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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Practical Number 01
To study the characteristic of silicon diode

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Objective:- To study the characteristic of silicon diode.
Equipment:- Power Supply(0-90 Volt, variable DC), Power Supply(0-30 Volt, variable DC),
Multi meter, A meter (0 50 & 0-200mA), Patch Cards
Theory:- In Electronics a Diode is a two terminal electronic component that conducts electric
current in only one direction.
The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the
diode s forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse
direction).The unidirectional behavior is called rectification and is used to convert alternating
current to direct current.
A semiconductor Diode is a PN Junction diode. It conducts only in one direction. It is a
unidirectional device.
Forward Bias : When Anode (P-Side) of the Diode is connected to battery and cathode (N-Side)
is connected to negative terminal the diode is said to be forward biased. The forward resistance
of the diode is small.
Reverse Bias: When anode of the diode is connected to battery negative terminal and cathode is
connected to positive terminal, the diode is said to be reverse biased. The reverse resistance of
diode is very high
Procedure:1) Make the Connection as shown in given ckt. Diagram (Fig 1) on trainer board
2) Apply DC voltage to forward bias the Diode & vary the voltage as per the observation
table.
3) Note down the corresponding forward Voltage Vf across the diode and the forward
current If .
4) Make the Connection as shown in given ckt. Diagram (Fig 2) on trainer board
5) Apply DC voltage to Reverse bias the Diode & vary the voltage as per the observation
table
6) Note down the corresponding Reverse Voltage VR across the diode and the Reverse
current IR
7) Plot the Forward & Reverse bias Voltage V/S Current graph.

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Author :- Er. Manish Puraswani

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Observation Table :-

Graphs :-:-

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Conclusion:In Forward Bias after Vf = 0.6 as voltage increase large current starts flowing through the diode
and small amount of current flows when diode is in reverse bias. Thus the VI Characteristic of
diode is verified.
1) Cut in Voltage = ________V
2) Static Forward Resistance = _________
_________
3) Dynamic
ynamic Forward Resistance=_________

Extras:Extras:DIODE IDENTIFICATION There are many types of diodes varying in size from the size of a
pinhead (used in subminiature circuitry) to large 250
250-ampere
ampere diodes (used in high-power
high
circuits). Because there are so many different types of diodes, some system of identification is
needed to distinguish one diode from another. This is accomplished with the semiconductor
identification system shown in figure 3. This system is not only used for diodes but transistors
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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

and many other special semiconductor devices as well. As illustrated in this figure, the system
uses numbers and letters to identify different types of semiconductor devices. The first number in
the system indicates the number of junctions in the semiconductor device and is a number, one
less than the number of active elements. Thus 1 designates a diode; 2 designates a transistor
(which may be considered as made up of two diodes); and 3 designates a tetrode (a four-element
transistor). The letter "N" following the first number indicates a semiconductor. The 2- or 3-digit
number following the letter "N" is a serialized identification number. If needed, this number may
contain a suffix letter after the last digit. For example, the suffix letter "M" may be used to
describe matching pairs of separate semiconductor devices or the letter "R" may be used to
indicate reverse polarity. Other letters are used to indicate modified versions of the device which
can be substituted for the basic numbered unit. For example, a semiconductor diode designated
as type 1N345A signifies a two-element diode (1) of semiconductor material (N) that is an
improved version (A) of type 345.

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Practical Number 02
To study the characteristic of Zener diode

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Objective:- To study the characteristic of Zener diode.
Equipment:- Power Supply(0-30 Volt, variable DC),Multi meter, A meter (0 50 & 0-200mA),
Patch Cards, Zener 5.1 Volt
Theory:- A Zener Diode is a type of Diode that paermits current not only in the forward
direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the
breakdown voltage known as Zener Knee Voltage or Zener Voltage. The device was named
after Clarence Zener, who discovered this Electrical Property.
A conventional solid state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse biased below its
reverse breakdown voltage. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded, a
conventional diode is subjected to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Unless this current
is limited by external circuitry, the diode will be permanently damaged.
A Zener diode exhibit almost the same properties, except the device is specially designed so as to
have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage , the so called Zener Voltage. A reverse biased Zener
diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the
Zener diode at Zener voltage. A heavily doped P-N Junction diode which has Sharp break down
voltage is called Zener Diode. It is normally operated in reverse bias.

