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Welcome to

Quantitative
Analysis
also known as
Analytical Chemistry

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Chapters 0 and 1
The Analytical Process and
Measurements

CHM 212
M. Prushan

What is Analytical Chemistry?

ITs NOT what you


see on TV!
Identifying an Unknown Is Not As Easy
as Portrayed by the CSI TV Show.

Typically Requires More Than One


Experiment and > 45 Minutes of
Analysis with corresponding high cost
(single DNA analysis ~$10,000)

CSI: Crime Scene Investigation

CHM 212
M. Prushan

OK SO What is Analytical Chemistry?


ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY: The Science of Chemical
Measurements.
Types of Questions Asked in Analytical Chemistry
a.) What is in the sample? (qualitative analysis)
b.) How much is in the sample? (quantitative analysis)

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Introduction to Analytical Chemistry


Techniques used in Analytical Chemistry:
a.) Wet Chemical Methods: titrations, color-forming reactions,
precipitations, etc.
b.) Instrumental Methods: spectrometry, chromatography, etc.

What is it ?
How much is there?
How pure is it?
What are the impurities?

CHM 212
M. Prushan

The Analytical Process


1.) Formulating the Question:
Translate General Question into Specific Question
Is this water safe to Drink?  What is the concentration of Arsenic in the water sample?

2.) Selecting Analytical Procedures:


a.) Choose procedure to measure Arsenic in water
(i) Uncertainty in measurement
(ii) Limit of detection
(iii) Destroy sample
(iv) Availability, time, cost
b.) If necessary, develop new procedure

3.) Sampling:
a.) Select representative material to analyze
(i) dont use the entire sample
(ii) consistency in sample collection

Source

Caffeine
(mgs per
serving

Serving
size (oz)

Regular coffee

106-164

Decaffeinated
coffee

2-5

Tea

21-50

Cocoa beverage

2-8

Baking
chocolate

35

Sweet chocolate

20

Milk chocolate

soft drinks

36-57

12

CHM 212
M. Prushan

The Analytical Process


4.) Sample Preparation:
a.) convert sample into form suitable for chemical analysis
(i) Dissolve sample
(ii) Concentrate sample

(iii) Remove species that interfere with analysis

CHM 212
M. Prushan

The Analytical Process


4.) Sample Preparation:
a.) Example:

How do you prepare samples for Drug Discovery?


What we want to know:
Is the drug active? Does it cure the disease/illness?
How is the drug taken? (Pill, injection)
How often does the drug need to be taken?
Does the drug have side-effects?

How these Questions are Typically Addressed:


Treat animal (rat, mice, etc) with drug
Monitor drug duration in animal
Monitor location of drug accumulation
Monitor animal health

How do you
How do you
Animal?
How do you
How do you

treat the animal with the drug?


monitor the drug concentration in the
determine the drug location?
determine the animals health?

Tumor size is measured by fluorescence


through the mouse skin using quantum
dots as a function drug dosage

CHM 212
M. Prushan

The Analytical Process


4.) Sample Preparation:
a.) Example:

How do you prepare samples for Drug Discovery?

Inject mouse with


drug

Cross-section of sacrificed
mouse showing tissue
removal

Tissue plug from


mouse kidney

Chromatography indicates presence of drug


an metabolites in tissue sample

Determine drug quantity and distribution


Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 31, S57S62 (2000)

CHM 212
M. Prushan

The Analytical Process


5.) Analysis:
a.) measure concentration of analyte in several identical
aliquots (portions)
(i) Replicate measurements  uncertainty in the
analysis



(ii)

Avoid large errors


Reliability of measurement

Calibration Curve


Measure response for known samples

6.) Report and Interpretation of Results


7.) Drawing Conclusions
a)

How the Report is used


CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units and Concentrations


To a large extent, analytical chemistry is a science of measurement
and measurements require minimizing errors

60
50
40
30
20
10
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1970
1980

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1990

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Be tria
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Sl
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R an d
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Sp
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kg/person

Sugar Consumption

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement
1.) SI Units:
a.) international units of measurement (metric units)
b.) ALL SI units are based on certain fundamental
quantities

Quantity

Unit (Symbol)

Length

Meter (m)

Mass

Kilogram (kg)

Time

Second (s)

Electric current

Ampere (A)

Temperature

Kelvin (K)

Luminous
intensity

Candela (cd)

Amount of
substance

Mole (mol)

Plane angle

Radian (rad)

Solid angle

Steradian (sr)

Units of Measurement
Standards of length were once represented by the distance between two
marks on a solid metal bar. Copies of these standards were displayed in
public places so that people could check the accuracy of the rules they
were using.

Standards Of Length (1876) Trafalgar Square


In 1588, Elizabeth I issued a new standard yard which remained
the legal British yard for over 300 years.

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement
History of the meter
Origins of the meter go back to at least the 18th century
Two competing approaches to the definition of a standard unit of length.
 define the meter as the length of a pendulum having a half-period of one second
 define the meter as one ten-millionth of the length of the earth's meridian along a
quadrant
(1791) French Academy of Sciences chose the meridian
 force of gravity varies slightly over the surface of the earth, affecting the period of the
pendulum.
-7
 meter equal 10 of the length of the meridian through Paris from pole to the equator.
 prototype was short by 0.2 millimeters because researchers miscalculated the flattening
of the earth due to its rotation.
(1960) used a definition based upon a wavelength
of krypton-86 radiation
(1983) meter replaced by the following definition:
 The meter is the length of the path traveled
by light in vacuum during a time interval of
1/299 792 458 of a second.

