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WINDSPEC User Manual

Version 12

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WINDSPEC User Manual


Update Sheet for Version 12
April 2009

Modifications:
The following modifications have been incorporated:
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Page(s)

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Contents

WINDSPEC User Manual

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1-1
Description of Program ................................................................................... 2-1
The Analysis .................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1 Introduction................................................................................................. 3-1
3.2 Overall Procedure for a Wind Turbulence Fatigue Analysis...................... 3-1
3.2.1
Environmental Data Processing ........................................................ 3-1
3.2.2
Structural Modelling ......................................................................... 3-3
3.2.3
Natural Frequency Analysis .............................................................. 3-4
3.2.4
Selection of Wind Gust Frequencies................................................. 3-4
3.2.5
Application of Dynamic Loading ..................................................... 3-6
3.2.6
Description of files created ............................................................... 3-7
3.2.7
Static Improvement ........................................................................... 3-9
3.2.8
Structural Response Analysis ........................................................... 3-9
3.2.9
Zero Frequency Dynamic Response Analysis ................................ 3-10
3.2.10 Static Analysis of Gust and Reference Wind Loading for Static Improvement
3-11
3.2.11 Load Combination to Create Static Real and Imaginary Loadcases3-11
3.2.12 Load Combination to Carry Out Static Improvement..................... 3-12
3.2.13 WINDSPEC Datafile ...................................................................... 3-14
3.2.14 WINDSPEC Analysis Results ........................................................ 3-15
3.2.15 WINDSPEC Analysis Without Static Improvement ...................... 3-16
3.3 WINDSPEC Data ..................................................................................... 3-18
3.3.1
Data Overview ................................................................................ 3-18
3.3.2
Preliminary Data ............................................................................. 3-18
3.3.3
Phase 1 Data .................................................................................... 3-19
3.3.3.1
Element Selection Data ........................................................... 3-19
3.3.3.2
SCF Data ................................................................................. 3-20
3.3.3.3
Material S-N Data ................................................................... 3-37
3.3.4
Phase 2 Data .................................................................................... 3-40
3.3.4.1
Target Life Data ...................................................................... 3-40
3.3.4.2
Drag Data ................................................................................ 3-41
3.3.4.3
Element Subdivision Data....................................................... 3-42
3.3.4.4
Gust Data ................................................................................ 3-43
3.3.4.5
Frequency Data ....................................................................... 3-44
3.3.4.6
Global Parameters Data .......................................................... 3-45
3.3.4.7
Spectral Data ........................................................................... 3-46
4
References ....................................................................................................... 4-1
5
Example - Outline of Datafiles Required and WINDSPEC Results Output ... 5-1
A. Preliminary Data Block for WINDSPEC ....................................................... A-1
A.1 Introduction................................................................................................ A-1
A.2 SYSTEM Command .................................................................................. A-1
A.3 PROJECT Command ................................................................................. A-2
A.4 JOB Command........................................................................................... A-2
A.5 FILES Command ....................................................................................... A-3
A.6 TITLE Command....................................................................................... A-3
A.7 TEXT Command ....................................................................................... A-3

1
2
3

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WINDSPEC User Manual

Contents

A.8 STRUCTURE Command .......................................................................... A-4


A.9 COMPONENT Command ......................................................................... A-4
A.10 OPTIONS Command ................................................................................. A-5
A.11 LIBRARY Command ................................................................................ A-5
A.12 END Command ......................................................................................... A-6
B. Running Instructions for WINDSPEC ............................................................B-1
B.1 ASAS Files Required by WINDSPEC .......................................................B-1
B.2 Running Instructions for WINDSPEC........................................................B-1
C. Options ............................................................................................................C-1
C.1 Miscellaneous Options................................................................................C-1
C.2 Options Affecting the Course of the Analysis ............................................C-1
D. Stress Usage Factors ....................................................................................... D-1
E.
Estimate of Frequencies required to define Natural Frequency Peaks ............ E-1
F.
LOCO Title Format ......................................................................................... F-1

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ii

WINDSPEC User Manual

Introduction

Introduction

WINDSPEC (WIND turbulence SPECtral fatigue analysis) is a component of the ASAS-OFFSHORE suite of
programs.
It is used to calculate the fatigue lives/damage of a structure (tubular lattice or line like) due to a turbulent wind
consisting of the uncorrelated longitudinal, lateral and vertical gust spectra.
The method uses dynamic analysis, and is therefore superior to gust factor techniques which use a quasi-static
analysis. Quasi-static analysis is suitable for small, short period structures, but becomes inaccurate for long
period structures (such as masts and flare booms), where the dynamic response is important. In such cases, a
quasi-static technique will underestimate the response stresses. For complex or long period structures (typically
T>1 second) a spectral method such as in WINDSPEC is recommended.
The WINDSPEC method is presented in detail in Dynamics of Fixed Marine Structures, Third Edition,
Section 8 /1/ which is used as the main source of reference throughout this manual.

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Description of Program

Description of Program

The WINDSPEC program acts on results of pre-processed data contained on a binary backing file and the data
contained in an ASCII format WINDSPEC data file.
The WINDSPEC data file controls the selection of the geometry and the wind spectra derived from the wind
speed and direction occurrence data. The binary backing file of stress response to dynamic loading is created by
using a number of other ASAS-OFFSHORE programs, namely MASS, ASAS, WAVE, RESPONSE and
LOCO. The user will have to make some results data selection between running each of the ASAS components
but this is described in detail in Section 3.2.
The WINDSPEC program has five main sections of calculation:
(i)

it calculates SCFs for tubular joints automatically for standard connection details.

(ii)

the average gust velocity spectral density is calculated for discrete bays of the structure.

(iii)

the unit gust velocity to stress transfer functions are calculated from the dynamic response results.

(iv)

the stress response spectrum is calculated:


2

Stress
response
spectrum

(v)

Gust vel.
stress
transfer
function

Gust
velocity
spectrum

the fatigue damage is calculated and summed for all wind speeds and directions to find the fatigue lives.

Reference

1,

Section

8.B.3

details

the

calculations

of

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the

WINDSPEC

method

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The Analysis

The Analysis

3.1 Introduction
This section describes the sequence of actions necessary to create the data required for the WINDSPEC
program and details the WINDSPEC datafile commands and instructions.
The analysis can be demanding on computing time and storage space for all but the simplest of
structures. Care is therefore required in the selection of analysis parameters so that vast amounts of
unnecessary printed data are not produced.

3.2 Overall Procedure for a Wind Turbulence Fatigue Analysis


The general procedure to carry out a full analysis including static improvement is outlined in Figure
3.2.1 . Each of the steps is described in this section in the order of program execution and with
reference to the other component programs.

3.2.1

Environmental Data Processing

The minimum environmental data required is a table of wind speed occurrence by geographical
direction. This is processed to find the mean wind speed to use in the wind loading calculations and to
help establish the analysis wind directions.
By accumulating the probabilities in the chosen wind directions and the contributions from all other
directions to the chosen directions the SPECtral data required for the WINDSPEC program is also
calculated.
An example of the processing may be provided if required.
The main points to note are that:
1.

Processing of the data is necessary to reduce analysis wind directions which will reduce overall
analysis time and disk space requirements.

2.

The wind velocities chosen for the spectral data input to WINDSPEC should be those which
contribute most to the fatigue damage.

3.

The S-N properties in the WINDSPEC datafile should be adjusted to take account of the small
amount of damage due to not selecting all wind speeds and the proportion of time for which the
most damaging winds are present.

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The Analysis

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Figure 3.2.1

WINDSPEC User Manual

3.2.2

The Analysis

Structural Modelling

Only TUBE elements can be processed in WINDSPEC which means that any other element types within the
model must be defined as tubes with dimensions which will give equivalent section properties.
Foundation stiffness can be modelled by including the foundation structure as a substructure (which is not
restricted to TUBE elements as it is not post-processed using WINDSPEC).
Mass modelling can be carried out using MASS or by using material property densities and standard ASAS mass
modelling options.
The structure must be divided into bays by placing elements of each bay into groups using the GROU command
(see Figure 3.2.2). Typically a tower should be grouped into 8 to 10 bays of approximately equal size. The
group number therefore specifies the bay number.

Figure 3.2.2 Typical Bay Divisions

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3.2.3

The Analysis

Natural Frequency Analysis

The structure mode shapes and natural frequencies are calculated by running an ASAS natural frequency
analysis. The results are used for feeding into the subsequent dynamic response analyses and to select the wind
gusting frequencies.
The user should request that the first 10 to 15 modes of vibration are found. These will in general be the overall
sway, twisting and bowing modes of the structure. Individual elements will have higher frequency modes.
At least the first three modes should be considered as included in the gust frequency range for the analysis.
Where the structure is nearly symmetrical in plan there may be two modes close to each other in value but
normal to each other in motion. In this case it is appropriate to consider the first five or six modes to be included
in the gust frequency range.

3.2.4

Selection of Wind Gust Frequencies

A range of wind gust frequencies is required with which to load the structure. The range should start at a low
frequency and include the first three modes (sometimes 5 or 6) found in the natural frequency analysis.
The values chosen will be used as forcing frequencies in association with wind gust loads which are created by
the WAVE program. The smaller the interval is between each frequency the greater the accuracy of the results
will be, which means that a large number of frequencies is required. However, the processing time and the disk
space required for analysis with a large number of frequencies is prohibitive, so care is required in choosing the
frequencies. Some guidance as to the frequency interval and number of frequencies required is given below.
The fatigue response is derived from the stress response spectrum created in the WINDSPEC program. This
involves calculation of the area and moments of area below the stress response spectrum. Figure 3.2.3 shows a
typical stress response spectrum for one inspection point with frequency along the bottom on a linear scale and
the stress response value vertically against a log scale. The zero frequency response is high with sharp narrow
peaks at mode 1, 2 and 3.
Due to the rapid change in response on either side of the mode positions, the intervals of frequency immediately
about the modes should be kept relatively small to get an accurate spectrum definition. Otherwise the fatigue
damage calculated could be overestimated quite significantly. It has been found that spacing about the natural
frequencies as shown in Appendix F is appropriate for most practical cases.
The low frequency end of the spectrum contains a large part of the stress response and hence should be included
by having quite a low frequency to start off the list of frequencies, typically of the order of 1.0x10-6Hz. The
values between the starting frequency and the beginning of the frequencies defining the area of the 1st mode
should sensibly start at around 0.05Hz and continue in steps of 0.05Hz.
Values between the defined mode frequencies should be sensibly spaced or if they overlap take some average
values in the overlapping regions.

