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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

CHAPTER 1
MARKETING
INTRODUCTION
Since the first car rolled out on the streets of Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1898,
the Automobile Industry of India has come a long way. During its early stages the
auto industry was overlooked by the then Government and the policies were also not
favourable. The liberalization policy and various tax reliefs by the Govt. of India in
recent years have made remarkable impacts on Indian Automobile Industry. Indian
auto industry, which is currently growing at the pace of around 18 % per annum, has
become a hot destination for global auto players like Volvo, General motors and Ford.
A well developed transportation system plays a key role in the development of
an economy, and India is no exception to it. With the growth of transportation system
the Automotive Industry of India is also growing at rapid speed, occupying an
important place on the 'canvas' of Indian economy. Today Indian automotive industry
is fully capable of producing various kinds of vehicles and can be divided into three
broad categories: Cars, two-wheelers and heavy vehicles.

Snippets

The first automobile in India rolled in 1897 in Bombay.

India is being recognized as potential emerging auto market.

Foreign players are adding to their investments in Indian auto industry.

Within two-wheelers, motorcycles contribute 80% of the segment size.

Tata motors dominate over 60% of the Indian commercial vehicle market.

2/3rd of auto component production is consumed directly by OEMs.

India is the largest two wheeler manufacturer and preferred by citizens and
two wheeler is in high demand

India is the fifth largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world.

The number one global motorcycle manufacturer is in India.

India is the fourth largest car market in Asia - recently crossed the 1 million
mark.

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Various Categories in Automobile


No, one product can meet the needs, wants and desires of the complete market in
universe. For every product, market segmentation will result in targeting the right
customers and thus capture major market contributing to high scales.
Market segmentation is done on the basic of the consumers preferences,
tastes, like, usage, purchasing power, application, etc. Thus different customer group
can be grouped on the above basis. The Indian automobile industry has over the years
grown in scale with a diversified product range. This product range will cater to the
needs of different customers

The various types of automobiles manufactured in India are


1. Light motor vehicle
2. Jeeps and utility vehicles
3. Medium commercial vehicles
4. Three wheelers
5. Two wheelers
The above categories are being made on the basis of product design, payload
etc., in addition, numerous shapes, colours , sizes, utility and applications form as
intelligent choice to the consumers who can make a purchase in parallel to his/ her
tastes, preferences and liking.
This also helps the manufacturer to define his business in his capacity and
cater to the demand in particular segment. This also helps the manufacturer to
stavolise and concentrate on the business while being capable to compete in the
competitive environment adopting the latest technology another developments taking
place in any part of the world.

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Major four wheeler Companies:

Hyundai Motors

Tata Motors

Wolkswagon

Maruthi Suzuki

Major two wheeler companies:

T.V.S. MOTORS

Bajaj Auto limited.

Yamaha.

Suzuki.

Honda.

HERO PVT LIMITED

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Origin of Motor-Scooters and History


Edward Butler, an Englishman, built the first motor tricycle in 1884. The first
gasoline-engine motorcycle to appear publicly was built by Gottlieb Daimler, of Bad
Cannstatt, Germany, in 1885. The first practical engines and motorcycles were
designed by the French and Belgians, followed by British, German, Italian, and
American makers.
The popularity of the vehicle grew, especially after 1910. During World War I
the motorcycle was used by all branches of the armed forces in Europe, principally for
dispatching. After the war it enjoyed a sport vogue until the Great Depression began
in 1929. After World War II a revival of interest in motorcycles lasted into the late
20th century, with the vehicle being used for high-speed touring and sport
competitions.
The practice of attaching auxiliary engines to bicycles in Western Europe and
parts of the United States led to the development during the 1950s of a new type of
light motorcycle, the moped. Originating in Germany as a 50-cubic-centimetre
machine with simple controls and low initial cost, it was largely free of licensing and
insurance regulations except in Great Britain. The more sophisticated motor scooter
originated in Italy soon after World War II, led by manufacture of a 125-cubiccentimetre model. Despite strong competition from West Germany, France, Austria,
and Britain, the Italian scooters maintained the lead in the diminishing market. The
scooter has small wheels from 20 to 36 cm (8 to 14 inches) in diameter, and the rider
sits inside the frame. Power units are placed low and close to the rear wheel, which is
driven by bevel gearing or chain. Capacities vary from 50 to 225 cubic cm, and fourspeed gearing is common

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The 1900s saw the conversion of many bicycles, or pedal cycles by adding small,
centrally mounted spark ignition engines. There was then felt the need for reliable
constructions. This led to road trial tests and competition between manufacturers.
Tourist Trophy (TT) races were held on the Isle of Man in 1907 as reliability
or endurance races. Such were the proving ground for many new ideas from early
two-stroke-cycle designs to supercharged, multivalent engines mounted on
aerodynamic, carbon-fibre reinforced bodywork

Revolution of bikes in India in distinct phases


PHASE: 1: The Indian two-wheeler structure was quite monopolistic during
the first 37 years since independence, when volumes grew at a slow pace. Bajaj Auto
had an undisputed leadership over the market. Consumer had to literally wait for
years before acquiring a Bajaj vehicle. The industry registered a compounded growth
rate of 12% during the seventies.
PHASE: 2: The second phase began in the mid-eighties when the sector was
partially deregulated. This phase saw Japanese companies typing up with domestic
players and newer models were introduced in specific segments. Even though the
demand was apparently strong for scooters, most of the Japanese ventures opted to
produce motorcycles except for kinetic-Hondas which chose to manufacture scooters.
The annual growth rate for the two-wheeler industry during this phase stood at 16.4%.
This phase extended till the early Nineties, and there was a recession during the 1 st
phase of this phase i.e., 1992-93 and by 8% the following year.
PHASE: 3: This phase began in 1994 when sales started picking up. The
market saw a steep increase in the demand, in 1995; the industry produced about one
million scooters, 6 lakhs motorcycles and 5 lakhs mopeds. The motorcycle segment
has seen sales grow by 27.08% from April 1995 to December 1995. During the same
period, scooter sales grew by 17.26% and mopeds by 20.70%.
companies are going in for capacity expansion.

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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH DESIGN OF THE STUDY
2.1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
These are days where the INNOVATE OR DIE rules. Companies cannot
survive unless they invent new products and techniques. They have to work
extensively if they are to succeed in the competitive market. Consumers have
abundant choice to satisfy their needs and therefore look for excellence in quality,
value and cost. A product cannot be marketed successfully without knowing
consumers tastes and preferences towards that product.
This study is to know the Consumer psychology, attitudes and beliefs. It is
difficult to read the minds, perceptions and feelings of a consumer towards a product.
The Market now faces many problems like entry of MNCs, increase of competition
and many more problems. As a result quality products are produced. The New
Technology innovated and imported from World over. This becomes a problem of
survival for Indian Companies. In these conditions, it becomes essential for every
company to study the minds of the Consumers and their behaviour towards the
developmental changes in cut throat competition.
Consumer prefers both quality products at reasonable price. The price
should be matched with the quality of the product. As the awareness of the
Consumer is increasing, the Company should produce products which have the
combination of creativity and technology with reasonable pricing compared to that
of competitors products and their pricing strategies. Quality, brand image, price,
availability and sometimes even brand ambassador plays a major role in influencing
the Consumer to buy a particular product.
In this situation, companies should carry out
research and has to allot huge amounts towards it. With the stiff competition
coming up at a rapid pace and also due to changing nature of the market, a need was
felt to take up a study of the type and hence intended to conduct A study on
consumer perception toward TVS APACHE RTR160.

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2.2 DESIGN OF THE STUDY


The design of the study used is descriptive in nature. Descriptive research is focused
on the accurate description of the variables in the problem model. Consumer profile
studies, market potential studies, product usage studies, attitude surveys, sales
analysis, media research, product and price surveys are the examples of descriptive
research. Any source of information can be used in a descriptive study, although most
studies of this nature rely heavily on secondary data source and survey research.
As a part of descriptive study, survey is conducted using structured scientific
undisguised questionnaire.

