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B.

ANTIBIOTICECAREALTEREAZAFUNCTIILEMEMBRANEICITOPLASMATICE
Exemple
Spectrubantibacterian
polimixinaB
BGN,CocobaciliGN,aerobifacultativanaerobi(cuexceptia
POLIMIXINE
polimixinaE
Proteus,Morganella,Providencia,Serratia)
(colistina)
C.INHIBITORIAISINTEZEIPROTEICE
I.ANTIBIOTICECARESEFIXEAZAPESUBUNITATEA30SRIBOZOMALA
streptomicina
neomicina
BGNfacultativanaerobi,speciiStaphylococcus ;activefatade
kanamicina
Pseudomonasaeruginosa (gentamicina,tobramicina,amikacina,
biosinteza tobramicina
AMINOGLICOZIDE
netilmicina),efectsinergiccupenicilinesauglicopeptidefatade
spectinomicina
Enterococcus;streptomicinaesteactivafatadeMycobacterium,
gentamicina
sisomicina
Yersiniapestis,Francisellatularensis
amikacina
semisinteza
netilmicina
tetraciclina
Biosinteza oxitetraciclina
bacteriiGPsiGN,aerobesianaerobe,spirochete,micoplasme,
TETRACICLINE
clortetraciclina
chlamidii,rickettsii
doxicilina
Semisinteza
minociclina
II.ANTIBIOTICECARESEFIZEAZAPESUBUNITATEA50SRIBOSOMALA
bacteriiGPsiGN,aerobesianaerobe,spirochete,micoplasme,
cloramfenicol
FENICOLI
chlamidii,rickettsiI,bacteriiintracelulare
tiamfenicol
eritromicina
14atomi
roxitromicina
CGP,BGPaerobisianaerobi,Moraxellacatarrhalis,Bordetella
claritromicina
pertussis,Legionellapneumophila,Haemophilusinfluenzae, specii
diritromicina
MACROLIDE
Campylobacter,Helicobacter,Mycoplasma,Chlamydia;
azitromicina
15atomi
claritromicinaesteactivaimpotrivaMycobacteriumavium
spiramicina
16atomi
intercellulare,Mycobacteriumleprae
josamicina
rokitamicina
asemanatorclaritromicinei,maiactivfatadebacteriiGPinclusiv
Ketolide
talitromicina
Streptococcuspneumoniaerezistentlaclaritromicina

Denumirea

lincomicina

Lincosamide

CGP,BGPaerobisianaerobi,Moraxellacatarrhalis,Bordetella
pertussis,Legionellapneumophila,Haemophilusinfluenzae,specii
Campylobacter,Helicobacter,Mycoplasma,Chlamydia;
bacteriiGPaerobesianaerobe,indiferentderezistentalaalteclase
linezoid
deantibiotice
III.ANTIBIOTICECAREINHIBASINTEZAPROTEINELORPRINALTEMECANISME

Streptogramine(sinergistine)
Oxazolidinone

bacteriiGP(cuexceptiaenterococilor)sibacteriiaerobe

clindamicina
pristinamicina
quinupristina/
dalfopristina

Acidfusidic

bacteriiGPaerobesianaerobe;seadministreazainasociatiecu
macrolide,glicopeptide,rifampicinasaufluorochinolonepentru
prevenirearezistenteisecundareincazulinfectiilorstafilococice.

Mupirocin

bacteriiGP

generatia1
generatia2
generatia4

generatia3

Chinolone

IV.INHIBITORIAISINTEZEIACIZILORNUCLEICI
acidnalidixic
acidpipemidic
acidoxolinic
cinoxacina
norfloxacina
ciprofloxacina
ofloxacina
pefloxacina
lomefloxacina
levofloxacina
sparfloxacina
gatifloxacina
moxifloxacina

trovafloxacina

BGNdinfam.Enterobacteriaceae

BGN,CGN,cocobaciliGN,unelebacteriiGP(stafilococimeticilinosensibili
sistreptococibetahemolitici);activitatevariabilafatadeMycoplasma si
Chlamydia
BGN,CGN,cocobaciliGN,unelebacteriiGP(stafilococimeticilinosensibili
sistreptococibetahemolitici);activitatecrescutafatadeMycoplasmasi
ChlamydiasifatadeStreptococcuspneumoniaeindiferentde
sensibilitatealapenicilina
BGN,CGN,cocobaciliGN,unelebacteriiGP(stafilococimeticilinosensibili
sistreptococibetahemolitici);activitatecrescutafatadeMycoplasmasi
ChlamydiasifatadeStreptococcuspneumoniaeindiferentde
sensibilitatealapenicilina,bacteriianaerobe

Rifampicina

Mycobacteriumtuberculosis,Mycobacteriumaviumintercellulare,
Mycobacteriumkansasii,Mycobacteriumleprae,CGP,cocisicocobacili
GN,Legionellapneumophila,chlamidii

Metronidazol

protozoare,bacteriianaerobesimicroaerofile(Helicobacterpylori)

Sulfamide

Neutrofurani

sulfadiazina
sulfzoxazol
sulfametoxazol
sulfosalazina
ftalilsulfatiazol
sulfone
nitrofurantoin
furazolidon

CGNP,BGP,CGN,BGN

BGN(fam.EnterobacteriaceaecuexceptiaspeciilorProteus)CGP
(Staphylococcus,Enterococcus )