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Pentecost

This article is about the Christian holiday. For the Jewish 1.1
holiday, see Shavuot. For other uses, see Pentecost
(disambiguation).

Extra-Biblical and Post-Biblical Jewish Texts

The Talmud refers to Shavuot as Atzeret (Hebrew: ,


literally, refraining or holding back), referring to the
prohibition against work on this holiday and to the conclusion of the holiday and season of Passover. Since Shavuot
occurs 50 days after Passover, Hellenistic Jews gave it the
name Pentecost.(, ftieth day).

Pentecost (Ancient Greek: [], Pentkost [hmera], the ftieth [day]") is the Greek name
for the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on
Sinai. This feast is still celebrated in Judaism as Shavuot.
Later, in the Christian liturgical year, it became a feast
commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the
Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ (120 in all),
as described in the Acts of the Apostles 2:131.[1] For
this reason, Pentecost is sometimes described by some
Christians today as the Birthday of the Church.

According to Jewish tradition, Pentecost commemorates


God giving the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai fty
days after the Exodus. The Talmud derives this from a
calculation based on Biblical Texts.[3]

There is a Jewish tradition that David was born and died


on Pentecost. This may be why, in Peters speech found in
In the Eastern church, Pentecost can also refer to the Acts 2, he explains the current happenings using Davids
whole fty (50) days between Easter and Pentecost, hence tomb and some of his quotes (Acts 2:29).
the book containing the liturgical texts for Paschaltide is
called the Pentecostarion. The feast is also called White
Sunday, or Whitsunday, especially in England, where
the following Monday was traditionally a public holiday. Pentecost is celebrated fty days (i.e. 49 days with 2 New Testament
the rst day counted, seven weeks) after Easter Sunday,
hence its name.[2] Pentecost falls on the tenth day after
The biblical narrative of Pentecost is given in the second
Ascension Thursday (which falls 40 days after Easter).
chapter of the Book of Acts. Present were about one hunThe Pentecostal movement of Christianity derives its dred and twenty followers of Christ (Acts 1:15), including
name from the New Testament event.
the Twelve Apostles (i.e. the Eleven faithful disciples and
Matthias who was Judas replacement) (Acts 1:13, 26),
his mother Mary, various other women disciples and his
brothers (Acts 1:14).[4]
Their reception of Baptism in the Holy Spirit in the Upper
Room is recounted in Acts 2:16:

While those on whom the Spirit had descended were


speaking in many languages, the Apostle Peter stood up
with the eleven and proclaimed to the crowd that this
event was the fulllment of the prophecy (I will pour
out my spirit).[6] In Acts 2:17, it reads: "'And in the last
days,' God says, 'I will pour out my spirit upon every sort
of esh, and your sons and your daughters will prophesy
and your young men will see visions and your old men will
dream dreams. He also mentions (2:15) that it was the
third hour of the day (about 9:00 AM). Acts 2:41 then
reports: Then they that gladly received his word were
baptized: and the same day there were added unto them
about three thousand souls.[7]

Old Testament

Main article: Shavuot

Pentecost is the old Greek and Latin name for the Jewish harvest festival, or Festival of Weeks (Hebrew
Hag haShavuot or Shevuot, literally Festival
of Weeks), which can be found in the Hebrew Bible.
Shavuot is called the Festival of Weeks (Hebrew:
, chag ha-Shavuot, Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy
16:10 ); Festival of Reaping (Hebrew: , chag haKatsir, Exodus 23:16 ), and Day of the First Fruits (He- Peter stated that this event was the beginning of a conbrew , Yom ha-Bikkurim, Numbers 28:26 tinual outpouring that would be available to all believers
from that point on, Jews and Gentiles alike.[8]
).
1

2.1

Location of the rst Pentecost

LITURGICAL CELEBRATION

mighty wind, and it lled all the house where they were
sitting.,[12] They refers to the aforementioned disciples,
and it includes the women. The place referring to the
same Upper Room where these persons had "continued
with one accord in prayer and supplication.[13]
Alternative interpretations suggest that the house mentioned was in fact the House of God, Herods Temple.
There were Judeans from all over the world in the Temple proper. These people saw and heard the people whom
received the gift of spiritual birth of holy spirit. The location the Upper Room did not allow women. Therefore,
The Temple proper among all the people present is the
location of the out pouring of holy spirit. Acts Chapter 2.

3 Date
According to the current Jewish Calendar, the date of
Pentecost is fty days from Passover. In Jewish antiquity dates were disputed, as in the Dead Sea scrolls[14] or
in the Mishnah.[15]
In Christian tradition Pentecost is part of the Moveable
Cycle of the ecclesiastical year. According to Christian
tradition, Pentecost is always seven weeks after Easter
Sunday; that is to say, 50 days after Easter (inclusive of
Easter Day). In other words, it falls on the eighth Sunday,
counting Easter Day. The date of Easter may be calculated using a procedure known as Computus.
The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the
Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner[9] claims the original
Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.

Since the date of Easter is calculated dierently in the


East and West (see Easter controversy), in most years
the two traditions celebrate Pentecost on dierent days
(though in some years the celebrations will coincide, as
in 2010, 2011, and 2014). In the West, the earliest possible date is May 10 (as in 1818 and 2285), and the latest
possible date June 13 (as in 1943 and 2038). In the East,
this range of possible dates presently corresponds from
May 23 to June 26 on the Gregorian calendar.