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The Analysis

Figure 3.2.3 Stress response spectrum

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3.2.5

The Analysis

Application of Dynamic Loading

This process is carried out with the WAVE program using the WINDSPEC options. These options are
described in detail in the WAVE manual but are also outlined here.
The program uses the geometry definition of the model of the structure to create real and imaginary
gust components of load on each bay (GROUp) for each specified wind direction, gust direction and
frequency. The loading is stored in binary form for further processing in a dynamic response analysis
and also in ASCII format in file ****WA without frequencies attached to perform static load analyses
for static improvement.
WAVE can therefore produce a large number of gust dynamic loadcases;
NDIR*NBAY*NGUST*NFREQ*(REAL&IMAG) =

number of loadcases

SO IF,

NDIR

number of wind directions

NBAY

10

number of bays

NGUST

number of gust directions

NFREQ

50

number of wind gusting

real and imaginary loadcases

frequencies
(REAL&IMAG)
No. of loadcases
= 2 x 10 x 2 x 50 x 2
= 4000!

One extra wind direction will increase the number of loadcases from 4000 to 6000 while one extra
frequency will increase it from 4000 to 4080. It is because of this, the number of wind directions and
bays should be kept as small as practical.
The initial processing of the wind data (Section 3.2.1) is hence extremely important in helping to
reduce the number of analysis wind directions.
The main points to remember when using the WAVE program with the WINDSPEC options are:

Put WIND in the OPTIONS line to specify that the WINDSPEC options are to apply.

The air density is input as the fourth data item in the ELEV line.

Gust component directions are input in the GUST line, 1 is u component in line with the
wind direction, 2 is u and v which are components in line and normal to the wind direction

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The Analysis

in the WAVE water axes X-Y plane; and 3 is the same as 2 but with the addition of the w
component which is normal to the wind direction and in the water axes Z direction.

The analysis frequencies derived from the natural frequency analysis are input on
FREQuency lines, in ascending order.

Element drag is input with DRAG commands as per normal WAVE procedure.

Be careful how much printed output is specified on the OUTP line as there may be a large
number of elements with a large number of loadcases (normally use OUTP 1).

It is not necessary to specify more than a value of 3 for the MAXM line.

Between each wind direction definition reset the PWND values to zero by using RESE 0.

3.2.6
(i)

Description of files created


Binary backing file contains loadcases created by subtraction of the Reference case wind
loading from the (Reference case + gust) for each wind direction, bay, gust direction and
frequency.

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The Analysis

Both Real and Imaginary cases are created, the Real cases will start at number 1 and the Imaginary
cases start at 5001. The order of loadcase storage in the backing file is:
DIRECTION

BAY
GUST DIRECTION

NFREQ

NGUST

NBAY

NDIR

FREQUENCY
REAL CASE

(1 to N 4999)

IMAGINARY CASE

(5001 to N 9999)

END
END

END
END
END
STOP

(ii)

the ASCII file contains the model geometry as specified in the WAVE datafile plus the
loadcases for Base Wind + gust and the Base wind cases. There are no frequencies attached to
the loadcases.
The order of the loadcases is:
DIRECTION

BAY

NGUST

NBAY

NDIR

REFERENCE CASE WIND (REAL)


REFERENCE CASE WIND (IMAGINARY)

CASE 1
CASE 2

GUST DIRECTION
REFERENCE CASE + GUST (REAL)
REFERENCE CASE + GUST (IMAGINARY)

CASE 3
CASE 4

END
etc

END
END
STOP

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3.2.7

The Analysis

Static Improvement

When a natural frequency analysis is performed on a structure as described in Section 3.2.3 not all of
the possible modes of vibration will be calculated. The high frequency modes will not all be found. So
when a dynamic response analysis is carried out the displaced shape of the structure will not contain
the contribution to displacement due to the higher modes. The missing response will however be
essentially static as the forcing frequency of wind turbulence is a lot less than the higher mode natural
frequencies of most lattice tower structures.
To include the missing response, the technique of static improvement is carried out. It is explained in
detail in Reference 1, and the analysis process is outlined here.
(i)

Run a dynamic analysis with the limited number of modes and the gust loading to get real and
imaginary stress response cases.

(ii)

Run a static analysis using the ASCII file ****WA to create reference wind & gust and
reference wind load stresses.

(iii)

Create and run an LOCO file to produce real and imaginary static stress cases from the static
analysis.

(iv)

Run a dynamic analysis with the ZERO option in the OPTIONS line which will create stress
responses with the limited number of mode shapes when the loads are applied artificially
slowly.

(v)

Create and run an LOCO datafile which adds run (i) to run (iii) and subtracts run (iv), for each
wind direction, bay, gust direction and frequency.

The static analysis deflected model (run (iii)) is essentially a zero frequency dynamic analysis with an
infinite number of mode shapes combined to get the final shape. The zero frequency dynamic analysis
with the limited number of calculated mode shapes is similar to the static analysis except it does not
have the higher modes included. Similarly the full dynamic analysis (run (i)) with dynamic loading
does not contain all the mode shapes. To include the missing response which will predominantly be in
the static response region we subtract the zero frequency response stresses from the static analysis
stresses and add these to the normal dynamic response stresses.

3.2.8

Structural Response Analysis

The response of the structure to the dynamic loading is calculated by RESPONSE. The program uses
the backing file created by the natural frequency analysis and the WAVE backing file of dynamic gust
loading.
When using the WINDSPEC procedure the user must place WIND in the OPTIONS line to tell
RESPONSE that the analysis files are in a form suitable for a WINDSPEC analysis.

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The Analysis

The RESPONSE program also requires the user to input the percentage of critical damping for each of
the natural frequency analysis modes. The damping of a structure in air is made up of two components,
structural damping and aerodynamic damping.
Structural damping is the energy loss per cycle due to the hysterisis losses within the material and
frictional effects in the joints. The structural damping values for steel structures are well documented
and will range from about 0.2 to 1.
Aerodynamic damping is the damping caused by the movement of the structure relative to the wind. It
is inversely proportional to the natural frequencies and hence is largest in the fundamental mode and
decreases for the higher modes. An equation used to calculate the aerodynamic damping is detailed in
Section 8.5.2 of Reference 1. The damping should be calculated and used in the response analysis for
each mode and gust direction, not just for mode 1.
The forcing loadcases selected should be all of the previously created WAVE created cases. The
number of cases (real and imaginary counted as one case) will be:
NBAY * NGUST * NDIR * NFREQ
Notes
1.

Real cases start at 1.

2.

Imaginary cases start at 5001 but only the real case value is required by RESPONSE.

3.

Care is required with the selection of printing options as rather a lot of results can be generated.
It is best to put NODI and NOST in the OPTIONS line and add in SAVE LOCO FILES.

3.2.9

Zero Frequency Dynamic Response Analysis

A zero frequency dynamic response analysis uses the natural frequency analysis mode shapes to build
up the structures deflected shape for the gust loadcases being applied artificially slowly.
The datafile for Zero frequency dynamic analysis differs from a normal dynamic analysis in only two
ways.
(i).

the FILES and NEWSTRUCTURE names should be given a new name.

(ii).

ZERO should be placed in the OPTIONS line.

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The Analysis

3.2.10 Static Analysis of Gust and Reference Wind Loading for Static Improvement
A normal static analysis is run using the ****WA ASCII file created by WAVE with the WINDSPEC
options applied. The number of loadcases will be:
NDIR*(NGUST+1)*NBAY*2
and will contain real and imaginary quasi-dynamic loadcases.
Notes
1.

The FILES and NEWSTRUCTURE names must be distinct from any other names.

2.

Put NOST & NODI in the OPTIONS line to reduce the printed output but insert SAVE LOCO
FILES to ensure the results are stored on backing files for post-processing.

3.2.11 Load Combination to Create Static Real and Imaginary Loadcases


The load combinations carry out the subtraction of the reference wind stresses from the
(reference+gust) wind stresses and retitle the case headers. The new structure created will be combined
with the two previously described dynamic and zero frequency dynamic response analysis results for
static improvement.
The number of load combinations will be:
NDIR*NBAY*NGUST*2
The LOCO datafile has to be created by hand (or a simple program could be written to create the file).
The form of the file however is quite simple (see Section 5 Example and Appendix F).

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The Analysis

Notes
1.

BAY number must be the same as the group number.

2.

Frequency value is NONE.

3.

FILES and NEWSTRUCTURE names must be distinct from any other name.

4.

Put NOST and NODI in OPTIONS line to reduce the printed output but insert SAVE LOCO
FILES to ensure the results are stored on backing files for post-processing.

5.

Put PPST in OPTIONS line so that stresses only are processed, displacements will not be
factored and combined.

3.2.12 Load Combination to Carry Out Static Improvement


LOCO is used to combine the results from the two previous dynamic analyses and the static analysis
load combinations produced from the preceding LOCO run.
The separate result stress cases are combined in the following way:

Dynamic analysis results


+
Static analysis results

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The Analysis

Zero frequency analysis results


The final backing file produced will contain dynamic stress results.
In combining the results from different structures the structure names must be specified along with the
loadcase number required from that structure. Note also that the LOCO run is used to retitle the
final loadcases in a format which will be read by the subsequent WINDSPEC program and must
be in that exact format or the WINDSPEC program will reject the data. The format is detailed
in Appendix F.
The number of combinations:
= NDIR*NBAYS*NGUST*NFREQ*2
Notes
1.

Put NOST and NODI in OPTIONS line to reduce the printed output but insert SAVE LOCO
FILES to ensure the results are saved on backing files for post processing.

2.

The FILES and NEWSTRUCTURE names must be distinct from any other name.

3.

Put PPST in OPTIONS line so that stresses only are processed, displacements will not be
factored and combined.

4.

Put BYUE in options line to combined element stresses using the user element numbers and not
the system numbers. This enables the static analysis cases to be combined with the dynamic
analysis cases.

