Technion
Preface
Contents
1.
1
1
2
5
7
8
9
2.
15
15
17
17
18
20
22
22
23
28
29
32
33
34
35
36
38
40
3.
49
49
50
54
55
57
58
Contents
3.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.
Quantum Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Time Evolution Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Time Independent Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Example  Spin 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Connection to Classical Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Symmetric Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
69
70
71
73
74
76
80
5.
101
102
104
107
115
6.
Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1 Angular Momentum and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 General Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Simultaneous Diagonalization of J2 and Jz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Example  Spin 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Orbital Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
149
150
152
152
157
157
163
172
7.
Central Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 Simultaneous Diagonalization of the Operators H, L2 and Lz
7.2 The Radial Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
203
204
206
208
213
215
8.
Density Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1 Time Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Quantum Statistical Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
223
227
227
228
239
9.
293
294
295
297
297
300
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Contents
9.4 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1 Time Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Perturbation Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Transition Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.1 The Stationary Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.2 The NearResonance Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.3 H1 is Separable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
337
337
338
340
341
343
344
344
346
351
351
354
358
360
361
361
369
369
373
374
376
377
379
380
381
383
387
388
389
397
397
399
399
400
402
403
406
409
410
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Contents
14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1 Classical Electromagnetic Cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 Quantum Electromagnetic Cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 Periodic Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
415
415
420
422
423
424
431
431
432
432
433
434
436
438
438
445
445
448
449
451
453
453
454
455
458
460
461
463
465
17. Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1 Macroscopic Wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1.1 Single Particle in Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1.2 Drude Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1.3 The Macroscopic Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1.4 London Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2 The Josephson Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2.1 The First Josephson Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2.2 The Second Josephson Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2.3 The Energy of a Josephson Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3 RF SQUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.1 Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.2 Flux Quantum Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
483
483
483
485
489
489
493
493
494
495
496
497
499
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Contents
17.3.3 Qubit Readout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4 BCS Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4.1 Phonon Mediated ElectronElectron Interaction . . . . . .
17.4.2 The Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4.3 Bogoliubov Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4.4 The Energy Gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4.5 The Ground State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4.6 Pairing Wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5 The Josephson Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5.1 The Second Josephson Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5.2 The Energy of a Josephson Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5.3 The First Josephson Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
500
509
509
512
513
516
518
520
521
522
524
527
528
530
539
539
540
540
541
544
547
547
548
552
553
555
555
556
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
Eyal Buks
(1.1)
Consider the case where the vector of coordinates takes the value Q1 at time
t1 and the value Q2 at a later time t2 > t1 , namely
Q (t1 ) = Q1 ,
Q (t2 ) = Q2 .
(1.2)
(1.3)
The action S associated with the evolution of the system from time t1 to
time t2 is defined by
S=
t2
t1
dt L ,
(1.4)
where
Q = (q1 , q2 , , qN ) ,
(1.6)
and where overdot denotes time derivative. The time evolution of Q, in turn,
depends on the trajectory taken by the system from point Q1 at time t1
Q
Q2
Q1
t
t1
t2
Fig. 1.1. A trajectory taken by the system from point Q1 at time t1 to point Q2
at time t2 .
to point Q2 at time t2 (see Fig. 1.1). For a given trajectory the time
dependency is denoted as
Q (t) = Q (t) .
(1.7)
(1.8)
where n = 1, 2, , N.
Proof. Consider another trajectory Q (t) from point Q1 at time t1 to point
Q2 at time t2 (see Fig. 1.2). The difference
Q = Q (t) Q (t) = (q1 , q2 , , qN )
(1.9)
t2
dt L
t1
t2
dt
dt
t1
t2
t1
N
N
L
L
qn +
qn
q
qn
n
n=1
n=1
N
N
L
L d
qn +
qn
qn
qn dt
n=1
n=1
.
(1.10)
t2
dt
t1
N
L
d L
qn dt qn
n=1
N
L
n=1
qn
qn
t2
qn
.
t1
(1.11)
(1.12)
(1.13)
This has to be satisfied for any Q, therefore the following must hold
L
d L
=
.
dt qn
qn
Eyal Buks
(1.14)
Q
Q2
Q1
t
t1
t2
Fig. 1.2. The classical trajectory Q (t) and the trajectory Q (t).