Operational definition
Consumers
Consumers refer to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and
services generated with in the economy. The concept of a consumer is used in
different contexts, so that the usage and significance of the term may very. Consumer
is the main source of research design. After analysing the consumer the research gains
meaning full accurate information about the product. After pursuing the consumer of a
particular product.
Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviours are:
SOCIAL FACTORS
CULTURAL FACTORS
PERSONAL FACTORS
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS

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Dealers
Dealer is a person who is involved in selling goods or services directly to the
final consumer for the personal or non business use. E.g authorised dealers
(showrooms) and agents a huge data can be gathered by dealers and this information
is very effective in research design

Marketing
Activity designed to enhance the flow of goods, services and ideas from the
producer to the ultimate consumer in order to satisfy their needs and wants. Marketing
elements involves 4ps price product place promotion helps the research effectively

Product
A product is a firms tangible offer to the market. A product may carry a
supportive service, and that can provide a competitive advantage in the global
competition. Product is the main survey to the design of an research

Perception
Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes,
and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. It can be
described as how we see the world around us. Two individuals may exposed to the
same stimuli under the same apparent conditions , but how each person recognizes
,selects, organizes, and interprets them is highly individual process based on each
persons own needs, values and expectations.

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2.3 CONSUMER PERCEPTION

INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

The millennium has been witness to lot of changes occurring in the market
place. The growing economy with its high economic growth rate and per capita
income has been a great challenge for marketers they are required to come out with
customized products and service offerings to cater to the wants and demands of the
customers. The high economic growth rate has led creation of new segments of
consuming classes ranging from the high elite class right up to those consumers who
belong to the bottom of the pyramid i.e.,, the low and poor income families. The
social scenario is also changing with the breaking of nuclear family systems and wide
acceptance of nuclear family set-up, more acceptance clothes, eating habit etc. all
such changes have led to consumers seeking new aspiration levels and value from the
various products and service offering. Marketing are required which will provide the
desired value satisfaction in this age of constantly changing consumer behaviour.

DEFINITION OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

Consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumers display in


searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and service that
they expect will satisfy their needs.

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PERCEPTION

Perception is the process of selecting, organization and interpreting or attaching


meaning to events happening in the environments Perceptual selection, organization
and interpretation.
Since each individual is unique each ones perceptual process will be based on how
one sees and perceives the world.

Perceptual inputs will comprise of stimuli (such as peoples, events etc) in the
environment.

The actual aspects of perceptual mechanism include the selection,


organization and interpretation.

The perceptual outputs will be the behaviour or action of the individuals i.e. the

resultant opinions, feelings.

THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS

Perceptual selection

Individuals exercise, selectivity in consciously recognizing only certain aspects of


the environment as stimuli. So when they are bombarded with various stimuli that
will be selective in the perception process. The selection of the stimuli will be
dependent on two major factors apart from the nature of the stimulus itself the
individual s (consumers) previous experience as it affects their expectations and
their motive at that time.

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Nature of the stimulus

when we discuss the nature of the stimulus (product), it could be its physical
attributes, the package design, the brand name, the advertisement etc.
Expectation: expectations affect what a person perceives. Expectations are related
with state of anticipation a consumer has from a particular product or service.

Motives

Peoples have a tendency to perceive things they need or want. There is mare
awareness of the stimuli which are relevant to the consumers needs and interest. At
that time he or she will not be aware of or not be motivated by those stimuli which are
irrelevant to their needs.

PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION

People do not experience all the stimuli selected by them as separate and discrete
sensations. They rather, organize this stimulus into groups and perceive them as
unified wholes. This method of perceptual organization enables individuals to view
life in a simplified manner. Figure and ground: people tend to organize information on
the basis of the figure-ground principle. This involves that in perceiving stimuli or
phenomena, the tendency is to keep certain phenomena in focus and other phenomena
in the background.

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Grouping

In grouping, the perceives groups have the different stimuli based on the principle of
their similarity or proximity.
Closure: when faced with incomplete information, individuals have the tendency to
fill in the gaps themselves so as to gain more meaningful information.

PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION

Perception is a personal phenomenon people have the tendency to interpret the


meaning of what they have selectively perceived and organized on the basis of their
own assumptions about the stimuli. This interpretation of the stimuli will be
dependent on what the individuals expects to see in the light of his previous
experience, intuition, data received, motives and interests at the time of perception.

CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESS.

HIGH INVOLVEMENT DECISION MAKING.


In case of complex decision making, the consumer will be involved in an extensive
search for information to evaluate brands.
Consumers information processing involves the exposure to and perception of
information and how it is retained in memory.
Consumer information processing starts with the need arousal. Once the need is
recognized consumers are more likely to search for and process information relevant
to their need. Although they are exposed to many stimuli, it will be selective in nature.
This selective stimuli exposure is driven by the need to reinforce existing brands
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attitude and perceptions and seek additional information. Consumers will seek ads
which will reinforce consumer belief and experiences.

By selectively perceiving stimuli, consumers are striving to reach a state of


psychological equilibrium i.e. a state that lacks conflicts and avoids contradictory
information. Past information and experience are stored in consumers memory so that
it can be recalled for future use (in the figure, this is indicated by double arrows).
Search for additional takes place when consumers feel that they do not have sufficient
information (alternative brands are considered to be inadequate, have insufficient
information about the brands under consideration or receive conflicting information
from other sources etc).
Of course, studies reveal that consumers do not engage in an extensive information
search unless they feel that the value of any additional information collected is worth
the cost of obtaining it.

REPRESENTATIONS

The diagram shows Maslows hierarchy of needs represented as a pyramid with the
more primitive needs at the bottom.
Maslows hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels:
the four levels are grouped together as being associated with physiological needs,
while the top level is termed growth needs associated with psychological needs.
Deficiency needs must be met first. Once these are met, seeking to satisfy growth
needs drives personal growth. The higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus
when the lower needs in the pyramid are satisfied. Once an individual has moved
upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized.If a
lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual will temporarily reprioritized those needs by focusing attention on the unfulfill needs, but will not
permanently regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman (at the esteem
level) who is diagnosed with cancer will spent a great deal of time concentrating on

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his health (physiological needs), but will continue to value his work performance
(esteem needs) and will likely return to work during periods of remission.

DEFICIENCY NEEDS

The first four layers of the pyramid are what Maslows called deficiency needs or
D-needs the individual does not feel anything if they are met, but feels anxious if
they are not met. The deficiency needs are: Physiological, Safety, Love/Belonging,
and Esteem needs.

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

These are the basic human needs for such things as food, warmth, sex, water, and
other body needs. If a person is hungry or thirsty or his body is chemically
unbalanced, all of his energies turn towards remedying these deficiencies, and other
needs remain inactive. Maslow explains that, anyone who attempts to make an
emergency picture into a typical one, and who will measure all of mans goals and
desires by his behaviour during extreme.
Physiological deprivation is certainly blind to many things it is quite true that man
lives by bread alone --- when there is no bread the physiological needs of the
organism (those enabling homeostasis) take first precedence. These consist mainly of
(in opposite order of importance):

Excretion.

Eating.

Drinking.

Breathing.

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If some needs are not fulfilled, a humans physiological needs take the highest
priority. Physiological needs can control thoughts and behaviours, and can cause
people to feel sickness, pain, and discomfort.

SAFETY NEEDS

With his physical needs relatively satisfied, the individuals safety needs take over and
dominate his behaviour. These needs have to do with mans yearning for a predictable,
orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar
frequent, and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, this safety needs manifest
themselves in such things as a preference for jobs security, grievance procedures for
protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings account, insurance
policies, and the like.

For the most part physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfies in our
affluent and relatively lawful society. The obvious exceptions, of course, are people
outside the mainstream ----- the poor and the disadvantage. If frustration has not led to
apathy and weakness, such people still struggle to satisfy the basic physiological and
safety needs. They are primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food,
clothing, shelter, and seeking justice from the dominant societal groups.
Safety needs include:

Personal security from crime.

Financial security.

Health and well being.

Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts

SOCIAL NEEDS

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After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is
social. This psychological aspect of Maslows hierarchy involves emotionally-based
relationship in general, such as:

Friendship.

Intimacy.

Having a supportive and communicative Family.

Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a
large social group (such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional
organizations, sports team, gangs) or small social connections (family members,
intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be
loved (sexually and non sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many
people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and depression. This need for
belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the
strength of the peer pressure. E.g. an anorexic ignores the needs to eat and the security
of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

ESTEEM NEEDS

All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect, and to


respect others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an
activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and
self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low
self-esteem, inferiority complexes. People with low self-esteem need respect from
others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. However
confidence, competence and achievement only need one person and everyone else is
inconsequential to ones own success. It may be noted, however, that many people
with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by
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receiving fame, respects, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves
internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from
obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

SELF ACTUALIZATION

Self-actualization a concept Maslow attributed to Kurt Goldstein, one of his mentors


is the instinctual need of humans to make the most of their abilities and to strive to
be the best they can. Working toward fulfilling our potential, toward becoming all that
we are capable of becoming.
In Maslows scheme, the final stage of psychological development comes when the
individual feels assured that his physiological, security, affiliation and affection, selfrespect, and recognition needs have been satisfied. As these become dormant, he
becomes filled with a desire to realize all of his potential for being an effective,
creative, mature human being. What a man can be, he must be, is the way Maslow
expresses it.
CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS

BASIC MODEL OF CONSUMER DECISION MAKING

Stage

Brief Description

Problem

The consumer perceives a need and becomes

recognition

motivated to solve a problem.

Information

The consumer searches for information required to Perception

search

make a purchase decision.

Alternative

The consumer compares various brands and Attitude formation

evaluation

products.

Purchase

The consumer decides which brand to purchase

decision

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Integration

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

PROBLEM RECOGNITION

Problem recognition results when there is a difference between ones desired state and
ones actual state. Consumers are motivated to address this discrepancy and therefore
they commence the buying process.
Sources of problem recognition include:

An item is out of stock.

Dissatisfaction with a current product or service.

Consumer need and wants

Related products / purchases.

Marketer included

New products

The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with problem


recognition is motivation. A motive is a factor that compels action. Belch and Belch
(2007) provide an explanation of motivation based on Maslows hierarchy of needs
and Freuds psychoanalytic theory.

INFORMATION SEARCH
Once the consumer has recognized a problem, they search for information on products
and services that can solve that problem. Belch and Belch (2007) explain that
consumers undertake both an internal (memory) and an external search.
Sources of information include:

Personal sources.

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Commercial sources.

Public sources.

Personal experience.

The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with information search
is perception. Perception is defined as the process by which an individual receives,
selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the
world.
The selective perception process Stage Description Selective exposure consumers
select which promotional message they will expose themselves to. Selective attention
consumers select which promotional message they will pay attention to Selective
comprehension consumer interpret messages in line with their beliefs, attitudes,
motives and experiences Selective retention consumers remember message that are
more meaningful or important to them.
You should consider the implications of this process on the development of an
effective promotional strategy. First, which sources of information are more effective
for the brand and second, what type of message and media strategy will increase the
likelihood that consumers are exposed to our message, that they will pay attention to
the message, that they will understand the message, and remember our message.

ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION

At this time the consumer compares the brands and products that are in their evoked
set. How can the marketing organization increase the likelihood that their brand is
part of the consumers evoked (consideration) set? Consumers evaluate alternatives in
term of the functional and psychological benefits that they offer. The marketing
organization needs to understand what benefits consumers are seeking and therefore
which attributes are most important in term of making a decision.
The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with the alternative
evaluation stage is attitude formation. Belch and Belch (2007, p.117) note that
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attitudes are learned predispositions towards an object. Attitudes comprise both
cognitive and affective elements that is both what you think and how you feel about
something. The multi-attribute attitude model explain how consumers evaluate
alternatives on a range of attributes. Belch and Belch (2007) identify a number of

strategies that can be used to influence the process (attitude change strategies).
Finally, there is a range of ways that consumers apply criteria to make decisions.
Belch and Belch (2007) explain ho information is integrated and how decision rules
are made including the use of heuristics. The marketing organization should know
how consumers evaluate alternatives on salient or important attributes and make their
buying decision.

PURCHASE DECISION

Once the alternatives have been evaluated, the consumer is ready to make a purchase
decision. Sometimes purchase intention does not result in an actual purchase. The
marketing organization must facilitate the consumer to act on their purchase intention.
The provision of credit or payment terms may encourage purchase, or a sales
promotion such as the opportunity to receive a premium or enter a competition may
provide an incentive to buy now. The relevant internal psychological process that is
associated with purchase decision is integration. Buyer decision process are the
decision making process undertaken by consumers in regard to a potential market
transaction before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service.
More generally, decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of
action from among multiple alternatives. Common examples include shopping,
deciding what to eat. Decision making is said to be a psychological constructs. This
means that although we can never see a decision, we can infer from observable
behavior that a decision has been made. Therefore we conclude that a psychological
event that we call decision making has occurred. It is construction that imputes
commitment to action. That is, based on observation actions, we assume that people
have made a commitment to affect the action.

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CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS

NEED RECOGNITION

SEARCH FOR INFORMATION

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES

PUCCHASE DECISION

THE BUYING PROCESS

Need recognition

The starting point of buying process is the perceived want or a desire. Need
recognition is the awareness of the wants or desire or a consumption problem
without whose satisfaction the consumer feels restless and tension-charged.

Information search

A need aroused and recognized can be satisfied only when the product or
service is available. Consumers interest is indicated in the consumers

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willingness to seek further information about product or satisfaction, he
searches relevant information.

Evaluation and intention

It is consumers deep interest in the product or service that paves the way for
evaluation and intention. The evaluation stage is the stage of the mental trial of
the product or service. Once he evaluates, he develop the intension to accept
or reject a given product or service. The final purchase depends on the relative
strength of the positive intension to buy.

Purchase decision

It is the positive intension of the consumer that leads to a purchase decision.


Decision to purchase implies consumer commitment for a product or a service.
Practically, it is the large stage in the buying process because, it completes the
exchange process.

Post- purchase reaction

Post purchase behaviour or reaction stands for the behaviour of a consumer after a
commitment to product has been made. This post purchase experience may be a set of
positive or negative feelings. Positive feeling or satisfaction will result in repeat sales
or at least recommending the products or service to others. In cognitive dissonance it
tends to reduce dissonance by either changing or strengthening ones view or suitable
altering ones behaviour.

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2.4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


1. To determine the perception of consumers regarding the price of TVS APACHE
RTR160.
2. To study the satisfaction of consumers with regard to TVS APACHE RTR160.
3. To evaluate the influence exerted by various sources on purchase decision.
4. To study the opinion of consumers regarding the performance of the bike on
different road conditions.
5. To study the actual mileage obtained by the consumers.
6. To find out the factors influencing the purchase of TVS APACHE RTR160.
7. Ascertain the proportion of business men, employees, and students owning TVS
APACHE RTR160 in Bangalore.
8. To find out the mode of payment for the purchase of the bike.
2.5. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.

The survey is limited to Bangalore region.

2.

Time and cost is a major limiting factor of the study.

3.

The limitations of sampling techniques apply.

4.

The sample size of the study was restricted to fifty only.

5.

The bias of the respondents might have lead to errors in survey findings.

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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

CHAPTER 3
INDUSTRIAL PROFILE
The TVS Group is one of Indias largest industrial conglomerates. TV
Sundaram Iyengar and Sons Limited, established in 1911, are the present and holding
company of the TVS Group. The largest automobile distribution company in India,
TVS & Sons has an annual turnover exceeding US $450 million (over Rs.
16000million). With a workforce of over 5000, TV Sundaram Iyengar and sons
limited operates through the following divisions:

TVS
Sundaram motors
Madras Auto Service

With steady growth, expansion and diversification, today TVS commands a strong
presence in various fields like

Two-wheelers,

Automotive components, Automotive spares

Computer peripherals, Finance

TVS Motor Company


TVS Motor Company Limited, part of the TVS Group, is one of Indias leading twowheel manufacturers. With a turnover of over Rs. 2800 Crore, the company
manufactures a wide range of motorcycles, scooters, mopeds. Little wonder, it boasts
of more than 9.5million happy customers. In 1984 TVS Motors Company was called
IND-SUZUKI, which was equity participation between TVS group of India and
Clayton ltd merged and become TVS-SUZUKI Ltd. At first it was manufacturing
100cc Motorcycles but the pioneering effort of TVS-SUZUKI in the moped segment
is equally impressive. Through an amicable agreement the two companies parted
ways in September 2001.
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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Corporate structure

Venu srinivasan

Chairman & Managing Director

Gopal Srinivasan

Director

T.K.Balaji

Director

T. Kannan

Director

N. Ganga Ram

Director

C.R.Dua

Director

H. Lakshmanan

Director

T. R. Prasad

Director

K.S.Bajpai

Director

K.N. Radhakrishnan

President

S. G. Murali

Senior. Vice President -Finance

T.S.Rajagopalan

Secretary

Distribution network
Distribution is crucial aspect for each and every company. With strong sales
and service network of 500 authorized dealerships, 1018 authorized service centers
and over 864 certified service points, TVS is growing from strength to strength. The
vast network of a TVS in the country, besides providing on the spot services also
ensures availability of genuine spare parts. It ensures that TVS customers get required
service attention a genuine spare part even in the most remote areas.