Traditional interpretation holds that the Descent of the


Holy Spirit took place in the Upper Room, or Cenacle,
while celebrating the day of Pentecost (Shavuot). The
Upper Room was rst mentioned in Luke 22:1213 (
"And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished:
there make ready. And they went, and found as he had
said unto them: and they made ready the passover.).[10]
This Upper Room was to be the location of the Last Supper and the institution of Holy Communion. The next 4
mention of an Upper Room is in Acts 1:1314, the continuation of the Luke narrative, authored by the same bib- 4.1
lical writer.[11]
Here the disciples and women wait and they gave themselves up to constant prayer: And when they were come
in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both
Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, Philip, and
Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James the son of
Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes, and Judas the brother of
James. These all continued with one accord in prayer and
supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren. [11]

Liturgical celebration
Eastern churches

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Pentecost is one of the


Orthodox Great Feasts and is considered to be the highest ranking Great Feast of the Lord, second in rank only
to Easter/Resurrection Sunday/Passover. The service is
celebrated with an All-night Vigil on the eve of the feast
day, and the Divine Liturgy on the day of the feast itself.
Orthodox churchess are often decorated with greenery
and owers on this feast day, and the celebration is intentionally similar to the Jewish holiday of Shavuot, which
celebrates the giving of the Mosaic Law.

Then, in Acts 2:12, And when the day of Pentecost was


fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And The feast itself lasts three days. The rst day is known
suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing as "Trinity Sunday"; the second day is known as "Spirit

4.2

Western churches

Monday" (or Monday of the Holy Spirit); and the third


day, Tuesday, is called the "Third Day of the Trinity.[16]
The Afterfeast of Pentecost lasts for one week, during
which fasting is not permitted, even on Wednesday and
Friday. In the Orthodox Tradition, the liturgical color
used at Pentecost is green, and the clergy and faithful
carry owers and green branches in their hands during
the services.
An extraordinary service called the Kneeling Prayer, is
observed on the night of Pentecost. This is a Vespers
service to which are added three sets of long poetical
prayers, the composition of Saint Basil the Great, during which everyone makes a full prostration, touching
their foreheads to the oor (prostrations in church having been forbidden from the day of Pascha (Easter) up A Protestant church altar, decorated for Pentecost with red burning candles and red banners and altar cloth depicting the moveto this point). Uniquely, these prayers include a petition
ment of the Holy Spirit
for all of those in hell, that they may be granted relief
and even ultimate release from their connement, if God
deems this possible.[17]
All of the remaining days of the ecclesiastical year, until
the preparation for the next Great Lent are named for the
day after Pentecost on which they occur (for example, the
13th Tuesday After Pentecost).
The Second Monday after Pentecost is the beginning of
the Apostles Fast (which continues until the Feast of
Saints Peter and Paul on June 29). Theologically, Orthodox do not consider Pentecost to be the birthday of the
Church; they see the Church as having existed before the
creation of the world (cf. The Shepherd of Hermas)[18]
The Orthodox icon of the feast depicts the Twelve Apostles seated in a semicircle (sometimes the Theotokos
(Virgin Mary) is shown sitting in the center of them). At
the top of the icon, the Holy Spirit, in the form of tongues
of re, is descending upon them. At the bottom is an
allegorical gure, called Kosmos, which symbolizes the
world. Although Kosmos is crowned with earthly glory he
sits in the darkness caused by the ignorance of God. He
is holding a towel on which have been placed 12 scrolls,
representing the teaching of the Twelve Apostles.

A Protestant church altar and font, decorated for Pentecost with


red owering plants and green birch branches

main sign of Pentecost in the West is the color red. It


symbolizes joy and the re of the Holy Spirit. Priests or
ministers, and choirs wear red vestments, and in modern
times, the custom has extended to the lay people of the
congregation wearing red clothing in celebration as well.
ceilings to symIn the ancient Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Red banners are often hung from walls or[19]
bolize
the
blowing
of
the
mighty
wind
and the free
Pentecost is one of the seven Major Lords Feasts. It
[20]
movement
of
the
Spirit.
is celebrated at the time of ninth hour (3:00pm) on the
Sunday of Pentecost by a special three-segment prayer The celebrations may depict symbols of the Holy Spirit,
known as the Oce of Genuection (Kneeling Prayer)". such as the dove or ames, symbols of the church such
This feast is followed with the Apostles Fast which has as Noahs Ark and the Pomegranate, or especially within
a xed end date on the fth of the Coptic month of Epip Protestant churches of Reformed and Evangelical tra[which currently falls on July 12, which is equivalent to ditions, words rather than images naming for example,
June 29, due to the current 13-day Julian-Gregorian cal- the gifts and Fruits of the Spirit. Red owers at the
endar oset]. The fth of Epip is the commemoration of altar/preaching area, and red owering plants such as
the Martyrdom of St. Peter and Paul.
geraniums around the church are also typical decorations for Pentecost masses/services. These symbolize
the renewal of life, the coming of the warmth of summer, and the growth of the church at and from the rst
4.2 Western churches
Pentecost.[21]
The liturgical celebrations of Pentecost in Western These owers often play an important role in the anceschurches are as rich and varied as those in the East. The tral rites, and other rites, of the particular congregation.