In what follows we will assume for simplicity that the kinetic energy T of
the system can be expressed as a function of the velocities Q only (namely,
it does not explicitly depend on the coordinates Q). The components of the
generalized force Fn , where n = 1, 2, , N , are derived from the potential
energy U of the system as follows
Fn =
U
d U
+
.
qn dt qn
(1.15)
(1.16)
Example 1.2.1. Consider a point particle having mass m moving in a onedimensional potential U (x). The Lagrangian is given by
mx 2
U (x) .
2
From the EulerLagrange equation
L=T U =
d L
L
=
,
dt x
x
one finds that
U
m
x=
.
x
Eyal Buks
(1.17)
(1.18)
(1.19)
1.3. Hamiltonian
1.3 Hamiltonian
The set of EulerLagrange equations contains N second order differential
equations. In this section we derive an alternative and equivalent set of equations of motion, known as HamiltonJacobi equations, that contains twice the
number of equations, namely 2N, however, of first, instead of second, order.
Definition 1.3.1. The variable canonically conjugate to qn is defined by
L
.
qn
pn =
(1.20)
(1.21)
is defined by
H=
N
n=1
pn qn L ,
(1.22)
(1.23)
(1.24)
where n = 1, 2, , N.
Proof. The differential of H is given by
dH = d
N
n=1
pn qn dL
N
L
L
L
=
qn dpn + pn dqn qn dqn qn dqn t dt
n=1
d L
dt qn
N
n=1
Eyal Buks
pn
L
dt .
t
(1.25)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
=
.
t
t
qn =
(1.26)
(1.27)
(1.28)
(1.29)
dH
=
dt
n=1
H
H
H
H
qn +
p n +
=
.
qn
pn
t
t
(1.30)
=0
(1.32)
where T is the kinetic energy of the system and where U is the potential
energy.
Proof. For a conservative system the potential energy is independent on velocities, thus
pl =
L
T
=
,
ql
ql
(1.33)
Eyal Buks
N
l=1
pl ql L
T
l
ql
ql (T U )
q
qm
n
nm qm
+ qn
ql T + U
ql
ql
l,n,m
=2
n,m
nl
ml
nm qn qm T + U
= T +U .
(1.34)
(1.35)
(1.36)
,
qn pn pn qn
n=1
(1.37)
The Poissons brackets are employed for writing an equation of motion for a
general physical quantity of interest, as the following theorem shows.
Theorem 1.4.1. Let F be a physical quantity that can be expressed as a
function of the vector of coordinates Q, the vector of canonical conjugate
variables P and time t, and let H be the Hamiltonian. Then, the following
holds
dF
F
= {F, H} +
.
dt
t
(1.38)
Proof. Using Eqs. (1.23) and (1.24) one finds that the time derivative of F
is given by
Eyal Buks
+
=
q
p
p
q
t
n
n
n
n
n=1
= {F, H} +
F
.
t
(1.39)
Corollary 1.4.1. If F does not explicitly depend on time, namely if F/t =
0, and if {F, H} = 0, then F is a constant of the motion, namely
dF
=0.
dt
(1.40)
1.5 Problems
1. Consider a particle having charge q and mass m in electromagnetic field
characterized by the scalar potential and the vector potential A. The
electric field E and the magnetic field B are given by
E =
1 A
,
c t
(1.41)
and
B=A.
(1.42)
1 2
q
mr q + A r ,
2
c
(1.43)
1.6. Solutions
(1.46)
(1.47)
(1.48)
(1.49)
(1.50)
(1.51)
(1.52)
(1.53)
1.6 Solutions
1. The Lagrangian of the system (in Gaussian units) is taken to be given
by
1
q
L = mr2 q + A r .
2
c
Eyal Buks
(1.54)
(1.55)
where
d L
q
= m
x+
dt x
c
L
q
= q
+
x
x
c
Ax
Ay
Az
x
+ y
+ z
,
x
x
x
Ax
Ax
Ax
Ax
+ x
+ y
+ z
t
x
y
z
(1.56)
and
thus
q Ax
m
x = q
x c t
qEx
(1.57)
q
Ay
Ax
Ax Az
,
+
y
c
x
y
z
x
( A)z
( A)y
(r(A))x
or
m
x = qEx +
q
(r B)x .
c
(1.58)
(1.59)
Similar equations are obtained for y and z in the same way. These 3
equations can be written in a vector form as
1
m
r = q E + r B .