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The Analysis

3.2.13 WINDSPEC Datafile


The Preliminary Data (Phase 0) and Structural Geometry and Material Data (Phase 1) are essentially
the same as in the FATJACK manual with the main exception being that TUBE elements only are
processed. This means that the automatic SCF generator can be utilised.
Flare booms and towers in the wind are typically more heavily loaded in global bending than jacket
structures under wave loading and so it is important to check the can-to-leg connections on the main
legs as well as the brace-to-chord connections. SCFs for the joint can-to-leg connection welds will
probably be calculated by hand and then input into the datafile.
The S-N classification data may need to be adjusted by increasing the number of cycles as described in
Section 3.2.1.
The Phase 2 data contains the parameters which specify the wind spectrum and control the selection of
the preprocessed response stresses.
Some of the data commands need to be explained:
The SUBD command is used to define the maximum acceptable length of member subdivision for each
gust frequency analysed. High frequency (short period) gusts will be of a smaller size than the low
frequency (long period) gusts. Long period gusts will encompass more of an element than short period
gusts and so a large subdivision length is appropriate. Short period gusts may not encompass a whole
element and it will require a finer subdivision of an element to define the gusting influence.
Subdivision length is thus based on frequency with the relationship.
Slen =
A
Frequency
The factor A from present experience on flare towers has been taken as 12 for Slen in metres.
The ESDU command requires three data items.
(a)

V10 is the mean hourly wind velocity at 10m above zero plane (sea surface). These values are
defined when the wind occurrence data is processed, in Section 3.2.1.

(b)

Z0 is the ground roughness parameter. This value can be calculated using Charnocks Law
(Reference 1) which says
2

U* = C
Zog
where

C = constant 60

U* and Zo are both unknown


g is acceleration due to gravity

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The above is solved iteratively as

The Analysis

U* = friction velocity = V10/2.5ln(10/Zo) ie assume an initial

value of Zo and recalculate until Zo converges.


(c)

probability of the wind speed in that direction. The WINDSPEC program assumes that the
specified wind conditions together fill a complete year (which is accounted for by adjusting the
S-N curve data), so it adds up all the probability values internally and normalises them to add up
to 100%.

3.2.14 WINDSPEC Analysis Results


WINDSPEC prints results in three main parts:
(i)

SCF values calculated automatically for tubular joint connections.

(ii)

The cross-spectral gust densities between bay centres for each mean velocity, direction and
frequency.

(iii)

The estimated fatigue life and usage factor for each inspection point at the ends of every
selected member. The user can specify a target life with any estimated lives below this target
value being flagged by the program.

The inspection points for all elements are listed together with their locations. There is a default set of 8
points for the tube sections as shown in Figure 3.2.4. However the user may select up to 25 points
around the end of each member.

Figure 3.2.4 Default positions of inspection points at each node of a tubular member

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The Analysis

3.2.15 WINDSPEC Analysis Without Static Improvement


If static improvement is not used then a significant part of the response will be missed out and hence
the fatigue lives will be overestimated. It is recommended therefore that static improvement is used.
However if the user does not want to include the high frequency response then the analysis procedure is
simplified. Figure 3.2.5 outlines the modified procedure. It essentially removes the need for the zero
frequency dynamic response analysis, the quasi-static wind loading analysis and the two load
combination LOCO runs. The WINDSPEC program will feed directly from the backing file results
created by the normal dynamic response analysis.

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The Analysis

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Figure 3.2.5

WINDSPEC User Manual

The Analysis

3.3 WINDSPEC Data

3.3.1

Data Overview

The data for WINDSPEC is in three blocks, each data block specifying one aspect of the data. The details of
each data block are given below.

3.3.2

Phase 0

Preliminary data

Phase 1

Structural geometry and material data

Phase 2

Element subdivision, wind and drag data

Preliminary Data

The Preliminary data defines the control names required to reference the required previous analyses. Details of
the commands available within the Preliminary data are given in Appendix A.

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3.3.3

The Analysis

Phase 1 Data

3.3.3.1 Element Selection Data


The element selection data block allows the user to select for fatigue check only those elements in which he is
interested. The program will allow checking only of TUBE elements, all other elements will be rejected.
ELNO

ALL

mat

selem

felem

step

END

Parameters
ELNO

: compulsory keyword

ALL

: optional keyword.
If the user selects ALL then all tube elements will be selected. No further element selection
commands are required and all elements will be assigned S-N type 1.
If ALL is omitted then at least one element selection line must follow.

mat

: material S-N type number

selem

: start element number

felem

: finish element number

step

: step increment between element numbers

END

: keyword required to define the end of the element selection data. Not required if ELNO ALL
is used.

Note
Elements are described by their user element numbers. If a line is used to select only one element then both first
and last numbers must be input as that user element number and the increment can be omitted.
Example
ELNO
1 1

1
2

6
3

4
3

END
In the above example elements 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 are assigned S-N curve type 1 and element 3 is assigned S-N curve
type 2.

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The Analysis

3.3.3.2 SCF Data


The fatigue life of a brace/chord joint is based on the hot spot stresses at various points around the
circumference of the brace at the joint. These hot spot stresses are estimated by multiplying the brace stresses,
calculated by RESPONSE, by appropriate stress concentration factors (SCFS).
The SCF Data Block consists of an SCFS header line followed by one or more sub-blocks for each element
type. Each sub-block must start with a sub-header line and may be followed by any number of SCF commands
applicable to that particular element type.
The DeFauLT command sets up a default set of stress concentration factors which are applied to all elements,
all nodes, unless overwritten by further specific data. For tubular sections the default values may then be
overwritten by automatically generated values. For all element types values may then be further overwritten by
user-defined values for specified members.
For a large structure, unless automatic SCF generation is used, the SCF data block may be very lengthy. If
automatic SCF generation is not appropriate then the burden of preparing the SCF data block may be eased as
follows:
(i)

Perform a first pass run through WINDSPEC with a (high) default value for all joints. This default value
should be the maximum stress concentration factor present in the structure.

(ii)

Re-run WINDSPEC selecting those members shown to be of interest in the first run and assign realistic
values of stress concentration factor.

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The Analysis

The overall structure of the SCF data block is shown here

SCFS

neltyp

TUBE

DFLT

element header and default data

TUBE AUTO
SCFM
LIMI
PARA
CHOR

automatic SCF generation data


for TUBE elements

AUTO
FIN

ELEM
SCFB
SCFC

SCF definition for tubular sections

SCF
ANGL

END

Parameters
SCFS

: compulsory keyword

neltyp

: number of element type sub-blocks to follow in the SCF data - TUBE is only element type at
present so value is 1.

END

: compulsory keyword at the end of each element type sub-block

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The Analysis

Element Header and Default Data


This line sets the default stress concentration factors to be applied to all elements, all nodes, and all stress
components. The default value may then be overwritten by appropriate sets of SCF lines.
TUBE

DFLT

bscfa

bscfy

bscfz

cscfa

cscfy

cscfz

Parameters
TUBE

: keyword required to define the element type to which this sub block applies. As tubes are the
only element types capable of being processed at present, TUBE is the only option.

DFLT

: compulsory keyword

bscfa

: default brace side SCF for axial force. (Real)

bscfy

: default brace side SCF for bending about local y. (Real)

bscfz

: default brace side SCF for bending about local z. (Real)

cscfa

: default chord side SCF for axial force. (Real)

cscfy

: default chord side SCF for bending about local y. (Real)

cscfz

: default chord side SCF for bending about local z. (Real)

Note
If bscfy is specified as zero or left blank then the specified value for bscfa will be applied to all six force
components.

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The Analysis

Automatic SCF Generation Data for Tube Elements


For tubular elements the default SCF values may be overwritten by automatically generated SCF values. SCF
values may be calculated using either Wordsworth or Kuang equations, as requested by the user. Before
discussing the calculation of SCF values it is necessary to define a number of parameters related to the
geometry, of a joint, the values of which govern the magnitudes of the SCFs applicable to the joint. These
parameters are as follows:
Dc =

Chord diameter

Tc

Chord thickness

DB =

Brace diameter

TB =

Brace thickness

Lc

Chord length = 2/3 distance between adjacent nodes

2Lc/Dc

DB/Dc

DC/(2Tc)

TB/Tc

Distance between toes of 2 braces

Angle between brace and chord

g/Dc

The structure of the automatic SCF generation data section is shown here:

TUBE

AUTO

calc

SCFM

scfnam

scfmin

LIMI

limv al

minv al

maxv al

PARA

param

pv al

ino

CHOR

inod

ichlst

AUTO

modnum

iellst

FIN

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The Analysis

Parameters
TUBE

: compulsory keyword

AUTO

: compulsory keyword

calc

: keyword indicating equations to be used for SCF calculations


Permitted values:

FIN

WORD
KUAN

Wordsworth equations
Kuang equations

: compulsory keyword indicating end of this automatic SCF generation data section

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The Analysis

Minimum SCF Data


The SCFM command may be used to specify minimum values for the SCF components calculated in the
automatic SCF generation. Note that because the Kuang and Wordsworth equations are in different forms the
keywords defining the SCF components vary according to the type of SCF calculation specified on the TUBE
AUTO command.
SCFM

scfnam

scfmin

Parameters
SCFM

: compulsory keyword

scfnam

: keyword indicating SCF component for which scfmin is the minimum value.
Permitted values.

(i)

(ii)

Wordsworth Equations
AXIC

: brace axial load, chord side, crown position

AXIS

: brace axial load, chord side, saddle position

IPC

: brace in-plane bending load, chord side, saddle position

OPC

: brace out-of-plane bending load, chord side, crown position

OPS

: brace out-of-plane bending load, chord side, saddle position

Kuang Equations

scfmin

BAXI

: brace axial load, brace side

CAXI

: brace axial load, chord side

BIPB

: brace in-plane bending load, brace side

CIPB

: brace in-plane bending load, chord side

BOPB

: brace out-of-plane bending load, brace side

COPB

: brace out-of-plane bending load, chord side

: min SCF value for component scfnam

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The Analysis

Applicability Limits Definition Data


Both the Wordsworth and the Kuang equations have been derived for a limited range of values of the various
parameters, these values are defined in the Notes below. The limiting values defined below are built into the
program, but the values may be overwritten at the users discretion, using one or more LIMI commands.
limv al

LIMI

minv al

maxv al

Parameters
LIMI

: compulsory keyword

limval

: keyword indicating parameter for which default applicability limit is to be overwritten.


