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2013-14 BSCS BIO

MS. TULLY

THE LANGUAGE OF LIFE


GENETICS & HEREDITY - WORKSHEET

Instructions: Go to EDMODO to DOWNLOAD and READ Language of Life (READING) to answer the following questions.
1. LIST and DESCRIBE Mendels 3 Laws of Inheritance:

REVIEWING TERMS
For each genotype, indicate whether homozygous
(ho) or heterozygous (he):
_____Tt; _____yy; _____FF
Reinforcement: GO TO--> http://www.dnalc.org/view/16151-Biography-1-

KEY TERMS- DEFINE

Which is purebred? ______


Which is hybrid? _______
Which is a carrier? _______

Gregor Mendel:
genetics:

In humans, freckles are dominant. Indicate the


phenotype for each of the following:
Ff _________________

allele:

ff _________________

gene loci:

FF ________________

genotype:

In humans, attached earlobes are recessive to detached


earlobes. indicate the genotype(s):

phenotype:

detached earlobe: __________

dominant (allele):

attached earlobe: __________

Probability

recessive (allele):
homozygous:
heterozygous:

What is the probability that a coin will turn up heads when


tossed once?
....when tossed 3 times in row?

purebred:

If you flip 3 coins 2 times in a row, what is probability they


will land tails?

hybrid:

If man and woman have child, what is probability of having


one boy?

carrier:
Punnett Square:

....probability of having a boy 4 times in a row?


...probability of having a boy after having 4 boys?

Repeating Mendels Experiments


MENDELS PEA PLANTS
GO TO--> http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/pruitt/0471473219/bioinquiries/ch03/animations/p0319_b.htm
1. How many traits did Mendel observe and experiment with in pea plants? (Hint: there are 7). LIST the traits and
INDICATE the two types of variation for each trait. To show variation, select the trait then, select show variation The
first one has been done for you:

a. P Hg: T
b. _____________:
c. _____________:
d. _____________:
e. ______________:
f. _______________:
g. _______________:

MONOHYBRID CROSS - LOOKING AT INHERITANCE OF ONE TRAIT (CHARACTERISTIC)


Go to--> http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_concepts_6/activities/c6eLib/activities/H14/H1403/st01/H14030101a.html
CHOOSE --> ONE Characteristic and then select ONE trait. Go NEXT
SELECT the genotypes of parent 1 and parent 2
SELECT OK, then make your PREDICTIONS. SELECT Mate.
REPEAT until you have worked through each of the 4 traits.
1. Determine the DOMINANT trait for each of the following characteristics:
a. Flower Color?
b. Pollen Shape?
c. Seed Color?
d. Seed Shape?
2. If you mate a homozygous dominant purple flower pea plant with a white flower pea plant, what are the expected
genotypes and phenotypes for the offspring? Show your work using a Punnett Square. Include genotypic and phenotypic
ratios in your answer.

3. If you mate two pea plants that are heterozygous for yellow seed color, what are the expected genotypes and
phenotypes for the offspring? Show your work using a Punnett Square. Include genotypic and phenotypic ratios in your
answer.

USING PUNNETT SQUARE TO PREDICT TRAITS IN OFFSPRING - SELECTIVE BREEDING IN FRUIT FLIES
--> GO TO: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_05/BL_05.html
--> SELECT and READ Information to answer the following:
1. Define heredity.
2. Traits are controlled by _____________.
3. The ____________________ forms a gene may have for a trait are called _____________. There are _____ alleles for every
trait.
4. Who is Reginald Punnett?
5. If one trait is being considered in a genetic cross, it is called a ________________________ _________. A Punnett Square for
a monohybrid cross is _____ boxes tall by _____ boxes wide because each ___________________ can pass on _____ kinds of
____________________.
6. If two traits are being considered in a genetic cross, it is called a _____________________ _________. A Punnett Square for
a dihybrid cross is ______ boxes tall by ______ boxes wide because each ______________________ can pass on _____ possible
________________________of ___________________. For example, a heterozygous PpTt can pass on ______, ______, _______,
and _______.
7. Alleles represent a _______________________, or genetic _____________ of an organism for a trait.
8. A _____________________ is a ____________________ trait that shows as a result of an organism's particular genotype.
Organisms may look alike but have _______________________ genotypes. It is ____________________ to determine
homozygous dominant and heterozygous genotypes by sight.
9. Common fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, are often used to study genetics because of their ________ life cycle (about 2
weeks), their _________ size (several hundred can be housed in a small jar), and their high rate of ___________________ (a
single pair may produce more than a hundred offspring).
10.When using Punnett squares to analyze the results of genetic crosses involving body color in Drosophila, _____
represents the dominant allele for gray body color and _______ represents the recessive allele for black body color.
11.When using Punnett squares to analyze the results of genetic crosses involving wing length in Drosophila, ________
represents long wing length and ______ represents vestigial wing length. (Vestigial wings are wings with
__________________ function that may have been useful to an earlier evolutionary stage of Drosophila.)
--> EXIT the Information window.
--> READ and FOLLOW the INSTRUCTIONS at the left BEFORE beginning the lab. You will work through 6
scenarios. Scenario 3 has been done as an example. COMPLETE the following table for remaining scenarios.
NOTICE that the scenarios in the virtual lab are not presented in the same order as table below.