(1.60)
c
b) The variable vector canonically conjugate to the coordinates vector
r is given by
p=
L
q
= mr+ A .
r
c
(1.61)
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10
1.6. Solutions
H = p r L
1
q
= r p mr A + q
2
c
1 2
= mr + q
2
2
p qc A
=
+ q .
2m
(1.62)
The HamiltonJacobi equation for the coordinate x is given by
x =
H
,
px
(1.63)
px qc Ax
,
m
(1.64)
thus
x =
or
q
px = mx+
Ax .
c
(1.65)
H
,
x
(1.66)
where
p x = m
x+
q
c
Ax
Ax
Ax
q Ax
x
+ y
+ z
+
,
x
y
z
c t
(1.67)
and
pz qc Az Az
H
q px qc Ax Ax py qc Ay Ay
=
+
+
q
x
c
m
x
m
x
m
x
x
q
Ax
Ay
Az
=
x
+ y
+ z
q
,
c
x
x
x
x
(1.68)
thus
q Ax q
Ay
Ax
Ax Az
m
x = q
+
y
.
x c t
c
x
y
z
x
(1.69)
The last result is identical to Eq. (1.59).
Eyal Buks
11
()
=0,
(1.70)
t
t
and
() = 0 .
(1.71)
Thus, even though both L and H are modified, the motion, which
depends on E and B only, is unaffected.
2. The kinetic energy in this case T = Lq2 /2 is the energy stored in the
inductor, and the potential energy U = q 2 /2C is the energy stored in the
capacitor.
a) The Lagrangian is given by
L=T U =
q2
Lq2
.
2
2C
(1.72)
(1.73)
q
=0.
C
(1.74)
thus
L
q+
This equation expresses the requirement that the voltage across the
capacitor is the same as the one across the inductor.
b) The canonical conjugate momentum is given by
p=
L
= Lq ,
q
(1.75)
p2
q2
+
.
2L 2C
(1.76)
(1.77)
(1.78)
thus
L
q+
Eyal Buks
q
=0.
C
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(1.79)
12
1.6. Solutions
c) Using the definition (1.37) one has
{q, p} =
q p q p
=1.
q p p q
(1.80)
(1.81)
xa
xa
qb +
,
qb
t
(1.82)
(1.83)
and
d
dt
L
qa
d
=
dt
L x b
x b qa
(1.84)
dt qa
qa
dt x b qa
L xb
L x b
x q
x q
b a b a
d L
L xb
=
dt x b
xb qa
d xb
x b L
+
.
dt qa
qa x b
(1.85)
(1.86)
As can be seen from Eq. (1.82), the second term vanishes since
Eyal Buks
13
xb
qa
thus
d
dt
L
qa
L
d L
L xb
=
.
qa
dt x b
xb qa
(1.87)
x
y
z
L = r p = det x y z ,
(1.88)
px py pz
where r = (x, y, z) is the position vector and where p = (px , py , pz ) is the
momentum vector. The Hamiltonian is given by
H=
p2
+ V (r) .
2m
(1.89)
Using
{xi , pj } = ij ,
Lz = xpy ypx ,
(1.90)
(1.91)
14
(2.1)
Here, we have employed the Diracs ketvector notation  for the state vector, which contains all information about the state of the physical system
under study. The dimensionality of F is finite in some specific cases (notably, spin systems), however, it can also be infinite in many other cases
of interest. The basic mathematical theory dealing with vector spaces having infinite dimensionality was mainly developed by David Hilbert. Under
some conditions, vector spaces having infinite dimensionality have properties
similar to those of their finite dimensionality counterparts. A mathematically
rigorous treatment of such vector spaces having infinite dimensionality, which
are commonly called Hilbert spaces, can be found in textbooks that are devoted to this subject. In this chapter, however, we will only review the main
properties that are useful for quantum mechanics. In some cases, when the
generalization from the case of finite dimensionality to the case of arbitrary
dimensionality is nontrivial, results will be presented without providing a
rigorous proof and even without accurately specifying what are the validity
conditions for these results.