LITURGICAL CELEBRATION

For example, in both Protestant and Catholic churches,


the plants brought in to decorate for the holiday may be
each sponsored by individuals in memory of a particular loved one, or in honor of a living person on a signicant occasion, such as their Conrmation day.[21]
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Sll
In the German speaking lands, in Central Europe, and
wherever the people of these nations have wandered, Another custom is reading the appointed Scripture
green branches are also traditionally used to decorate lessons in multiple foreign languages recounting the
churches for Pentecost. Birch is the tree most typically speaking in tongues recorded in Acts 2:412.[37]
associated with this practice in Europe, but other species
In the Middle Ages, cathedrals and great churches
are employed in dierent climates.
throughout Western Europe were tted with a peculiar
The singing of Pentecost hymns is also central to the architectural feature known as a Holy Ghost hole; a small
celebration in the Western tradition. Hymns such as circular opening in the roof that symbolized the entrance
Martin Luther's "Komm, Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott" of Holy Spirit into the midst of the assembled worship(Come, Holy Spirit, God and Lord),[22][23] Charles Wes- pers. At Pentecost, these Holy Ghost holes would be decley's Spirit of Faith Come Down[24][25] and Come Holy orated with owers, and sometimes a dove gure lowered
Ghost Our Hearts Inspire[26] or Hildegard von Bingen's through into the church while the story of the Pentecost
O Holy Spirit Root of Life[27][28] are popular. Some was read. Holy Ghost holes can still be seen today in Eutraditional hymns of Pentecost make reference not only ropean churches such as Canterbury Cathedral.
to themes relating to the Holy Spirit or the church, but to
folk customs connected to the holiday as well, such as the Similarly, a large two dimensional dove gure would be,
and in some places still are, cut out of wood, painted and
decorating with green branches.[29]
decorated with owers, to be lowered over the people,
Consider Oh that I had a Thousand Voices ("O da particularly during the singing of the sequence hymn, or
ich tausend Zungen htte")[30][31] by German, Johann Veni Creator Spiritus. In other places, particularly Sicily
Mentzer Verse 2: "Ye forest leaves so green and ten- and the Italian peninsula, rose petals were and are thrown
der, that dance for joy in summer air" or O Day from the galleries over the congregation calling to mind
Full of Grace ("Den signede Dag")[32][33] by Dane, N. the tongues of re. In modern times, this practice has
F. S. Grundtvig verse 3: "Yea were every tree endowed been revived, and interestingly adapted as well, to include
with speech and every leaet singing". In the Roman the strewing of origami doves from above, or suspending
Catholic Church, Veni Sancte Spiritus is the sequence them sometimes by the hundreds from the ceiling.[38]
hymn for the Day of Pentecost. This has been translated
into many languages and is sung in many denominations In some cases, red fans, or red handkerchiefs are distributed to the assembled worshippers to be waved durtoday. See also Veni Creator Spiritus.[34][35]
ing the procession, etc. Other congregations have incorTrumpeters or brass ensembles are often specially con- porated the use of red balloons, signifying the Churchs
tracted to accompany singing and provide special music Birthday into their festivities. These may be carried by
at Pentecost services, recalling the Sound of the mighty worshippers, used to decorate the sanctuary, or released
wind.[19] While this practice is common among a wide all at once.
spectrum of Western denominations (Eastern Churches
do not employ instrumental accompaniment in their worship) it is particularly typical, and distinctive to the her4.3 Fasting, baptisms, and conrmations
itage of the Moravian Church.[36]
Holy Ghost holes

Saints Vitus and Katharina Church in Rehling

St. Blaise Church in Dillingen an der Donau

For some Protestants, the nine days between Ascension


Day, and Pentecost are set aside as a time of fasting,
and world-wide prayer in honor of the disciples time
of prayer and unity awaiting the Holy Spirit. Similarly among Roman Catholics, special Pentecost Novenas
are held. The Pentecost Novena is considered the rst
Novena, all other Novenas oered in preparation of various festivals and Saints days deriving their practice from
those original nine days of prayer observed by the disciples of Christ.
While the Eve of Pentecost was traditionally a day of fasting for Catholics, todays canon law no longer requires
it. Both Catholics and Protestants may hold spiritual
retreats, prayer vigils and litanies in the days leading up to
Pentecost. In some cases vigils on the Eve of Pentecost