Procedure:1) Make the Connection as shown in given ckt. Diagram (Fig 1) on trainer board
2) Apply DC voltage to forward bias the Diode & vary the voltage as per the observation
table.
3) Note down the corresponding forward Voltage Vf across the diode and the forward
current If .
4) Make the Connection as shown in given ckt. Diagram (Fig 2) on trainer board
5) Apply DC voltage to Reverse bias the Diode & vary the voltage as per the observation
table
6) Note down the corresponding Reverse Voltage VR across the diode and the Reverse
current IR
7) Plot the Forward & Reverse bias Voltage V/S Current graph.

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Observation Table:-

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Conclusion :- The forward and reverse bias characteristics of a Zener Diode are obtained and
graph is drawn. The Zener break down voltage is found to be Vz = ____________
1. Cut in Voltage
= _______________(V)
2. Break down voltage = _______________(V)
Extra: - The following will show various Zener diode ratings

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Practical Number 03
To study the characteristic of Transistor CE Configuration

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Objective:- To study the characteristic of Transistor CE Configuration.
Equipment:- Power Supply(0-30 Volt, variable DC),Multi meter, A meter (0 100 & 0-2mA),
Patch Cards, Transistor BC 547 , Bread Board
Theory:- A BJT is a three terminal two junction semiconductor device in which the conduction
is due to both the charge carrier. Hence it is a bipolar device and it amplifier the waveform as
they are transferred from input to output. BJT is classified into two types NPN or PNP. A
NPN transistor consists of two N types in between which a layer of P is sandwiched. The
transistor consists of three terminal emitter, collector and base. The emitter layer is the source of
the charge carriers and it is heartily doped with a moderate cross sectional area. The collector
collects the charge carries and hence moderate doping and large cross sectional area. The base
region acts a path for the movement of the charge carriers. In order to reduce the recombination
of holes and electrons the base region is lightly doped and is of hollow cross sectional area.
Normally the transistor operates with the EB junction forward biased.
In transistor, the current is same in both junctions, which indicates that there is a transfer
of resistance between the two junctions. One to this fact the transistor is known as transfer
resistance of transistor.
The COMON EMITTER Configuration is the most frequently used configuration in
practical amplifier circuit, since it provides good voltage, current & power gain. The input to the
CE is applied to the base emitter circuit and the output is taken from the collector emitter circuit,
making the emitter the element common to both input & output. The CE is set apart from the
other configurations, because it is the only configuration that provides a phase reversal between
input & output Signals.
Procedure:1) Connect the circuit for BJT in CE mode as per circuit diagram
2) Switch on Power Supply.
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
3) Keep output voltage Vce = 0V by varying Vcc .
4) Varying VBB gradually, note down the corresponding base-emitter voltage VBE and
Base Current IS as per the observation Table.
5) Repeat the above procedure ( Step 3) for VCE = 5 V and then 10 V.
6) Plot the BJT Input Cheracteristics for the CE Mode.
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OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
7) Now keep IS=
= 50 micro Amp by Varying VBB.
8) Varying VCC gradually, note down the corresponding collector emitter voltage VCE &
collector Current IC as per the observation table.
9) Repeat the above staps for IS = 75 & Then 100 micro Amp.
10) Plot the BJT output characteristi
characteristics for its CE Mode.

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Conclusion :- The Input & Output characteristics of a BJT are obtained and graph is drawn.