(2.2)
 =  ,
(2.3)
(c1  1 + c2  2 ) = c1  1 + c2  2 , where c1 , c2 C ,
(2.4)
(2.5)
Note that the asterisk in Eq. (2.3) denotes complex conjugate. Below we list
some important definitions and comments regarding inner product:
The real number  is called the norm of the vector  F.
A normalized vector has a unity norm, namely  = 1.
Every nonzero vector 0 =  F can be normalized using the transformation


.

(2.6)
(2.7)
where cn C.
By evaluating the inner product m , where  is given by Eq. (2.8)
one finds with the help of Eq. (2.7) and property (2.4) of inner products
that
!
"
m  = m
cn n =
cn m n = cm .
(2.9)
n
n
=nm
Eyal Buks
(2.10)
16
2.2 Operators
Operators, as the definition below states, are function from F to F:
Definition 2.2.1. An operator A : F F on a vector space maps vectors
onto vectors, namely A  F for every  F.
Some important definitions and comments are listed below:
The operators X : F F and Y : F F are said to be equal, namely
X = Y , if for every  F the following holds
X  = Y  .
(2.11)
Operators can be added, and the addition is both, commutative and associative, namely
X +Y = Y +X ,
X + (Y + Z) = (X + Y ) + Z .
(2.12)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.15)
for any  F.
Operator multiplication is associative
X (Y Z) = (XY ) Z = XY Z .
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.18)
ket
17
(2.19)
The outer product A is clearly an operator since for any  F the object
A  is a ketvector
A  = ( )  =   F .
(2.20)
(2.21)
(2.22)
Since the above identity holds for any  F one concludes that the quantity
in brackets is the identity operator, which is denoted as 1, namely
n n  .
(2.23)
1=
n
This result, which is called the closure relation, implies that any complete
orthonormal basis can be used to express the identity operator.
(2.24)
18
(2.25)
(2.26)
(2.27)
From this result we conclude that the duality relation takes the form
c1 1  + c2 2  c1  1 + c2  2 .
(2.28)
Eyal Buks
19
 DD =
=n 
n n 
n n  
n n
=1
=  .
(2.30)
Claim. FDD = F for any F F , where FDD is the dual of the dual of F .
Proof. The dual FD F of the functional F F is given by Eq. (2.29).
Thus with the help of the duality relation (2.28) one finds that dual FDD F
of FD is given by
FDD =
F (n ) n  .
(2.31)
n
Using the above expression for FDD and the linearity property one finds that
FDD  =
cm F (n ) n m
n,m
=
n
=F
mn
cn F (n )
!
n
cn n
"
= F () ,
(2.33)
therefore, FDD = F .
20

1 
= 1 2 2
.
..
.
(2.34)
Thus, the inner product can be viewed as a product between the row vector
 =
1 2 ,
(2.35)
which is the matrix representation of the bravector , and the column
vector
1 
 =
2  ,
(2.36)
..
.
or in matrix form
1 
1  X 1 1  X 2
1 
2  2  X 1 2  X 2 2 
.
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
(2.38)
1  X 1 1  X 2
X=
2  X 1 2  X 2 .
(2.39)
..
..
.
.
Alternatively, the last result can be written as
Xnm = n  X m ,
(2.40)
where Xnm is the element in row n and column m of the matrix representation of the operator X.
Eyal Buks
21
l
m  X l l  Y n .
(2.41)
1 
  =
2  1 2
..
.
1  1 1  2
= 2  1 2  2 .
..
..
.
.
(2.42)
2.6 Observables
Measurable physical variables are represented in quantum mechanics by Hermitian operators.
2.6.1 Hermitian Adjoint
Definition 2.6.1. The Hermitian adjoint of an operator X is denoted as X
and is defined by the following duality relation
 X X  .
(2.43)
(2.44)
Eyal Buks
22
2.6. Observables
Claim. X = X
(2.45)
thus X = X.