SCENARIO

GENOTYPE 1

GENOTYPE 2

RATIO OF OFFSPRING
GENOTYPE

RATIO OF OFFSPRING PHENOTYPE

LI

Ll

4:4 Ll

4:4 long winged

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

PUNNETT SQUARES AND INHERITANCE


--> RETURN to the READING to answer the following:
1. What is meant by Mendelian genetics? ....non-Mendelian genetics?

2. Define the following:


a. complete dominance:
b. incomplete dominance:
c. codominance:
d. multiple alleles:
e. polygenic inheritance:
f. multifactorial inheritance:
g. sex-linked inheritance:
h. autosome:
i. sex chromosome:
j. X-linked traits:
k. aneuploidy:
l. nondisjunction:
m.trisomy:
n. karyotype:
o. What is the sex of the individual shown in the karyotype? _________ How do you know?
p. gene linkage:
OBSERVE the following images. For
I
EACH image, is it an example of
complete, incomplete, or
codominance? EXPLAIN.

USING PUNNETT SQUARES TO PREDICT COMPLEX PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE (NON-MENDELIAN)


1. SpongeBob loves growing flowers for his pal Sandy! Her favorite flowers, Poofkins, are found in red, blue, and purple.
Use the information provided and your knowledge of incomplete dominance to complete each section below. Write the
correct genotype for each color if R represents a red gene and r represents a blue gene.
Red - _____

Purple - ______

Blue - _____

CIRCLE the type of inheritance shown in the Poofkins. complete incomplete codominance or sex-linked
2. What would happen if SpongeBob crossed a Poofkin with red flowers with a Poofkin with blue flowers? DRAW and
COMPLETE a Punnett square to determine the chances of each flower color.
(a) Give the genotypes and phenotypes for the offspring.
(b) How many of the plants would have red flowers? _____%
(c) How many of the plants would have purple flowers? _____ %
(d) How many of the plants would have blue flowers? _____ %
3. What would happen if SpongeBob crossed two Poofkins with purple flowers? Complete a Punnett square to
show the probability for each flower color.
(a) Give the genotypes and phenotypes for the offspring.
(b) How many of the plants would have red flowers? _____%
(c) How many of the plants would have purple flowers? _____ %
(d) How many of the plants would have blue flowers? _____ %
4. SpongeBob has a grandmother Grandma squarepants, who is all brown (B) in color. His grandfather Grandpa
squarepants is all green (b). Recently, SpongeBob discovered he had an uncle (Uncle spottedpants) who was
brown with green spots and who ran away from home at a young age.
1. Write the correct genotype for squarepants body color:
Brown - __________ brown with green spots - __________

green - _________

CIRCLE the type of inheritance shown in the squarepants. complete incomplete codominance or sex-linked
5. What would happen if Uncle spottedpants mated with a Mrs. Brownpants? Complete a Punnett square to
determine the chances of each body color.
(a) Give the genotypes and phenotypes for the offspring.
(b) How many of the children would have brown body color? _____%
(c) How many of the children would be brown with green spots? ____%
(d) How many of the children would be green? _____ %

USING PUNNETT SQUARES TO PREDICT COMPLEX PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE (NON-MENDELIAN)


6. Mr. Burns is in desperate need of a blood transfusion but unfortunately has the rare blood type OO and needs a donor
that is also OO. He offers a reward to anyone who could help him (enter Homer). Homer knows unfortunately that his
blood type is heterozygous type A (AO) and that Marge is heterozygous type B (BO).
CIRCLE the type of inheritance shown in the Poofkins. complete incomplete codominance or sex-linked
What is the likelihood that one of the Simpson children has the OO blood type?

a. 0 %

b. 25 %

c. 50%

d. 75%

7. Dr. Hibbert is treating a young Springfield couple who are having a child. The parents are worried that since the mom is
a carrier for the disorder of color blindness (XXc ), which is linked only to the female sex chromosome Xc , that the child
will have color blindness as well. The father does not have color blindness (XY) which is the dominant gene. What are the
odds that the child will NOT have color blindness?
X = no color blindness (dominant)
Xc = color blindness (recessive)
CIRCLE the type of inheritance shown in the Poofkins. complete incomplete codominance or sex-linked
What are the odds that their child will not be color blind?

a. 0%

b. 25 %

c. 50%

d. 75%