4.3

Fasting, baptisms, and conrmations

may last all night. Pentecost is also one of the occasions baptized wearing white clothing, and from the white vestspecially appointed for the Lutheran Litany to be sung.[39] ments worn by the clergy in English liturgical uses. The
holiday was also one of the three days each year (along
with Christmas and Easter) Roman Catholics were required to confess and receive the sacrament of Holy Communion in order to remain in good church standing.[40]
Holy Communion is likewise often a feature of the
Protestant observance of Pentecost as well. It is one of
the relatively few Sundays some Reformed denominations may oer the communion meal, and is one of the
days of the year specially appointed among Moravians for
the celebration of their Love Feasts. Ordinations are celebrated across a wide array of Western denominations at
Pentecost, or near to it. In some denominations, for example the Lutheran Church, even if an ordination or consecration of a deaconess is not celebrated on Pentecost,
the liturgical color will invariably be red, and the theme
of the service will be the Holy Spirit.
Above all, Pentecost is a day for the Conrmation celebrations of young people. Flowers, the wearing of white
robes, or white dresses recalling Baptism, rites such as
the laying on of hands, and vibrant singing play prominent roles on these joyous occasions, the blossoming of
Spring forming an equal analogy with the blossoming of
youth.
The typical image of Pentecost in the West is that of the
Virgin Mary seated centrally and prominently among the
disciples, with ames resting on the crowns of their heads.
Occasionally parting clouds suggesting the action of the
mighty wind,[19] rays of light, and/or the Dove, are also
depicted. Of course, the Western iconographic style is
less static and stylized than that of the East, and other
very dierent representations have been produced, and
in some cases have achieved great fame, such as the Pentecosts by Titian, Giotto and el Greco.
Paul already in the 1st century notes the importance of
this festival to the early Christian communities. (See:
Acts 20:16 & 1 Corinthians 16:8) Since the lifetime of
some who may have been eyewitnesses, annual celebrations of the descent of the Holy Spirit have been observed.
Before the Second Vatican Council Pentecost Monday
as well was a Holy Day of Obligation during which the
Catholic Church addressed the newly baptized and conrmed. Since that time however Pentecost Monday is no
longer solemnized.
A stained glass window at St. Matthews German Evangelical
Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina which depicts
the ame of re upon the heads of the disciples

Nevertheless Pentecost remains an ocial church festival in many Protestant churches, such as the (Lutheran)
Church of Sweden, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of
Finland, and others. In the Byzantine Catholic Rite Pentecost Monday is no longer a Holy Day of Obligation, but
rather a simple holy day. In the Roman Catholic Church,
as at Easter, the liturgical rank of Monday and Tuesday
of Pentecost week is a Double of the First Class[41] and
across many Western denominations, Pentecost is celebrated with an octave culminating on Trinity Sunday.

From the early days of Western Christianity, Pentecost


became one of the days set aside to celebrate Baptism.
In Northern Europe Pentecost was preferred even over
Easter for this rite, as the temperatures in late spring
might be supposed to be more conducive to outdoor
immersion as was then the practice. It is proposed that the
term Whit Sunday derives from the custom of the newly Marking the festivals importance, in several denom-

6 CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

5 Classical compositions for Pentecost


The Lutheran church of the Baroque observed three days
of Pentecost. Some composers wrote sacred cantatas to
be performed in the church services of these days. Johann
Sebastian Bach composed several cantatas for days of
Pentecost, including Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr
Saiten! BWV 172 in 1714 and Also hat Gott die Welt
Medieval western illustration of the Pentecost from the Hortus geliebt, BWV 68 in 1725. Gottfried Heinrich Stlzel
deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg (12th century)
wrote cantatas such as Werdet voll Geistes (Get full of
spirit) in 1737.[45] Mozart composed an antiphon Veni
Sancte Spiritus in 1768.

A Western depiction of the Pentecost, painted by Jean II Restout,


1732.

A typical Western image of the Pentecost. Duccio di Buoninsegna


(1308).

inations, such as the Lutheran, Episcopal and United


Methodist churches (and formerly in the Roman Catholic
Church), all the Sundays from the holiday itself until the
next Advent in late November or December are designated the 2nd, 3rd, Nth, Sunday after Pentecost, etc.
Throughout the year, in Roman Catholic piety, the Pentecost is the third of the Glorious Mysteries of the Holy
Rosary, as well as being one of the Stations of the Resurrection, or Via Lucis.
In some Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, where
there is less emphasis on the liturgical year, Pentecost may
still be one of the greatest celebrations in the year, such as
in Germany or Romania. In other cases, Pentecost may
be ignored as a holy day in these churches. In many evangelical churches in the United States, the secular holiday,
Mothers Day, may be more celebrated than the ancient
and biblical feast of Pentecost.[42] Some evangelicals and
Pentecostals are observing the liturgical calendar and observe Pentecost as a day to teach the Gifts of the Holy
Spirit.
Across denominational lines Pentecost has been an opportunity for Christians to honor the role of the Holy
Spirit in their lives, and celebrate the birth of the church
in an ecumenical context.[43][44]

Olivier Messiaen composed an organ mass Messe de la


Pentecte in 1949/50. In 1964 Fritz Werner wrote an
oratorio for Pentecost Veni, sancte spiritus (Come, Holy
Spirit) on the sequence Veni sancte spiritus, and Jani
Christou wrote Tongues of Fire, a Pentecost oratorio.
Richard Hillert wrote a Motet for the Day of Pentecost for
choir, vibraphone, and prepared electronic tape in 1969.
Violeta Dinescu composed Pngstoratorium, an oratorio
for Pentecost for ve soloists, mixed chorus and small orchestra in 1993.