Claim. (XY ) = Y X
Proof. Applying XY on an arbitrary ketvector  F and employing the
duality correspondence yield
XY  = X (Y )  Y X =  Y X ,
(2.46)
thus
(XY ) = Y X .
(2.47)
Claim. If X =   then X =  
Proof. By applying X on an arbitrary ketvector  F and employing the
duality correspondence one finds that
X  = ( )  =  ( ) ( )  =   =  X ,
(2.48)
where X =  .
2.6.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Each operator is characterized by its set of eigenvalues, which is defined
below:
Definition 2.6.3. A number an C is said to be an eigenvalue of an operator A : F F if for some nonzero ketvector an F the following
holds
A an = an an .
(2.49)
(2.50)
23
(2.51)
As the theorem below shows, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hermitian operator have some unique properties.
Theorem 2.6.1. The eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator A are real. The
eigenvectors of A corresponding to different eigenvalues are orthogonal.
Proof. Let a1 and a2 be two eigenvalues of A with corresponding eigen vectors
a1 and a2
A a1 = a1 a1 ,
A a2 = a2 a2 .
(2.52)
(2.53)
Multiplying Eq. (2.52) from the left by the bravector a2 , and multiplying
the dual of Eq. (2.53), which since A = A is given by
a2  A = a2 a2  ,
(2.54)
(2.55)
(2.56)
(2.57)
The first part of the theorem is proven by employing the last result (2.57)
for the case where a1 = a2 . Since a1 is assumed to be a nonzero ketvector one concludes that a1 = a1 , namely a1 is real. Since this is true for
any eigenvalue of A, one can rewrite Eq. (2.57) as
(a1 a2 ) a2 a1 = 0 .
(2.58)
The second part of the theorem is proven by considering the case where
a1 = a2 , for which the above result (2.58) can hold only if a2 a1 = 0.
Namely eigenvectors corresponding to different eigenvalues are orthogonal.
Consider a Hermitian operator A having a set of eigenvalues {an }n . Let
gn be the degree of degeneracy of eigenvalue an , namely gn is the dimension
of the corresponding eigensubspace, which is denoted by Fn . For simplicity, assume that gn is finite for every n. Let {an,1 , an,2 , , an,gn } be
Eyal Buks
24
2.6. Observables
an orthonormal basis of the eigensubspace Fn , namely an,i an,i = ii .
Constructing such an orthonormal basis for Fn can be done by the socalled
GramSchmidt process. Moreover, since eigenvectors of A corresponding to
different eigenvalues are orthogonal, the following holds
an ,i an,i = nn ii ,
(2.59)
(2.60)
gn
i=1
an,i an,i  .
(2.61)
gn
i,i =1
gn
i=1
an,i an,i  = Pn .
(2.62)
Moreover, it is easy to show using the orthonormality relation (2.59) that the
following holds
Pn Pm = Pm Pn = Pn nm .
(2.63)
For linear vector spaces of finite dimensionality, it can be shown that the
set {an,i }n,i forms a complete orthonormal basis of eigenvectors of a given
Hermitian operator A. The generalization of this result for the case of arbitrary dimensionality is nontrivial, since generally such a set needs not be
Eyal Buks
25
(2.64)
(2.65)
where an R.
3. The set is complete, namely closure relation [see also Eq. (2.23)] is satisfied
1=
gn
n
i=1
an,i an,i  =
Pn ,
(2.66)
where
Pn =
gn
i=1
an,i an,i 
(2.67)
gn
n i=1
A an,i an,i  =
n
an
gn
i=1
an,i an,i  ,
(2.68)
that is
A=
an Pn .
(2.69)
The last result is very useful when dealing with a function f (A) of the
operator A. The meaning of a function of an operator can be understood in
terms of the Taylor expansion of the function
f (x) =
fm xm ,
(2.70)
m
Eyal Buks
26
2.6. Observables
where
fm =
1 dm f
.
m! dxm
(2.71)
With the help of Eqs. (2.63) and (2.69) one finds that
f (A) =
fm Am
m
fm
fm
n
an Pn
!