Permitted values: ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA, TAU, THETA, GAP

minval

: lower applicability limit for parameter limval. (Real)

maxval

: upper applicability limit for parameter limval. (Real)

Notes
1.

Because the applicability limit for the gap is units-dependent the user must specify his own applicability
limits. Any attempt to calculate SCF values for K or KT joints without a preceding LIMI GAP command
will result in an error.

2.

Default applicability limits are as follows:

(i).

Wordsworth Equations
8.00

< <

40.0

0.13

< <

1.0

12.00

< <

32.0

0.25

< <

1.0

< <

90.0

6.66

< <

40.0

0.30

< <

0.8

8.33

< <

40.0

0.20

< <

0.8

0.00

< <

90.0

0.01

< <

1.0

30.0
(ii).

Kuang Equations

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3.

The Analysis

For any joint for which one or more parameters lie outside the limit values the SCF values will be
calculated with the actual values of the parameters and then recalculated with the appropriate parameters
reset to the limit values, the higher if the two SCF values thus obtained will be taken.

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The Analysis

Parameter Definition Data


In addition to the facility for specifying limit values the user is also permitted to overwrite the calculated values
of most parameters. This enables the user to calculate SCF values using geometry data which has been modified
from that specified in the ASAS data.
PARA

param

pv al

ino

Parameters
PARA

: compulsory keyword

param

: keyword indicating parameter for which calculated value is to be overwritten for SCF
calculation.
Permitted values: ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA, TAU, GAP, DB, DC, TB, TC

pval

: value of parameter param to be used in SCF calculation (Real)

ino

: integer

number

for

which

parameter

param

is

to

be

updated.

For parameters ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA, TAU, GAP, DB and TB, ino is the user element
number of the brace for which the parameter value is to be overwritten. For parameters DC
and TC, ino is the node number of the joint for which the chord diameter or thickness is to be
overwritten.
Notes
1.

The parameter GAP is valid only for K joints. For KT joints calculated gaps may only be adjusted using
the LIMI command.

2.

Modifications to the tube diameters and thicknesses will be applied only to SCF calculations. If the user
wishes to modify the tube properties for converting tube forces to stresses then the ELEM command
must be used.

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The Analysis

Chord Definition Data


By default the chord elements are identified as follows:
1.

Select all tubes at the current node with largest diameter.

2.

From those selected in (1) select all tubes with largest thickness.

3.

If the list selected in (2) contains only one element then this is the chord.

4.

If the list selected in (2) contains more than one element then check the list for a pair of parallel elements
forming a through member; if only one parallel pair is found then this pair of elements form the chord.

If the geometry of the joint is such that the above procedure is unable to identify the chord member then the user
may use the CHOR command to identify the chord element(s).
CHOR

inod

ichlst

Parameters
CHOR

: compulsory keyword

inod

: integer number identifying node number of joint for which the user is to identify the chord
member(s)

ichlist

: list of one or two integer number identifying the user element numbers of the chord
element(s) at node inod

Note
If the two chord elements are specified on the CHOR command then the user must ensure that the two specified
elements lie in a straight line, failure to do so will result in an error.

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The Analysis

Node Selection Data


This command enables the user to select the nodes and, if required, the elements at each node, to be considered
in the automatic SCF generation.
AUTO

nodnum

iellst

Parameters
AUTO

: compulsory keyword

nodnum

: integer number identifying node for which automatic SCF generation is required. If nodnum
= ALL then automatic SCF generation will be attempted for all nodes on the structure.

iellst

: optional list of element at node nodnum which are to be considered in the automatic SCF
generation. If iellst is omitted then all elements connected to the node will be considered.

Note
If nodnum = ALL then iellst must not be specified.

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The Analysis

SCF Definition for Tubes and Tubular Sections


Default and/or automatically generated SCF values may be changed by using a combination of ELEM, SCFB,
SCFC, SCF and ANGL commands.
The SCFB and SCFC commands allow the user to specify brace and chord side SCF values with reference to
the crown and saddle points.
Pairs of SCF and ANGL lines allow the user to specify SCF values with reference to angles around the tube
element.
The ELEM command may additional by used alone to alter the value of the tube properties to be used in the
stress calculation.

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The Analysis

Element Selection Data For Tubes and Tubular Sections


To define a tube which is to have the default values changed and to supply new values for diameter, thickness
and inset position.
ELEM

elem

node

thick

inset

Parameters
ELEM

: compulsory keyword

elem

: user element number (Integer)

node

: node number (Integer)

diam

: node diameter (Real)

thick

: node thickness (Real)

inset

: inset distance from member end (Real)

Note
If thick is left blank then the basic tube thickness is used. If diam and thick are left blank or specified as 0.0
then the basic tube diameter and thickness are used.
If the brace has a node can or stub the diameter and/or thickness of the stub can be input here. The axial and
bending stresses are then modified to reflect the change in geometry.
The fatigue calculations can be performed at a point other than at the end of the member by specifying a nonzero value for the inset. The value of the bending moment used in the calculations will be then adjusted from
the value at the appropriate end of the member by assuming that the member is subjected to a uniformly
distributed load, the magnitude of which is calculated from the difference in the two end shears.
If the diameter and thickness are specified as zero then the diameter and thickness of the section at the defined
inset point will be used unless there is a section change within 0.01L (where L is the tube length) of the inset
point. If there is one section change within 0.01L of the inset point then the properties of the weaker (in
bending) of the two sections will be taken. If there is more than one section change within 0,01L of the inset
point then the user must specify non-zero values of diameter and thickness on the ELEM line.

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The Analysis

Crown and Saddle Point SCF Data for Tubes


To define a new set of SCF values for the tube defined on the previous ELEM line
SCFB

ichor

scfbac

scfbas

scfipc

scfips

scfopc

scfops

SCFC

ichor

scfbac

scfbas

scfipc

scfips

scfopc

scfops

Parameters
SCFB

: compulsory keyword indicating that following SCF values apply to brace side

SCFC

: compulsory keyword indicating that following SCF values apply to chord side

ichor

: user element number of chord element to be used for identification of crown and saddle points

scfbac

: crown SCF for brace axial load

scfbas

: saddle SCF for brace axial load

scfipc

: crown SCF for brace in-plane bending load

scfips

: saddle SCF for brace in-plane bending load

scfopc

: crown SCF for brace out-of-plane bending

scfopc

: crown SCF for brace out-of-plane bending load

scfops

: saddle SCF for brace out-of-plane bending load

Notes
1.

If SCFB and SCFC lines must be defined in pairs, with the SCFC line immediately following the
SCFB line.

2.

The ANGL line may not be used to define inspection points for elements where SCFB and SCFC lines
have been used to define SCF values; for these elements damage calculations will always be carried out
at 8 inspection points.

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The Analysis

SCF Data for Tubes and Tubular Sections


To define a new set of SCF values for the tube defined on the previous ELEM line
SCF

bscfa

bscfy

bscfz

cscfa

cscfy

cscfz

Parameters
SCF

: compulsory keyword

bscfa

: default brace side SCF for axial force. (Real)

bscfy

: default brace side SCF for bending about local y. (Real)

bscfz

: default brace side SCF for bending about local z. (Real)

cscfa

: default chord side SCF for axial force. (Real)

cscfy

: default chord side SCF for bending about local y. (Real)

cscfz

: default chord side SCF for bending about local z. (Real)

Notes
1.

If bscfy is specified as zero or left blank then the specified value for bscfa will be applied to all six
force components.

2.

The SCF command must be followed by an appropriate ANGL command.

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The Analysis

Angular Position Data


To define the position of inspection points around the tube defined on the previous ELEM line. The ANGL line
may be used in one of two ways. The first generates a given number of equally spaced points around the tube,
while the second explicitly defines the required angle.

Generated Angular Data


ANGL

GEN

npoint

angle

inc

Parameters
ANGL

: compulsory keyword

GEN

: compulsory keyword

npoint

: number of points to be generated. (Integer)

angle

: start angle in degrees. (Real)

inc

: angle increment in degrees. (Real)

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The Analysis

Explicit Angular Data

Parameters
ANGL

: compulsory keyword

1...

: angle(s) in degrees. (Real)

Notes
1.

A maximum of six points given in increasing order may be defined on this line. The ANGL lines may be
repeated until all points are defined for this node on this element. The angles defined must lie between
0 and 360. An angle of 0 will correspond with inspection point number 1 shown in Figure 3.3.1 and
an angle of 90 will correspond with inspection point number 3.

2.

The ANGL line is valid only in combination with a previous pair of ELEM and SCF commands.

Figure 3.3.1 Default positions of inspection points at each node of a tubular member.

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The Analysis

3.3.3.3 Material S-N Data


WINDSPEC accepts either linear or multi-linear S-N curves, linear meaning that the curve forms a straight
line on log-log scales defined by the equation:
Log N = C - B log S .................................................................................................................... (1)
where

B and C are constants


S is the endurance stress
N is the number of cycles

An example of such a single slope curve is the Q curve taken from D.En. Guidelines on Offshore Structures 16
(figure 3.3.2). The equation is given in a slightly different form viz:
log10S = 2.571 - 0.242 (log10N - 4)

................ ............... ................ ................ (2)

In the form of equation (1) this gives:


log N = 14.624 - 4.13 log S

................ ................ ............... ................ ................ (3)

In WINDSPEC this curve is defined by the slope B and any point (S1, N1) on the line. In this case B = 4.13 and
say N1 = 104
then

log10N1

from equation (2)

log10S1

2.571

S1

372.39

so

Up to ten different S-N material types may be specified. If more than one S-N material type is being described
they must be referenced in the Element Selection block.
The S-N data block consists of a Block Header line followed by one or more S-N lines each referring to one S-N
type.
Each section of the multi-linear S-N curve is defined as above in equation (1) with the slope value B changing at
discrete points along the curve. Multi-linear S-N curves must be continuous,
that is there are no jumps. Thus the intersection of two sections of the multi-linear S-N curve has to satisfy the
simultaneous equations:
Log N = C1 - B1 log S
Log N = C2 - B2 log S......................... .................................................. ........................ ........................ ......................... (4)
where C1 and B1 are constants for the first section and C2 and B2 are constants for the next section.
Each multi-linear S-N curve may have up to 5 sections specified.