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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Vision
Driven by the customer
TVS motor will be responsive to customer requirements consonant with its core
competence and profitability. TVS motor will provide total customer satisfaction by
giving the customer the right product, at the fight price, at the right time

Market share
Today TVS motor company has the largest market share in the moped
category with a whopping 65.3% and is also the undisputed leader in the Scooterette
segment with 34.3% share. It also holds 17.5% market share in motorcycles. TVS
motor is one among the top two-wheeler manufacturers in India and one among the
top five two wheeler manufacturers in Asia.

Milestones

Launched TVS 50, Indias first 2-seater 50cc moped in Aug 1980
First Indian company to introduce100cc Indo-Japanese motorcycles in Sept

1984.
Launched Indias first indigenous Scootterette, TVS Scooty in June 1994.
Introduced Indias first catalytic converter enabled motorcycle, the 110cc

shogun in december 1996.


Launched Indias first 5-speed motorcycle, the Shaolin in octomber 1997.
Launched Indias first high performance moped the XL super, with a 70cc

engine in November 1997.


Launched victor in august 2001, a world-class 4-stroke 110cc motorcycle.
Launched Centra in January 2004, a world class mileage bike.
TVS Scooty pep sales have crossed 1 million mark
Launched 110 cc bike Star city in 2006.

In 2007 a completely new Apache EFI.


The new version of Apache RTR160 was launched in 2007.

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Each new rollout signals avowed intent on the part of TVS to regain market
share and momentum within the industry. These products, backed by the highest
quality standards of the TVS group, have been launched with an eye to deliver high
value to discerning customers. The new offerings are targeted at different segments of
the two and three wheeler customers with emphasis on superior technology, styling
and engine capabilities. These vehicles will provide further impetus to the growth of
Motorcycle and Scooter sales of TVS Motor Company in the coming months.
TVS today rolled out a complete range of three wheelers operating on eco
friendly fuels LPG & CNG (factory fitted) in the passenger segment with an estimated
industry size of 3.6 lacs / year (domestic & exports). Refined quality and engineering
skills of TVS are evident in all three models of the three wheelers that were rolled out.
The company will manufacture these vehicles in two stroke, Petrol, CNG and LPG
versions at its green field modern facility at Hosur which has a capacity of 100,000
units per year.

Research and Development


The R&D is the backbone of the TVS motor company. The core of TVS is its
R&D centre. TVS R&D currently has over 400 engineers in product development
with over 70 specialists with post graduate qualification. The company also works in
close conjunction with world class institutes and labs like AVL-Australia, Warwick
University, U.K., FEV-Germany, Orbital, Australia, IITs, etc. To keep abreast of
International trends in technology and design, TVS motor companys R&D facilities
are equipped with state of art software like 100 CAD workstations with proE, ALIAS
& CATIA for the industrial design and ADAMS for vehicle dynamics, etc. The
company plans to spend about 4% of its turnover for R&D and product development
in the coming year.

3.1 TVS MOTORS COMPANY PROFILE


Exports Of TVS bikes
TVS has been a very active player in the export market. Many countries were attached
towards TVS products due to their unique performance. It makes its major exports to
the Srilanka, Nepal, South America, Africa, etc
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Bikes of Industry Products

TVS Max 100


TVS Max R
TVS Fiero
TVS Fiero FX
TVS Centra
TVS Star
TVS Victor
TVS Victor GLX 125
TVS Flame
TVS Apache
TVS Apache RTR 160

Scooters

TVS Scotty
TVS Scotty Pep

Mopeds

TVS 50 Xl
TVS XL super
TVS champ

TVS super champ


TVS sport

A byword for ruggedness and reliability, TVS 50 proved to be a promising


success and paved the way for many success for TVS Suzuki ever since.
The TVS 50 XL, a proven much sought after moped . Today TVS XL has sold
2.5 million making it the highest ever sold moped in the world.
The TVS champ and the Super champ, created for those who want economy
fused with sporty looks.
Super XL with a 70cc High- tech power pack is all set to redefine the category
of mopeds in the country.
The Suzuki samurai was launched for the time conscious urban commuter.
The Max 100R was engineered for those who demanded strength and
ruggedness.
The Suzuki Shogun was for those who wanted raw power.
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The Suzuki Sholin was Indias first 5 speeds, 140 cc Motorcycle.
The TVS Scooty, a 60cc Scooter is yet another example of the company
pioneering a new category and emerging as market leaders in new segment.
The Victor was launched for delivering better power and mileage, the lean
burn engine technology, which features an economy & power aiding optimum
fuel efficiency and also provided excellent rider comfort.
TVS Apache is a 150 cc bike from TVS Motors. According to the findings of
the 2006 Motorcycle Total Customer Satisfaction study, it has been ranked
highest in the premium segment. The design highlights of the bike offer a
more aerodynamic look with pointing down, arrow shaped headlamp and
triangular front mudguard.
TVS Apache RTR 160 is the up graded version of TVS Apache 150cc and it is
the high performance Motor cycle.

SALES OF TVS MOTOR BIKES


TVS Motor Co today said it sold 97,576 two-wheelers in December, down 5.4
per cent from 103,188 units a year ago, mainly due to higher interest rates and
stagnant demand.
Motorcycle sales in December dropped 12.7 per cent to 51,293 units from
58,756 units in the corresponding month a year ago, the company said. In the scooter
segment, TVS sold 14,568 units in December as against 16,616 units in the
corresponding month in the previous year.
The company expects growth in this segment soon with the launch of TVS
Scooty Teenz EV, a battery-powered vehicle for women that packs 50 km a charge.
Sales overseas provided respite as exports more than doubled to 14,402 Two-wheelers
in December from 7,088 units a year ago.
Sales and production quality of TVS

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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Product Name

% OF Std

Production

Sales Quantity

Motor Cycle

52.69

2,68,075

2,68,075

Mopeds

26.19

3,34,548

3,33,849

Scooter

14.18

1,04,421

1,01,318

Performance during the 2000 2001two wheeler industry posted 11.70% growth as
against a projected growth of 23% during 2001-2002 TVS has further consolidated its
market share and leadership position in two wheeler market overall TVS grew by
36% 2002-2003 and sold 9.30 lakhs unit and compared with 6.77 lakhs units during
2000-01.

Market share of TVS in Two-wheeler industry increased from 18.90% in


1997-98 to 20.70% in 1998-99. And divided with Suzuki. The market share value of
TVS is increased 26.02% in 2001-2002 t0 29.02 in 2002-2003 &TVS increased sales
up to 70% in 2004-2005
In moped segment TVS consolidated its position by increasing the market
share from 48% in 2001-2002 to 58% in 2002 moped segment witnessed a marginal
growth of 204% in 2001-02 while TVS showed healthy growth 14.0% and docked
sales volume of 3.34 lakhs units.
Motorcycle segments a derives of growth in two-wheeler industry with and
impressive 28.70% growth in 2001 over previous year. TVS kept pace with the
segment growth of motorcycle and posted 26.40% growth retain 2001 with sales of
2.68 lakhs units.
TVS maintained its 2nd position in motorcycle segment by manufacturing its
market share at 22.80% in 2002-2003.

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TVS limited is hoping to see a 9% growth in the current financial year 2003-04 in the
two-wheeler segment. Despite the sluggish market conditions, the company expects
to sell 9, 10,150 units of two-wheelers in 2000-2001 financial years as compared with
8, 35,000 units sold in 1999-2000.

Current issues
Another launch scheduled for the fourth quarter is the 160cc Apache RTR EFI.
The third-largest motorcycle maker in the country said it would leverage the
growth prospects of the three-wheeler market with the launch of its threewheeler variants.
TVS launched its three-wheeler range in August.
The company said it would round off the year with the launch of another
motorcycle in the fourth quarter.

Rival TVS Motors


The company launched the TVS Flame 125cc motorcycle during the month,
amid a legal row with rival Bajaj Auto over the use of the twin-spark plug technology.
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It plans to roll out the Flame nationally this month. So far, vehicles have been
dispatched to Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kochi, Indore and Bhopal.