6 Customs and traditions


In Italy it was customary to scatter rose petals from the
ceiling of the churches to recall the miracle of the ery
tongues; hence in Sicily and elsewhere in Italy Whitsunday is called Pasqua rosatum. The Italian name Pasqua
rossa comes from the red colours of the vestments used
on Whitsunday.
In France it was customary to blow trumpets during Divine service, to recall the sound of the mighty wind which
accompanied the Descent of the Holy Spirit.
In the north west of England, church and chapel parades
called Whit Walks take place at Whitsun (sometimes on
Whit Friday, the Friday after Whitsun).[46] Typically, the
parades contain brass bands and choirs; girls attending are
dressed in white. Traditionally, Whit Fairs (sometimes

7
called Whitsun Ales)[47] took place. Other customs such
as morris dancing[48] and cheese rolling[49] are also associated with Whitsun.
In Finland there is a saying known virtually by everyone
which translates as if one has no sweetheart until Pentecost, he/she will not have it during the whole summer.

bten ein frhliches Lied die neuermunterten


Vgel;
Jede Wiese sprosste von Blumen in duftenden
Grnden,
Festlich heiter glnzte der Himmel und farbig
die Erde.[52]

Pngsten, das liebliche Fest, speaks of Pentecost as a


time of greening and blooming in elds, woods, hills,
mountains, bushes and hedges, of birds singing new
Since Pentecost itself is on a Sunday, it is automatically a songs, meadows sprouting fragrant owers, and of festive sunshine gleaming from the skies and coloring the
public holiday in Christian countries.
earth iconic lines idealizing the Pentecost holidays in
Pentecost Monday is a public holiday in many
the German-speaking lands.
European countries including Austria, Belgium, Cyprus,
Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Further, Goethe records an old peasant proverb relating
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, to Pentecost in his Sankt-Rochus-Fest zu Bingen[53]
Romania (since 2008), (most parts of) Switzerland, Ripe strawberries at Pentecost mean a good wine crop.
Ukraine and also in the African nations Senegal, Benin Alexandre Dumas, pre mentions of Pentecost in Twenty
and Togo.
Years After (French: Vingt ans aprs), the sequel to The

Public holiday

In Sweden it was also a public holiday, but Pentecost


Monday (Annandag Pingst) was replaced by Swedish National Day on June 6, by a government decision on December 15, 2004. In Italy and Malta, it is no longer a
public holiday. It was a public holiday in Ireland until
1973, when it was replaced by Early Summer Holiday on
the rst Monday in June. In the United Kingdom the day
is known as Whit Monday, and was a bank holiday until
1967 when it was replaced by the Spring Bank Holiday
on the last Monday in May. In France, following reactions to the implementation of the Journe de solidarit
envers les personnes ges, Pentecost Monday has been
reestablished as a holiday (but a working holiday) on May
3, 2005.[50]

Literary allusions

According to legend, King Arthur always gathered all his


knights at the round table for a feast and a quest on Pentecost:

Three Musketeers. A meal is planned for the holiday,


to which La Rame, second in command of the prison,
is invited, and by which contrivance, the Duke is able to
escape. He speaks sarcastically of the festival to his jailor,
foreshadowing his escape : Now, what has Pentecost to
do with me? Do you fear, say, that the Holy Ghost may
come down in the form of ery tongues and open the gates
of my prison?" [54]
William Shakespeare mentions Pentecost in a line from
Romeo and Juliet Act 1, Scene V. At the ball at his home,
Capulet speaks in refuting an overestimate of the time
elapsed since he last danced: What, man? 'Tis not so
much, 'tis not so much! 'Tis since the nuptial of Lucentio,
Come Pentecost as quickly as it will, Some ve-and-twenty
years, and then we mask'd. [55] Note here the allusion to
the tradition of mumming, Morris dancing and wedding
celebrations at Pentecost.

9 See also
Acts 2

So ever the king had a custom that at the


feast of Pentecost in especial, afore other feasts
in the year, he would not go that day to meat
until he had heard or seen of a great marvel.
[51]

German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe declared Pentecost das liebliche Fest the lovely Feast, in a selection
by the same name in his Reineke Fuchs.

Pentecontad calendar
Whit Monday
Cenacle

10 References
[1] 2:131

Pngsten, das liebliche Fest, war gekommen;


es grnten und blhten Feld und Wald;
auf Hgeln und Hhn, in Bschen und Hecken

[2] Catholic Encyclopedia, Pentecost (Whitsunday)


[3] The Seven Festivals of the Messiah 12 Edward Chumney
1994 p230 This is called the counting of the omer. On the

10

ftieth day following the Feast of First Fruits (Bikkurim)


is the Feast of Weeks (Shavuot) or Pentecost ( Leviticus
[Vayikra] 23:1521).

REFERENCES

[28] Texts > O Holy Spirit, root of life. Hymnary.org. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[29] Hymns and Hymnwriters of Denmark | Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Hymnary.com. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[4] Acts 1:1315, 26 KJV


[5] Acts 2:16 KJV
[6] Joel 2:2829. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2013-1221.

[30] O That I Had a Thousand Voices. Hymntime.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[8] Acts 2:39

[31] O da ich tausend Zungen htte gospel christian songs


free mp3 midi download. Ingeb.org. Retrieved 201005-17.