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The Analysis

Figure 3.3.2

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The Analysis

S-N Data Block Header Line


To define the S-N data for each material used in this analysis.

S-N
mat

type

stress

cycle

slope

FIN
END

Parameters
S-N

: compulsory keyword

mat

: S-N type number - same for all sections of the same curve. (Integer)

type

: 0

for

single

slope

S-N

curves.

(Integer)

1 for multi-linear S-N curves.


stress

: point lying on this section of S-N curve. For multi-linear curves this point is at the intercycle
section with the following section, unless it is the final section of the curve,
where it is the intersection with the preceding section. For multi-linear curves stress is input in
decreasing order. (Real)

slope

: slope of this section of S-N curve (positive value). For multi-linear curves input in increasing
order. (Real)

FIN

: keyword required to define the end of the S-N data block

Example
S-N
1

3.72E8

1.0E4

5.0E7

1.0E7

5.0E7

1.0E7

The above data defines 2 S-N curves as follows:


1.

A single-slope S-N curve passing through the point defined by a stress of 3.72x108, a life of 104 cycles
and a slope of 3.

2.

A multi-slope S-N curve with a change in slope at a point defined by a stress of 5.0x107 cycles, the two
sections of the curve have slopes of 3 and 5.

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3.3.4

The Analysis

Phase 2 Data

3.3.4.1 Target Life Data


The YEAR command defines a target value for the life of the structure.
YEAR

target

Parameters
YEAR

: command keyword

target

: target life (years), joints with lives less than this value will be flagged

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The Analysis

3.3.4.2 Drag Data


The DRAG command is used to define the drag coefficients Cd used in the calculation of the cross-spectral
densities.

DRAG

cdy

ELEM

elem

GROU

group

cdz

Parameters
DRAG

: command keyword

cdy

: drag coefficient in element local y-direction

cdz

: drag coefficient in element local z-direction

ELEM

: keyword to indicate element selection

elem

: list of user element numbers or all

GROU

: keyword to indicate group selection

group

: list of group numbers

Notes
1.

This command is optional and if omitted the drag coefficients values cdy and cdz defaults to 0.7 for all
elements.

2.

If one or more drag commands are present then drag values must be explicitly defined for all elements in
the structure.

3.

The drag values used in WINDSPEC should in general be the same as the values used in the preceding
WAVE run.

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The Analysis

3.3.4.3 Element Subdivision Data


In calculation of the member spectral density values it may be necessary to subdivide the member to obtain
sufficiently accurate results.

The SUBD command allows the user to specify the maximum acceptable

subdivision length for each frequency.

SUBD

freq

slen

Parameters
SUBD

: command keyword

freq

: frequency for which maximum subdivision length slen is appropriate

slen

: maximum permitted element subdivision length for frequency freq

Notes
1.

Maximum subdivision lengths for frequencies other than those specified on the SUBD commands will
be calculated by linear interpolation from specified frequency/subdivision pairs.

2.

Present experience indicates that for normal wind turbulence analyses an appropriate value for the
maximum subdivision length is given by the expression S=12/freq where S is the maximum element
subdivision length in metres and freq is the wind frequency in secs-1.

3.

If the subdivision length is greater than the element length then the element length is used.

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The Analysis

3.3.4.4 Gust Data


The GUST command defines the required gust directions

GUST

Parameters
GUST

: command keyword

: gusting parallel to the wind is required

: gusting perpendicular to the wind in the WAVE water axis X-Y plane is required

: gusting in the WAVE water axis Z direction is required

Notes
1.

This command should only appear once.

2.

Any combination of u, v and w may be specified but it is the users responsibility to ensure that the
specified directions are consistent with the loadcases generated by the preceding WAVE run.

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The Analysis

3.3.4.5 Frequency Data


The FREQuency data defines the frequencies for which the stress transfer functions are to be generated. The
values defined here must correspond exactly to the values defined in the preceding WAVE analysis.

FREQ

freq

Parameters
FREQ

: command keyword

freq

: wind frequency

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The Analysis

3.3.4.6 Global Parameters Data


The GLOBal parameters command defines the basic global parameters for the wind spectra generation.

GLOB

lati

ground

vref

Parameters
GLOB

: command keyword

lati

: latitude of structure (degrees)

ground

: ground level with respect to global ASAS model axes

vref

: reference velocity used in wind loading data in preceding WAVE analysis

Note
It is the users responsibility to ensure that the global parameters data is consistent with the WAVE data.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 3-45

WINDSPEC User Manual

The Analysis

3.3.4.7 Spectral Data


The SPECtral data block defines details of the wind spectra to be used.
SPEC

dirn

ESDU

V10

Z0

prob

END

Parameters
SPEC

: keyword to denote start of spectral data

dirn

: wind direction to which this spectrum is to be applied. Exactly the same values as the WAVE
wind directions.

ESDU

: keyword to indicate that the ESDU spectrum is to be used

V10

: mean hourly wind velocity at 10 metres above zero plane

Z0

: ground roughness parameter

prob

: probability of that wind speed in that direction

END

: keyword to denote end of this spectral data block

Notes
1.

The velocities V10 specified must be the same for all directions.

2.

An END command is required after the END of the final SPEC data and before the STOP instruction.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 3-46

WINDSPEC User Manual

References

4 References
1.

Dynamics of Fixed Marine Structures, Third Edition, N.D.P. Barltrop & A.J. Adams, Atkins Oil & Gas
Engineering Limited, Epsom, UK.

2.

Century Dynamics Limited, MASS User Manual, Version 12 January 2009.

3.

Century Dynamics Limited, ASAS User Manual, Version 12 January 2009.

4.

Century Dynamics Limited, WAVE User Manual, Version 12 January 2009.

5.

Century Dynamics Limited, RESPONSE User Manual, Version 12 January 2009.

Century Dynamics Limited, LOCO User Manual, Version 12 January 2009.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 4-1

WINDSPEC User Manual

Examples

Example - Outline of Datafiles Required and WINDSPEC Results Output


SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000
JOB NEW FREQ
PROJECT BPF1
TITLE ** NATURAL FREQUENCY MODEL OF FLARE STACK **
TEXT ** ASAS NATURAL FREQUENCY ANALYSIS **
STRUCTURE NFFL
OPTIONS NOBL END
FREQUENCY SPIT 0 0 1 10 18 15
SAVE FEMD DYPO FILES
UNITS N M
END
COOR
CART
100
-4.5000
0.0000
60.7000
.
END
ELEM
MATP 1
GROU
1
TUBE
100
102 1002 1002
.
GROU
2
TUBE
110
115 1015 1015
.
END
MATE
1 ISO 2.100E+11 0.30 0.000E+00 8478
.
END
GEOM
100 TUBE
0.2190
0.0159
.
END
SUPP
RZ
7370 7050
.
END
CONS
X
8012 1.0
X 9000
.
END
*
DIRE
LUMP ADDED MA
2920 X 8085 8255
.
END
STOP

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 5-1

WINDSPEC User Manual

Examples

SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000


JOB OLD FREQ
PROJECT BPF1
TITLE ** GUST LOADING FLARE STACK
**
TEXT ** ASAS-GUST LOADING CREATION
**
STRUCTURE GUST
OPTIONS WIND PRNO NOBL GOON END
FREQUENCY SPIT 0 0 1 10 18 15
UNITS N M
END
COOR
CART
100
-4.5000
0.0000
60.7000
.
END
ELEM
MATP 1
GROU
1
TUBE
100
102 1002 1002
.
GROU
2
TUBE
110
115 1015 1015
.
END
MATE
1 ISO 2.100E+11 0.30 0.000E+00 8478
END
GEOM
100 TUBE
0.2190
0.0159
.
END
SUPP
RZ
7370 7050
.
END
CONS
X
8012 1.0
X 9000
.
END
*
WAVE DATA FOR WIND LOADING OF FLARE STACK
LOAD 1
CASE 1
WAVE LOAD
GRAV 0.0 0.0 -9.81
ELEV 10.0 0.0 0.0 1.23
GUST 2
FREQ 1.0E-06
.
FREQ 5.9966
*************** 0 DEG ******************

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 5-2

WINDSPEC User Manual

Examples

PWND
20.0 0.0
150.0
DRAG
0.0 0.7 0.7
ELEM ALL
DRAG
0.0 2.0 2.0
ELEM 8700
.
OUTP 1
MAXM 3
EXEC
RESE 0
*************** 90 DEG ******************
PWND
20.0
90.0
150.0
DRAG
0.0 0.7 0.7
ELEM ALL
DRAG
0.0 2.0 2.0
ELEM 8700
.
OUTP 1
MAXM 3
EXEC
END
STOP
SYSTEM DATA AREA 2000000
JOB RESP
PROJECT BPF1
TILE ** DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS FLARE STACK **
TEXT **
DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS
**
STRUCTURE NFFL
NEWSTRUCTURE RP01
OPTIONS WIND NODI NOST NOBL GOON END
SAVE LOCO FILES
END
LOADFILE GUST
DAMP
1 1456 1 1 1.250
.
1 1456 10 10 0.500
END
SELE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
.
1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456
END
STOP
SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000
JOB RESP
PROJECT BPF1
TITLE ** ZERO FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS **
TEXT **
DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS
**
TEXT **
ZERO FREQUENCY RESPONSE
**
STRUCTURE NFFL
NEWSTRUCTURE RP00
OPTIONS WIND NODI NOST NOBL ZERO GOON END
SAVE LOCO FILES