3.2 Product profile


TVS Apache RTR 160
The TVS Apache motorcycle impressed all first when they had those bad
boys on motorcycles in their TV ad spots that went "now or never, and "dhinchal
dhnchak". The styling caught everyone's eye, and it look just a little while for the
Apache to capture everyone's imagination The TVS Apache quickly captured hearts Overdrive, BS Motoring and Auto car named it Bike of the Year 2006 and sales were
good.
Sometime later, TVS decided to up their game. And thus they have the TVS
Apache RTR 160. Adding only 10 cc meant that the bike will still be evaluated against
the Pulsar 150 DTS-i - its primary competitor - while beating it easily. Possible, as the
TVS motorcycle still weighs some 7 kilograms less than the CBZ X-Treme and Pulsar
150. In the TVS Apache RTR 160, the engine capacity is up to 159.7cc. To increase
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torque, as well as to boost top end whack, bore and stroke were changed to 62 and
52.9 m. What The Apache RTR 160 will give the consumer is 15.2 bhp at 8500 rpm,
and a torque of 1.31 kgm at 6000 rpm. To put it in perspective, the power produced is
more than what the original Pulsar 180 did when it hit the market.
TVS claims are a 0-60 kmph figure of 4.8 seconds, and 100 kmph would
come up in 17.7 seconds. Max speed is claimed to be 118-120 kmph. The more
noticeable difference is the length - the TVS Apache RTR stretches a 2020 mm end to
end. The swing arm is 40 mm longer in the RTR 160. There is a 270 m petal disc- new
for India - that cools better and stops great. There is nice styling touches all over in all
those places no one would bother earlier. So you have clip-on aluminium handlebars
(yay!), LED tail lamp, so-called aircraft-style fuel cap, split grab rail ... The Apache
RTR 160 also features the now standard tachometer, clock, trip meter, fuel gauge and
odometer.

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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Wheelbase (mm)

1260

Kerb weight (kgs)

136

Fuel Tank Capacity (Lt)

16

Engine
Type

Air-Cooled OHC

Stroke (2/4)

4 - Stroke

No. of cylinders

Single Cylinder

Bore x stroke

57 mm x 57.8 mm

Displacement

159.7 CC

Electrical

5.0 Ah (Kick-Start) / 12 Volts, 9.0 Ah (Self-Start)

Transmission
No. of Gears

5 Speed Constant mesh

Clutch

Double Cradle

Performance
Maximum Power

9.95 kw / (13.5 bhp) @ 8500 rpm

Max. Torque

12.3 Nm @ 6000 rpm

Start

Kick Start / Electric Start

Suspensions
Front

Telescopic Fork, 105 mm Front Suspensions

Rear

Monotube inverted Gas filled shox (MIG)

Brakes
Front

Disc Brakes, 240 mm at Front

Rear

Drum Brakes, 130 mm at Rear

Tyres
Front

90 x 90 x 17 (Kick-Start) / 90 x 90 x 17", Spooked Wheel


(Self-Start)

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TVS Apache RTR 160 Earlier


Targeting the young Indian head-on, is all-new TVS Apache RTR 160
self-starts Sole motto. RTR connotes Rapid Throttle Response and the bike
lives up to reputation with its quick response from any region of its power band.
Best-in-class, be it field of power pick-up, performance, reliability, mileage or
style, The variant is also attracting the attention of youth for its design upgrades
on lever, pedal, grips, bar-end dampers, lights, dash. Better and smooth ride are
the other essential factors taken care off, while manufacturing of the bike.

LOOKS
Available in yellow, matt grey, black & silver
Superb finish
Unique, muscular design theme
Arrow shaped headlamp and fairing combo
Triangular front mudguard for aerodynamic look
Aircrafts type fuel tank lid
Eye pleasing graphics from tail lamp top to front fender tip
Dual cradle chassis, six-spoke matt-black finished alloy wheels
Aluminum, die-cast sub-frames
Attractive silencer steel plate with guard
New digital apache instruments with analogue rev counter
Twin trip recorders, a fuel counter, Time-clock, digital speedometer, neutral
licon high beam icon turn signal icon, low battery level and service due
warning icon, low fuel warning system, low battery level and service due
warning icon on amber backlit display

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Control
Excellent disk break.
Absolute perfect disk brake-and shocker combination.
New modified linkage type gear shifting reduces the effort required for
shifting the gear with perfect ergonomic
Digital speedometer with clock
Twin LED tail lamp with highest brightness in the class
270 Diameter petal disc brake
Sporty forged brake lever
Two piece sporty grab rail
Resilient mounted rider foot rest with sporty aluminum foot pegs
Sporty aluminum foot pegs for pillion rider

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Comfort
Alterable riding position
Self start system
Effortless gear shifting
New petal disc design brakes
Alloy brake pedal and foot rests.
Well weighted clutch for quick acceleration.
15.2bhp peak power developed at 8500rpm
Rectangular-section swing arm for the rear wheel & a straight, low-set
handle bar for lean-forward position
LCD digi Speedo
X-tremes split grab tail.
Smart mirrors, fantastic alloy finished levers
Comfortable handle grips

Mileage and Economy


Attractive fuel efficiency of 60kmpl
Large 16-liter fuel tank
Powerful engine displacement
4stroke, 5 gears bike.
RCF Technology that enables all gear start;& low friction roller cams & a
constant velocity(CV) carburetor for better fuel efficient

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TVS Apache RTR 160 (Self-Start)


Technical Specifications

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TVS Apache RTR 160 (Self-Start) 2010-2012


Technical Specifications
Dimension
Length
Width
Height

2020-mm
730-mm
1050-mm

Engine
Engine type
Displacement
Maximum power
Maximum torque
Bore
Stroke
Compression Ratio
Starting
Max speed
Ignition

4-Stroke Single Cylinder Air Cooled


16cc
15.2@8501 BHP @RMP
13.1@6001 Nm @ pm
62mm
52.9mm
9.5:2
Self start - kick start
118kmph
IDI-Dual Digital Ignition

Acceleration
0-06 kmph
Carburetor

4.8sec
Mikuni BS27

Transmission
Clutch
Gear Box

Wet Multiplate
5-Speed

Chassis
Chassis type

Wet Multiplate

Suspension
Front Suspension
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Telescopic forks,105 mm stroke


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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


Hydraulic Shock

Monotube Inverted Gas filled Shook


(MIG) with Spring aid

Brakes
Brakes Front
Brakes Rear

270mm Petal Disc


130mm Drum

Tyre Size
Front
Rear

90/90*17
100/80*18

Electricals
Battery
Head Lamp
Tail/stop Lamp

13v 9.0Ah
13v 35/35w
13v 5/21w

Fuel
Fuel Type
Fuel Capacity
Fuel Reserve
Fuel Reserve
Charging Duration

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Petrol
16 liter
2.5 liter
2.5 liter
0

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TVS APACHE RTR 160 LAUNCHED IN 2013

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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

TVS

APACHE

RTR

LAUNCHED

SPECIFICATION

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IN

2013

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

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CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


TOTAL UNITS SOLD IN THE YEAR 2013
Hosur,01April,2013:
TVS Motor Company recorded total sales of 167,583 units in March 2013
against

182,527

units

registered

in

March

2012.

Two-wheeler
The company registered total two wheeler sales of 162,507 units in March
2013 against 180,274 units recorded in March 2012. Domestic sales stood at
143,239 units in the month of March 2013 against 160,736 units in March
2012.
Motorcycles recorded sales of 61,808 units in March 2013 against 65,994
units in March 2012. Scooters registered sales of 29,261 units in March 2013
against 39,395 units in the same month of the previous year.
Exports
The company's total exports for the month of March 2013 grew by 13% from
20,690 units in March 2012 to 23,342 units in March 2013. Two wheeler
exports registered sales of 19,268 units in March 2013 against 19,538 units
in March 2012.
Three-wheeler
The company witnessed exponential increase in the three wheeler segment
with sales growing by 125% from 2,253 units in March 2012 to 5,076 units in
March 2013.

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AWARDS WON BY TVS MOTORS

TVS Motor won the Deming Application Prize in 2002, becoming


the first and only Indian two-wheeler company to win the award given to
companies that do outstanding work in the field of Quality Management. It is
considered to be one of the world's most prestigious quality awards. [12] The
same year, the work done for the TVS Victor motorcycle won TVS Motor the
National Award for successful commercialization of indigenous technology
from the Technology Development Board, Ministry of Science &
Technology, Government of India.[13] In 2004, TVS Scooty Pep won the
'Outstanding Design Excellence Award' from BusinessWorld magazine and
the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad.[14] The effective implementation
of Total Productivity Maintenance practices won TVS Motor the TPM
Excellence Award given by the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance in 2008.

