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Lucrari practice - Petrlologie sedimentar

Lucrri practice 10

Diageneza sedimentelor i rocilor carbonatice


Diferenta intre sedimentele siliciclastice si cele carbonatice consta in faptul ca ultimele sunt
produse intrabazinale, rezultate prin precipitarea chimica, biotica si biochimica a particulelor
componente. Astfel, avand in vedere rata mare de precipitare carbonatica, procesele diagenetice se
desfasoara cu rapiditate, uneori fiind sincrone cu procesele depozitionale.
In functie de locul in care opereaza procesele diagenetice se pot separa trei medii distincte
(vezi si LP3) :

Mediul diagenezei
DULCICOL
(METEORIC)

MARIN DE APA
PUTIN ADANCA

DE INGROPARE
PROFUNDA

Caracteristici
solutii interstitiale
dulcicole, cu pH acid
si circulatie
descendenta
solutii interstitiale cu
salinitate normala si
pH neutru si/sau
alcalin

solutii interstitiale cu
salinitate foarte
ridicata si pH puternic
alcalin

Procese specifice
-dizolvare selectiva
-cimentare
-metasomatism
(dolomitizare)
-cimentare
-micritizare
microbiana
-metasomatism
(dolomitizare)
-dizolvare selectiva
-compactare
-neomorfism
-dizolvare sub
presiune
-compactare
-cimentare
-metasomatism
(dolomitizare)

Etape diagenetice
-SINDIAGENEZA
-EPIDIAGENEZA
-SINDIAGENEZA

-ANADIAGENEZA

-ANADIAGENEZA

Particulele carbonatice sunt consolidate prin liant care poate fi :


-ciment = cristale de calcit cu dimensiuni >4 microni = sparit
-matrice = un agregat de particule carbonatice submicroscopice (<4 microni) = micrit
Procese diagenetice si efectele lor:
Proces
COMPACTARE

Efecte
reducerea
porozitatii
reducerea
porozitatii

CIMENTARE

DIZOLVARE
SELECTIVA
DIZOVARE
PRESIUNE

creste porozitatea
SUB

reduce porozitatea

Observatii
-modificarea contactelor dintre alocheme
-deformarea bioclastelor
tipuri de cimenturi
mineralogic
structural
-carbonatic=calcit, aragonit,
-de pori, poikilotopic de
dolomit
menisc,etc
-are loc in cazul circulatiei unor solutii cu agresivitate chimica
pentru o parte din claste; ex:dizolvarea bioclastelor.
-duce la formarea stilolitelor si a contactelor concav-convexe intre
particule diferite mineralogic sau la contacte suturale intre
1

Lucrari practice - Petrlologie sedimentar

NEOMORFISM

reduce porozitatea

METASOMATISM

reduce sau creste


poroziatatea

MICRITIZARE
MICROBIANA

distruge
microstructura

particule similare mineralogic.


-recristalizare = aragonit-calcit; micrit-sparit
-supracretere = dezvoltari sintaxiale in jurul placilor de
echinoderme
-substituirea particula cu particula a unui mineral cu altul;
afecteaza atat alochemele cat si cimentul; ex:dolomitizarea,
silicifierea bioclastelor.
-formarea unor anvelope micritice in jurul bioclastelor si ooidelor
; poate duce la o micritizare completa

Procese specifice :
A.Cimentare -tipurile de ciment pot fi urmrite in LP3.
B. Dizolvare selectiva; bioclastele (fragmente de bivalve) dizolvate - in masa micritica rezulta o
porozitate secundara in care porii au forme specifice bioclastelor.
C. Dizolvare sub presiune; stilolitele (S) evidentiate prin reziduri insolubile depuse pe traiectul
fluidului ; daca calcarul are un continut mare in minerale argiloase acestea se vor dispune intr-o
retea anastomozata (RA; "dissolution seams").