Extra: - The construction-material for transistor is most commonly silicon (their marking has the
letter B) or germanium (their marking has the letter A). Original transistor were made from
germanium, but they were very temperature-sensitive. Silicon transistors are much more
temperature-tolerant and much cheaper to manufacture.
The second letter in transistors marking describes its primary use:
C - low and medium power LF transistor,
D - high power LF transistor,
F - low power HF transistor,
G - other transistors,
L - high power HF transistors,
P - photo transistor,
S - switch transistor,
U - high voltage transistor.
Here are few examples:
AC540 - germanium core, LF, low power,
AF125 - germanium core, HF, low power,
BC107 - silicon, LF, low power (0.3W),
BD675 - silicon, LF, high power (40W),
BF199 - silicon, HF (to 550 MHz),
BU208 - silicon (for voltages up to 700V),
BSY54 - silicon, switching transistor.
There is a possibility of a third letter (R and Q - microwave transistors, or X - switch transistor),
but these letters vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
The number following the letter is of no importance to users.
American transistor manufacturers have different marks, with a 2N prefix followed by a number
(2N3055, for example). This mark is similar to diode marks, which have a 1N prefix (e.g.
1N4004).
Japanese bipolar transistor are prefixed with a: 2SA, 2SB, 2SC or 2SD, and FET-s with 3S:
2SA - PNP, HF transistors,
2SB - PNP, LF transistors,
2SC - NPN, HF transistors,
2SD - NPN, HF transistors.

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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

Several different transistors are shown in photo above. Low power transistors are housed in a
small plastic or metallic cases of various shapes. Bipolar transistors have three leads: for base
(B), emitter (E), and for collector (C). Sometimes, HF transistors have another lead which is
connected to the metal housing. This lead is connected to the ground of the circuit, to protect the
transistor from possible external electrical interference. Four leads emerge from some other
types, such as two-gate FETs. High power transistors are different from low-to-medium power,
both in size and in shape.

It is important to have the manufacturers catalog or a datasheet to know which lead is connected
to what part of the transistor. These documents hold the information about the component's
correct use (maximum current rating, power, amplification, etc.) as well as a diagram of the
pinout.
It might be useful to remember the pinout for TO-1, TO-5, TO-18 and TO-72 packages and
compare them with the drawing (a). These transistors are the ones you will come across
frequently in everyday work.

The TO-3 package, which is used to house high-power transistors, has only two pins, one for
base, and one for emitter. The collector is connected to the package, and this is connected to the
rest of the circuit via one of the screws which fasten the transistor to the heat-sink.

Transistors used with very high frequencies (like BFR14) have pins shaped differently.
One of the breakthroughs in the field of electronic components was the invention of SMD
(surface mount devices) circuits. This technology allowed manufacturers to achieve tiny
components with the same properties as their larger counterparts, and therefore reduce the size
and cost of the design. One of the SMD housings is the SOT23 package. There is, however, a
trade-off to this, SMD components are difficult to solder to the PC board and they usually need
special soldering equipment.

TRANSISTOR TESTING
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There are several different ways of testing transistors. They can be tested while in the circuit, by
the substitution method mentioned, or with a transistor tester or ohmmeter.
There are four basic tests required for transistors in practical troubleshooting: gain, leakage,
breakdown, and switching time. For maintenance and repair, however, a check of two or three
parameters is usually sufficient to determine whether a transistor needs to be replaced.
Testing Transistors with an Ohmmeter :Two tests that can be done with an ohmmeter are gain, and junction resistance. Tests of a
transistor's junction resistance will reveal leakage, shorts, and opens.
TRANSISTOR GAIN TEST.A basic transistor gain test can be made using an ohmmeter and a
simple test circuit. The test circuit can be made with just a couple of resistors and a switch, as
shown in figure 2-18. The principle behind the test lies in the fact that little or no current will
flow in a transistor between emitter and collector until the emitter-base junction is forward
biased. The only precaution you should observe is with the ohmmeter. Any internal battery may
be used in the meter provided that it does not exceed the maximum collector-emitter breakdown
voltage.

Figure 3.4.Testing a transistor's gain with an ohmmeter.

With the switch in figure 3.4 in the open position as shown, no voltage is applied to the PNP
transistor's base, and the emitter-base junction is not forward biased. Therefore, the ohmmeter
should read a high resistance, as indicated on the meter. When the switch is closed, the emitterbase circuit is forward biased by the voltage across R1 and R2. Current now flows in the emittercollector circuit, which causes a lower resistance reading on the ohmmeter. A 10-to-1 resistance
ratio in this test between meter readings indicates a normal gain for an audio-frequency
transistor.
To test an NPN transistor using this circuit, simply reverse the ohmmeter leads and carry out the
procedure described earlier.
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Electronics Devices & Ckt Theory Lab 2010

TRANSISTOR JUNCTION RESISTANCE TEST.An ohmmeter can be used to test a
transistor for leakage (an undesirable flow of current) by measuring the base-emitter, basecollector, and collector- emitter forward and reverse resistances.
For simplicity, consider the transistor under test in each view of figure 2-19 (view A, view B and
view C) as two diodes connected back to back. Therefore, each diode will have a low forward
resistance and a high reverse resistance. By measuring these resistances with an ohmmeter as
shown in the figure, you can determine if the transistor is leaking current through its junctions.
When making these measurements, avoid using the R1 scale on the meter or a meter with a high
internal battery voltage. Either of these conditions can damage a low-power transistor.