TVS Motor has won several management awards, notable among them being
the Emerging Corporate Giant in the Private Sector awarded by The
Economic Times and the Harvard Business School Association of
India. Business Today magazine awarded TVS Motor the Best Managed
Company and the Most Investor Friendly Company awards. Its advertising
practices won it the Good Advertising award by Auto India Best Brand Awards
2009.[15] Company Chairman Venu Srinivasan is a recipient of several awards
for corporate excellence such as the Star of Asia Award by Bloomberg
BusinessWeek[5] and the JRD Tata Corporate Leadership Award.
[16]

The University of Warwick, United Kingdom gave him an

honorary Doctorate of Science degree[17] while the Government of India


honored him with the Padma Shri, one of India's highest civilian distinctions. [18]
Innovative implementation of Information Technology has won TVS Motor the
Ace Award for Most Innovative Net Weaver Implementation in 2007 awarded
by technology major SAP AG and the Team Tech 2007 Award of Excellence
for Integrated use of Computer-aided engineering Technologies.
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The TVS Apache is a motorcycle made by TVS Motors since 2007. TVS
Apache is available in three variants: Apache RTR 160 Hyper edge, Apache
RTR 180, Apache RTR 180 ABS. The "RTR" stands for "Racing Throttle
Response." More than 250,000 Apaches are on the road

Contents
1 Design and styling
2 Comfort and handling
3 Performance and fuel
4 Awards
5 References

Design and styling

The bike is designed with a racing approach, resulting in the inclusion of a lap
timer and provision for the last three 060 km/h timings. Apache is the first
bike in India to feature a petal disc brake
The bike evolved from Circa 1999 Suzuki Fiero which TVS used to
manufacture in India. It is TVS's R&D on Fiero model with an overbore on 147
cc Fiero Engine
Since the bike is optimized for handling, the ride quality is on the stiff side
Previous versions of Apache had a wheelbase of 1,260 mm (50 inches) which
resulted in better turning in at the expense of stability. TVS increased the
wheelbase by 40 mm (1.6 inches) to improve the stability. The Apache 180
introduced ABS to the line up in 2011

Performance and fuel economy

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The top of the line Apache RTR FI 160 features a fuel injected 160 cc engine.
It does 060 km/h in 4.3 seconds and 0100 km/h in 15.07 seconds. It is
capable of a top speed of around 127 km/h and returns 54 km/l (150 mpg
(Imperial/UK) or 1.5 l/100 km) on the highway and 48 km/l (110 mpg or 2.08
l/100 km) in city riding.

Awards Won by TVS Apache 160 RTR

TVS Apache 160 RTR has won awards including:


Performance Bike of the Year (2008) Business Standard Motoring Awards

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CHAPTER NO 3
3. METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION
3.1. SOURCES OF DATA

Primary data:
Primary data was collected through a structured scientific undisguised
questionnaire which was administered to the consumers personally. The researcher

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was able to also draw information from dealers and respondents through personal
interviews and inter personal interactions.

Secondary data:
It includes both external and internal data. Internal data were company Manuals,
brochures and other records.etc. External data was obtained from online sources like
www.tvs.com,

www.autoworld.com,

www.surfindia.com,

www.surfindia.com,

www.google.com, and also from the magazines, News papers like Auto India,
Business today, Economic times, Business Line etc

3.2. Sampling plan of the study


Methods of Sampling
Sample is a small portion of the total, which can be taken to study the characteristic of
the total. The total is called the entire population or universe and the representative is
called sample. Generally sampling can be of two broad categories that are probability
and non probability sampling.
1) Probability Sampling
2) Non Probability Sampling

Probability Sampling
Probability sample is chosen in such a way that each member of universe have known
chances of being selected for a sample. Frequently used techniques are Simple
Random sampling, Systematic sampling, Stratified Random sampling, etc.
Simple Random Sampling

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Simple random sampling selects samples by methods that allow each possible
sample to have an equal probability of being picked and each item in the entire
population to have an equal chance of being included in the sample.
Systematic Sampling:
In systematic sampling, elements are selected from the population at a uniform
interval that is measured in time, order, or space. If we wanted to interview every
tenth student on a college campus, we would choose a random starting point in the
first ten names in the student directory and then pick every tenth name thereafter.
Stratified Sampling:
To use stratified sampling, we divide the population into relatively
homogeneous groups, called strata. Then we use one of two approaches. Either we
select at random from each stratum a specified number of elements corresponding to
the proportion of that stratum in the population as a whole or we draw an equal
number of elements from each stratum and give weight to the result according to the
stratums proportion of total population.

Non Probability Sampling


In nonprobability sampling the chance of a particular unit being selected is
unknown, which means the probability of selection is not clear. There are three types
of nonprobability sampling.
Judgment Sampling:

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In judgment sampling, personal knowledge and opinion are used to identify the
items from the population that are to be included in samples. A sample selected by
judgment sampling is based on someones expertise about the population.
Convenience Sampling:
In this method the sample units are chosen on the basis of convenience to the
investigator.
Quota Sampling:
In this method the universe is dividing into various strata and the sampling units
are chosen.
In this project convenience sampling was adopted for the collection of data.
The samples were chosen based on the availability of customers at places in company,
their offices and in their residence. The sample size is restricted to 50 respondents
only.

3.3. DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS


For the collection of the data a structured scientific undisguised
questionnaire has been used. The questionnaire was prepared in such a way as to
gain insight from the respondents. Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather
data from a potentially large number of respondents. The questionnaire consisted of
open ended, closed ended, multiple choice questions etc. Likerts scale has been

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used to measure various levels of satisfaction with regard to various aspects of the
bike.
3.4. FIELDWORK
The survey was done in Bangalore .The researcher personally met all the
respondents and the data was collected over a period of three weeks. In this study the
sample size was restricted to fifty only
3.5. PLAN OF DATA ANALYSIS
The data collected from questionnaires were processed tabulated and analyzed
by the researcher using percentile analysis, square analysis and sign test. Analysis
and interpretation have been represented in tables with appropriate graphs which are
followed by findings, suggestions and conclusion.

CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Table 4.1: Age Group

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 52

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Age

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Below - 20

07

14

21 - 30

22

44

31 - 40

11

22

Above - 41

10

20

Total

50

100

Analysis
The above table shows that 44 percent of the respondents are under the age
group of 21-30 years, 14 percent of the respondents are in the age group of below 20
years, 22 percent of the respondents are under the age group of 31 - 40 years and 20
percent of the respondents are under the age group of above 41 years.

Inference
The majority age groups of the consumers are lying between 20-30 years.
Thus youth and young adults are the major segment of the company; therefore the
company should pay attention to this segment.

Graph 4.1: Age Group

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 53

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.2: Occupation

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 54

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Occupation

No .of respondents

percentage

17

34

Business

14

28

Employed

16

05

10

Farmer

02

Others

04

Total

50

100

Student

Professional

Analysis
From the above table it is clear that majority i.e. 34% of customers
occupation is students, 28% are business people, 16% are employed, 10% are
professionals, 4% are farmers and 8% are others.
Inference
It had been found that the majority consumers of the bike are the students.
Though they do not have their own income, they are a major portion of the segment.
Therefore the company can target this segment with various promotional activities in
order to increase the sales of the bikes

Graph 4.2: Occupation

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 55

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 56

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Monthly Income

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Below 5000

03

06

5001 10000

11

22

10001 15000

17

34

Above 15001

19

38

Total

50

100

Table 4.3: Monthly income

Analysis
From the above table it is clear that 6% of the customers monthly income is
below Rs.5000, 22% of the customers monthly income lies in between Rs.5001Rs.10000, 34% are in Rs.10001-Rs.15000 and 38% of the respondents monthly
income is more than Rs.15001.
Inference
The majority of the customers belong to the income group of above Rs.15001
per month. We can say that the customers belong to upper middle class. Thus there is
need for target the middle class people too.

Graph 4.3: Monthly income


HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 57

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.4: Were you using any other vehicle before you bought
TVS APACHE RTR 160?
HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 58

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Particulars

No .of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

68

68

No

32

32

Total

50

100

Analysis
From the above table we can clearly say that 68% of the respondents were using
another brand of bike before they bought TVS APACHE RTR160.

Inference
Majority of the customers were using other bikes before they bought TVS
ApacheRTR160. Thus apache is a second vehicle for the customers. Therefore price
may not be a major factor in bike purchase where as style, image and comfort takes a
major role in deciding the bike.

