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1. What is the greatest impact of American Colonial Rule in the Philippines?

Americas greatest achievement in the Philippines was the introduction of public
school system. With that, more Filipinos on that time learn how to read and write. In 1903,
the literacy rate was 44.2%, then it increases to 49.2% in 1918 when a second census was
The oldest university founded under the Americans was Siliman University in
Dumaguete City, followed by Central Philippine University in Iloilo City. The University of
the Philippines was founded in 1908 in Manila. Education under Americans rapidly grew.

Improvement of Trade and Industry

In 1909, Philippine exports amounted to 60.9 million pesos. In 1910-1914, it rose to
94.7 million pesos. In 1914-1918, the amount of exports increased to 177.3 million pesos,
and in 1925-1930, the exports amounted to 297.9 million pesos. Except during World War,
from 1914-1918, Philippine Foreign Trade enjoyed a favorable balance of trade.

Public Health and Welfare

In 1901, the Americans created the board of Public Health which became a Bureau
later on. Its duties was to construct people regarding hygiene and sanitation and to combat
the peoples ignorance and superstitions which were the greatest enemies of medicine and
public health.
The Americans taught the Filipinos about nutrition including balanced diet and
introduction of large amount of all known vitamins and minerals. As a result, Filipinos
became healthier and taller. It is estimated that the average height of Filipino in 1900 was 5ft
and 3-4 inches. By 1920, the average height may be estimated at 5ft and 6inches.
In industry, the Philippines also prospered under the Americans. Coconut oil mills,
cigar and cigarette factories, rope factories, fishing and fish canning, alcohol small
industries and sugar centrals were established throughout the Philippines. More laborers are
also employed.
In 1929, gold mining produced almost 7 million pesos worth of gold. In 1935, the
year of the Commonwealth, it produced almost 30 million pesos worth of gold.

Transportation and Communication

The railway line was likewise extended. In 1903, there were less than 200km. of
railway. In 1935, it rose to more than 1000km. The Manila-Dagupan railway, founded
during the Spanish period, was acquired by the government and became the Manila Railroad
Company. The line was extended to the provinces of Northern and Southern Luzon.

Democracy and Civil Liberties

The American regime recognized the equality of men before the law and right of
every man to all the freedoms- freedom of religion, speech, press, to complain and to change
ones domicle (a permanent place/address)

2. What are the different atrocities of Japanese days during World War 2?
Among the war crimes and atrocities committed in World War II, the Nanjing
Massacre . . . or Rape of Nanjing, or Nankin Daigyakusatsu, or Nankin Jiken (Japanese)
or Nanjing Datusha (Chinese) . . . remains the most controversial. These different names
signal alternative Japanese, Chinese and international perceptions of the event: as
incident, as massacre, as rape, as massive butchery.
The Nanjing Massacre is controversial not because the most basic facts are in doubt,
although historians continue to contest the number of deaths and the interpretation of certain
events. Rather it is controversial because of the shocking scale of the killing of Chinese
civilians and prisoners of war in a single locale, because of the politics of denial, and
because the relationship between the massacre and the character of the wider war remains
little understood despite the outstanding research of Japanese and other scholars and
Following the Nanjing Massacre, the Japanese high command did move
determinedly to rein in troops to prevent further anarchic violence, particularly violence
played out in front of the Chinese and international press. Leaders feared that such wanton
acts could undermine efforts to win over, or at least neutralize, the Chinese population and
lead to Japans international isolation.
A measure of the success of the leaderships response to the Nanjing Massacre is that
no incident of comparable proportions occurred during the capture of a major Chinese city
over the next eight years of war. Japan succeeded in capturing and pacifying major Chinese
cities, not least by winning the accommodation of significant elites in Manchukuo and in the
Nanjing government of Wang Jingwei, as well as in cities directly ruled by Japanese forces
and administrators.
This was not, however, the end of the slaughter of Chinese civilians and captives.
Far from it. Throughout the war, Japan continued to rain destruction from the air on
Chongqing, Chiang Kai-sheks wartime capital, and in the final years of the war it deployed
chemical and biological bombs against Ningbo and throughout Zhejiang and Hunan
Above all, the slaughter of civilians that characterized the Nanjing Massacre was
subsequently enacted throughout the rural areas where resistance stalemated Japanese forces
in the course of eight years of war. This is illustrated by the sanko sakusen or Three-All
Policies implemented throughout rural North China by Japanese forces seeking to crush
both the Communist-led resistance in guerrilla base areas behind Japanese lines and in areas
dominated by Guomindang and warlord troops. Other measures implemented at Nanjing
would exact a heavy toll on the countryside: military units regularly relied on plunder to
secure provisions, conducted systematic slaughter of villagers in contested areas, and denied
POW status to Chinese captives, often killing all prisoners. Above all, where Japanese

forces encountered resistance, they adopted scorched earth policies depriving villagers of
One leadership response to the adverse effects of the massacre is the establishment
of the comfort woman system immediately after the capture of Nanjing, in an effort to
control and channel the sexual energies of Japanese soldiers. The comfort woman system
offers a compelling example of the structural character of atrocities associated with Japans
China invasion and subsequently with the Asia Pacific War.
In short, the anarchy first seen at Nanjing paved the way for more systematic
policies of slaughter carried out by the Japanese military throughout the countryside. The
comfort woman system and the three-all policies reveal important ways in which systematic
oppression occurred in every theater of war and was orchestrated by the military high
command in Tokyo.
Nanjing then is less a typical atrocity than a key event that shaped the everyday
structure of Japanese atrocities over eight years of war. While postwar Japanese and
American leaders have chosen primarily to remember Japans defeat at the hands of the
Americans, the China war took a heavy toll on both Japanese forces and Chinese lives. In
the end, Japan faced a stalemated war in China, but one that paved the way for the Pacific
War, in which Japan confronted the US and its allies.
The Nanjing Massacre was a signature atrocity of twentieth century warfare. But war
atrocities were not unique to Japan.
3. Compare and contrast the administration of Pres. Gloria Arroyo and Pres. Benigno
Aquino III.
GMA focused on the economy during her 2 terms, this was her legacy, she devoted
most of her time in making sure that our country would be able to step up the ladder of
progress. During her period, she wasn't able to focus on good governance, why? it was a
sacrifice she was willing to take for our country, it's a sacrifice we are now starting to enjoy.
(progress can't happen overnight).
Pnoy, obviously, is focused on good governance. nothing bad about that, but the
reason he can do this is because of the efforts made by our previous president, he don't need
much effort now to increase our economy's growth as it was already paved by the GMA.
Again everyone is right, good governance = good economy but that only applies if you
already have an economy to stand on.
4. Whom do you consider as the best president of this country? Why?
For me, Marcos really had a huge effect for us Filipinos. The best, smartest,
disciplined, tough, true filipino president of all time! He implemented martial law because it
was out of love for democracy and his beloved country. Philippines was starting to get out of
control due to the influence and penetration of the communism to the our country. The only
way to restore discipline and put his plans into action was the martial law. He is like a father
who spanks his child not because he's abusive but he loves that child and wants that child to
grow up successful. If he didn't implemented martial law, we probably be # 2 in asia during
that time has one of the best economy, best military might, don't have the infrastructures that

we have, we might be a communist country and worse of all, UNITED STATES probably
would try to invade us again! He wants us to stand on our own, not to be a puppet to the US.