TEST

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Figure 3-5C.Testing a transistor's leakage with an ohmmeter. BASE-TO-EMITTER TEST

Now consider the possible transistor problems that could exist if the indicated readings in figure
3-5 are not obtained. A list of these problems is provided in table 3-6.

Table 3-6.Possible Transistor Problems from Ohmmeter Readings

By now, you should recognize that the transistor used in figure 3-5 (view A, view B and view C)
is a PNP transistor. If you wish to test an NPN transistor for leakage, the procedure is identical to
that used for testing the PNP except the readings obtained are reversed.
When testing transistors (PNP or NPN), you should remember that the actual resistance values
depend on the ohmmeter scale and the battery voltage. Typical forward and reverse resistances
are insignificant. The best indicator for showing whether a transistor is good or bad is the ratio of
forward-to- reverse resistance. If the transistor you are testing shows a ratio of at least 30 to 1, it
is probably good. Many transistors show ratios of 100 to 1 or greater.

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Practical Number 04
To study the Clipper Circuit

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Objective:- To Observe the clipping waveform in different clipping configurations using diode.
Equipment:- Bread Board, CRO, DC power supply, millimeters, resistors, diode.
Theory:- Once the input voltage exceeds V1 the diode D1 starts conducting but diode D2 does not, since it
is in reverse bias. As a result the output voltage does not go above V1 . On the negative swing of input, the
diode D2 conducts, but D1 does not, hence it clips the input voltage at negative side, so that the output
does not exceed above V2.The clipping levels are adjusted by the voltages V1 and V2 . The source
resistance Rs should be much larger than the forward resistance of diode but should be smaller than the
reverse resistance of diode.

PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Connect the circuit as shown in fig.

Apply sine wave of 1 kHz signal from function generator.
Observe the output waveform on CRO.
Draw the input and output waveform on graph with scale.

CONCLUSION:

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Extra:- Please include Oscilloscope Manual herewith.

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Practical Number 05
To study the Clipper Circuit

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OBJECTIVE: To study the negative clamper circuit.
EQUIPMENTS : Bread board, Diode IN4001, Resistor 10 K , Capacitor 1 F, Signal generator (0100kHz), CRO.
THEORY:
A simple RC coupling circuit blocks direct current but lets the alternating current pass unchanged. So to
restore the DC component along with AC, we need a clamper circuit as shown in figure above. Under the
ideal conditions, during positive cycle of the sinusoidal signal having peak amplitude V m, the diode will
conduct and hence the capacitor gets charged to the peak value of the input signal (i.e. Vm).When the
input voltage becomes positive again, then the output voltage will be input voltage minus the voltage
across the charged capacitor and hence in our case maximum output voltage during positive cycle will be
(Vm Vm) = 0. This means the diode will not conduct after the capacitor is fully charged. The charged
capacitor has the same effect as a battery of voltage Vm in series with input.
Using the principle of superposition, the output voltage is the ac input voltage minus a dc value
of Vm. The shape of the output voltage and the maximum negative output voltage depends on the time
constant R1C1.
If input frequency f = 10 kHz, then T = 1/f = 10-2 sec = R1C1
Assume C1 = 1F then R1 = 10 K
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram on the bread board.
2. Set the input signal voltage (say 5V, 10 kHz sine wave) using the signal generator.
3. Observe the output waveform using CRO (DC-mode).
4. Sketch the observed waveform with reference to the input waveform.
5. Modify the input frequency (below and above 10 kHz) and see the effect on the output waveform.
6. Now connect the diode in reverse manner and repeat all steps from 1) to 5).
CONCLUSION:

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