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 5-3

WINDSPEC User Manual

Examples

END
LOADFILE GUST
DAMP
1 1456 1 1 1.250
.
1 1456 10 10 0.500
END
SELE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
.
1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456
END
STOP
SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000
JOB OLD LINE
PROJECT BPF1
TITLE ** STATIC RUN FOR STATIC IMPROVEMENT **
TEXT ** ASAS-GUST LOADING STATIC ANALYSIS **
STRUCTURE GTUV
OPTIONS PRNO NOST NODI GOON END
SAVE LOCO FILES
UNITS N M
END
COOR
CART
100
-4.5000
0.0000
60.7000
.
END
*
WAVE DATA FOR WIND LOADING OF FLARE STACK LOAD
84
CASE
1 HT
0.0 T 0.0 DIR
0.0 PH
DISTRIBU
Z BL6 -1.3122D+02 -1.3122D+02 0.0000D+00 3.6500D+00 8010
.
END
CASE
2 HT
0.0 T 0.0 DIR
0.0 PH
DISTRIBU
Z BL6 0.0000D+00 0.0000D+00 0.0000D+00 3.6500D+00 8010
.
END
CASE
3 HT
0.0 T 0.0 DIR
0.0 PH
DISTRIBU
Z BL6 -1.4467D+02 -1.4467D+02 0.0000D+00 3.6500D+00 8010
.
END
CASE
4 HT
0.0 T 0.0 DIR
0.0 PH
DISTRIBU
Z BL6 0.0000D+00 0.0000D+00 0.0000D+00 3.6500D+00 8010
.
END
CASE
5 HT
0.0 T 0.0 DIR
0.0 PH
DISTRIBU
Y BL6 6.5690D+00 6.5690D+00 0.0000D+00 3.6500D+00 8010
.
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

8012

8012

8012

8012

8012

Page 5-4

WINDSPEC User Manual


END
CASE
6 HT
0.0 T 0.0 DIR
0.0 PH
DISTRIBU
Y BL6 0.0000D+00 0.0000D+00 0.0000D+00 3.6500D+00
8012
.
END
.
STOP
SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000
JOB POST
PROJECT BPF1
TITLE FLARE STACK - ASASLOCO RUN
TEXT ** LOCO RUN ON GUST STATIC RUN
**
TEXT ** BEFORE ADDITIONAL LOCO RUN
**
TEXT ** FOR STATIC IMPROVEMENT
**
STRUCTURE GTUV
NEWSTRUCTURE STAT
OPTIONS PRNO NOBL NOST NODI PPST GOON END
SAVE LOCO FILES
END
COMB 56
*
**** BAY NO. 1
*
SELE
1 REAL F NONE D
0.0000 B 1 G 1
CASE
3 1.0
1 -1.0
END
SELE
2 IMAG F NONE D
0.0000 B 1 G 1
CASE
4 1.0
2 -1.0
END
SELE
3 REAL F NONE D
0.0000 B 1 G 2
CASE
5 1.0
1 -1.0
END
SELE
4 IMAG F NONE D
0.0000 B 1 G 2
CASE
6 1.0
2 -1.0
END
*
**** BAY NO. 2
*
SELE
5 REAL F NONE D
0.0000 B 2 G 1
CASE
9 1.0
7 -1.0
END
SELE
6 IMAG F NONE D
0.0000 B 2 G 1
CASE
10 1.0
8 -1.0
END
SELE
7 REAL F NONE D
0.0000 B 2 G 2
CASE
11 1.0
7 -1.0
END
SELE
8 IMAG F NONE D
0.0000 B 2 G 2
CASE
12 1.0
8 -1.0
END
.
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Examples

8010

Page 5-5

WINDSPEC User Manual

Examples

.
*
**** BAY NO. 1
*
SELE
29 REAL F NONE D 90.0000 B 1 G 1
CASE
45 1.0
43 -1.0
END
SELE
30 IMAG F NONE D 90.0000 B 1 G 1
CASE
46 1.0
44 -1.0
END
SELE
31 REAL F NONE D 90.0000 B 1 G 2
CASE
47 1.0
43 -1.0
END
SELE
32 IMAG F NONE D 90.0000 B 1 G 2
CASE
48 1.0
44 -1.0
END
*
**** BAY NO. 2
*
SELE
33 REAL F NONE D 90.0000 B 2 G 1
CASE
51 1.0
49 -1.0
END
SELE
34 IMAG F NONE D 90.0000 B 2 G 1
CASE
52 1.0
50 -1.0
END
SELE
35 REAL F NONE D 90.0000 B 2 G 2
CASE
53 1.0
49 -1.0
END
SELE
36 IMAG F NONE D 90.0000 B 2 G 2
CASE
54 1.0
50 -1.0
END
STOP
SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000
JOB POST
PROJECT BPF1
TITLE **FLARE STACK - ASASLOCO RUN
TEXT ** LOCO RUN FOR STATIC IMPROVEMENT
**
TEXT ** RUN ON STRUCTURES RP01,RP00,STAT
**
STRUCTURE RP01
NEWSTRUCTURE LOCO
OPTIONS PRNO NOBL BYUE NOST NODI PPST GOON END
SAVE LOCO FILES
END
COMB 2912
*
**** BAY NO. 1
*
SELE
1 REAL F
0.0000 D
0.0000 B 1 G 1
CASE
1 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
1 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE
1 -1.0
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 5-6

WINDSPEC User Manual


END
SELE 5001 IMAG F
STRUCTURE RP01
CASE 5001 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
2 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE 5001 -1.0
END
SELE
2 REAL F
STRUCTURE RP01
CASE
2 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
1 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE
2 -1.0
END
SELE 5002 IMAG F
STRUCTURE RP01
CASE 5002 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
2 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE 5002 -1.0
END
.
.
*
**** BAY NO. 1
*
SELE 729 REAL F
STRUCTURE RP01
CASE 729 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
29 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE 729 -1.0
END
SELE 5729 IMAG F
STRUCTURE RP01
CASE 5729 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
30 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE 5729 -1.0
END
SELE 730 REAL F
STRUCTURE RP01
CASE 730 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
29 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE 730 -1.0

Examples

0.0000 D

0.0000 B

1 G 1

0.0100 D

0.0000 B

1 G 1

0.0100 D

0.0000 B

1 G 1

0.0000 D

90.0000 B

1 G 1

0.0000 D

90.0000 B

1 G 1

0.0100 D

90.0000 B

1 G 1

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 5-7

WINDSPEC User Manual


END
SELE 5730 IMAG F
0.0100 D 90.0000 B 1 G 1
STRUCTURE RP01
CASE 5730 1.0
STRUCTURE STAT
CASE
30 1.0
STRUCTURE RP00
CASE 5730 -1.0
END
.
.
STOP
SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000
JOB POST
PROJECT BPF1
TITLE ** FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS
TEXT ** WINDSPEC DATAFILE FOR WINDSPEC ANALYSIS
STRUCTURE LOCO
OPTIONS NOBL SCFP SCFE GOON END
END
*
ELNO
1 1002 1005 3
.
.
1 3056 3057 1
END
*
SCFS 1
TUBE DFLT 1.0
TUBE AUTO WORD
LIMI GAP 0.040 0.060
CHOR 105
1005
1010
.
.
CHOR 565 636 637
AUTO ALL
FIN
ELEM 7000 180
SCF 3.0
ANGL 0.0 90.0 180.0 270.0
ELEM 7010 280
SCF 3.0
ANGL 0.0 90.0 180.0 270.0
.
.
ELEM 3002 302
SCF 1.0
ANGL 0.0 90.0 180.0 270.0
*
END
S-N
*
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Examples

**
**

Page 5-8

WINDSPEC User Manual

Examples

* MODIFIED T CURVE
*
1 0 24.35E+06 3.025E+08 3
END
YEAR 60.0
*
DRAG
0.7
0.7 ELEM 7370
.
.
DRAG
0.7 0.7
ELEM 642
FREQ 1.0E-6
.
.
FREQ 5.9966
GUST U V
*
*SUDIVISION
*12/FREQ
*
SUBD 1.0E-06 12.0E+06
.
.
SUBD 5.9966 2.0011
*
*
LAT
H.REF
V.REF
GLOB
59.8
0.0
20.0
SPEC 0.0
*
vel.
roughness
prob.
*
ESDU 12.3
4.013E-04
10.65
ESDU 15.5
7.172E-04
4.9
ESDU 18.95
1.197E-03
1.6
ESDU 22.625
1.894E-03
0.4
END
SPEC 90.0
ESDU 12.3
4.013E-04
6.35
ESDU 15.5
7.172E-04
3.8
ESDU 18.95
1.197E-03
1.4
ESDU 22.625
1.894E-03
0.5
END
END
STOP

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page 5-9

10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

PAGE

PAGE

SYSTEM DATA AREA 1000000

1WINDSPEC

10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

**

FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS

**

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

1WINDSPEC

************************************************
**
**
** WINDSPEC DATAFILE FOR WINDSPEC ANALYSIS
**
**
**
** UNITS: N, m
**
**
**
** DATA PREPARED BY : N.O.ONE
**
** DATE: NOVEMBER 1991
**
**
**
**
**
************************************************
STRUCTURE

LOCO

A S A S EXECUTION CONTROL OPTIONS


------------------------------------

Page 5-10

**STGE01

FILE NAME SPEC

JOB STATUS OLD

Examples

USER OPTIONS NOBL SCFP SCFE GOON END


PROJECT NAME BPF1
JOB NAME LOCO

10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

RESTART STAGE
FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS
**

**

DATA UNITS NEWTONS


*
ELNO
1 1002 1005 3
.
.
1 3056 3057 1
END
*
SCFS 1
TUBE DFLT 1.0
TUBE AUTO WORD
LIMI GAP 0.040 0.060
CHOR 105
1005
1010
.
.
CHOR 565 636 637
AUTO ALL
1WINDSPEC
10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

**

METRES

AUTOMATIC SCF GENERATION NODE


100
===================================

PAGE

RADIANS

FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS

REPORT UNITS NEWTONS

1 STARTED

METRES

**

PAGE

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

1WINDSPEC

JOINT IS T/Y JOINT

DEGREES

CHORD MEMBERS ELEMENTS NO.


BRACE MEMBERS ELEMENTS NO.

1002
401

INITIAL CALCULATION USING WORDSWORTH EQUATIONS WITH PARAMETERS:


401: ALPHA=

Page 5-11

CHORD SIDE :
SCF VALUES :

BRACE

2.256, BETA=
401:

BAS=

0.420, GAMMA=
2.307, BAC=

10.833, TAU=

2.840, IPS=

0.530, THETA=

1.600, IPC=

RECALCULATION WITH REVISED PARAMETERS FOLLOWING LIMIT CHECKING:

34.245

1.600, OPS=

1.600, OPC=

1.600

Examples

BRACE

401: ALPHA=

CHORD SIDE :
SCF VALUES :

BRACE

8.000, BETA=
401:

BAS=

0.420, GAMMA=

AUTOMATIC SCF GENERATION NODE


100
===================================

2.555, BAC=

12.000, TAU=

3.522, IPS=

0.530, THETA=

1.600, IPC=

JOINT IS T/Y JOINT

34.245

1.600, OPS=

1.760, OPC=

CHORD MEMBERS ELEMENTS NO.