"m
am
n Pn
fm am
n Pn ,
f (an )
(2.72)
thus
f (A) =
f (an ) Pn .
(2.73)
(2.74)
(2.75)
(2.76)
(2.77)
m
=n
Eyal Buks
27
# A am
.
an am
(2.79)
m
=n
gn
n i=1
an,i  an,i .
(2.80)
Even when the state vector  is given, quantum mechanics does not generally provide a deterministic answer to the question: what will be the outcome
of the measurement. Instead it predicts that:
1. The possible results of the measurement are the eigenvalues {an } of the
operator A.
2. The probability pn to measure the eigen value an is given by
pn =  Pn  =
gn
i=1
an,i 2 .
(2.81)
(2.82)
Eyal Buks
28
AI
,
c
(2.85)
where A = r2 is the area enclosed by the circular orbit and I = ev/ (2r)
is the electrical current carried by the electron, thus
orbital =
Eyal Buks
erv
.
2c
(2.86)
29
orbital = B L ,
(2.87)
e
2me c
(2.88)
B
L.
(2.89)
On the other hand, as was first shown by Dirac, the gyromagnetic ratio
for the case of spin angular momentum takes twice this value
spin =
2B
S.
(2.90)
Note that we follow here the convention of using the letter L for orbital
angular momentum and the letter S for spin angular momentum.
The SternGerlach apparatus allows measuring any component of the
magnetic moment vector. Alternatively, in view of relation (2.90), it can be
said that any component of the spin angular momentum S can be measured.
The experiment shows that the only two possible results of such a measurement are +/2 and /2. As we have seen above, one can construct a complete orthonormal basis to the vector space made of eigenvectors of any given
observable. Choosing the observable Sz = S
z for this purpose we construct
a basis made of two vectors {+;
z , ;
z}. Both vectors are eigenvectors of
Sz
Sz +;
z = +;
z ,
(2.91)
2
Sz ;
z = ;
z .
(2.92)
2
In what follow we will use the more compact notation
+ = +;
z ,
 = ;
z .
(2.93)
(2.94)
(2.95)
(2.96)
30
(2.97)
(2.98)
The closure relation (2.97) and Eqs. (2.91) and (2.92) yield
Sz =
(+ +  )
2
(2.99)
(2.100)
(2.101)
,
(2.104)
0
0
 =
,
(2.105)
1
01
Sx =
,
(2.106)
2 10
0 i
Sy =
,
(2.107)
2 i 0
1 0
Sz =
,
(2.108)
2 0 1
01
,
(2.109)
S+ =
00
00
S =
.
(2.110)
10
Sx =
Exercise 2.8.1. Given that the state vector of a spin 1/2 is +;
z calculate
(a) the expectation values Sx and Sz (b) the probability to obtain a value
of +/2 in a measurement of Sx .
Solution 2.8.1. (a) Using the matrix representation one has
Eyal Buks
31
(2.111)
(2.112)
(b) First, the eigenvectors of the operator Sx are found by solving the equation Sx  = , which is done by diagonalization of the matrix representation of Sx . The relation Sx  =  for the two eigenvectors is written
in a matrix form as
! "
! 1 "
1
01
2
2
=
,
(2.113)
1
2 10
2 12
2
!
"
! 1 "
1
01
2
2
=
.
(2.114)
12
2 10
2 12
That is, in ket notation
= ; x
,
Sx ; x
2
(2.115)
(2.116)
1
1
2 =
= .
p+ = + +; x
2
2
(2.117)
n
bn bn  = 1 .
(2.119)
32
2.10. Trace
U=
n
bn an  ,
(2.120)
transforms each of the basis vector an to the corresponding basis vector bn
U an = bn .
(2.121)
(2.122)
nm
(2.123)
and those of U by
an  U am = bn am .
Consider a ket vector
 =
an an  ,
(2.124)
which can be represented as a column vector in the basis {an }. The nth
element of such a column vector is an . The operator U can be employed
for finding the corresponding column vector representation of the same ketvector  in the other basis {bn }
bn  =
bn am am  =
an  U am am  .
(2.125)
m
k,l
(2.126)
2.10 Trace
Given an operator X and an orthonormal and complete basis {an }, the
trace of X is given by
Eyal Buks
33
n
an  X an .