[9] Bargil Pixner, The Church of the Apostles found on Mount


Zion, Biblical Archaeology Review 16.3 May/June 1990

[32] Lutheran Worship Online Hymnal section MO.


Lutheranhymnal.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[10] Luke 22:1213. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 201312-21.

[33] O day full of grace. Danishchurch.vancouver.bc.ca. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[11] Acts 1:1314. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2013-1221.

[34] Rhabanus Maurus. Hymntime.com. Retrieved 201005-17.

[12] Acts 2:12. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2013-12-21.

[35] CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Veni Creator Spiritus. Newadvent.org. 1912-10-01. Retrieved 2010-0517.

[7] Acts 2:41. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2013-12-21.

[13] Acts 1:13


[14] Joseph Fitzmyer Responses to 101 questions on the Dead
Sea scrolls 1992 p 87: Particularly important for the
Qumran community was the celebration of this Feast of
Weeks on 111/15, because according to Exod 19:1 Israel
... Later the renewal of the Covenant came to be celebrated on the Feast of Weeks (see Jubilees)"

[36] Moravian Music Foundation. MoravianMusic.org. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[15] Menachot 10:3

[38] The Episcopal Church and Visual Arts. Ecva.org. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[16] All troparia and kontakia All lives of saints. Trinity


Week 3rd Day of the Trinity. Ocafs.oca.org. Retrieved
2013-12-21.
[17] PentecostPrayers of Kneeling. See the third prayer.
[18] Patrologia Graecae, 35:11089.

[40] CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Frequent Communion. Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2010-05-17.


Newadvent.org.

[42] Pentecost:
All About Pentecost (Whitsunday)!".
ChurchYear.net. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[20] John 3:8


[21] St. Catherine of Sweden Roman Catholic Church Bulletin. StCatherineofSweden.org. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[22] 200299 TLH Hymns. Lutheran-hymnal.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
Lutheran-

[24] HymnSite.coms Suggested Hymns for the Day of Pentecost (Year C)". Hymnsite.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[25] Spirit of Faith, Come Down. Hymntime.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[26] Come, Holy Ghost, Our Hearts Inspire.
time.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[39] (P. Drews.). Litany. Ccel.org. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[41] Catholic Encyclopedia: Pentecost.


1912-10-01. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[19] Acts 2:2

[23] Come, Holy Ghost, God and Lord.


hymnal.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

[37] Nelson, Gertrud Muller (1986). To Dance With God:


Family Ritual and Community Celebration. Paulist Press.
p. 193. ISBN 0809128128. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

Hymn-

[27] O Holy Spirit, Root of Life. Hymnsite.com. Retrieved


2010-05-17.

[43] Pentecost Picnic 2009.


2010-05-17.

Themint.org.uk.

Retrieved

[44] Catholics at Monash: Photos of Ecumenical Pentecost


Celebrations. MonashCatholics.blogspot.com. 2007-0615. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[45] Cantatas for Pentecost review of the 2002 recording by
Johan van Veen, 2005
[46] Whit Friday:
Whit Walks.
Whitfriday.brassbands.saddleworth.org. 2011-06-18. Retrieved
2013-12-21.
[47] "'Feasts and Festivals: 23 May: Whitsun Ales. Feastsandfestivals.blogspot.com.
2010-05-23.
Retrieved
2013-12-21.
[48]

[49] The Ocial & Only Authoritative Site Of Cheese


Rolling At Coopers Hill In Gloucestershire. Cheeserolling.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
[50] http://www.conseil-etat.fr/ce/jurispd/index_ac_ld0521.
shtml
[51] Le Morte d'Arthur, Thomas Malory. Book 7, chapter 1
[52] http://www.gedichte-fuer-alle-faelle.de/allegedichte/
gedicht_476.html
[53] Projekt Gutenberg-DE SPIEGEL ONLINE
Nachrichten Kultur. Gutenberg.spiegel.de. 2009-0817. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[54] Projekt Gutenberg-DE SPIEGEL ONLINE
Nachrichten Kultur. Gutenberg.spiegel.de. 2009-0817. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[55] Romeo and Juliet Text and Translation Act I, Scene V.
Enotes.com. Retrieved 2010-05-17.

11

External links

Pentecost on RE:Quest
A collection of 22 prayers for Pentecost
Pentecost article from the Catholic Encyclopedia
Pentecost article from the Jewish Encyclopedia
Feast of Pentecost Greek Orthodox Archdiocese
Explanation of the Feast from the Handbook for
Church Servers (Nastolnaya Kniga) by Sergei V. Bulgakov
The Main Event: The Church Takes Center Stage
from Eagles Landing First Baptist Church in McDonough, Georgia.