BRACE MEMBERS ELEMENTS NO.

1.760

1002
301

INITIAL CALCULATION USING WORDSWORTH EQUATIONS WITH PARAMETERS:


BRACE

301: ALPHA=

CHORD SIDE :
SCF VALUES :

BRACE

2.256, BETA=
301:

BAS=

0.420, GAMMA=
2.332, BAC=

10.833, TAU=

2.844, IPS=

0.530, THETA=

1.600, IPC=

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

BRACE

34.483

1.600, OPS=

1.604, OPC=

1.604

RECALCULATION WITH REVISED PARAMETERS FOLLOWING LIMIT CHECKING:


BRACE

301: ALPHA=

CHORD SIDE :
SCF VALUES :

BRACE

8.000, BETA=
301:

**

2.583, BAC=

3.528, IPS=

Page 5-12

24.35E+06

3.025E+08

0.530, THETA=

1.600, IPC=

FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS

DATA UNITS NEWTONS


1 0
END

12.000, TAU=

METRES

**

DEGREES

34.483

1.600, OPS=

1.777, OPC=

1.777

PAGE

108

Examples

.
.
ELEM 3002 302
SCF 1.0
ANGL 0.0 90.0 180.0 270.0
*
END
S-N
*
* MODIFIED T CURVE
*
1WINDSPEC
10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

BAS=

0.420, GAMMA=

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

YEAR 60.0
*
DRAG
0.7
0.7 ELEM 7370
.
.
DRAG
0.7 0.7
ELEM 642
FREQ 1.0E-6
.
.
FREQ 5.9966
GUST U V
*
*SUDIVISION
*12/FREQ
*
SUBD 1.0E-06 12.0E+06
.
.
SUBD 5.9966 2.0011
*
*
LAT
H.REF
V.REF
GLOB
59.8
0.0
20.0
1WINDSPEC
10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

**

FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS

DATA UNITS NEWTONS


0.0
vel.

roughness

prob.

12.3
15.5
18.95
22.625

4.013E-04
7.172E-04
1.197E-03
1.894E-03

10.65
4.9
1.6
0.4

90.0
12.3
15.5

4.013E-04
7.172E-04

6.35
3.8

PAGE

119

DEGREES

Examples

Page 5-13

SPEC
*
*
ESDU
ESDU
ESDU
ESDU
END
SPEC
ESDU
ESDU

METRES

**

**

FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS

DATA UNITS NEWTONS

WIND DIRECTION

PAGE

DEGREES

MEAN VELOCITY
1.230E+01
FREQUENCY
1.000E-06
CROSS-SPECTRAL DENSITIES BETWEEN BAY CENTRES
REAL
IMAGINARY
UU
VV
WW
UU
VV
2.82768E+01
4.42116E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
2.54916E+01
4.04818E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.41906E-05 -8.86518E-06
2.14936E+01
3.60437E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.04051E-04 -4.02664E-05
1.82675E+01
3.27238E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.82977E-04 -7.56415E-05
1.53580E+01
2.97230E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.55799E-04 -1.14244E-04
1.35799E+01
2.83275E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.95017E-04 -1.42016E-04
1.20161E+01
2.67345E+00
0.00000E+00
-3.19850E-04 -1.64222E-04
2.51319E+01
4.00918E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
2.21274E+01
3.64232E+00
0.00000E+00
-3.36504E-05 -1.27825E-05
1.92044E+01
3.33177E+00
0.00000E+00
-9.36455E-05 -3.74920E-05
1.63979E+01
3.04070E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.61431E-04 -6.90798E-05
1.46194E+01
2.90218E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.03088E-04 -9.30374E-05
1.30180E+01
2.74405E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.33442E-04 -1.13555E-04
2.21515E+01
3.66953E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
2.00982E+01
3.42409E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.93537E-05 -7.60902E-06
1.76455E+01
3.15610E+00
0.00000E+00
-6.51272E-05 -2.68817E-05
1.59613E+01
3.02217E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.01309E-04 -4.42669E-05
1.43709E+01
2.86827E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.32413E-04 -6.09877E-05
2.00227E+01
3.44774E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
1.82571E+01
3.23204E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.62538E-05 -6.64018E-06
1.67877E+01
3.10904E+00
0.00000E+00
-4.01136E-05 -1.71437E-05
1.52996E+01
2.96451E+00
0.00000E+00
-6.53250E-05 -2.92099E-05
1.82445E+01
3.25836E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
1.72389E+01
3.16563E+00
0.00000E+00
-6.28712E-06 -2.66428E-06

120

0.0

WW
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00

Examples

Page 5-14

BAY NUMBERS
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
3
3
3
4
3
5
3
6
3
7
4
4
4
5
4
6
4
7
5
5
5
6

METRES

**

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ESDU 18.95
1.197E-03
1.4
ESDU 22.625
1.894E-03
0.5
END
END
1WINDSPEC
10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

1WINDSPEC

7
1.59767E+01
6
1.71310E+01
7
1.61657E+01
7
1.58938E+01
10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

3.04223E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.02872E-05 -8.91468E-06
3.18191E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
3.08563E+00
0.00000E+00
-4.43146E-06 -1.95198E-06
3.09397E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
** FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS
**
DATA UNITS NEWTONS

WIND DIRECTION

PAGE

DEGREES

MEAN VELOCITY
1.230E+01
FREQUENCY
1.000E-06
CROSS-SPECTRAL DENSITIES BETWEEN BAY CENTRES
REAL
IMAGINARY
UU
VV
WW
UU
VV
2.82072E+01
4.41898E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
2.54624E+01
4.04429E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.27495E-05 -8.63217E-06
2.14708E+01
3.59747E+00
0.00000E+00
-9.91967E-05 -3.93945E-05
1.82488E+01
3.26317E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.76122E-04 -7.42362E-05
1.52254E+01
2.96599E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.46213E-04 -1.12565E-04
1.35700E+01
2.79603E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.77639E-04 -1.36638E-04
1.20517E+01
2.64943E+00
0.00000E+00
-3.07463E-04 -1.59815E-04
2.51357E+01
4.00492E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
2.21323E+01
3.63568E+00
0.00000E+00
-3.00133E-05 -1.21605E-05
1.92094E+01
3.32298E+00
0.00000E+00
-8.77419E-05 -3.63676E-05
1.62773E+01
3.03490E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.53284E-04 -6.76503E-05
1.46289E+01
2.86747E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.85631E-04 -8.84769E-05
1.30738E+01
2.72115E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.20774E-04 -1.09762E-04
2.21549E+01
3.66644E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
2.01012E+01
3.41957E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.64619E-05 -7.10656E-06
1.75136E+01
3.15461E+00
0.00000E+00
-6.00266E-05 -2.60380E-05
1.59700E+01
2.99437E+00
0.00000E+00
-8.48907E-05 -4.07709E-05
1.44306E+01
2.85065E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.20299E-04 -5.81115E-05
2.00235E+01
3.44601E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
1.81181E+01
3.23390E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.39606E-05 -6.25676E-06
1.67949E+01
3.08822E+00
0.00000E+00
-2.53119E-05 -1.43040E-05
1.53603E+01
2.95169E+00
0.00000E+00
-5.43628E-05 -2.69272E-05
1.79656E+01
3.26658E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
1.71182E+01
3.15950E+00
0.00000E+00
6.71545E-06 -2.67371E-07

328

90.0

WW
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00

Examples

Page 5-15

BAY NUMBERS
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
3
3
3
4
3
5
3
6
3
7
4
4
4
5
4
6
4
7
5
5
5
6

METRES

0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

5
6
6
7

1WINDSPEC

7
1.59163E+01
6
1.70943E+01
7
1.61996E+01
7
1.59925E+01
10/1006SA 17:16 28-Nov-91

3.03822E+00
0.00000E+00
-1.05461E-05 -7.05812E-06
3.17987E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
3.08622E+00
0.00000E+00
-6.79511E-06 -2.40088E-06
3.10084E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
** FLARE STACK - WINDSPEC ANALYSIS
**
DATA UNITS NEWTONS

METRES

0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00
PAGE

538

DEGREES

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

5
6
6
7

ELEMENT PROPERTIES
CRITICAL HOT SPOT
CRITICAL MAXIMUM
MINIMUM
ELEMENT NODE ELEM.
TUBE DIAM. TUBE THICK.
TUBE THETA
SIDE OF USAGE
FATIGUE
FAIL
NUMBER NO.
TYPE
INSET
BEAM AREA BEAM IZZ
BEAM IYY
BEAM Y
BEAM Z
WELD
FACTOR
LIFE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE

0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00

3.560D-01 1.910D-02
2.190D-01 1.270D-02
2.190D-01 1.270D-02
2.190D-01 1.270D-02
2.190D-01 1.270D-02
2.190D-01 1.270D-02
2.190D-01 1.270D-02
2.730D-01 1.590D-02
2.730D-01 1.590D-02
2.730D-01 1.590D-02
2.730D-01 1.590D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02
3.230D-01 1.750D-02

270.00
88.57
88.57
268.57
88.57
90.00
270.00
268.57
88.57
268.57
88.57
90.00
45.00
270.00
315.00
272.02
47.02
87.96
312.96
272.05

BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE

0.0761 135982.66
0.1192
35393.62
0.1037
53744.61
0.1262
29876.81
0.1343
24766.98
0.1221
32967.05
0.1366
23531.30
0.1756
11080.14
0.1470
18899.30
0.1161
38345.38
0.1858
9355.58
0.2823
2667.50
0.3493
1407.48
0.3355
1589.48
0.3546
1345.69
0.2088
6594.91
0.2622
3327.17
0.2091
6559.72
0.2259
5203.28
0.2622
3326.84

Examples

Page 5-16

9030 9500
131
115
315
132
315
215
133
215
115
141
120
320
142
320
220
306
210
115
307
115
220
405
310
115
406
115
320
505
210

1015
1020
2015
2020
3015
3020
9040
9050
9060
151

315
315
220
110
115
115
120
210
215
215
220
310
315
315
320
120
9005
9005
9505
9505
220
125

TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE
TUBE

0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00
0.000D+00

3.230D-01
3.230D-01
3.230D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
6.500D-01
2.730D-01
2.730D-01
2.730D-01
2.730D-01
2.730D-01
2.730D-01
2.190D-01

1.750D-02
1.750D-02
1.750D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
2.500D-02
1.910D-02
1.910D-02
1.910D-02
1.910D-02
1.910D-02
1.910D-02
1.270D-02

92.05
87.98
267.99
315.00
45.00
45.00
315.00
0.00
45.00
45.00
315.00
315.00
45.00
45.00
315.00
270.00
270.00
270.00
270.00
270.00
270.00
88.56

BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE
BRACE

0.2721
0.2778
0.3191
0.3190
0.2992
0.2457
0.2520
0.2865
0.2749
0.2757
0.2617
0.2732
0.2657
0.2387
0.2347
0.3978
0.0973
0.0974
0.0685
0.0813
0.6631
0.1269

2976.73
2799.49
1847.04
1847.69
2240.72
4047.00
3750.19
2550.37
2889.08
2862.50
3348.93
2943.45
3198.50
4413.12
4638.25
953.38
65154.53
64994.28
186712.61
111507.47
205.81
29353.99

WINDSPEC User Manual

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

506

Examples

Page 5-17

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix A

A. Preliminary Data Block for WINDSPEC


A.1 Introduction
The Preliminary data is the first block of the WINDSPEC data. It defines:

computer type to be used

memory size to be used

structure or component to be processed within that project

options which will affect the course of the run

amount of printing produced

The Preliminary data must commence with the SYSTEM command and terminate with END. Within these
bounds the other commands may be in any order, with a few exceptions. However the user is recommended to
follow the order given below.
The following commands are available within the Preliminary data:
SYSTEM

computer type and memory requirement

PROJECT

name of project

JOB

type of analysis

FILES

name of backing files

TITLE

title for this run

TEXT

descriptive text

STRUCTURE

name of structure to be processed

COMPONENT

name of component to be processed

OPTIONS

control options

SAVE

save plot file

LIBRARY

section library file name

END

terminate preliminary data

A.2 SYSTEM Command


To define the type of computer being used and the amount of memory required for data in this run.
SYSTEM

DATA AREA

memory

Parameters
SYSTEM

: keyword

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Page A-1

WINDSPEC User Manual


DATA AREA
memory

Appendix A

keyword

: amount of memory (in integer words) to be used to store data by this run

Example
SYSTEM DATA AREA 80000

A.3 PROJECT Command


To defined the project name for the current run. Optional.
PROJECT

pname

Parameters
PROJECT

: keyword

pname

: project name for current run. (Alphanumeric, 4 characters, first character must be alphabetic)

Note
All runs with the same project name access the same database. A project database consists of one project file
(with a file name consisting of 4 characters of pname with the number 10 appended) which acts as an index to
other files created under this project, together with those other files.
Example
PROJECT HIJK

A.4 JOB Command


To define the type of analysis being performed. Compulsory.
JOB

POST

Parameters
JOB

: keyword

POST

: keyword

Example

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page A-2

WINDSPEC User Manual


JOB

Appendix A

POST

A.5 FILES Command


To define the prefix name for the backing files created in this run. Optional.
FILES

fname

Parameters
FILES

: keyword

fname

: prefix name for any backing files created by this run. (Alphanumeric, 4 characters, first
character must be alphabetic)

Note
fname is used as a prefix for all files created during the current run. The four characters are appended with two
digits in the range 12 to 35 to create each individual file.
Example
FILES BILL

A.6 TITLE Command


To define a title for this run. Recommended
TITLE

title

Parameters
TITLE

: keyword

title

: this line of text will be printed out at the top of each page of WINDSPEC output.
(Alphanumeric, up to 74 characters)

Example
TITLE

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF A TITLE LINE

A.7 TEXT Command

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page A-3

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix A

To define a line of text to be printed once only at the beginning of the output. Several TEXT lines may be
defined to give a fuller description of the current analysis on the printed output.
TEXT

text

Parameters
TEXT

: keyword

text

: this line of text will be printed once, at the beginning of the output. (Alphanumeric, up to 75
characters)

Example
TEXT
TEXT
TEXT

THIS

EXAMPLE

OF

Command

THE
IS

TEXT
SPREAD

OVER THREE LINES.

A.8 STRUCTURE Command


To define the name of the structure to be processed in the current run.
STRUCTURE

sname

(title)

Parameters
STRUCTURE :
sname

keyword

: structure name. This is the four character name identifying which structure is to be accessed
from the project file (see Section A.3)

title

: title string. This will be printed at the top of each page of WINDSPEC output. Optional. Used
only if no TITLE command is included. (Alphanumeric, up to 65 characters)

Note
If processing recovered components in a sub structure analysis, the COMPONENT command should be used
(see Section A.9).
Example
STRUCTURE STRU

A.9 COMPONENT Command


Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page A-4

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix A

For substructure analysis, this command defines the recovered component being processed in the current run.
COMPONENT

sname

tree

Parameters
COMPONENT

: keyword

sname

: structure name. This is the four character name identifying which structure is to be
accessed from the project file (see Section A.3)

tree

: is the path name from the structure, sname, to the recovered component which is to be
processed

Example
To process the second level component CMP2, which is part of assembled component CMP1, which, is part of
structure STRU.
COMPONENT

STRU

CMP1

CMP2

A.10 OPTIONS Command


To define the control options for this run. Optional.
OPTIONS

option

END

Parameters
OPTIONS

: keyword

option

: 4 character option name, or list of option names. See Appendix C for details of each option

END

: this must be the last item to appear in the options list

Example
OPTION

DATA

SCFP

NOBL

END

A.11 LIBRARY Command


This command is only required if section libraries were used in the ASAS analysis. The command provides the
name if an external file which contains beam section information for use in the stress calculations.
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Page A-5

WINDSPEC User Manual

LIBRARY

Appendix A

filenm

Parameters
LIBRARY

: keyword

filnem

: up to 6 character name of an external (physical) file which contains section library information
for beam type elements

Notes
1.

If a section library was utilised in ASAS and the LIBRARY command line is omitted, the library file
from the analysis will be automatically adopted.

2.

The library file selected, either by using the LIBRARY command or defaulting to the analysis file, must
be present in the users work area.

3.

If the library file specified is different to that used in the original analysis it is important that all section
identifiers which are to be referenced are present in the new library.

A.12 END Command


To terminate the Preliminary data. Compulsory.
END

Parameters
END

: compulsory keyword

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Page A-6

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix B

B. Running Instructions for WINDSPEC


B.1 ASAS Files Required by WINDSPEC
WINDSPEC operates on the files produced by the preceding RESPONSE analyses, or the identically
formatted files produced from a subsequent run of LOCO. The appropriate files must physically be
present in the users disk space for the program to run successfully. In all cases there will be the
Project File which contains information about all other files in the current set of analyses. The name of
this file is derived from the four character project name defined in all JOB commands in the set
(pname in Appendix A.3). For example, if the project name is PRDH, then the project file will be
PRDH10.
For an LOCO or RESPONSE analysis with a SAVE FILES line in its preliminary data, there will be a
physical file containing the stress and displacements information from that analysis. The physical file
name is derived from the second four character name in the JOB command of the LOCO or
RESPONSE run. This name will appear on the STRUCTURE card of the current preliminary data
(sname in Appendix A.8).

For example, if this name had been RNDH, then the backing file

containing stresses and displacements would be RNDH35.

B.2 Running Instructions for WINDSPEC


See the appendices in the ASAS User Manual for details on how to run any of the programs in the
ASAS suite.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Page B-1

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix C

C. Options
This Appendix describes the user options available in WINDSPEC, arranged according to their
function.
All user options are defined by 4 character alphanumeric strings on the OPTIONS command. The
options selected may affect the course of the analysis or presentation of the results.

C.1 Miscellaneous Options


Option Name

Application

NOBL

Suppress the WINDSPEC title page

NOTR

Do not write the results to the User Results Storage Database

END

Last option selected

C.2 Options Affecting the Course of the Analysis


Option Name

Application

FULL

This option requests full printing of the fatigue life information. One line
of output will be printed for each inspection point at both nodes on all
selected elements. If this option is omitted only the inspection point with
the lowest fatigue life will be printed for both nodes on all selected
elements.

SCFP

This option requests printing of the stress concentration factors defined at


each inspection point on both nodes of all selected elements. If this option
is omitted there will be no printing of stress concentration factors other
than an echo of the input data.

SCFE

This requests that details of the parameters and resulting SCFs be printed
for all nodes where automatic SCF generation has been requested.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Page C-1

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix D

D. Stress Usage Factors

A Stress Usage Factor is an alternative means of indicating the fatigue sensitivity. Its principal
advantage is that it is directly related to stress levels in the structure, whereas the damage is related to
the nth power of the stress where n is the slope of the S-N curve.
Usage factors are calculated from (Yearly Damage x Target Life)l/n and are expressed as percentage
values. If the usage factor is 100% then the damage occurring to the member is exactly that which
would meet the target life. A usage factor of, say, 50% and a value of n equal to three would imply that
the damage was one half cube, ie 0.125 at the end of the target life but that the stress levels were one
half the critical.
In this way the usage factor enables the designer to make rapid assessments of the amount of under or
over design in his structure and, by comparing the WINDSPEC stress usage factors with the unity
checks produced by BEAMST he can immediately determine whether fatigue or punching stress is
governing the design of a particular joint.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Page D-1

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix E

E. Estimate of Frequencies required to define Natural Frequency Peaks

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Page E-1

WINDSPEC User Manual

Appendix F

F. LOCO Title Format

LOCO SELEcted loadcase title format for use in a subsequent WINDSPEC analysis.

123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345
along line

} Position

SELE

} Example
} Number

1 REAL
XXXX

2.58 D 90.00 B
8 G 1
XXXXXXXX
XXXXX
XXXX
X

Fields
(a)

SELE (REAL)

TO4999

(IMAG) 5001

TO9999

(b)

F - FREQUENCY 0.000001 TO 9999999.

(c)

D - DIRECTION 0.000 TO 360.0

(d)

B - BAY NUMBER (GROUP NUMBER)

or Exponent format

1 TO 99
(e)

G - GUST NUMBER
1

u gust

v gust

w gust

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

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