D. Neomorfism; recristalizare agradanta micrit-sparit (RAg) si recristalizare aragonit - calcit (Re) in


interiorul bioclastelor (bivalve); in acest caz se observa cum cristalele de calcit cu un aspect mozaic
echigranular au inlocuit structura primara fibroasa, aragonitica.
E. Neomorfism; supracresteri sintaxiale (Ss) in jurul fragmentelor monocristaline de echinoderme;
in nicoli incrucisati fragmentul de echinoderm si coroana de supracrestere se comporta ca un cristal
unic.

F. Metasomatism ; dolomitizarea calcarelor - cristale rombice de dolomit insotite de o porozitate


secundara datorata contractiei de volum care insoteste transformarea metasomatica calcit-dolomit.
G. Compactare mecanica (1); Micritizare microbiana (2); deformarea bioclastelor (1)- este deseori
insotita si de procesul de dizolvare sub presiune; micritizarea microbiana (2) a bioclastelor sau
ooidelor - poate fi partiala, concentrata doar in zonele marginale, sau totala generand un aspect
peloidal.

Lucrari practice - Petrlologie sedimentar

Lucrare practica
Ora I
Se vor identifica, descrie si interpreta mai multe procese si produse
diagenetice, schimband mai multe sectiuni subtiri si completand fisa nr. I
Ora II
Se va alege o sectiune subtire mai complexa si se vor identifica, descrie si
interpreta toate procesele si produsele diagenetice urmand algoritmul fisei nr. II. Se
va elabora un text la rubrica concluzii privind evolutia diagenetica a rocii respective.

Lucrari practice - Petrlologie sedimentar

FIA NR. I (ora I)


Proces:
Desen: scara

Efect sau produs


Descriere, observaii

Interpretare
Mediul diagenetic:

____ mm

Etapa diagenetic:

Chimismul
soluiilor interstiiale:

Proces:
Desen: scara

Efect sau produs


Descriere, observaii

Interpretare
Mediul diagenetic:

____ mm

Etapa diagenetic:

Chimismul
soluiilor interstiiale:

Proces:
Desen: scara

Efect sau produs


Descriere, observaii

Interpretare
Mediul diagenetic:

____ mm

Etapa diagenetic:

Chimismul
soluiilor interstiiale:

Proces:
Desen: scara

Efect sau produs


Descriere, observaii

____ mm

Interpretare
Mediul diagenetic:

Etapa diagenetic:

Chimismul
soluiilor interstiiale:

Lucrari practice - Petrlologie sedimentar

FIA NR II (ora II)


1. Cadul scheletic mineral/porozitate: ............/............%
2. Spaiul interstiial (porozitate) :....................%
(vezi LP3 pt. tipuri de pori)

Tipuri de pori determinai de fabric


.......%

Pori primari

Tipuri de pori nedeterminai de


fabric

.........%

Pori secundari
.........%

.......%

3. Evoluia spaiului interstiial i a particulelor sedimentare

Nr.
crt.