10

12

12

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

12.1

Text

Pentecost Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentecost?oldid=650203374 Contributors: Magnus Manske, Wesley, Amillar, ClaudineChionh, Danny, Christian List, Novalis, PierreAbbat, Fubar Obfusco, William Avery, Montrealais, Olivier, Stevertigo, Infrogmation,
Michael Hardy, Menchi, IZAK, Ellywa, Docu, 5ko, Djnjwd, Andres, HiramvdG, JASpencer, Seth ze, Wooster, Karlwick, Disdero, Choster,
Andrewman327, Wik, Zoicon5, Silvonen, DJ Clayworth, EthanL, Shizhao, Toreau, Andrew Yong, Wetman, PuzzletChung, Dimadick,
Robbot, Sam Spade, Mirv, Rursus, Ojigiri, Gidonb, Sunray, UtherSRG, Wereon, Dhodges, HaeB, Rmannion, DocWatson42, Pmaguire,
Christopher Parham, Abigail-II, Tom harrison, Lupin, Curps, Joe Kress, Jfdwol, Mazbln, Beardo, Jason Quinn, Haggis, Andycjp, Jonathan
Grynspan, Antandrus, HorsePunchKid, Hutcheson, MistToys, One Salient Oversight, PFHLai, Arcturus, Nickptar, Kelson, Neutrality,
Lucanos, Askewchan, Ukexpat, Maclaine, Hwliang, Davidfraser, Grstain, D6, PZFUN, Ham II, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Kaisershatner, Itsme, Aranel, CanisRufus, Mulder1982, Kwamikagami, Shadow demon, Just zis Guy, you know?, Pablo X, PatrikR, Bobo192,
Wisdom89, Rockhopper10r, Man vyi, Pearle, Sean Kelly, Benbread, Jarich, Jonathunder, Ranveig, Gunter.krebs, Alansohn, Wiki-uk,
CheeseDreams, JohnAlbertRigali, Jnothman, Phiddipus, Ddlamb, Mysdaao, Snowolf, ProhibitOnions, Kdau, Garzo, Vuo, Bsadowski1,
Ghirlandajo, Patrickylin, Rzelnik, Angr, Velho, Mel Etitis, OwenX, Camw, Nuggetboy, Miaow Miaow, Kokoriko, MONGO, Moormand,
Kelisi, Isnow, Prashanthns, KHM03, Paxsimius, Mandarax, Slgrandson, Deltabeignet, Kbdank71, TobyJ, Coemgenus, George Burgess,
DeadlyAssassin, Hankdm, ZanderSchubert, TBHecht, Ttwaring, FlaBot, Caius, SchuminWeb, Paul foord, Gurch, Srleer, Chobot, DTOx,
DVdm, Soakie, Roboto de Ajvol, The Rambling Man, YurikBot, Personman, Hairy Dude, Carolynparrishfan, Brandmeister (old), Qbzzt,
Gaius Cornelius, Eleassar, Wimt, Thane, Pftaylor, Grafen, Welsh, CrazyC83, Peter Delmonte, Xdenizen, Melly42, Sumple, Roy Brumback, Bota47, DRosenbach, Nlu, Dawn22, Document Number Two, Heptazane, Bayerischermann, Tim Parenti, Pb30, JoanneB, Natgoo, Whobot, T. Anthony, Ephilei, Rcharman, Kneewax, Crystallina, SmackBot, WilliamThweatt, Dweller, Prodego, InverseHypercube,
C.Fred, Eskimbot, Jab843, Used2BAnonymous, Ohnoitsjamie, Hmains, Carl.bunderson, FMarkTheDouble, Chris the speller, H2ppyme,
Thumperward, Jon513, RayAYang, DHN-bot, Tonzo, A. B., Sarisburium, Halal, Former user 20, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Leinad-Z,
Aquarius Rising, Jlposen, Erzahler, OrphanBot, Sephiroth BCR, JonHarder, Rrburke, VMS Mosaic, Lolololol, Addshore, Edivorce, Huon,
Khukri, Kevlar67, Hoof Hearted, Andrew c, Nordelius, Stormj, SashatoBot, AThing, Dirk math, Soap, Khazar, T g7, J 1982, JohnWittle,
Lagarto, IronGargoyle, 041744, RandomCritic, Stwalkerster, Waggers, Jose77, Kobresia, , Iridescent, Toddsschneider, Xsmith,
Joseph Solis in Australia, Rnb, Esurnir, Courcelles, Jsorens, Blubberbrein2, Pathosbot, InfernoXV, Sadalmelik, Ale jrb, Donaldpugh,
Charvex, Jokes Free4Me, OMGsplosion, Gihanuk, Article editor, Leujohn, WeggeBot, Neelix, Vaquero100, Cydebot, Slp1, Steel, James
Theophilus, Michaelas10, Gogo Dodo, Llort, Pascal.Tesson, Asenine, DBaba, Nasugbu batangas, NMChico24, Gimmetrow, JamesAM,
Thijs!bot, Qwyrxian, Mojo Hand, Octoberdan, Marek69, Iulius, Tiamut, Escarbot, Dantheman531, Porqin, Koralin, Fayenatic london,
Beachyboy, Myanw, JAnDbot, GSTQ, Supertheman, Some thing, Kitanin, Jarkeld, Cynwolfe, Boleslaw, Samaleks, VoABot II, Acts0412,
Gwnley, LeVoyageur, Nyttend, SparrowsWing, Animum, Afaprof01, Peter Luu, Just James, DerHexer, Al, SkepticVK, Tuckerma,
Krinsky, MartinBot, Humphrey20020, Phantomsnake, BetBot, Linaduliban, Christian424, Lilac Soul, Tgeairn, J.delanoy, Itayb, Pharaoh
of the Wizards, The Levi, Itohacs, Ncmvocalist, Troutsneeze, Robertgreer, Student7, MattDiClemente, Provolvere, Uluboz, MishaPan,