International Prototype Meter standard bar made of platinum-iridium

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement
1.) SI Units:
d.) To indicate multiples or fractions of units, various
prefixes are used

Example:
3.2x10-11 s = 32 x10-12 s = 32 ps

Prefix

Symbol

Factor

Mega

106

Kilo

103

Hecto

102

Deca

da

101

Deci

10-1

Centi

10-2

Milli

10-3

Micro

10-6

Nano

10-9

Pico

10-12

Femto

10-15

Atto

10-18

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement

Quantity
Volume

1.) SI Units:
e.) conversions to SI units
f.) Liter is commonly used for
volume instead of m3

Length
Mass

Unit
liter

Symbol
L

SI equivalent
*10-3 m3

milliliter

mL

*10-6 m3

angstrom

*10-10 m

inch

In.

*0.0254 m

pound

lb

*0.45359237 kg

metric ton

*1000 kg

Force

dyne

dyn

*10-5 N

Pressure

bar

bar

*105 Pa

atmosphere

atm

*101325 Pa

torr

Torr

133.322 Pa

Energy

Power
Temperature

pound/in2

psi

6894.76 Pa

erg

erg

*10-7 J

electron volt

eV

1.602176462x10-19 J

calorie, thermochemical

cal

*4.184 J

Calorie (British)

Cal

*1000 cal = 4.184 kJ

British thermal unit

Btu

horsepower

1055.06 J
745.700 W

Centigrade (= Celsius)

oC

*K - 273.15

Fahrenheit

oF

*1.8(K 273.15) + 32

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement
2.) Expressions of Concentration:
a.) Molarity (moles/L, or M):
(i) Most common unit of concentration






Gives number of moles of a substance in 1 liter of the given solvent.


Recall: 1 mole (mol) of a substance = 6.022 x 1023 units (atoms, molecules,
ions, etc).
Molecular weight (MW): the mass of a substance that contains 1 mole.
Example:

Find the concentration in Molarity (M) of 12.00g of benzene (C6H6) dissolved up


to a total volume of 250.00 ml in hexane.
MW benzene = 6 * (12.011) + 6 * (1.008) = 78.114 g/mol
No. Cs

at. wt. C

Conc. C6H6 = (12.00g)(

No. Hs

at. wt. H

1mol
)
78.114g

= 0.6144 M

0.2500L

Make Sure Units Cancel!

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement
2.) Expressions of Concentration:
b.) Formality (F):
(i) Concentrations expressed in M describe the actual concentration of a given
chemical species in solution.
(ii)

Some chemicals when placed in solution will dissociate or converted to multiple


forms

Example:

Acetic Acid:
(iii)
(iv)

Not convenient to refer to the concentrations of each individual form.


Instead, concentration of total substance originally added to the solution is
used.

Formal concentration or Formality given in (mol/L)

Note: For compounds with a single form in solution, M = F

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement
2.) Expressions of Concentration:
b.) Percent Composition:
(i) Weight Percent (wt/wt or w/w): Concentration expressed in terms of mass of
substance versus the total mass of the sample.

Weight percent =
(ii)

mass of subs tan ce


x( 100 )
mass of total solution or total sample

Volume Percent (vol/vol or v/v): Concentration expressed in terms of volume of


substance versus the total volume of the sample.

Volume percent =

(iii)

volume of subs tan ce


x( 100 )
volume of total solution or total sample

Weight-Volume Percent (wt/vol or w/v): Concentration expressed in terms of


mass of substance versus the total volume of the sample.

weight volume percent =

mass of subs tan ce


x( 100 )
volume of total solution or total sample

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Units of Measurement
2.) Expressions of Concentration:
b.) Percent Composition:
(iv) Instead of expressing concentrations as a percentage, express in terms of:




parts per thousand (ppt) x103


parts per million (ppm) x106
Parts per billion (ppb) x109

3.) Solution Preparation:


a.) Dilution of a Solution:

McVc = MdVd
where:
Mc = Molarity of substance in the concentrated solution
Vc = volume of concentrated solution used
Md = desired Molarity of the diluted solution
Vd = total volume of final diluted solution

CHM 212
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What are the ways I can make a solution?

(a) From dry, pure material


Prepare 500 mL of 0.9% (w/v) NaCl

CHM 212
M. Prushan

What are the ways I can make a solution?

(b) By dilution
Prepare 2.0 L of 1.0 M HNO3 from conc. HNO3 (70 % w/w);
of conc. HNO3 = 1.42 g/mL

CHM 212
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What are the ways I can make a solution?

(c) Serial Dilutions


Why do you need serial dilutions?
Prepare 100 mL of a 1 ppm Pb solution from a stock solution of
10,000 ppm Pb.

CHM 212
M. Prushan

How many grams of perchloric acid, HClO4, are contained in 37.6


g of 70.5 wt% aqueous perchloric acid? How many grams of
water are in the same solution?
Weight percent =

mass of subs tan ce


x( 100 )
mass of total solution or total sample

CHM 212
M. Prushan

12

What is the maximum volume of 0.25M sodium hypochlorite


solution (NaOCl, laundry bleach) that can be prepared by
dilution of 1.00 L of 0.80 M NaOCl?

CHM 212
M. Prushan

Chapter 0 : 0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-4, 0-5a

Chapter 1 : 1-5, 1-6, 1-7, 1-22, 1-24, 1-26

CHM 212
M. Prushan

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CHM 212
M. Prushan

CHM 212
M. Prushan

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