Etapa diagenetic

Mediul diagenetic

SD

Procese i produse diagenetice


AD

TG

MF

SD- Sindiageneza; AD- Anadiageneza; TG-Telogeneza


M-Meteoric; MF-Marin freatic; P- ngropare profund

Lucrari practice - Petrlologie sedimentar

Desene reprezentative fia II

scara

scara

scara

scara

Sisteme de referinta - diageneza rocilor carbonatice


Porosity
Fabric-selective pores
Interparticle (intergranular) porosity: Porosity between individual particles or grains of a sedimentary
rock. Corresponds generally to depositional primary porosity, but also includes secondary porosity (e.g. resulting
from partial dissolution of aragonitic wid cortices). Interparticle porosity is high in modem mud-free carbonate
sands (up to about 50%) as well as in modem mud-bearing sediments (about 40 to about 75%). The preservation
of open interparticle pores in ancient carbonates is promoted by the absence of water in the pores in dry climates,
by a protective seal of clay or evaporites, or by early oil emplacement. Common pore sizes are 0.05 to 1 mm.
Intraparticle (intragranular) porosity: Primary pore space corresponding to defined parts of skeletons
(intraskeletal porosity, e.g. chambers of foraminifera) or to open spaces created by the removal of less calcified
internal elements (e.g. central part of Halimeda). Depends on the morphology and microstructure of tests and
skeletons of organisms as well as on the ultrastructure of the grains (e.g. ooids or aggregate grains). Common
pore sizes are <0.01 to 1 mm.
Growth framework porosity: Primary porosity associated with the growth of reef-building organisms.
Framework porosity may be high (in modem coral reefs) or low (in reefs dominated by encrusting organisms). It
tends to become quickly reduced by infilling of sediment and by carbonate cements.
Fenestral porosity: Primary porosity bound to synsedimentary open-space structures and commonly associated
with supratidal and intertidal, algal- and microbial-related, mud dominated sediments.
Shelter porosity: A type of primary porosity created by the shelter and umbrella effect of relatively
large grains which prevent the sediment infill'ing of pore space underneath lying. Shelter porosity is favored by
the existence of large platelike fossils (e.g. larger foraminifera, platy algae).
Intercrystalfine porosity: Porosity between more or less equal-sized crystals, often related to early and
late diagenetic recrystallization and dolomitization processes. Common pore sizes are c1 to 10 pm.
Moldic porosity: Results from the selective removal, commonly by solution, of grains, e.g. fossils or
ooids. Requires a distinctive mineralogical or microstructural difference between the solubility of grains and
matrix or cements. Molds fom preferentially in rocks of mixed mineralogies in meteoric-phreatic, but also in
burial settings. Common pore sizes are 0.1 to 10 mm. Biomoldicporosity refers to porosity caused by removal of
fossils. Pore sizes <0.5 to several millimeters. Dissolution of (mainly aragonitic) ooids results in the formation of
oomoldic porosity, particularly in meteoric vadose and meteoric phreatic environments. Common pore sizes
<0.20 to >0.5 mm.
Non-fabric selective pores
Fracture porosity: Results from the presence of openings produced by the syndepositional, depositional
or post-deposiI tional burial breaking of rocks . Often caused by brittle fracture of shells as a result of increasing
overburden before cementation, folding, faulting, salt solution, or fluid overpressing. Common in brittle
homogenous carbonates, e.g. chalks. Fractures may be healed by late diagenetic calcite. Fracture porosity is the
main porosity type in many reservoir rocks.
Channel porosity: A system of secondary pores in which the openings are markedly elongate and have
developed independently of texture or fabric.
Vuggy porosity: Caused by irregularly distributed early and late diagenetic dissolution cutting across
grains andlor cement boundaries and creating millimeter- to meter-sized holes that must be studied on different
scales. Dissolution may start from molds or interparticle pores. Decimeter-sized vugs of, different size (globular;
vertically elongated; irregularly elongated) and corroded walls that are lined by marcasite may be caused by
synsedimentary to early diagenetic biogenic methane exhalation originating from the decay of organic matter.
Cavern porosity: Non-fabric selective porosity characterized by large caverns. The term cavern applies
to man-sized or larger openings of channel or vug shapes formed predominantly by karstic solution processes.
Fabric-selective or not
Breccia porosity: Depositional, solution and karst breccias may yield high porosities.
Boring porosity: Micro- and macroborers contribute to the formation of very small to centimeter-sized
brings. Microborers are effective in producing microporosity.
Burrow porosity:Various organisms create organic burrows in relatively unconsolidated sediment.
Shrinkage porosity: Shrinkage of carbonate mud in tidal flats can result in the formation of
characteristic pore systems.