(2.127)
n,k,l
n,k,l
k,l
k
bk  X bk .
(2.128)
(2.129)
is left as an exercise.
(2.130)
(2.131)
where
ijk
1 i, j, k is an odd permutation of x, y, z
(2.132)
is the LeviCivita symbol. Equation (2.131) employs the Einsteins convention, according to which if an index symbol appears twice in an expression,
it is to be summed over all its allowed values. Namely, the repeated index k
should be summed over the values x, y and z:
ijk Sk = ijx Sx + ijy Sy + ijz Sz .
Eyal Buks
(2.133)
34
(2.134)
3
S2 = Sx2 + Sy2 + Sz2 = 2 .
(2.135)
4
The relations below, which are easy to prove using the above definition,
are very useful for evaluating commutation relations
[F, G] = [G, F ] ,
[F, F ] = 0 ,
[E + F, G] = [E, G] + [F, G] ,
[E, F G] = [E, F ] G + F [E, G] .
(2.136)
(2.137)
(2.138)
(2.139)
(2.140)
where i = 1, 2, , gn , and
an ,i an,i = nn ii .
(2.141)
The set of vectors {an,1 , an,2 , , an,gn } forms an orthonormal basis for
the eigensubspace Fn . The closure relation can be written as
1=
gn
n i=1
an,i an,i  =
Pn ,
(2.142)
where
Pn =
gn
i=1
an,i an,i  .
(2.143)
35
(2.144)
(2.145)
thus
(an am ) am,j  B an,i = 0 .
(2.146)
(2.147)
(2.148)
A =  A  ,
) 2*
A =  A2  .
Eyal Buks
(2.150)
(2.151)
36
Proof. Applying the Schwartz inequality [see Eq. (2.166)], which is given by
u u v v u v2 ,
(2.155)
(2.156)
(2.157)
(2.158)
1
1
[A, B] + [A, B]+ ,
2
2
(2.159)
where
[A, B] = AB BA ,
[A, B]+ = AB + BA .
(2.160)
(2.161)
While the term [A, B] is antiHermitian, whereas the term [A, B]+ is
Hermitian, namely
([A, B]) = (AB BA) = BA AB = [A, B] ,
[A, B]+ = (AB + BA) = BA + AB = [A, B]+ .
37
(2.163)
and consequently
AB2 =
*
2
1
1
)
[A, B]2 +
[A, B]+
.
4
4
(2.164)
Finally, with the help of the identity [A, B] = [A, B] one finds that
'
('
( 1
2
(B)2 [A, B]2 .
(2.165)
(A)
4
2.14 Problems
1. Derive the Schwartz inequality
u v u u v v ,
where u and v are any two vectors of a vector space F.
2. Derive the triangle inequality:
(u + v) (u + v) u u + v v .
(2.166)
(2.167)
(2.169)
Show that
d
dA
dB
(AB) =
B+A
.
d
d
d
Eyal Buks
(2.170)
38
2.14. Problems
8. Show that
d 1
dA 1
A
= A1
A .
d
d
(2.171)
9. Let u and v be two vectors of finite norm. Show that
Tr (u v) = v u .
(2.172)
10. If A is any linear operator, show that A A is a positivedefinite Hermitian operator whose trace is equal to the sum of the square moduli of
the matrix
elements of A in any arbitrary representation. Deduce that
Tr A A = 0 is true if and only if A = 0.
11. Show that if A and B are two positivedefinite observables, then Tr (AB)
0.
12. Show that for any two operators A and L
eL AeL = A + [L, A] +
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + . (2.173)
2!
3!
13. Show that if A and B are two operators satisfying the relation [[A, B] , A] =
0 , then the relation
[Am , B] = mAm1 [A, B]
(2.174)
(2.175)
eH [H, A] eH d ,
(2.176)
(2.177)
39
(2.178)
The eigenstates of H0 are the six states n , with the same eigenvalue
E0 . The operator W is described by
W 1 = a 2 a 6 ,
W 2 = a 3 a 1 ,
..
.
W 6 = a 1 a 5 .