KRam41, Hugo999, VolkovBot, ABF, Horatio325, Brando130, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Berthold Werner, Domonic12, Namikiw,
Anna Lincoln, Steven J. Anderson, Dapostman, Broadbot, Sanfranman59, LeaveSleaves, UnitedStatesian, Malus Catulus, Madhero88,
Joseph A. Spadaro, Falcon8765, VanishedUserABC, Mallerd, Why Not A Duck, Dmcq, C0N6R355, GirasoleDE, Radu Comanescu,
SieBot, StAnselm, BenJedidiah, Susan crites, Tj-dj124, Francish7, Holiday56, BlueAzure, Danretegan, Mitchelltd, Oda Mari, Wombatcat, Oxymoron83, Avnjay, Mmgpm1, Dwrules, Lightmouse, Iain99, Pastoreric555, Seedbot, JohnSawyer, LordGorval, Vanished user
ewsn2348tui2f8n2o2utjfeoi210r39jf, Denisarona, G.michalis, Muleroid, ImageRemovalBot, Star667, SlackerMom, Martarius, Tanvir
Ahmmed, Ecjmartin, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, LotusElite, Apokalyps2547, Jan1nad, Pi zero, Shark96z, Drmies, Deicidal, Trivialist, Jagdfeld, Excirial, Alexbot, Abrech, Gtstricky, Lexi kate, Doesle, Ltwin, Xabiereus, Dwiddows, La Pianista, Catalographer, Versus22, Mhockey, DumZiBoT, Jamminjuda, Opaq87, Badgernet, Niceoboe, Kbdankbot, Addbot, Lizzy000123, F Marsden,
CanadianLinuxUser, Leszek Jaczuk, SpillingBot, Kellygirlaj, AndersBot, Favonian, Mischlux, Tide rolls, EugeneZ, Kingster12, ,
DAVID71SG, Ben Ben, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Fraggle81, SEMTEX85, Yngvadottir, Anypodetos, Brougham96, Shekaboombam,
AnomieBOT, Phlyght, Jim1138, Piano non troppo, Profangelo, Glenfarclas, Aaagmnr, Elm-39, LovesMacs, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Bihco, Ranosonar, Purplebackpack89, Victorsting, *feridik, GrouchoBot, Brandon5485, Amaury, Gui le Roi, Shadowjams, Joaquin008, Thehelpfulbot, FrescoBot, StaticVision, Mike2008nyc, MondalorBot, Harry362, Dac04, Gerda Arendt, FoxBot, Lotje, Patsfanwow, Tbhotch,
TjBot, In ictu oculi, , EmausBot, John of Reading, Orphan Wiki, Acather96, Logical Cowboy, Ajraddatz, Jeroenvdmeer, RA0808, Laurel Lodged, Solarra, Tommy2010, Wikipelli, Sandeylife, Essamtony, Hodgdons secret garden, Johnchacks, Rc2321,
Nxola, Gmsllc, TheRa'ike, Gz33, MCSKY, Leo4830, Damirgrati, Tot12, HandsomeFella, Staticd, DASHBotAV, Splashen, ClueBot
NG, CocuBot, Cadetgray, Doh5678, Hazhk, Muon, Costesseyboy, Widr, MerlIwBot, Ericgoalie48, Croben, Calebkeller432, BG19bot,
Gjndfsgyeadsiul, Rebecca Procter, Hashem sfarim, Trier1954, Kyosohmaishawt, FatherRon2011, Pappasadrian, AvocatoBot, Davidiad,
Marcocapelle, FutureTrillionaire, JohnThorne, Leonard JJRA Mhone, Jmfs1701, Phinhall, J R Gainey, Valano72, Zack Tartufo, Pawe
Ziemian, W.D., ChrisGualtieri, Khazar2, JadahArokiumq, Platopete, Zeeyanwiki, Jeremywhorne, Mogism, Alserps, Matthewrobertolson,
Ephrayim, Rooker99, Faizan, Jamesmcmahon0, Wdrwa, WikiJamesUSA, Jbklauda, Dnalor 01, Irishllite, Smallblackhorse, Beaglepack,
Pofartmigee, JaconaFrere, Andrew J.Kurbiko, ScarlettElizaBethStephenson, BethNaught, War thunder, Cassandove, Heddwas, Fakeinfoaboutstu, JoeParrisj, GJCBPN, Punk4orchrist, ToonLucas22, IamHERE2help and Anonymous: 702

12.2

Images

File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original


artist: ?
File:Duccio_di_Buoninsegna_018.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Duccio_di_Buoninsegna_018.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors:
The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN
3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH. Original artist: Duccio
File:Fristingen_St._Blasius_08.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Fristingen_St._Blasius_08.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: GFreihalter

12.3

Content license

11

File:Hortus_Deliciarum,_Pfingsten_und_die_Aussendung_des_Heiligen_Geistes_auf_die_Apostel.JPG
Source:
http:
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C3%B4te.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Art Renewal Center Original artist: Jean II Restout
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File:Protestant_Altar_Pentecost_Red_Flowers_Green_Birch.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/
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12.3

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