Graph 4.4: Were you using any other vehicle before you bought
TVS APACHE RTR 160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 59

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.5: What factor did you consider for purchasing TVS
APACHE RTR160?
HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 60

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


Factors

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Reasonable price

13

26

Good mileage

10

20

Least maintenance

15

30

Easy instalments

13

26

Comfort riding

17

34

Brand image

18

36

Style/good look

30

60

After sales service

03

06

Resale value

06

12

Analysis
It is clear that 60% of the customers considered style as the main factor for
purchasing the bike ,36% considered the brand ,34 preferred comfort riding ,26% are
price conscious , 26% have

bought due to easy instalments , 30% for least

maintenance and 20%, 06%, and 12% were considered Good mileage ,After sales
service, Re-sale value respectively.

Inference
The majority of the customers have considered style/good look followed by
brand image and comfort. Thus aesthetics of the bike is very crucial for the customers
in deciding the purchase of the bike. Thus the research and development of TVS
should keep this in mind during modifications, alterations, or up gradation in design
of the bike

4.5. What factor did you consider for purchasing TVS APACHE RTR
160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 61

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.6: Who influenced you to purchase TVS APACHE RTR160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 62

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Major Influences

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Family

18

30

Friends

24

40

Dealer

05

8.3

Advertisement

13

21.6

Total

60

100

Analysis
From the above table it is clear that 40% of the respondents were influenced
by friends, 30% by the family members, 21.6% by ads and only 8.3% of the
customers are influenced by the dealer.

Inference
Since the majority of the customers are students; therefore it is clear that their
friends are the major influencers for choosing the product, and also family members
play an important role in purchasing the bike. Dealer does not seem to have a major
influence on the brand of bike to be purchased. Thus it appears that consumers are
pre-decided about the brand to be purchased even before they step into the
dealerships.

Graph 4.6: Who influenced you to purchase TVS APACHE RTR 160

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 63

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.7: How did you purchase TVS APACHE RTR 160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 64

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Mode of Payment

No .of Respondents

Percentage

Credit

18

36

Cash

32

64

Total

50

100

Analysis
It is shown in the table that 64% of the customers bought through cash
payment and 36% by credit. Majority of customers are buying this bike with cash.

Inference
Majority of the customers income is more than Rs.15001 per month, therefore
most of the customers purchased through cash. The customers were students and
businessmen and hence it appears that cash is the preferred mode of purchase.

Graph 4.7: How did you purchase TVS APACHE RTR160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 65

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.8: What is your opinion about TVS APACHE RTR 160 with
regard to price?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 66

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Perception

No .of Respondents

Percentage

More value for money

32

32

Reasonable value for money

54

54

Less value for money

14

14

Total

100

100

Analysis
The above table shows that 54% of the respondents feel that the price of the
bike is Reasonable, 34% of the respondents feels bike is more value than the price and
14 % customers feels it is less value for the money.

Inference
Researcher found that the majority of the customers feel that product value is
reasonable for the money spent. Thus majority of the customers are satisfied with the
price they pay for the bike as very few feel it is less value for money

Graph 4.8: What is your opinion about TVS APACHE RTR160 with
regard to price?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 67

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.9: What is actual mileage you are getting from TVS APACHE
RTR160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 68

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Mileage

No .of Respondents

Percentage

35 45

07

14

46 55

36

72

56 65

06

12

66 and above

01

02

Total

50

100

Analysis
The above table shows that 72% of the customers are getting the mileage of
46-55, 14% of the respondents are getting 35-45, and 12% of the users are getting 5665 and rest 2% of the respondents are getting above 66 kmpl.

Inference
The study represents that the majority of the customers are getting the mileage
of 45-55; hence they are not satisfied with the mileage. The company should innovate
and adopt the new technology in order to increase the mileage of the bikes. This can
help in satisfying those few customers who considered good mileage as one of the
factor to be considered in selecting the bike to be purchased.

Graph 4.9: What is actual mileage you are getting from TVS
APACHE RTR160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 69

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.10: How do you rate APACHE 160 RTR on the basis of mileage?

[EXCELLENT]

[VERY GOOD]

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

[FARE]

Page no 70

[POOR]

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Excellent

Very Good

Fare

Poor

No, Respondents

35

44

20

Percentage

35%

44%

20%

1%

Analysis
From the above Table 35% of respondents think that APACHE RTR 160 on
the basis of mileage 44% feels Very Good, 20% Fare and 1% Poor

Inference

From the above table it is observed that customers RateSmart built in turn signal of
APACHE RTR 160 As Very Good.

GRAPH NO 4.10

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 71

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.11: Specify your level of satisfaction with regard to TVS


APACHE RTR 160 from the following:
HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 72

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Highly

Highly

satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

dissatisfied

Aspects

Price

38

40

12

Gear system

16

66

16

Break system

18

62

18

Road grip

24

52

16

Beating/Sound

12

44

30

14

Lighting

16

54

26

Style/good look

56

30

12

Mileage

30

28

34

Price
Analysis

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 73

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


From the above table it is clear that the satisfaction level of the bike users with respect
to price i.e,40% of the customers are neutral, 38% are satisfied , 12% are dissatisfied ,
8% respondents are highly satisfied , and rest 2% of the respondents are highly
dissatisfied with the price .

Gear system
Analysis
From the above table it is clear that 66% of the respondents are satisfied with the gear
system, 16% are highly satisfied, 16% are neutral and 2% are dissatisfied with the
gear system.

Brake system
Analysis
The above table shows that 62% of the respondents are satisfied with the break
system, 18% are highly satisfied, 18% of the customers are neutral and only 2% are
dissatisfied with the break system.

Road grip
Analysis
The above table shows that 52% of the respondents are satisfied with the road grip of
the bike, 24% are highly satisfied, 16% are responded neutral, 6% are dissatisfied and
2% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied with the road grip of the bike

Beating/sound
Analysis

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 74

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


Above table says that 44% of the respondents are satisfied with the beating/sound of
the bike,30% are having neutral opinion,14% are dissatisfied ,12% users are highly
satisfied with the sound/beating of the bike.

Lighting
Analysis
Above table shows that 54% respondents are satisfied with lighting, 26% are neutral,
16% are highly satisfied and 4% are dissatisfied with the lighting of the bike.

Style/good look
Analysis
The table says that 56% of the consumers are highly satisfied with style / look of the
bike, 30% are satisfied, 12% are neutral and 2% are dissatisfied with the style/look of
the bike.

Mileage
Analysis
From the above table we can find that 34% of the bike users are dissatisfied with the
mileage of the bike, 30% are satisfied, 28% are neutral, 6% are highly satisfied and
only 2% are highly dissatisfied with the mileage.

Graph 4.11: Specify your level of satisfaction with regard to TVS


APACHE RTR160 from the following:

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 75

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.12:

How does your TVS APACHE RTR160 perform on

following roads?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 76

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Excellent

Satisfactory

Attributes

Good %

Poor %

Mud

14

44

34

08

Metal

10

50

32

08

Sandy

12

10

44

34

Tar

44

40

16

Cement

40

46

12

02

Analysis
Above table shows that Customers are satisfied with performance of the bike
on Mud roads, Metal roads, tar roads and Cement roads, but the customers are not
satisfied with the bike performance on Sandy Roads.

Inference
It seems Majority of the customers are satisfied with the performance of the
bike on Mud, Metal, Tar and cement roads. But most of the customers are not satisfied
with the performance of the bike on sandy roads, thus the company should focus on
improving the performance of the bike on sandy roads

Graph 4.12: How does your TVS APACHE RTR160 perform on


following roads?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 77

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.13: State the level of satisfaction regarding the service


rendered by the dealer. Towards TVs apache rtr 160

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 78

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


Opinion

No of Respondents

Percentage

Highly satisfied

03

06

Satisfied

32

64

Some what Satisfied

10

20

Not satisfied

05

10

Total

50

100

Analysis
The above table shows that 64% of the customers are satisfied, 20% are
somewhat satisfied, 6% are highly satisfied with the service provided by the dealer
140

where as 10% are not satisfied with the dealer.


120

Inference
100
80

64

It appears that dealer provides good service to their customers since most of

them are satisfied with the service provided by the dealer. Thus customer satisfaction
60be turned into customer delight by providing some augmented services.
can
40

Graph 4.13: State the level of satisfaction regarding the service


20

20 6

rendered by the dealer.


