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Oamenii din Israel trebuie sa nu invete sa urmeze practicile josnice.

Verbul a invata
are de a face cu interzisele obiceiuri: magia si prezicerile nelocuitorilor pamantului si
practica Cannanitilor, vezi G Braulik Teologia Deuteronomului. Lista informeaza desi ea a
incercat sa includa toate denumirile cunoscute ale activitatilor oculte.
Scolarii dezbat ce inseamna a trece fiul sau fiica cuiva prin foc. Mayes nota ca referinta
sacrificarii unui copil nu ar fi avut loc aici deoarece contextual arata doar implicarea cu
forme ale divinatiei. Tigay spune eruditia moderna nu a fost capabila sa resolve
intrebarea la care se refera Deuteronul 18:10, daca la o practica letala sau neletala. din
aceasta cauza, nu putem spune care sau cum trecerea copiilor prin foc este legata
dedicarii catre primul nascut, copiilor cananiti sacrificati, sau veneratiei catre Molech
cineva care practica divinatie include hepatoscopia ( arta de a citi ficatul in urma
sacrificarii unui animal) belomancy (folosirea sagetilor scuturate din tolba sagetilor),
necromantia (consultarea spiritelor moarte), si de asemenea falsa profetie. Termenul
ghicitor nu poate fi definit cu certitudine din moment ce toate conjuncturile sunt bazate
pe etimologie. De exemplu, Ibn Ezra deriva termenul de la anan nor si sugera ca se
refera la aceia care deseneaza preziceri dupa infatisarea si miscarea norilor. Termenul
interpretat citirorilor de preziceri pare a se referi la divinatia bazata pe amestecul
lichidelor, ca apa si uleiul, care de asemenea pare a fi o practica prin care cupa de argint a
lui Iosif a fost folosita in scopuri ca divinatia. Un vrajitor se refera la un practicandt de
magie neagra in Exodul 22:17, care este o ofensa capitala. Fraza tradusa ca un turnator
al farmecelor magice apare in PS 58:6, unde se refera la magia catorva genuri utilizate
impotriva serpilor veninosi. Finlelstein sugera cuvantul bolborosind o vraja si compara
cu acadianul abaru a face galagie. Dintr-un punct de vedere diferit M Held, studii in
lexicografia biblica in lumina acadiana. cineva care intreaba o fantoma se refera la
practicarea necromantiei. O obisnuita interpretare a termenului , aceea a unei gropi in
pamant care ofera si cauta informatii ce au fost facute mortilor. Mediumul este cateodata
tradus ca un spirit familiar, fantoma persoanei decedate. El mereu apare cu termenul
si poate simplu functiona ca un adjectiv al termenului pentru a descrie o
fantoma/ spirit., functionand ca un medium. In povestea regelui saul si al vrajitoarei din
Endor, fantomele mortilor asced din adancuri pe pamant si sunt vazute de medium. Fraza
cineva care invoca din morti inseamna probabil cineva care practica necromantia de
catre altcineva, inseana ca cei doi termeni anterior mentionati.
Deut. 18:9-11:
911 The people of Israel must not learn to follow the abominable practices. The verb , learn, has to
do with forbidden customs: the magic and the oracles of the inhabitants of the land (18:1011) and the
Canaanite cultic practice (20:18; see G. Braulik, Theology of Deuteronomy [1994] 195). The list reads as though
it was intended to include all known designations of occult activities.
Scholars debate what it means to pass ones son or daughter through the fire. Mayes noted that a reference
to child sacrifice would be out of place here, for the context is concerned solely with forms of divination
([1981] 280). Tigay says, Modern scholarship has not been able to resolve the question of whether
Deuteronomy 18:10 refers to a lethal or a nonlethal practice. Because of this, we cannot say whether or how

passing children through fire is related to the dedication of the first-born, to Canaanite child sacrifice, or to the
worship of Molech ([1996] 465).
One who practices divination ( ) includes hepatoscopy (the art of reading the liver from
a sacrificial animal), belomancy (use of arrows shaken from a quiver), necromancy (consulting spirits of the
dead), and also false prophecy (Ezek 21:28 [Eng. 29]; Jer 14:14). The term soothsayer( ) cannot be
defined with any certainty, since all conjectures are based on etymology. For instance, Ibn Ezra derived the term
from anan, cloud, and suggested that it refers to those who draw omens from the appearance and

movements of clouds (Tigay [1996] 173). The term rendered omen reader ( )seems to refer to
divination based on mixing liquids, such as oil and water (oleomancy), which may also be the manner in which
Josephs silver goblet was used in matters of divination (Gen 44:5). A sorcerer ( ) refers to a

practioner of black magic in Exod 22:17, where it is a capital offense. The phrase , translated as a
caster of magic spells, appears in Ps 58:6 (Eng. 5), where it refers to magic of some sort used against
venomous snakes. Finkelstein (JBL 75 [1956] 32831) suggests the meaning muttering a spell and compares
the Akkadian habaru, be noisy. For a different view see M. Held, Studies in Biblical Lexicography in the
Light of Akkadian, EI 16 (1982) 7879. One who asks of a ghost (

)refers to the practice of

is that of a hole in the ground through which offerings


and requests for information were made to the dead. A medium ( )is sometimes translated as familiar
spirit, the ghost of a deceased person. It always appears with the term , and may function simply as an
adjective to the term to describe a ghost [Page 409] functioning as a medium. In the story of King
necromancy. A common interpretation of the term

Saul and the witch of Endor, ghosts of the dead ascend from the depths of the earth and are seen by the
medium. The phrase one who inquires from the dead ( ) probably means one who
performs necromancy by any other means than the two previous terms mentioned (Tigay [1996] 173, following
Ramban).1

JBL Journal of Biblical Literature


EI Ere Israel
1 Duane L. Christensen, Deuteronomy 1-21:9, Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 6A, Word,
Incorporated, Dallas, 2002, pp. 408-409.
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