Fig. 1 diagrammatic representation of the basic fabric-selective porosity types used in the Choquette and Pray
(1970) carbonate porosity classification. What is meant by fabric selectivity is that the porosity is controlled by the grains,
crystals, or other physical structures in the rock and the pores themselves do not cross those primary boundaries.

Fig. 2 diagrammatic representation of the basic non-fabric-selective or variably fabric-selective porosity types used
in the Choquette and Pray (1970) carbonate porosity classification. These are all porosity patterns that actually or potentially
can cross-cut primary grains and depositional fabrics. They also include porosity types that potentially can be much larger
than any single primary framework element.

Major diagenetic environments

Fig. 3 -Simplified scheme. Many of the studies dealing with the diagenesis of carbonate rocks are environment-specific and
concentrate on processes affecting particular hydrogeochemically defined diagenetic environments. Carbonate diagenesis
operates in the meteoric environment, the marine environment and the burial environment. In the meteoric environment pore
space is occupied by freshwater and air (meteoric vadose zone above water table; hatched) or by freshwater (meteoric
phreatic zone). The marine-vadose zone at the land-sea boundary and the mixing zone in coastal areas and shallow nearcoastal subsurface exhibits meteoric and marine criteria. In the marine phreatic environment water is supersaturated with
respect to CaCO3 in shallow seas and undersaturated in cold and deep seas. The subsurface burial environment comprises the
subsurface beneath the reach of surface-related processes down to the realm of low-grade metamorphism. Conventionally
shallow burial and deep burial are differentiated. The term near-sulface diagenesis refers to processes at or close to the sea
floor and in the meteoric environment within the reach of surface-related processes related to depositional or weathering
interfaces. Here, cementation is highly facies-specific. The terms eogenic, mesogenic and telegenic, introduced by Choquette
and Pray (1970), refer to early near-surface, burial and uplift/unconformity-related processes.
B - Major processes occurring in different diagenetic environments. The time involved in diagenetic processes varies
significantly in different diagenetic zones. Early diagenetic solution/precipitation processes in meteoric vadose and shallow
marine phreatic environments need far less time than late diagenetic deeper burial diagenesis, which can last millions of
years. Similarly, unconformity-related meteoric phreatic processes may continue over very long time intervals. Early
cementation in intertidal and shallow subtidal environments occurs within a range of almost recent to several tens to a few
thousand years.
Synsedimentary botryoidal cements on marginal slopes of platforms may grow over several tens of years, resulting in
synsedimentary stabilization of steep carbonate slope deposits at or above angles of repose (Grammer et al. 1993).

Types of cements
a) Type criteria:

Fig.4 Cement types part I (Flugel, 2004)

Fig. 4 Cement types part II (Flugel, 2004)

a) Fabric criteria:

Fig. 5 Cement fabric part I (Flugel, 2004)

Diagenetical setting and types of cements


Meteoric vadose:
Types: Dripstone, meniscus, microcrystalline, bladed, fibrous, drusy, blocky. Cement crystals small and
equant. Cements irregularly distributed, concentrated at grain contacts or beneath grains.
Fabrics: Gravitational, meniscus, drusy and granular mosaics, syntaxial overgrowth.
Marine vadose:
Types: Dripstone, meniscus, fibrous.
Fabrics: Isopachous, gravitational, meniscus, granular mosaics, syntaxial overgrowth.
Meteoric phreatic:
Types: Dogtooth, blocky, dripstone, meniscus, fibrous, microcrystalline, peloidal microcrystalline.
Cement crystals are a bit larger than vadose crystals. Cements more homogeneously distributed than vadose
cements.
Fabrics: Circumgranular; isopachous, gravitational, equant, granular and blocky mosaics; syntaxial
overgrowth.
Marine phreatic:
Types: Fibrous, acicular, bladed, botryoidal, radiaxial, dogtooth, microcrystalline.
Fabrics: Circumgranular, isopachous, crusts, splays, botryoidal.
Burial:
Types: Blocky, poikilotopic, dog tooth, radiaxial.