10
0
HIGHLY
SATISFIED

SATISFIED

SOMEWAT
SATISFIED

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

NOT
SATISFIED

Page no 79

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

TABLE NO 4.14
If there is no price consideration, which brand would you buy?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 80

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

BAJAJ

YAMAHA

TVS

SUZUKI

HONDA

HERO

No, Respondents

27

24

20

12

11

Percentage

48%

19%

25%

4%

11%

6%

ANALYSIS

In the above BAR GRAPH it is clear that with no price consideration, BAJAJ will be the
first choice following with YAMAHA and TVS as 2nd and 3rd choice. Whereas SUZUKI
will be the 4th choice which is taking lead over HONDA and HERO as 5th and 6th choice.

INFERENCE

Thus customer satisfaction can be turned into customer delight by providing Bikes
of TVS by reasonable prices which influence consumers to buy tvs bikes

Graph no 14
If there is no price consideration, which brand would you buy?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 81

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Table 4.15: Overall satisfaction with the performance of


TVS APACHE RTR 160

Opinion

No. of Respondents

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 82

Percentage

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Highly satisfied

06

12

Satisfied

34

68

Some what Satisfied

07

14

Not satisfied

03

06

Total

50

100

Analysis
Above table shows that 68% of the customers are satisfied, 14% are some what
satisfied, 12% are highly satisfied with the performance of the bike, where as 6% of
the customers are not satisfied with the overall performance of the bike.

Inference
Study says that Majority of the customers are satisfied with the overall
performance of the bike therefore the company should maintain the same.

Graph 4.15: Overall satisfaction with the performance of


TVS APACHE RTR160

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 83

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

CHAPTER NO 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 84

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


From the survey it was found that majority of the TVS Apache RTR160
customers belongs to the age group of 2130.
Majority of the customers are Students followed by Business men and
employed.
Majority of the customers have income of more than Rs.15001 per month.
It was found that most of the customers were using other bike before they
purchased TVS Apache RTR160.
Style, Brand image and Comfort riding are the main factors considered while
selecting TVS Apache RTR160.
Friends and Family members play an important role in influencing the purchase
decision.
Majority of the customers have purchased TVS Apache RTR160 on cash
payment.
Majority of the customers are of the opinion that TVS ApacheRTR160 is
providing reasonable value for money.
From the study it was found that majority of the bike users are getting the
mileage in between 46-55.
Majority of the customers are satisfied with the Price, Gear system, Brake
system, Beating/sound, Lighting and most of customers are highly satisfied with
the Style, but there was mixed response from customers as regards Road grip
and Mileage.
Customers are satisfied with performance of the bike on Mud roads, Metal
roads, tar roads and Cement roads, but the customers are not satisfied with the
bike performance on Sandy Roads.
It was found that majority of the customers are satisfied with service rendered
by the Dealer.
The researcher found that Majority of the customers are satisfied with the over
all performance of the bike.

CHAPTER NO 6
SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 85

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

1. The survey reveals that most of the respondents belong to youth segment, thus
the company should concentrate on youth segment and design promotions
targeting the youth.
2. Style is the major factors for purchasing TVS ApacheRTR160; hence the
company can position its bike more specifically to the Style as an important
attribute of the bike.

3. Mileage of the TVS ApacheRTR160 can be improved to match the claims


made by the company.
4. The performance of the TVS ApacheRTR160 on Sandy roads must be
improved, since most of the respondents were dissatisfied with the
performance of the bike on sandy roads.
5. The customers are satisfied with the overall performance of the TVS
ApacheRTR160; company should continue the same performance and try to
augment its product and turn the customer satisfaction into customer delight.

6. Since friends and family influence the purchase , the company can devise viral
marketing programs

CONCLUSION

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 86

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160


TVS Company is in a good position even in this tough competition.
The sales of TVS Company
Went at a lower phase after their breakup with SUZUKI Company Japan, but
with the introduction of TVS Victor GL which was the first bike released in market
after breakup which increased the sales and by this inspiration the TVS Company
released various types of vehicles for different classes of people. It has introduced
Scotty pep for ladies, TVS Centra, Fiero F2 for the people who aspire more mileage.
Like this TVS Company has kept the customers interest and aspirations into
consideration and is engaged in manufacturing customer loving vehicles.
Saravana Motors Pvt. Ltd., a loyal member of TVS group is providing better
service to its customers by this it has got a good loyal circle of
Customers and by this it has benefited by the recommendations from them to others by
this the sales of Saravana Motors is increasing. It has become one of the important
members of TVS group due to its increase in volume of sales.

Today companies are facing their toughest competition ever. The answer lies
in doing a better job of meeting and satisfying customer needs. Only customeroriented companies are adopting at building customers.

A satisfied customer will act as a spokesperson of the companys products and


bring it more buyers. A small percentage of loyal customers will increase the
companys sales. Therefore it is necessary to ensure customer value satisfaction. It is
required to maintain good relationship with them in order to enhance the goodwill of
the firm. The firm should be more conscious in providing better offers. The challenge
is not to produce only satisfied customers but to produce loyal customer

BIBILIOGRAPHY

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 87

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

[1]

Philip Kotler, Marketing Management

[2]

Dr P.N.Reddy, H.R.Appannaiah, Essential of

Marketing
Management

[3]

Sujanaier, Consumer Behavior

WEBSITES

[4] http://www.Tvsmotors.com

[5] http://www.indiamotors.com

[6] http://www.wikipedia.com

[7] http://www.automotives.org

APPENDICES AND ANEXURES


HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 88

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

I am ABDUL WAHAAB, 6th Semester student of B.B.M studying at


H.K.B.K. degree college, Bangalore, as part of the curriculum of my final year of
Graduation. I am carrying out a project work. In this regard a questionnaire has been
provided to you please express your fair views for the questions asked in the
questionnaire. I therefore invite objective / frank opinion in the below mentioned
question. The out-come of the project will serve an academic interest only.

Name: ............

1 . Age:
(a) Below20

(b) 21-30

(c) 31-40

(d) Above41

2 . Occupation:
(a) Student

(b) Business

(c) Employed

(d) Professional

(e) Farmer

(f) Others Specify ..

3 . Family monthly Income:

4.

(a) Below Rs. 5000

(b) 5001 to 10,000

(c) 10,001 to 15,000

(d) Above 15,001

Were you using any other vehicle before you bought TVS
APACHE RTR160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 89

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

Yes
5.

6.

7.

9.

No

What factors did you consider for purchasing TVS APACHE RTR160?
(a) Reasonable Price

(b) Good Mileage

(c) Least Maintenance

(d) Easy Instalments

(e) Comfortable Riding

(f) Brand image

(g) Style

(h) after sales service

(I) Resale value

Who influenced you to purchase TVS APACHE RTR160?


(a) Family Members

(c) Dealer

(b) Friends
(d) Advertisement

How did you purchase apache TVS bike?


a) Credit

8.

(b) Cash

What is your opinion about TVS APACHE RTR160 with regard to price?
More value for money

reasonable value for money

Less value for money

What is actual mileage you are getting from TVS APACHE


RTR160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 90

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

(a) 35 45

(b) 46 55

(d) 56 65

(e) 66 & above

10.

How do you rate APACHE RTR 160 on the basis of mileage?


[EXCELLENT]

11.

[VERY GOOD]

[FARE]

[POOR]

Specify your levels of satisfaction with regard to TVS APACHE RTR160

from the following?

Aspects

Highly

Satisfied

Neutral

dissatisfied

satisfied

Highly
dissatisfied

Price
Gear system
Break system
Road grip
Beating/Sound
Lighting
Style/Good look
mileage
12.

How does your TVS APACHE RTR1 60 perform on following roads?


Excellent

Good

Satisfactory

Poor

Mud
Metal
Sandy
Tar
Cement
13.

State the levels of satisfaction regarding the service rendered by


the Dealer?

14.

(a) Highly satisfied

(b) Satisfied

(c) Somewhat satisfied

(d) Not satisfied

If there is no price consideration, which brand would you buy?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 91

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

15.

16.

Bajaj

[ ]

Suzuki

[ ]

Yamaha

TVS

[ ]

Honda [

Hero [ ]

Overall satisfaction with the performance TVS APACHE RTR160?


(a) Highly satisfied

(b) Satisfied

(c) Somewhat satisfied

(d) Not satisfied

Do you have any suggestions for the improvement of TVS APACHE RTR
160?

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 92

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS TVS APACHE RTR 160

HKBK DEGREE COLLEGE

Page no 93