(2.179)
6
n=1
eikn n .
(2.180)
2.15 Solutions
1. Let
 = u + v ,
(2.181)
(2.182)
By choosing
=
v u
,
v v
(2.183)
one has
v u
2
v u
u v
v v 0 ,
u u
u v
v u +
v v
v v
v v
(2.184)
thus
u v
Eyal Buks
u u v v .
(2.185)
40
2.15. Solutions
2. The following holds
(u + v) (u + v) = u u + v v + 2 Re (u v)
u u + v v + 2 u v .
(2.186)
(u + v) (u + v) u u + v v + 2 u u v v
2
=
u u + v v .
(2.187)
3. Since
1 = U U = 1 iF (1 + iF ) = 1 + i F F + O 2 , (2.188)
one has F = F .
(2.189)
5. Let
v A u
v .
v A v
 = u
+
,
v A v
v A v
v A v
(2.190)
thus
u A v
u A u v A v .
(2.191)
Note that this result allows easy proof of the following: Under the same
conditions (namely, A is a Hermitian positivedefinite operator) Tr (A) =
0 if and only if A = 0.
6. The expansion is given by
1
(A B)1 = A 1 A1 B
1 1
= 1 A1 B
A
1 2 1 3
1
= 1 + A B + A B + A B + A1 .
(2.192)
Eyal Buks
41
(A ( + ) A ()) B ()
A ( + ) (B ( + ) B ())
+ lim
= lim
0
0
dA
dB
=
B+A
.
d
d
(2.193)
8. Taking the derivative of both sides of the identity 1 = AA1 on has
0=
dA 1
dA1
A +A
,
d
d
(2.194)
thus
d 1
dA 1
A
= A1
A .
d
d
(2.195)
(2.196)
In this basis
Tr (u v) =
n
!
n
"
10. The operator A A is Hermitian since A A = A A, and positivedefinite since the norm of A u is nonnegative for every u, thus one
has u A A u 0. Moreover, using a complete orthonormal basis {n}
one has
Tr A A =
n A A n
n
n,m
n,m
m A n .
(2.198)
Eyal Buks
42
2.15. Solutions
12. Let f (s) = esL AesL , where s is real. Using Taylor expansion one has
1 df
1 d2 f
f (1) = f (0) +
+
+ ,
(2.200)
1! ds
s=0 2! ds2
s=0
thus
eL AeL = A +
1 df
1 d2 f
+
+ ,
1! ds
s=0 2! ds2
s=0
where
df
= LesL AesL esL AesL L = [L, f (s)] ,
ds
d2 f
df
= [L, [L, f (s)]] ,
= L,
ds2
ds
(2.201)
(2.202)
(2.203)
therefore
eL AeL = A + [L, A] +
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + . (2.204)
2!
3!
13. The identity clearly holds for the case m = 1. Moreover, assuming it
holds for m, namely assuming that
[Am , B] = mAm1 [A, B] ,
(2.205)
one has
, m+1 A
, B = A [Am , B] + [A, B] Am
= mAm [A, B] + [A, B] Am .
(2.206)
It is easy to show that if [[A, B] , A] = 0 then [[A, B] , Am ] = 0, thus one
concludes that
, m+1 A
, B = (m + 1) Am [A, B] .
(2.207)
14. Define the function f (s) = esA esB , where s is real. The following holds
df
= AesA esB + esA BesB
ds
= A + esA BesA esA esB
Using Eq. (2.174) one has
Eyal Buks
43
m
(sA)
B=
B
m!
m=0
sm (BAm + [Am , B])
m!
m=0
m
m
s BA + mAm1 [A, B]
=
m!
m=0
= BesA + s
m1
(sA)
[A, B]
(m 1)!
m=1
(2.208)
thus
df
= AesA esB + BesA esB + sesA [A, B] esB
ds
= (A + B + [A, B] s) f (s) .
(2.209)
The above differential equation can be easily integrated since [[A, B] , A] =
0 and [[A, B] , B] = 0. Thus
f (s) = e(A+B)s e[A,B]
s2
2
(2.210)
eA eB = eA+B e(1/2)[A,B] .
(2.211)
15. