain smth. to smb. = a explica ceva cuiva to be devoted to smb. = a

votat cuiva to impute smth. to smb. = a imputa ceva cuiva to introduce


smb. to smb. = a prezenta pe cineva cuiva to leave smth. to (chance) = a
lsa ceva (la voia ntmplrii) to listen to smb. /smth. = a asculta la cineva/
ceva to mention to smb. That = a meniona cuiva c to prescribe smth. to
smb. = a prescrie ceva cuiva to propose smth. to smb. = a propune ceva
cuiva to prove to smb. That = a dovedi cuiva c to relate to smb. Smth. = a
relata cuiva ceva to be related to smb. = a rud cu cineva, a se nrudi to
resign smth. to smb. = a ceda ceva cuiva to reveal smb. Smth. = a dezvlui
cuiva ceva, to say smth. to smb. = a zice/spune ceva cuiva to say no to smth.
= a refuza ceva, a zice nu la ceva to seem to smb. = a i se prea cuiva, a-l
prea cuiva to speak to smb. About smth. = a vorbi cu cineva despre ceva, to
submit to = a (se) supune to suggest smth. to smb. = a sugera ceva cuiva to
yield to smth. = a consimi la ceva; a ceda la ceva
2.1.4.2.2. Verbe cu complement direct i complement indirect to allow
smth. to smb. = a permite ceva cuiva to bring smth. to smb. = a aduce ceva
cuiva to give smb. Smth. = to give smth. to smb. = a da ceva cuiva to give
smb. Much trouble = to give much trouble to smb. = a da cuiva mult btaie
de cap = a da mult btaie de cap cuiva to give smb. an example = a da
cuiva un exemplu to grant smb. Smth. = to grant smth. to smb. = a garanta
cuiva ceva = a garanta ceva cuiva to hand smb. Smth. = to hand smth. to
smb. = a nmna cuiva ceva = a nmna ceva cuiva to leave smb. Smth. = to
leave smth. to smb. = a lsa cuiva ceva = a lsa ceva pentru cineva to lend
smb. Smth. = to lend smth. to smb. = a da cuiva mprumut ceva = a da ceva
mprumut cuiva to oer smb. Smth. = to oer smth. to smb. = a oferi cuiva
ceva = a oferi ceva cuiva to owe smb. Smth. = to owe smth. to smb. = a
datora cuiva ceva, a datora ceva cuiva to pay smb. Smth. = to pay smth. to
smb. = a plti cuiva ceva = a plti ceva cuiva to promise smb. Smth. = to
promise smth. to smb. = a promite/fgdui cuiva ceva = a promite/fgdui
ceva cuiva to refuse smb. Smth. = to refuse smth. to smb. = a refuza cuiva
ceva = a refuza ceva cuiva to sell smb. Smth. = to sell smth. to smb. = a
vinde cuiva ceva = a vinde ceva cuiva to send smb. Smth. = to send smth. to
smb. = a trimite cuiva ceva, a trimite ceva cuiva to show smb. Smth. = to
show smth. to smb. = a arta cuiva ceva, a arta ceva cuiva to tell smb.
Smth. = to tell smth. to smb. = a spune/povesti cuiva ceva, a spune/povesti
ceva cuiva to wish smb. Smth. = to wish smth. to smb. = a ura/dori cuiva
ceva = a ura/dori ceva cuiva to write smb. Smth. = to write smth. to smb. =
a scrie cuiva ceva
2.1.4.3. Complementul prepoziional (The Prepozitional Object)
Complementul prepoziional este un complement al unui verb cu
prepoziie.
OF  de, cu, din etc.
To be afraid of = a se teme de to be aware of smth. = a contient de
ceva, a-i da seama de ceva to approve of smth. to smb. = a aproba ceva
cuiva to be characteristic of smb. = a-l caracteristic cuiva, a caracteristic
pentru cineva to deprive smb. Of smth. = a lipsi/priva pe cineva de ceva to
be fond of smth. = a amator de ceva to accuse smb. Of smth. = a acuza pe

cineva de ceva to be independent of smth (smb). = a independent de ceva


(de cineva) to be jealous of smb. = a gelos pe cineva to be proud of smb. /
smth. = a mndru de cineva/ceva to beware of = a se feri/pzi de to boast
of smth. = a se luda cu ceva to complain to smb. Of smth. = a se plnge
cuiva de ceva to cure smb. Of smth. = a vindeca pe cineva de ceva to die of
smth. = a muri de ceva to doubt of smth. = a se ndoi de ceva to remind
smb. Of smth. /smb. = a aminti cuiva de ceva/cineva to smell of smth. = a
mirosi a ceva to taste of smth. = a avea gust de ceva to think of smth. = a
reecta/medita la/asupra, a lua n seam ceva to be condent of = a
ncreztor n, a avea ncredere n
FOR  de la, pentru etc.
To apologize for = a-i cere iertare pentru to ask smb. For smth. = a
cere ceva cuiva to be angry with smb. For smth. = a suprat pe cineva
pentru ceva to be anxious for smth. = a ngrijorat/nelinitit de ceva to call
for = a necesita to care for smb (smth). = a-l plcea de cineva, ceva to
forgive smb. For smth. = a ierta pe cineva pentru ceva to long for = a tnji
dup, a visa la to pine for smth. = a tnji dup ceva to look for smb. /smth. =
a cuta pe cineva/ceva to mistake smb. (smth) for smb. (smth) else = a
confunda pe cineva cu altcineva to pass for = a trece drept to send for smb.
= a trimite dup cineva to stand for smb. /smth. = a reprezenta pe cineva, a
reprezenta ceva to be sorry for smth. = a-l prea ru de/pentru ceva to
struggle for smth. = a lupta pentru ceva to thank smb. For smth. = a mulumi
cuiva pentru ceva to wait for smb. (smth) = a atepta pe cineva/ceva to wait
for. = a atepta
TO = la, ctre, spre to apologize to smb. For smth. = a-i cere iertare
cuiva pentru ceva to agree to smth. = a de acord cu ceva to accustom
oneself to smth. = a se obinui cu ceva to be grateful to smb. For smth. = a
recunosctor cuiva pentru ceva to be accustomed to smth. = a obinuit
cu ceva to be cruel to smb. = a crud/nemilos fa de cineva to be dierent
to = a diferit/deosebit de to be good/kind to smb. = a bun/amabil fa de
cineva, a bun cu cineva to be indierent to = a indiferent fa de to be
polite to = a politicos cu, a politicos fa de to be similar to smth. = a
similar/asemntor cu ceva to be superior to = a superior to belong to = a
aparine to boast to smb. About smth. = a se luda cuiva cu ceva to compare
smth. to smth. = a compara ceva cu ceva to contribute to smth. = a
contribui la ceva to introduce smb. to smb. Else = a prezenta pe cineva
altcuiva to lend smth. to smb. = a mprumuta ceva cuiva to move to another
place = a se muta n alt loc to refer to smb. /smth. = a se referi la cineva/
ceva to resort to smth. = a recurge la ceva from  DE LA, DIN to be dierent
from = a diferit/deosebit de to borrow smth. From smb. = a mprumuta
ceva de la cineva to conceal smth. From smb. = a ascunde ceva cuiva to
dier from smth. /smb. = a diferi de ceva/cineva to escape from something
= a scpa de ceva to move from. to. = a se muta de la. la. to prevent smb.
From doing smth. = a opri/preveni pe cineva s fac ceva to refrain from
smth. = a se abine de la ceva to retire from one place to another = a se
retrage dintr-un loc n altul to defend smb. From smth. = a apra pe cineva

va to translate from. into. = a traduce din. n. to tell smb. From smb.


Else = a deosebi pe cineva de altcineva
WITH  CU to agree with smb. On smth. = a de acord cu cineva
asupra unui fapt to acquaint oneself with smth. = a se familiariza cu, a se
obinui cu to be acquainted with = a familiarizat/obinuit cu, to be patient
with smb. = a rbdtor cu cineva, a rbdtor fa de cineva to be
satised with = a mulumit/satisfcut de to deal with smth. = a se ocupa cu
ceva, a trata ceva to deal with smb. = a avea de-a face cu cineva to ll smth.
With smth. = a umple ceva cu ceva to compare with = a (se) compara cu to
meet with smb. = a se ntlni cu cineva to meet with smth. = a ntmpina
ceva; a trece prin ceva; a da de ceva to part with smb. /smth. = a se despri
de cineva/ceva to play with smb. /smth. = a se juca cu cineva/ceva to be
sated with smth. = a stul/dezgustat de ceva to supply smb. With smth. =
a aproviziona pe cineva cu ceva to threaten smb. With smth. = a amenina pe
cineva cu ceva
ON/UPON  PE, IN to be crazy on smth. = a mare amator de ceva, a
mort dup ceva to be dependent on smth. = a dependent de ceva to count
on/upon smb. /smth. = a se bizui/baza pe cineva/ceva, a conta pe cineva/
ceva to call on smb. = a vizita pe cineva, a trece pe la cineva to congratulate
smb. On smth. = a felicita pe cineva pentru ceva to depend on/upon = a
depinde de to feed smb. On smth. = a hrni pe cineva cu ceva to insist on =
a insista asupra to intrude smth. On/upon smb. = a se impune ceva cuiva to
knock on smth. = a se lovi de ceva to live on = a tri cu to look on/upon a
show = a privi la (ca spectator) to look on smb. as = a considera pe cineva
drept to be intent on/upon = a concentrat asupra, a absorbit de
ABOUT  n jurul; despre; prin etc.
To be concemed about smth. = a preocupat, ingrijorat de ceva to be
crazy about smth. = a mare amator de ceva, a mort dup ceva to boast
to smb. About smth. = a se luda cuiva cu ceva to think about smth. = a se
gndi la ceva
IN  din, n, la to be interested n smth. = a-l interesa ceva to have
similar tastes n = a avea gusturi asemntoare pentru to be superior n = a
superior n/ca to indulge n = a se complace n, a se deda la to interfere n
smth. = a se amesteca/bga n ceva to laugh n smb. s face = a-l rde cuiva
n nas to participate n smth. = a participa la ceva to succeed n = a reui s
AT = LA to be astonished at smth. = a uimit/surprins de ceva to be
good at smth. = a bun, a se pricepe la ceva to be indignant at smth. = a
indignat de ceva to be surprised at smth. = a surprins de ceva to glance at
smb. /smth. = a arunca o privire la cineva/ceva to knock at = a bate la to
look at smb. /smth. = a privi la cineva/ceva to play at smth. = a se juca de-a
ceva to laugh at smb. /smth. = a rde de cineva/ceva to rush at smb. /smth.
= a se repezi la cineva/ceva
BY = lng, cu, dup, pe etc.
To be impressed by smb. /smth. = a impresionat de cineva/ceva to be
preoccupied by smth. = a preocupat de ceva to begin by = a ncepe prin a

to pass by smb. /smth. = a trece de cineva/ceva to prot by smth. = a prota


de ceva
AGAINST = contra, mpotriva to defend against = a apra contra/
mpotriva to knock against smth. = a se lovi de ceva to protect smb. Against
smth. = a proteja pe cineva mpotriva/de ceva
AFTER = DUP to look after smth. /smb. = a avea grij, a se ngriji de
ceva/cineva
WITHOUT = FR to do without = a se lipsi/dispensa de = a se
descurca fr to ask smb. Smth. = a ntreba pe cineva ceva to interfere
between = a se amesteca ntre to look like smb. = a semna cu cineva to
look like smth. = a semna cu ceva to move smth. Near smth. = a muta ceva
lng ceva to pass oneself o! as = a se da/prezenta drept to transform smth.
Into smth. Else = a transforma ceva n altceva to pass smb. /smth. = a trece
de cineva/ceva
n limba romn aceste complemente prepoziionale au ca echivalent
complementul indirect n acuzativ care rspunde la ntrebrile: cu cine? Cu
ce? La cine? La ce? Fr cine? Etc.
2.1.4.4. Complementul circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial of Place)
Se exprim printr-un adverb de loc.
William the Conqueror landed at Pevensey, on the coast of Sussex. =
William Cuceritorul a debarcat la Pevensey, pe coasta Sussex-ului.
We are at home. = Noi suntem acas.
English is spoken all over the world. = Engleza este vorbit n toat
lumea.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: where? = unde? From where? Where., from? =
de unde? How far? = ct de departe? Pn unde? Etc.
2.1.4.5. Complementul circumstanial de timp (The Adverbial of Time)
Se exprim printr-un adverb de timp.
I was at home yesterday. = Yesterday I was at home. = Ieri eram acas.
I have never seen him there. = Nu l-am vzut pe el niciodat acolo.
We have lived n Craiova for twenty ve years. = Locuim n Craiova de
douzeci i cinci de ani.
Rspunde la ntrebarea when? = cnd?
2.1.4.6. Complementul circumstanial de mod (The Adverbial of
Manner)
Se exprim prin adverbe de mod.
Alice sings beautifully. = Alice cnt frumos.
The children were playing happily. = Copiii se jucau fericii.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: how? = cum? How much? = ct, ct? n what
way? = n ce fel? How many times? = de cte ori?
2.1.4.7. Complementul circumstanial de cauz (The Adverbial of
Cause)
Exprim cauza aciunii svrite de subiect i exprimat prin predicat.
I couldn#t come because of the rain. = N-am putut veni din cauza ploii.
We arrived late on my account. = Am ajuns trziu din cauza mea.

spunde la ntrebrile: why? = de ce? For what reason? = din ce


cauz/motiv? On what account? = din ce cauz? On whose account? = din
cauza cui? = din a cui cauz?
2.1.4.8. Complementul circumstanial de scop/nal (The Adverbial of
Purpose)
Reprezint materializarea scopului subiectului propoziiei n care se
a$.
He only works for money. = El muncete numai pentru bani.
He worked hard to make a good impression and to get much money. =
A muncit mult/serios ca s fac o bun impresie i s ctige bani muli.
This device is used for various purposes. = Acest dispozitiv este folosit
n/pentru diverse scopuri.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: for what purpose (s)? = cu ce scop (uri)? For
what? = what. for? = pentru ce?
2.1.4.9. Complementul circumstanial concesiv (The Adverbial of
Concession)
They have come n spite of the bad weather. = Ei au venit cu toat
vremea rea.
They played tennis n spite of my refusal not to play. = Ei au jucat tenis
n poda refuzului meu de a juca.
Rspunde la ntrebri ca: n spite of whom/what? = n poda/ciuda cui?
2.1.4.10. Complementul circumstanial condiional (The Adverbial of
Condition)
Reprezint condiia subiectului n propoziie.
Weather permitting we%ll arrive earlier. = Dac vremea va permite vom
sosi mai devreme. = Cu permisiunea vremii vom ajunge mai devreme.
Come with your friend if possible! = Vino cu prietenul tu dac e
posibil!
Rspunde la ntrebarea: on what condition? = cu ce condiie?
2.1.4.1. Complementul de agent (The Adverbial of Agency)
Complementul de agent sau subiectul logic este folosit numai la diateza
pasiv.
The book was read by the student. = Cartea a fost citit de student ().
Se vede clar c autorul aciunii este studentul. Cartea este subiectul
gramatical, ntruct despre ea se face comunicarea.
The house was destroyed by the earthquake. = Casa a fost distrus de
cutremurul de pmnt.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: by whom? = who (m). by? = de (ctre) cine?
By what? = what. by? = de ce?
2.2. SINTAXA FRAZEI (THE SYNTAX OF THE COMPOUND AND COMPLEX
SENTENCE)
Fraza este o comunicare alctuit din mai multe propoziii a$ate ntre
ele e n raporturi de coordonare e de subordonare. n cadrul coordonrii,
prile de propoziie n propoziie i propoziiile n fraz sunt independente
una de alta. Se pot lega ntre ele prin conjuncii coordonatoare sau
juxtapunere/alturare.

ordonare nsemneaz raport/relaie sintactic de dependen a unei


pri de propoziie de alt parte de propoziie sau a unei propoziii de alt
propoziie. Elementul subordonat depinde de termenul su regent, iar
propoziia subordonat depinde de regenta sa. Elementul subordonat este
deci termenul dependent, iar cel regent este cel care guverneaz n cadrul
relaiei respective.
Subordonarea se realizeaz prin conjuncii subordonatoare, prin
juxtapunere sau printr-un cuvnt de legtur subordonator.
Propoziia regent este aceea de care depinde semantic o alt
propoziie n cadrul aceleiai fraze. Propoziia subordonat se poate adresa
unui singur cuvnt din regenta sa, iar acest cuvnt, care se numete termen
regent, determin felul subordona-tei respective.
Pentru a se alctui o fraz este necesar ca n cadrul ei s existe o
propoziie principal, un fel de nucleu al frazei. Alturi de ea exist propoziii
secundare, adic propoziii totdeauna cu sens insucient. Secundarele, spre
deosebire de principale nu pot exista/funciona izolate n comunicare.
Propoziia secundar funcioneaz n fraz ca o parte secundar a propoziiei
principale.
2.2.1. Propoziia subiectiv (The Subject Clause)
Funcioneaz ca subiect al predicatului din regent i ntregete
nelesul regentei.
Why they didn't come is still a secret. = De ce nu au venit ei este nc
secret.
How to write a book is not known by anybody. = Cum s scrii o carte nu
se tie de ctre oricine.
Se ntlnete dup expresii ca:
It is advisable that = este recomandabil ca it is better that = este mai
bine s it is certain that = este sigur c it is desirable that = este de dorit ca
it is meet and proper that = se cuvine ca it is inevitable that = este inevitabil
ca
It is necessary that I came. = Este necesar ca eu s venit.
It is important that they will buy this book. = Este important ca ei s
cumpere aceast carte.
It is possible that he may come tomorrow. = Este posibil ca el s vin
mine.
When they will come is not my business. = Cnd vor veni ei nu este
treaba mea.
When they come is not my business. = Cnd vin ei nu este treaba mea.
When they came is not my business. = Cnd au venit ei nu este treaba
mea.
When they had come is not my business. = Cnd veniser ei nu este
treaba mea.
It is impossible that they should have come by train. = Este imposibil
ca ei s venit cu trenul.

compulsory for us to be there. = It is compulsory that we should be


there. = It is compulsory that we be there. = Este obligatoriu ca noi s m
acolo.
It is good for them to live here. = It is good that they live here. = It is
good that they should live here. = E bine ca ei s locuiasc aici.
2.2.2. Propoziia predicativ (The Predicative/Complement Clause)
mplinete funcia de nume predicativ al verbului din regenta sa i se
introduce n maniera n care se introduc i subiectivele.
Why he has come is the question. = De ce a venit el este problema.
Why he has come = subiectiv is the question = predicativ
It looks as if it were going to rain. = Arat de parc ar avea de gnd s
plou.
It looks = subiectiv; were going to rain = predicativ
2.2.3. Propoziia atributiv (The Atributive Clause)
Este un atribut al unui substantiv din regenta sa.
Every man, who knows him, appreciates him very much. = Fiecare om,
care l cunoate, l apreciaz foarte mult.
Every man appreciates him very much = propoziie regent who knows
him = atributiv
Termenul regent al atributivei de mai sus este substantivul man.
The reason why he has come is very clear. = Motivul pentru care a
venit este foarte clar.
It rained cats and dogs on the day on which we arrived. = A plouat cu
gleata n ziua n care am sosit.
2.2.4. Propoziia completiv direct (The Object Clause)
Este complementul direct al verbului tranzitiv din regent.
I did not ask him whether he was thirsty. = Nu l-am ntrebat dac i
este/era sete.
Did you know whose that house was? = Ai tiut tu a cui este/era casa
aceea?
I told you whom he gave the books to. = Eu i-am spus cui a dat el
crile.
He said that he would come later on. = El a zis c va veni dup aceea.
I advised him to stay with us. = I advised that he stay with us. = L-am
sftuit s stea cu noi.
2.2.5. Propoziia subordonat temporal (The Adverbial Clause of Time)
Este n fraz complementul circumstanial de timp pe lng un verb sau
adverb din regenta sa.
I shall read this book when I have time. = Voi citi aceast carte cnd voi
avea timp.
Termenul regent este verbul read.
Buy your ticket immediately that you reach the station! = Cumpr-i
biletul imediat cum ajungi la gar!
I shall read this book before you come home. = Voi citi aceast carte
nainte ca tu s vii acas.

shall give you the money as soon as I meet you. = i voi da banii de
ndat ce te voi ntlni.
They have been dancing ever since the party started. = Ei danseaz
chiar de cnd a nceput petrecerea.
She is happy when she is with her family. = Ea este fericit cnd este
cu familia ei.
You may stay until your cousin arrives. = Poi sta pn sosete veriorul
tu.
He may write the letter while we are swimming. = El poate scrie
scrisoarea n timp ce noi notm.
You will repeat the lesson till/until you know it. = Vei repeta lecia pn
o vei ti.
No sooner had the sunset than they went to bed. = Nici n-a apus
soarele c ei s-au i dus la culcare.
He may stay until John comes. = El poate sta pn vine John.
Subordonata temporal rspunde la ntrebrile: when? = cnd? How
long? = de ct timp? Since when? = de cnd? Till when? = pn cnd? Etc.
2.2.6. Propoziia circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial Clause of Place)
Este complementul circumstanial de loc al unui verb sau adverb din
regenta sa de care se leag prin adverbe relative ca: where = unde,
wherever = oriunde etc.
You cannot live where they live. = Nu poi tri unde triesc ei.
We may spend our holidays wherever we like. = Noi putem petrece
vacana/concediul oriunde ne place.
I(ll go wherever I can nd work. = Voi merge oriunde pot gsi de lucru.
2.2.7. Subordonata de proporie (The Clause of Proportion)
Este o variant a subordonatei de mod.
The more we are, the better it is. = Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att
mai bine.
As time went on, (so) she began to type more quickly. = Cum timpul a
trecut, ea a nceput s bat la main mai repede. = Cu trecerea timpului ea
a nceput s scrie la main mai repede.
The harder you work, the more money you make. = Cu ct munceti
mai mult, cu att ctigi mai muli bani.
2.2.8. Subordonata preferenial (The Clause of Preference)
Se traduce prin subordonata opoziional.
Rather than play football, I(d prefer to swim. = Dect s joc fotbal, a
prefera s not.
Rather than play football, you had better leam. = Dect s joci fotbal,
mai bine ai nva. = Dect s joci fotbal, mai bine s nvei.
I would play football rather than leam. = A juca fotbal mai degrab
dect s nv.
2.2.9. Propoziia circumstanial de mod i comparativ (The Adverbial
Clause of Manner and Comparison)
Joac rolul de complement circumstanial de mod pe lng un verb sau
un adverb din regenta sa.

sings as beautifully as her sister does. = Maria cnt la fel de


frumos cum cnt sora ei.
My friend is older than your friend (is). = Prietenul meu este mai mare/
btrn dect este al tu.
He looked at me as if/though he hadn)t known me. = El a privit la mine
de parc nu m-ar cunoscut.
Alice sings more beautifully than Jane (does). = Alice cnt mai frumos
dect cnt Jane.
She was singing as beautifully as her sister, Alice was. = Ea cnta la fel
de frumos cum cnta sora ei, Alice.
Tomorrow we shall work more than we worked yesterday. = Mine vom
munci mai mult dect am muncit ieri.
Subordonata circumstanial de mod rspunde la ntrebrile: how? =
cum? How beautifully? = ct de frumos? How much? = ct de mult? How
little? = ct de puin? How big? = ct de mare? Etc.
She cooks the breakfast exactly as her mother did. = Ea pregtete
micul dejun exact cum fcea mama ei.
2.2.10. Propoziia subordonat cauzal (The Adverbial Clause of Cause/
Reason)
Este n fraza respectiv un complement circumstanial de cauz pe
lng termenul su regent care este un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa.
I didn)t meet them there because I was late. = Nu i-am ntlnit acolo
pentru c am ntrziat.
Se leag de regenta sa prin conjuncii sau adverbe relative ca: because
= pentru c, for the reason that = pentru motivul c, seeing that = vznd
c, on the ground that = din cauz c, owing to the fact that = datorit
faptului c, as = cci, since = ntruct, on account that = din cauz c etc.
Rspunde la ntrebri ca: why? = de ce? On what account? = din ce
cauz, for what reason? = din ce motiv/cauz? Etc.
Seeing that they did not come I went home. = Vznd c ei nu vin am
plecat acas.
I did not come owing to the fact that it was too late. = Eu nu am venit
pentru faptul c era prea trziu.
2.2.1. Propoziia subordonat nal (de scop) (The Adverbial Clause of
Purpose)
Corespunde n fraza respectiv unui complement circumstanial de
cauz pe lng un verb sau adverb din regenta sa, respectiv pe lng
termenul su regent.
You must get up earlier, so that you can meet him at the station. =
Trebuie s te scoli mai devreme ca s-l poi ntmpina pe el la gar.
We got up early, so that we should not be late for school. = Ne-am
sculat de-noapte ca s nu ntrziem de la coal.
He must turn on the light lest he should knock himself against
something n the darkness. = El trebuie s aprind lumina ca s nu se
loveasc de ceva pe ntuneric.

ordonata nal se leag de regenta sa prin conjunciile i adverbele


relative: n order that = cu scopul de a, so that = aa nct, that = nct/c,
lest (+ should) = ca s nu, for fear that = de team s nu, on purpose to =
cu scopul de a.
I shall go to England so that I can leam English well. = Eu voi merge n
Anglia ca s pot nva englezete bine.
n limba englez un mare numr de subordonate nale se realizeaz cu
ajutorul modului innitiv, dei se tie c innitivul nu este un mod personal.
We go to school to leam. = Mergem la coal s nvm. = Mergem la
coal pentru a nva.
We go to church to pray. = Mergem la biseric pentru a ne ruga. =
Mergem la biseric s ne rugm.
They came here on purpose to borrow money from us. = Ei au venit aici
cu scopul de a mprumuta bani de la noi.
Rspunde la ntrebrile: on what purpose? = cu ce scop? For what
reason? = pentru care motiv? For what? = what. For? = pentru ce?
2.2.12. Subordonata concesiv (The Adverbial Clause of Concession)
Se introduce prin conjunciile: though, although = dei, cu toate c,
however = orict de, whoever = indiferent cine, n spite of = n ciuda/poda,
even if/though = chiar dac, whichever = indiferent care, no matter who =
indiferent cine, no matter whose = indiferent al, a, ai, ale cui? No matter by
whom = no matter who (m). by = indiferent de cine, no matter why =
indiferent de ce, no matter how = indiferent cum, no matter when =
indiferent cnd, no matter where = indiferent unde
Though it is late we shall sit and watch the football match. = Dei este
trziu noi vom sta i vom privi meciul de fotbal.
We shall watch the football match although it is late. = Noi vom privi
meciul de fotbal dei este trziu.
Late as it is we shall watch the football match. = Trziu aa cum este
noi vom privi meciul de fotbal. = Aa trziu cum este noi vom privi meciul de
fotbal.
You should be waiting for him even if it were late. = Ar trebui s-l
atepi chiar dac ar trziu.
n acest ultim exemplu se observ n subordonat folosirea modului
subjonctiv prin care se exprim o situaie ireal sau o presupunere.
You should have been waiting for him even if it had been late. = Ar
trebuit s-l atepi chiar dac era trziu.
We shall go to see them even if it is rather early. = Mergem pe la ei
dei este cam devreme.
I buy it however expensive it is. = l/Ocumpr indiferent ct este de
scump ().
I should buy it however expensive it were. = A cumpra-o indiferent
ct ar ea de scump. = L-a cumpra indiferent ct ar de scump.
If they*re poor, at least they*re honest. = Dac sunt sraci cel puin
sunt cinstii.

opoziia consecutiv (The Adverbial Clause of Result or The


Consecutive Adverbial Clause)
Exprim rezultatul/urmarea/consecina aciunii din propoziia regent.
Alice was so beautiful that everybody was admiring her. = Alice era
aa/att de frumoas nct toat lumea o admira.
His explanation was so clear that each of us understood it = Explicaia
lui a fost aa de clar nct ecare dintre noi a neles-o.
He never goes to the seaside but spend a lot of money. = El nu merge
niciodat la mare fr s cheltuiasc muli bani.
Such was the force of his argument that everybody agreed with him. =
Aa mare a fost fora argumentului su c toat lumea a fost de acord cu el.
Se introduce prin conjunciile: so. that. = aa de. nct/c, that = c/
nct
He was so clever that everybody admired him. = El era aa/att de
detept c/nct toat lumea l admira.
2.2.14. Propoziia subordonat condiional (The Adverbial Clause of
Condition or the Conditional Clause)
Reprezint condiia nfptuirii/ndeplinirii aciunii din regenta sa. Se
leag de regenta sa cu ajutorul conjunciilor condiionale: if = dac, on
condition that = cu condiia c, providing/provided that = cu condiia c,
suppose/supposing that = presupunnd c = dac, unless = dac nu, cu
condiia c nu, whether. or not = dac. sau nu, as soon as = de ndat ce =
dac, as long as = ct timp = dac, n case = n caz c = dac
Exist trei tipuri de condiionale, clasicare fcut n raport cu
posibilitatea realizrii/ndeplinirii aciunii din regenta respectiv.
A) Subordonata condiional tip I + condiie real i posibil, iar verbul
din regenta sa este la viitor. Locul lor n fraz se poate schimba.
If I have time I shall read this book. = Dac voi avea timp voi citi
aceast carte.
I shall read this book if I have time. = Voi citi aceast carte dac voi
avea timp.
I shall not read this book unless I have time. = Nu voi citi aceast carte
dac nu voi avea timp.
I shall read this book on the condition that I have time. = Voi citi
aceast carte cu condiia c voi avea timp.
Remind him of his promise n case he forgets. = Amintete-l de
promisiunea lui n caz c uit.
I,ll remind you of your promise n case you forget. = i voi aminti de
promisiunea ta n caz c uii.
I,ll not be waiting for you if you are late. = Nu te voi atepta dac vei
ntrzia.
I,ll not wait for you if you are late. = Nu te voi atepta dac vei ntrzia.
Din exemplele de mai sus se vede c aciunea din condiional
probabil/posibil se va ndeplini.
B) Subordonata condiional tip I + condiie ireal i improbabil, dar nu
imposibil.

should read this book if I had time. = Eu a citi aceast carte dac a
avea timp.
Se observ c n exemplul de mai sus verbul este la modul condiional,
timpul prezent, iar n regent verbul este modul subjonctiv, timpul prezent. n
aceast situaie condiia devine probabil. n acest caz aciunea din regent
pare mai degrab s nu se realizeze sau presupunerea din regent pare s e
n contradicie cu realitatea ori faptele cunoscute.
He would buy this palace if he had money. = El ar cumpra acest palat
dac ar avea bani.
If he were to go on a joumey round the world he would be very happy.
= Dac el ar /trebui/urma s mearg ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii ar foarte
fericit.
He would be very happy if he were to go on a joumey round the world.
= El ar foarte fericit dac ar s plece/mearg ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii.
C) Subordonata condiional tip I - condiie imposibil
n situaia aceasta verbul din regent este la modul condiional perfect,
iar cel din regent este la modul subjonctiv perfect. Condiiile sunt trecute,
sunt deci imposibil de ndeplinit.
If I had had time I should have read the book. = Dac a avut timp a
citit cartea.
Sau:
I should have read the book if I had had time. = Eu a citit cartea
dac a avut timp.
I should have spoken to that Englishman if I had been able to speak
English. = A vorbit cu englezul acela dac a tiut englezete.
Sau:
Had I been able to speak English I should have spoken to that
Englishman. = S tiut eu s vorbesc englezete a vorbit cu englezul
acela.
If you treat us kindly, we.ll do anything for you. = Dac ne tratezi (ne
vei trata) amabil vom face orice pentru tine.
If you listened to us, you wouldn.t make mistakes. = Dac tu ai asculta
de noi n-ai face greeli.
If you ever have any trouble, let us know. = Dac avei/ai vreodat vreo
suprare, d-ne de tire.
If it were to rain, you would get wet. = Dac ar s plou, v-ai uda.
Should you change your mind, let me know. = Dac s-ar ntmpla s te
rzgndeti, d-mi de veste.
Give it back to him, or I.ll tell your mother. = D-l-l napoi c altfel i
spun mamei tale.
2.2.15. Subordonata condiional - concesiv (The Alternative
Conditional Concessive Clause)
He will pay for everything, whether he likes it or not. = El va plti
pentru tot, chiar dac i place sau nu.
Wherever you live, you have to work hard. = Oriunde (indiferent unde)
trieti, trebuie s munceti serios/mult.

you lived, you/d have to work hard. = Oriunde ai locui/tri ar


trebui s munceti mult.
2.3. CONCORDAN0A TIMPURILOR (THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES)
Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonat cu timpul
verbului din regenta sa. n limba englez timpul verbului din subordonat
trebuie s se subordoneze timpului verbului din regent. Cu alte cuvinte
timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaz folosirea anumitor timpuri n
subordonatele lor.
Exist n acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut i aplicat.
Regula I: Dac n regent verbul este la Present Tense sau Present
Perfect Tense n subordonat se poate folosi orice timp.
Regula I: Dac n regent verbul este la trecut n subordonat el trebuie
s e la unul din cele trei timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze: The Past Perfect,
The Past Tense, The Future n the Past.
Regula I: Dac verbul din regent este la viitor n subordonatele
condiionale i temporale, el trebuie s e la Present Tense sau Present
Perfect Tense, iar dac subordonata este completiv direct verbul va la
viitor.
REGENT
SUBORDONAT
I. Verbul este la prezent verbul poate la orice timp he had come =
venise he came = a venit
We all know that = Noi toi tim c he will come = el va veni he would
come = el ar veni he would have come = el ar venit
I. Verbul este la trecut verbul trebuie s e la trecut she had come = ea
venise 1 anterioritate
He did not know that = El nu a tiut c she came = ea a venit 1
simultaneitate she would come = va veni 1 posterioritate
I. Verbul este la viitor
A. verbul s e la Present sau Present Perfect n subordonatele
condiionale i temporale
I shall tell you the truth if/when = i voi spune adevrul dac/cnd you
give (have given) me the book. = mi vei da cartea.
B. Verbul va la orice timp n subordonata completiv direct.
I shall see what = Eu voi vedea ce
I shall do. = voi face.
EXCEP0I (deci cazuri cnd nu se aplic regulile de concordan a
timpurilor)
1. Cnd n subordonat se exprim un adevr tiinic/general.
Everybody knew that gold is a metal. = Toat lumea tia c aurul este
metal.
I told you that silver is gray. = 0i-am spus c argintul este gri.
2. Cnd subordonata este:
A) cauzal
He will not go to school because he didn/t leam his lessons. = El nu va
merge la coal pentru c nu i-a nvat leciile.

shall go on the trip because they gave us the money. = Vom merge
n excursie pentru c ei ne-au dat banii.
B) atributiv
You will see the man who wrote that book. = l vei vedea pe omul care
a scris cartea aceea.
I saw the girl who will play the piano. = Am vzut fata care va cnta la
pian.
C) comparativ modal
Tomorrow I shall work more than I worked yesterday. = Mine voi munci
mai mult dect am muncit ieri.
Alte exemple:
If you didn3t give him the money he won3t buy any books. = Dac nu iai dat banii el nu va cumpra nici o carte.
If I had bought that house I would be a rich man now. = Dac a
cumprat casa aceea a un om bogat acum.
If you came n time you wouldn3t have missed the train. = Dac veneai
la timp n-ai pierdut trenul.
If you were with us you would have admired the scenery. = Dac erai
cu noi ai admirat peisajul.
2.4. TRANSFORMAREA VORBIRI DIRECTE N VORBIRE INDIRECT
Vorbirea direct reprezint cuvintele unei persoane rostite ntr-o
mprejurare, n prezena cuiva sau n conversaie cu cineva. n limba romn
vorbirea direct se marcheaz n scris prin linie de dialog. n limba englez ea
se marcheaz prin ghilimele, care se ataeaz totdeauna sus.
Limba englez limba romn
6What is your name?7 he asked me. = 8 Cum te cheam? M ntreb el.
6My name is George7, I answered. = 8 M cheam George, am rspuns
eu.
Prezentarea/repetarea cuvintelor unei persoane de ctre alta oral sau n
scris poart numele de vorbire direct sau stil direct 8 aa cum se vede n
exemplele de mai sus. Reluarea acestor cuvinte i prezentarea lor de (ctre)
cineva sub form de propoziii subordonate poart numele de vorbire
indirect sau stil indirect. S-a transformat astfel vorbirea direct n vorbire
indirect.
What is your name?7 he asked me. = 8 Cum te cheam? M ntreb el.
Devine:
He asked me what my name was. = El m ntreb cum m cheam.
Exist un mare numr de verbe cu ajutorul crora se realizeaz
trecerea de la vorbirea direct la vorbirea indirect. Printre acestea sunt:
To say (a zice/gri), to ask (a ntreba), to admit (a admite/ncuviina), to
acknowledge (a recunoate), to agree (a de acord), to answer/reply (a
rspunde), to think (a gndi/crede), to tell (a spune), to wonder (a se mira)
etc. Ele se numesc verbe introductive. Iat concret cum se face
transformarea vorbirii directe n vorbire indirect:
A) 6I am at home7 he says.

c verbul introductiv este la prezent, aa cum se vede n varianta a)


verbul din vorbirea direct care prin transformare ajunge predicatul
subordonatei, nu-i va modica timpul, ci i-l va menine astfel:
I am at home: he says. Devine: He says (that) he is at home.
Propoziia regent este He says, iar propoziia he is at home este
subordonat. n varianta b) transformarea se face astfel:
I am at home: he said. Devine: He said that he was at home.
Verbul said, n vorbirea indirect, verbul regentei, este la Past Tense.
Vom aplica concordana timpurilor. Astfel verbul am trece i el la Past Tense.
n cazul b) timpurile verbelor din vorbirea direct transformndu-se dup cum
urmeaz:
The Present devine The Past Tense
The Past Tense i The Present Perfect devin The Past Perfect
The Future devine The Future n the Past
Tot n aceast situaie se mai produc urmtoarele schimbri:
I he/she
You
I/we our
Their we they me
Him/her my his/her you
Me/us your my/our us them mine his/hers ours theirs yours
mine yours ours this that these those today that day last week the
week before yesterday the day before or the previous day last night the
night before last month the month before last year the year before two/
three days ago two/three days before
Here there on this day on that day now then tonight that night
today yesterday or that day tomorrow the next day or the following day
Exemple:
This is my brother : he said. He said that that was his brother.
These are our friends: they said. They said that those were their
friends.
You are n our garden: they said. They said that we were n their
garden; They said that I was n their garden.
I can come by my motor-car : John said. John said that he could come
by his motor-car; John said that he was able to come by his motor-car.
I shall come by my motor-car : John said. John said that he would
come by his motor-car.
I came by my motor-car : John said. John said that he had come by his
motor-car.
I have come by my motor-car : John said. John said that he had come
by his motor-car.
I should come by my motor-car: John said. John said that he would
have come by his motor-car.

sterday was my birthday; John said. John said that the previous day
had been his birthday.
You can see us if you turn on the light; they said. They said that we
could see them if we tumed on the light.
You will nd us at home if you come earlier ; they said. They said that
we/I would nd them at home if we/I came earlier.
You can see me if you open your eyes; he said. He said that I could
see him if I opened my eyes.
2.4.1. Transformarea n vorbire indirect a ntrebrilor generale
ntrebrile generale sunt cele care pot primi rspunsul da sau nu.
Do you know me;? He asked me. He asked me if/whether I knew him.
Did you know me;? He asked me. He asked me if/whether I had
known him.
Are you living n this town;? He asked me. He asked me if/whether I
was living n that town.
Will you come with us;? He asked me. He asked me if/whether I
would come with them.
Is he going to read this book;? He asked me. He asked me if/whether
he was going to read that book.
Was he going to read this book? He asked me. He asked me if/
whether he had been going to read that book.
Can you come with me;? He asked me. He asked me if/whether I
could come with him.
Must you go there now;? He asked me. He asked me if/whether I had
to go there then.
Did you have to go there with them;? He asked me. He asked me if/
whether I had had to go there with them.
2.4.2. Transformarea n vorbire indirect a ntrebrilor speciale
ntrebrile speciale sunt cele care:
< Nu pot primi un rspuns scurt, adic da sau nu
< Au o intonaie cobortoare (ca i propoziiile armative)
< Se formeaz cu pronume, adjective sau adverbe interogative, sau cu
combinaii ale acestora:
Who? = cine, care?
Who else? = mai cine? Cine mai? Cine altcineva?
Whose? = al, a, ai, ale cui?
Whose else? = al, a, ai, ale mai cui? Al, a, ai, ale cui mai? Al, a, ai, ale
cui altcuiva?
To whom? = who (m). to? = cui? La cine?
To whom else? = mai cui? Cui mai? Cui altcuiva? La cine altcineva?
Whom? = pe cine?
Whom else? = pe mai cine? Pe cine mai? Pe cine altcineva?
About whom? = who (m). about? = despre cine?
About whom else? = despre mai cine? Despre cine mai? Despre cine
altcineva?
After whom? = who (m). after? = dup cine?

ter whom else? = dup mai cine? = dup cine mai? = dup cine
altcineva?
Among whom? = who (m). among? = printre cine? ntre cine?
Among whom else? = printre mai cine? Printre cine mai? Printre cine
altcineva?
At whom? = who (m). at? = la cine?
At whom else? = who (m) else. at? = la mai cine? La cine mai? La cine
altcineva?
Because of whom else? = din cauza mai cui? Din a mai cui cauz?
Before whom else? = naintea mai cui? n faa mai cui? naintea cui
altcuiva?
Between whom? = who (m). between? = ntre cine?
Between whom else? = ntre mai cine? ntre cine altcineva?
Beyond whom? = who (m). beyond? = dincolo de cine?
Beyond whom else? = dincolo de mai cine? Dincolo de cine altcineva?
By whom? = who (m). by? = de cine?
By whom else? = de mai cine? De cine altcineva?
Far from whom? = departe de cine?
Far from whom else? = departe de mai cine? Departe de cine altcineva?
For whom? = who (m). for? = pentru cine?
For whom else? = pentru mai cine? Pentru cine altcineva?
From whom? = who (m). from? = de la cine?
From whom else? = de la mai cine? De la cine altcineva?
Near whom? = who (m) near? = lng cine?
Near whom else? = lng mai cine? Lng cine altcineva?
Of whom? = who (m). of? = despre cine? = la cine?
Of whom else? = despre mai cine? Despre cine altcineva?
Past whom? = dincolo de cine?
Past whom else? = dincolo de mai cine? Dincolo de cine altcineva?
Through whom? = who (m). through? = prin cine?
Through whom else? = prin mai cine? Prin cine altcineva? Prin cine
altul/alta/alii/altele?
With whom? = who (m). with? = cu cine?
With whom else? = cu mai cine? Cu cine altcineva?
Without whom? = who (m). without? = fr cine?
Without whom else? = fr mai cine? Fr cine altcineva?
What? = ce?
What else? = mai ce? Ce mai? Ce altceva?
About what? = what. about? = despre ce?
About what else? = despre mai ce? Despre ce altceva?
After what? = what. after? = dup ce?
After what else? = dup mai ce? = dup ce altceva?
At what? = what. at? = la ce?
At what else? = la mai ce? La ce altceva?
Because of what? = din cauza cui?
Because of what else? = din cauza mai cui? Din ce alt cauz?

ore what? = nainte de ce? n faa a ce?


Before what else? = n faa mai cui? n faa a ce altceva?
By what? = what. by? = de ce? Prin ce?
By what else? = de ce altceva? Prin ce altceva?
Far from what? = departe de ce?
Far from what else? = departe de ce altceva?
From what? = what. from? = din ce? De la ce?
From what else? = din ce altceva? Din mai ce?
Near what? = lng ce?
Near what else? = lng ce altceva? Lng mai ce?
Of what? = what. of? = despre ce?
Of what else? = despre ce altceva?
Past what? = dincolo de ce?
Past what else? = dincolo de ce altceva? Dincolo de mai ce?
Through what? = what. through? = prin ce?
Through what else? = prin ce altceva?
With what? = what. with? = cu ce?
With what else? = cu ce altceva?
Without what? = what. without? = fr ce?
Without what else? = fr ce altceva? Fr mai ce?
When? = cnd?
When else? = cnd altcndva? Mai cnd?
From when? = de cnd?
From when else? = de cnd altcndva? De mai cnd?
Since when? = de cnd?
Since when else? = de cnd altcndva?
Till/until when? = pn cnd?
Where? = unde?
Where else? = unde mai? Mai unde? Unde altundeva?
Where abouts? = pe unde?
From where? = de unde?
From where else? = de unde altundeva?
Which? = care?
About which? = which. about? = despre care?
About which of them? = despre care din/dintre ei/ele?
After which of us/you/them? = dup care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
After which (boy)? = dup care (biat)? Dup al ctelea biat?
Among which (trees)? = ntre/printre care (copaci)?
Among which of them? = ntre care dintre ei?
Which one of us is he looking at? = La care dintre noi privete el?)
before which of us? = n faa cruia/creia/crora dintre noi?
Between which of them? = ntre care dintre ei/ele?
Beyond which (house)? = dincolo de care (cas)?
Beyond which of them? = dincolo de care dintre ei/ele?
Far from which (place)? = departe de care (loc)?
For which of us/you/them? = pentru care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

om which of us/you/them? = de la care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?


Near which of us/you/them? = lng care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
Near which of the lakes? = lng care dintre lacuri?
Past which of us/you/them? = dincolo de care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
Past which of you did he walk? = Dincolo de care dintre voi a trecut el?)
through which of us/you/them? = prin care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
With which of us/you/them? = cu care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
Without which of us/you/them? = fr care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
How? = cum?
How else? = mai cum? Cum mai?
How long? = de ct timp? De ct vreme?
Who are you=? He asked me. He asked me who I was.
> Cine eti tu? M-a ntrebat el. Devine: El m-a ntrebat cine sunt eu.
Who else is with you=? He asked me. He asked me who else was with
me.
> Cine mai este cu tine? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cine mai
este/era cu mine.
Whose are these books=? He asked me He asked me whose those
books were.
> Ale cui sunt aceste cri? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ale cui sunt/
erau crile acelea.
Whose else are these books=? He asked me. He asked me whose else
those books were.
> Ale cui altcuiva sunt aceste cri? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ale
cui altcuiva erau crile acelea.
To whom can you give this money=? He asked me. = ?Who (m) can you
give this money to=? He asked me. He asked me to whom I could give that
money. = He asked me who (m) I could give that money to.
> Cui poi da aceti bani? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cui pot/
puteam s dau banii aceia.
To whom else can you give this money=? He asked me. = ?Who (m) else
can you give this money to=? He asked me. He asked me to whom else I
could give that money. = He asked me whom/who else I could give that
money to.
> Cui altcuiva poi da aceti bani? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cui
altcuiva i pot/puteam da eu banii aceia.
Whom do you see=? He asked me. He asked me whom I saw.
> Pe cine vezi? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pe cine vd.
Whom else do you see=? He asked me. He asked me whom/who else
I saw.
> Pe cine altcineva vezi? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pe cine
altcineva vd. = El m-a ntrebat pe cine mai vd.
About whom are you talking=? He asked me. = ?Who (m) are you
talking about=? He asked me. He asked me about whom I was talking. = He
asked me whom/who I was talking about.

spre cine vorbeti? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine

vorbesc.
About whom else can we talkA? He asked me. = BWho (m) else can we
talk aboutA? He asked me. He asked me about whom else we could talk. =
He asked me who (m) else we could talk about.
@ Despre cine altcineva putem discuta? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
despre cine altcineva putem discuta.
After whom is the dog runningA? He asked me. = BWho (m) is the dog
running after A? He asked me. He asked me after whom the dog was
running. = He asked me who (m) the dog was running after.
@ Dup cine alearg cinele? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dup cine
alearg cinele.
After whom else was the dog runningA? He asked me. = BWho (m) else
was the dog running afterA? He asked me. He asked me after whom else
the dog was running. = He asked me who (m) else the dog was running after.
Dup cine altcineva alerga cinele? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
dup cine altcineva alerga cinele.
Go and fetch a doctor A he told me. He told me to go and fetch a
doctor.
@ Du-te i adu un doctor, mi-a zis el. El mi-a zis s merg (s m duc) s
aduc un doctor.
At whom are you lookingA? He asked me. = BWho (m) are you looking
atA? He asked me. He asked me at whom I was looking. = He asked me
who (m) I was looking at.
@ La cine priveti tu? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat la cine privesc eu.
Because of whom are you lateA? He asked me. He asked me because
of whom I was late. = He asked me who (m) I was late because of.
@ Din cauza cui ai ntrziat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza
cui am ntrziat.
On whose account are you lateA? He asked me. = BWhose account are
you late onA? He asked me. He asked me on whose account I was late. =
He asked me whose account I was late on.
@ Din cauza cui ai ntrziat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza
cui am ntrziat.
Due to what are you lateA? He asked me. He asked me due to what I
was late.
@ Datorit crui fapt ai ntrziat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
datorit crui fapt am ntrziat.
Due to whom are you lateA? He asked me. He asked me due to whom
I was late. = He asked me who (m) was I late due to.
@ Datorit cui ai ntrziat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat datorit cui
am ntrziat.
Because of whom else are you lateA? He asked me. He asked me
because of whom/who else I was late.
@ Din cauza cui altcuiva ai ntrziat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din
cauza cui altcuiva am ntrziat.

to whom else are you lateC? He asked me. = DWho (m) else are
you late due toC? He asked me. He asked me due to whom else I was late.
= He asked me whom/who else I was late due to.
E Datorit cui altcuiva ai ntrziat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
datorit cui altcuiva am ntrziat.
Before whom were you sittingC? He asked me. He asked me before
whom I had been sitting. = He asked me who (m) I had been sitting before.
E n faa cui edeai tu, m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat n faa cui
edeam eu.
Before whom else were you sittingC? He asked me. He asked me
before whom else I had been sitting.
E n faa cui altcuiva edeai tu? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat n faa
cui altcuiva edeam eu.
Between whom are you going to sitC? He asked me. =CWho (m) are you
going to sit between? He asked me. He asked me between whom I was
going to sit.
E ntre cine intenionezi s ezi? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ntre
cine intenionez eu s ed/stau.
Between whom else did you sitC? He asked me. = DWho (m) else did
you sit betweenC? He asked me. He asked me between whom else I had
sat. = He asked me who (m) else I had sat between.
E ntre cine altcineva ai stat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ntre cine
altcineva am stat.
Beyond whom do you liveC? He asked me. = DWho (m) do you live
beyondC? He asked me. He asked me beyond whom I lived.
E Dincolo de cine locuieti? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dincolo de
cine locuiesc.
By whom is this book writtenC? He asked me. = DWho (m) is this book
written byC? He asked me. He asked me by whom that book was written. =
He asked me who (m) that book was written by.
E De cine este scris cartea aceasta? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
de cine este scris cartea aceasta/aceea.
By whom else were you seenC? He asked me. = DWho (m) else were
you seen byC? He asked me. He asked me by whom else I had been seen.
= He asked me who (m) else I had been seen by.
E De cine altcineva ai fost vzut? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de
cine altcineva am fost eu vzut.
Far from whom do you liveC? He asked me. He asked me far from
whom I lived.
E Departe de cine locuieti tu? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat departe
de cine locuiesc.
Far from whom else were youC? He asked me. He asked me far from
whom else I had been.
E Departe de cine altcineva erai tu? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
departe de cine altcineva eram eu.

or whom will you write this letter F? He asked me. = GWho (m) will you
write this letter for F? He asked me. He asked me for whom I should write
that letter. = He asked me whom I should write that letter for.
H Pentru cine vei scrie aceast scrisoare? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a
ntrebat pentru cine voi scrie eu scrisoarea aceea.
For whom else will you buy booksF he asked me. = GWho (m) else will
you buy books for F? He asked me. He asked me for whom else I should buy
books. = He asked me whom else I should buy books for.
H Pentru cine altcineva vei cumpra cri? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a
ntrebat pentru cine altcineva voi cumpra cri.
From whom do you have this presentF? He asked me = GWho (m) do
you have this present fromF? He asked me. He asked me from whom I had
that present. = He asked me whom I had that present from.
H De la cine ai acest cadou? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de la cine
am cadoul acesta/acela.
From whom else do you have these presentsF? He asked me. = GWho
(m) else do you have these presents fromF? He asked me. He asked me
from whom else I/we had those presents. = He asked me who (m) else I/we
had those presents from.
H De la cine altcineva ai aceste cadouri? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a
ntrebat de la cine altcineva am cadourile acelea/acestea.
Near whom are you going to sitF? He asked me. = GWho (m) are you
going to sit near F? He asked me. He asked me near whom I was going to
sit. = He asked me who (m) I was going to sit near.
H Lng cine ai de gnd s ezi? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat lng
cine am eu de gnd s ed/stau.
Near whom else did you sitF? He asked me. =FWho (m) else did you sit
near F? He asked me. He asked me near whom else I had sat. = He asked
me who (m) else I had sat near.
H Lng cine altcineva ai stat? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat lng
cine altcineva am stat (eu).
Of what did they dieF? He asked me. = GWhat did they die ofF? He
asked me. He asked me of what they died. = He asked me what they died
of.
H De ce au murit ei? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de ce au murit ei.
About whom are you speakingF? He asked me. = GWho (m) are you
speaking aboutF? He asked me. He asked me about whom I was speaking.
= He asked me who (m) I was speaking about.
H Despre cine vorbeti tu? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine
vorbesc eu.
Of what kind of music are you fond? He asked me. = GWhat kind of
music are you fond ofF? He asked me. He asked me of what kind/sort of
music I was fond. = He asked me what kind of music I was fond of.
H De ce fel de muzic eti amator? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de
ce fel/gen de muzic sunt amator.

st whom did they hurryI? He asked me. = JWho (m) did they hurry
pastI? He asked me. He asked me past whom they hurried. = He asked me
who (m) they hurried past.
K De cine au trecut ei n grab? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de cine
au trecut ei n grab.
Through whom did you receive this letterL? He asked me = JWho (m)
did you receive this letter throughI? He asked me. He asked me through
whom I received that letter. = He asked me whom I had received that letter
through.
K Prin cine ai primit scrisoarea aceasta? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
prin cine am primit scrisoarea aceea.
Through whom else can you receive booksI? He asked me. = JWho (m)
else can you receive books throughI? He asked me. He asked me through
whom else I could receive books. = He asked me who (m) else I could receive
books through.
K Prin cine altcineva poi primi cri? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
prin cine altcineva pot primi eu cri.
With whom will you go on the tripI? He asked me. = JWho (m) will you
go on the trip withI? He asked me. He asked me with whom I should go on
the trip. = He asked me who (m) I should go on the trip with.
K Cu cine vei merge n excursie? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cu
cine voi merge eu n excursie.
Shall I tell you a novelI? He asked me. He asked me if he should tell
me a novel.
K S-i povestesc un roman? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dac s-mi
povesteasc un roman.
Where is the boy you spoke to?I he asked me. He asked me where
the boy I had spoken to was.
K Unde este biatul cu care ai vorbit? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat
unde este biatul cu care am vorbit.
Do you know that three and three make sixI? He asked me. He asked
me if/whether I knew that three and three make six.
K Mtii c trei plus trei fac ase? M-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dac
tiu c trei plus trei fac ase.
I dreamed that I was NyingI he said. He said (that) he had dreamed
that he had been Nying.
K Am visat c zbor, a zis el. El a zis c a visat c zboar. Etc.
2.4.3. ntrebrile disjunctive (The Tag/Tail Questions)
Se traduc n limba romn prin ntrebrile: aa-l, nu-l aa sau nu?
Ele se formeaz cu ajutorul unuia dintre urmtoarele verbe: be, do,
have, shall, will, can, may, must, need, ought to, dare
You are at home, arenLt you? = Eti acas, nu-l aa?
You are not at home, are you? = Nu eti acas, nu-l aa?
He was at home, wasnLt he? = Era acas, nu-l aa?
He was not at home, was he? = El nu era acas, nu-l aa?
He will not be at home, will he? = El nu va acas, nu-l aa?

ome, wonOt he? = El nu va acas, nu-l aa?


Ele pot avea e intonaie cobortoare i n acest caz nu se ateapt o
conrmare sau o inmare din partea interlocutorului e o intonaie urctoare
i n cazul acesta ntrebarea trebuie s primeasc rspuns (armativ sau
negativ).
De fapt ele sunt nite comunicri formate din dou pri. Dac prima
parte este armativ, a doua parte este obligatoriu negativ i invers. La
formarea lor se mai ine seam, dup cum s-a vzut n exemplele prezentate,
de timpul i aspectul verbului primei pri a comunicrii.
They saw us n the street, didnOt they? = Ei ne-au vzut (pe noi) pe
strad, nu-l aa?
They did not come by bus, did they? = Ei nu au venit cu autobuzul, nul aa?
We have lived here for ten years, havenOt we? = Locuim aici de zece
ani, nu-l aa?
You ought to leam, oughtnOt you? = Se cuvine s nvei, nu-l aa?
He canOt answer the question, can he? = Nu poate s rspund la
ntrebare, nu-l aa?
I could come earlier, couldnOt I? = Eu puteam (a putea) veni mai
devreme, nu-l aa?
She darenOt go there alone, dare she? = Ea nu are curaj s mearg
acolo singur, nu-l aa?
You said they could come, didnOt you? = Ai/Ai spus c pot veni, nu?
2.4.4. Cteva reguli de ortograe i punctuaie n limba englez
Punctul (The Full Stop)
Punctul se aeaz la sfritul propoziiilor armative.
We like tennis very much. = Ne place tenisul foarte mult.
Semnul ntrebrii (The Question Mark)
Semnul ntrebrii se aeaz la sfritul propoziiilor/frazelor
interogative.
What is your name? = Cum te cheam?
Who is the boy who brought this book? = Cine este biatul care a adus
cartea aceasta?
Semnul exclamrii (The Exclamation Mark)
Semnul exclamrii se folosete dup:
A) propoziiile imperative:
Go and fetch a doctor! = Du-te i adu un doctor!
B) propoziiile care conin o mirare n care se exprim admiraia fa de
ceva/cineva:
How beautiful she is! = Ce frumoas este ea!
How beautiful she is singing! = Ce frumos cnt ea!
C) dup interjecii:
Hush! Hush!P said the Rabbit.
Dou puncte (The Collon)
Dou puncte se aeaz cnd urmeaz o enumerare, se introduce un
citat sau urmeaz cuvintele cuiva (vorbire direct).

said that he saw things like: books, pencils and pens. = El a zis c a
vzut lucruri cum ar : cri, creioane i stilouri.
ThatQs what he said: RRead these books and you will nd out interesting
thingsS! = Iat ce a zis el: Citete aceste cri i vei aTa lucruri interesante!
One can visit the following cities: Cluj, Rome and London. = Se pot
vizita urmtoarele orae: Cluj, Roma i Londra.
Punctul i virgula (The Semicolon)
Punctul i virgula are semnicaia unei pauze mai mari dect cea
realizat cu ajutorul punctului. Se folosete mai rar.
IQve told you once -L tell you again; WeQre not at homeS = -Ui-am spus
o dat -i spun din nou; nu suntem acas.
Virgula (The Comma)
Virgula desparte cuvinte sau propoziii cu aceeai valoare sintactic
John, Bill and Nick are good friends. = John, Bill i Nick sunt prieteni
buni.
Ea se folosete:
A) dup adverbe de armaie sau negaie:
No, he said. = Nu, a zis el.
Yes, they answered. = Da, au rspuns ei.
B) Dup adverbe ca: indeed (ntr-adevr), however (totui), too (de
asemenea), of course (desigur):
Of course, he is right. = Desigur, el are dreptate.
C) n frazele alctuite prin coordonare:
They went home, ate a little, took the ball and began to play football.
= Au mers acas, au mncat puin, au luat mingea i au nceput s joace
fotbal.
D) ntre subordonatele de acelai fel:
He talked to me about the books that he read, that he had to read and
that he liked to read. = Mi-a vorbit despre crile pe care le-a citit, pe care
trebuie s le citeasc i pe care i plcea s le citeasc.
n numerele lungi, virgula are n limba englez rolul punctului n limba
romn.
Linia de desprire (The Dash)
Linia de desprire marcheaz o idee nedeterminat sau o pauz lung,
asemntoare cu aceea redat prin punct, iar uneori preia locul virgulei:
This will bring them here -whenS? = -Asta i va aduce aici -cnd?
ItQs -ltQs a very ne day!S said a timid voice at her side. = -Este -este o
zi foarte frumoas! Zise o voce timid (de) lng ea.
Liniua de unire i de desprire (The Hyphen)
Se mai numete cratim. Apare n cuvintele compuse:
Up -to -date = modern kind V hearted = bun la suTet a sewing V
machine = o main de cusut
Ghilimelele (The Inverted Commas)
Ghilimelele n limba englez marcheaz vorbirea direct:
IQve not made up my mindS, he said. = V Nu m-am hotrt, zise el.
2.4.5. Desprirea cuvintelor n silabe

Cuvintele compuse se despart n respectivii componeni:


Monday = Mon/day textbook = text/book schoolboy = school/boy
understand = under/stand
Prexele i suxele se despart de cuvintele la care se gsesc ataate:
Understanding = under/stand/ing scholarship = scholar/ship
misunderstanding = mis/under/stand/ing looked = look/ed improvement =
improve/ment smaller = small/er
Terminaia s la plural, sau la persoana a treia a verbelor sau de la
genitivul sintetic nu se poate separa/despri de cuvntul respectiv.
Speaks = speaks the girlsW = the girlsW boys = boys the boyWs = the
boyWs
Iar acum, n nal, celor ce doresc s-i fac o imagine mai
cuprinztoare asupra regulilor de punctuaie, le propun s rsfoiasc lucrri
ale prozatorilor englezi, americani, australieni etc. Acolo vor putea gsi
exemple edicatoare.
Lista verbelor NEREGULATE
I
Present
Innitive
I
Past Tense
I
Past Participle
IV
Present Participle
TRADUCERE to arise arose arisen arising a se ridica/urca/sui/ivi, a
rsri; a se strni/isca to awake awoke awake awaking a se trezi/detepta/
scula to backbite backbit backbitten/backbit backbiting a defima/ponegri/
br/calomnia, to be was/were been being a , a se aXa/gsi to bear bore
born bearing a purta/duce, a transporta/cra; a rodi, to beat beat beaten
beating a bate/lovi; a suna to become became become becoming a deveni/
ajunge, a se potrivi to beg begot begotten begetting a procrea, a da natere
la; a cauza to begin began begun beginning a ncepe, a debuta, a porni to
bend bent bent/bended bending a (se) ndoi/n covoia/nclina/supune, a ceda
to beset beset beset besetting a aranja/pune/potrivi; a bloca; a coplei, a
ocupa to bid bid/bade bid/bidden bidding a ruga/implora; a porunci/ordona, a
licita, a fgdui to bind bound bound binding a (se) lega/uni, consolida,
cptui, ntri, to bite bit bit/bitten biting a muca, ciupi, apuca, defima to
bleed bled bled bleeding a stoarce/slei, sngera to blend blent/blended blent/
blended blending a (se) amesteca, a (se) combina, (se) asorta, to bless to
break broke blessing a binecuvnta/slvi/glorica, apra; sni to blow to
blew blown blowing a bate/suXa, adia, rsuna, erupe to break broke broken
breaking a (se) rupe/sparge/frnge to breed bred bred breeding a crete/
cultiva, hrni/nutri, educa, a (se) nmuli to bring brought brought bringing a
aduce, mna/mpinge, determina to broadcast broadcast broadcast

oadcasting a difuza/rspndi/transmite, semna to build built built building


a construi/cldi/zidi, to bum bumt/bumed bumt burning a arde/cauteriza to
burst burst burst bursting a izbucni/plesni/crpa to buy bought bought buying
a cumpra, corupe/mitui, to cast cast cast casting a arunca/azvrli, distribui,
to catch caught caught catching a (se) prinde/apuca/xa, to chide chide
chide/chidden chiding a certa/mustra/dojeni, cicli to choose chose chosen
choosing a alege/selecta/prefera, a vrea to cleave cleft/clove cleft/clove
cleaving a (se) crpa/despica/detaa to cling clung clung clinging a se lipi/
aga de, a se ine de; a se mula (pe) to clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad
clothing a (se) mbrca/nvemnta/acoperi, a se gti to come came come
coming a veni/sosi, a se apropia; a exagera to cost cost cost costing a costa/
face, xa preul to creep crept crept creeping a (se) tr/furia, a plecat/umil
to crow crowed/crew crowed crowing a cnta cucurigu; a-i manifesta bucuria
to cut cut cut cutting a tia/reteza/seciona/despica/ciopli to dare dared/durst
dared daring a ndrzni/cuteza, a avea curajul to dig dug dug digging a spa,
a dezgropa/scormoni/rscoli to do did done doing a face/svri/executa/
nfptui to draw drew drawn drawing a trage/ntinde/remorca, a trasa; a
distila to dream dreamt dreamed/dreamt dreaming a visa, a-i nchipui,
crede/gndi to drink drank drunk drinking a bea, a sorbi, a suge to drive
drove driven driving a conduce maina; a circula to dwell dwelt dwelt
dwelling a locui/tri/domicilia/slui to eat ate eaten eating a mnca, a lua/
servi masa, a se hrni cu to fall fell fallen falling a cdea/pica, a se prbui to
feed fed fed feeding a (se) hrni, a alimenta, a nutri to feel felt felt feeling a
simi/resimi/percepe, a pipi to ght fought fought ghting a (se) lupta/bate,
a disputa, a purta rzboi
I
Present
Innitive
I
Past Tense
I
Past Participle
IV
Present Participle
TRADUCERE to nd found found nding a gsi/ntlni; a vedea, a da de,
a descoperi to Yee Yed Yed Yeeing a fugi; a se refugia din, a prsi to Yy Yew
Yown Yying a zbura, a trece n zbor, a nala n aer to forbear forbore forborne
forbearing a se abine de la, a se feri de, a evita to forbid forbade forbidden
forbidding a interzice, a nu ngdui/permite, a opri to forecast forecast (ed)
forecast (ed) forecasting a prevedea; a calcula dinainte to forego forewent
foregone foregoing a anticipa, a preceda to forknow foreknew foreknown
foreknowing a cunoate/ti dinainte; a prevedea/presimi to foresee foresaw
foreseen foreseeing a prevedea to foretell foretold foretold foretelling a
prezice/prevesti/prooroci to forget forgot forgotten forgetting a uita; neglija/
nesocoti/omite to forgive forgave forgiven forgiving a ierta to forsake forsook
forsaken forsaking a prsi/abandona; a renuna la, a se lsa de to forswear

orswom forswom forswearing a jura fals, a depune mrturie fals to freeze


froze frozen freezing a nghea/degera, a se congela; a se nspimnta to
gainsay gainsaid gainsaid gainsaying a contrazice, a contesta/nega/tgdui
to get got/gotten got/gotten getting a cpta/obine/procura, a face, a
dobndi to gird girt/girded girt/girded girding a incinge, a nconjura to give
gave given giving a da/drui/oferi, a face cadou, a repartiza, a nmna to go
went gone going a merge/pleca, a se deplasa/duce, a umbla to grave graved
graved/graven graving a grava, a sculpta, a ciopli, a spa to grind ground
ground grinding a mcina/rni/pisa, lefui/poliza, scrni to grow grew grown
growing a crete/spori, a se dezvolta/maturiza/coace, a cultiva to hang hung/
hanged hung/hanged hanging a (se) spnzura/aga/atrna, a prinde/xa to
have had had having a avea; a suferi de; a primi n vizit; a bea/mnca to
hear heard heard hearing a auzi, a audia, a asculta to hide hid hid/hidden
hidding a (se) ascunde/piti, a dosi/tinui to hit hit hit hitting a lovi/nimeri, a
bate/izbi, a atinge, a da lovitura to hold held held holding a ine/pstra, a
deine, a se menine/pstra to hurt hurt hurt hurting a rni/leza, a duna/
strica, a lovi, a durea to inlay inlaid inlaid inlaying a intercala/introduce/nsera
to keep kept kept keeping a pstra; a respecta, a ine seama de, a rmne/
sta, a ine/menine to kneel knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled kneeling a
ngenunchea, a se aeza n genunchi to knit knit/knitted knit/knitted knitting
a croeta/tricota/mpleti; a deosebi; a la curent cu to know knew known
knowing a ti, a cunoate to lade laded laden/laded lading a ncrca/mbarca
to lay laid laid laying a pune/aeza/ntinde/depune, a expune; a sta/a edea
to lead led led leading a duce/conduce/ghida, a comanda to lean leant/leaned
leant/leaned leaning a se rezema/sprijini, a se aplica/nclina, a conta pe to
leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped leaping a sri/slta, a face salturi to leam
leamt/leamed leamt/leamed leaming a nva/aZa/studia, a se instrui to
leave left left leaving a lsa/abandona/prsi, a pleca din to lend lent lent
lending a da mprumut, a mprumuta (cuiva), a nchiria, a se preta la, a folosi
to let let let letting a lsa/ngdui/permite, a de nchiriat, a nchiria to lie
lay lain lying a sta ntins/culcat, a zcea; a exista, se aZa/gsi to light lighted/
lit lighted/lit lighting a aprinde (foc etc.); a lumina; a poposi to lose lost lost
losing a pierde to make made made making a fabrica/face/confeciona; a
construi to mean meant meant meaning a nsemna; a vrea s spun, a
crede/gndi to meet met met meeting a (se) ntlni; a ntmpina; a se
mpreuna/a face cunotin
I
Present
Innitive
I
Past Tense
I
Past Participle
IV
Present Participle

CERE to melt melted melted/molten melting a se topi/dizolva; a


se lichea; a se nduioa to misgive misgave misgiven misgiving a presimi
ceva ru; a inspira fric/nencredere to mislay mislaid mislaid mislaying a
pierde/rtci (un obiect), a pune unde nu trebuie to mislead misled misled
misleading a conduce/ndruma greit to mistake mistook mistaken mistaking
a nelege greit to misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
misunderstanding a nelege/interpreta greit cuvintele cuiva to mow mowed
mowed/mown mowing a cosi, a secera, a tunde/cosi cu maina to outride
outrode outridden outriding a ntrece/depi pe cineva clare to outrun
outran outrun outrunning depi pe cineva n fug, a intrece pe cineva
alergnd to overcast overcast overcast overcasting a ntuneca; a surla; a
nchide to overcome overcame overcome overcoming a nvinge/birui/coplei/
dobor/nfrnge to overdo overdid overdone overdoing a exagera, a ntrece
msura, a merge prea departe to overeat overate overeaten overeating a
mnca prea mult, a se ghiftui to overfeed overfed overfed overfeeding a
supraalimenta to overlie overlay overlain overlying a se ntinde peste to
overrun overran overrun overrunning a se revrsa; a depi limitele to
oversee oversaw overseen overseeing a supraveghea, a controla to overset
overset overset oversetting a rsturna ordinea, a zdrnici to oversleep
overslept overslept oversleeping a dormi prea mult, a se scula trziu to
overtake overtook overtaken overtaking a depi un autovehicul; a-l ajunge
o nenorocire to overthrow overthrew overthrown overthrowing a rsturna/a
dobor, a nfrnge/nvinge/nimici to partake partook partaken partaking a
prota/uza de, a se nfrupta din; a lua parte la ceva, a mprti to pay paid
paid paying a plti/achita; a prezenta avantaj to put put put putting a aeza/
pune, supune to read read read reading a citi/interpreta, a studia, a se
pregti to rend rent rent rending a (se) rupe/sfia/despica/crpa to repay
repaid repaid repaying a rsplti/recompensa; a napoia datoria to reset reset
reset resetting a restabili, a repune; a potrivi ceasul to retell retold retold
retelling a spune/povesti din nou, a repovesti, a repeta to rid rid/ridden rid/
ridden ridding a se descotorosi/debarasa/elibera de, a salva/mntui de to ride
rode ridden riding a clri (calul/bicicleta); a domina/stpni to ring rang rung
ringing a suna/rsuna, a anuna/semnala, a suna bine to rise rose risen rising
a se ridica/nla/scula, a se agita/rscula to rive rived riven/rived riving a
crpa/spinteca/despica, a rupe/sfia to run ran run running a fugi/alerga, a
conduce/administra; a topi to saw sawed sawn/sawed sawing a tia cu
ferstrul to say said said saying a zice/spune/gri, a arma, a meniona; a
admite to see saw seen seeing a vedea, a nelege, a remarca/observa to
seek sought sought seeking a cuta/cerceta, a explora, a solicita to sell sold
sold selling a vinde, a desface mrfuri, a pcli to send sent sent sending a
expedia/trimite, a transmite, a lansa to set set set setting a pune/aeza/
instala, a culege la tipograe to sew sewed sewn/sewen sewing a coase, a
lucra cu acul to shake shook shaken shaking a scutura/zgudui/agita, a
amenina cu pumnul to shear sheared/shore shom/sheared shearing a tunde/
despuia; a pgubi to shed shed shed shedding a vrsa (lacrimi); a pierde; a
lepda to shine shone shone shining a strluci, a luci; a izbndi to shoe shod

shod shoeing a ncla, a pingeli, a potcovi, a tlpui to shoot shot shot


shooting a trage (n), a mpuca, a vna, a revrsa/mprtia to show showed
shown/showed showing a arta/indica, a demonstra/dovedi, a aprea, a se ivi
to shrink shrank shrunk shrinking a se scurta/micora, a se strmba
I
Present
Innitive
I
Past Tense
I
Past Participle
IV
Present Participle
TRADUCERE to shut shut shut shutting a (se) nchide to sing sang sung
singing a cnta; a uiera to sink sank sunk sinking a se scufunda, a cdea la
fund; a scdea/amortiza to sit sat sat sitting a edea, a sta jos, a poza ca
model to slay slew slain slaying a omor/asasina/ucide, a masacra to sleep
slept slept sleeping a dormi, a adormi to slide slid slid/sliden sliding a
aluneca, a se da pe ghea, a se furia/strecura to slit slit slit slitting a crpa/
spinteca/despica, a face o deschiztur n to smell smelt smelt smelling a
mirosi, a adulmeca to sow sowed sown/sowed sowing a semna, a nsmna
to speak spoke spoken speaking a vorbi/gri, a rosti to speed sped/speeded
sped/speeded speeding a accelera, a goni, a merge cu vitez, a se grbi to
spell spelt/spelled spelt/speld spelling a ortograa, a rosti un cuvnt liter cu
liter to spend spent spent spending a cheltui/consuma/epuiza; a petrece
timpul to spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled spilling a (se) revrsa/vrsa/mprtia
to spin spun/span spun spinning a toarce/la/rsuci, nvrti/roti to spit spat/
spit spat/spit spitting a scuipa/expectora; a ploua mrunt to split split split
spiting a (se) scinda/descompune/diviza/dezbina/dezintegra to spoil spoilt/
spoiled spoilt/spoiled spoiling a strica/deteriora/altera/rsfa; a prda/jefui
to spread spread spread spreading a ntinde/desfura, a desface, a lungi, a
mprtia to spring sprang sprung springing a sri/ni, a ncoli/rsri, a
izvor; a exploda to stand stood stood standing a sta n picioare, a se ine
drept; a , a se a[a to steal stole stolen stealing a fura/terpeli, a amgi/
seduce, a cuceri to stick stuck stuck sticking a nge/nepa/introduce/
mplnta; a (se) lipi, a adera to sting stung stung stinging a mpunge/nepa/
rni; a nela/amgi, a ustura to stink stank/stunk stunk stinking a mirosi
urt, a pui, a duhni to strike struck struck/stricken striking a (se) lovi/izbi/
ciocni, a bate; a prinde rdcini to string strung strung stringing a lega cu
sfoara; a ntinde coarda, a nira pe a to strive strove striven striving a se
strdui/lupta/zbate, a-i da osteneala, a tinde/nzui to swear swore swom
swearing a jura, a depune jurmntul; a njura to sweep swept swept
sweeping a mtura, a terge praful to swell swelled swollen/swelled swelling
a um[a, a mri; a bomba to swim swam swum swimming a nota, a pluti, a
trece not; a inunda to swing swung swung swinging a se legna/balansa/roti/
nvrti, a oscila/pendula to take took taken taking a lua, a mprumuta; a

to teach taught taught teaching a nva pe cineva, a instrui, a


preda, a da lecii to tear tore torn tearing a rupe/sfia, a distruge; a smulge
to tell told told telling a spune/povesti, a exprima; a arta/indica to think
thought thought thinking a (se) gndi/crede, a imagina/nchipui to throw
threw thrown throwing a (se) arunca/lansa/azvrli; a lepda, fta to thrust
thrust thrust thrusting a mplnta/vr/ndesa to tread trod trodden/trod
treading a clca/pi, a pi/clca pe to unbend unbent unbent unbending a
(se) ntinde/destinde/relaxa to unbind unbound unbound unbinding a
dezlega/desface, a desprinde, a slobozi, a elibera to undergo underwent
undergone undergoing a suferi/ndura/suporta, a trece prin to undersell
undersold undersold underselling a vinde mai ieftin, a vinde sub preul de
cost to understand understood understood understanding a nelege/pricepe,
a sesiza to undertake undertook undertaken undertaking a ntreprinde, a lua
asupra sa, a-i asuma to undo undid undone undoing a anula, desina, a
desface, a distruge to upset upset upset upsetting a (se) rsturna, a
dezorganiza, a afecta to wake woke/woked waked/woken waking a (se) trezi/
detepta; a priveghea, a strni
I
Present
Innitive
I
Past Tense
I
Past Participle
IV
Present Participle
TRADUCERE to wear wore worn wearing a purta, a mbrcat cu; a se
uza/ponosi to weave wove woven/wove weaving a ese, a mpleti; a se ames
teca/bga n to wed wedded wedded/wed wedding a (se) cstori, a da/lua n
cstorie to weep wept wept weeping a plnge, a vrsa lacrimi to win won
won winning a ctiga/obine, a reui; a ajunge la to wind wound wound
winding a erpui, a (se) rsuci, a nfura/nveli to withdraw withdrew
withdrawn withdrawing a retrage/retracta, a lua napoi, renuna to withhold
withheld withheld withholding] a opri/reine de la, a interzice ceva to
withstand withstood withstood withstanding a se mpotrivi/opune la, a rezista
to write wrote written writing a scrie, a redacta

SFR\IT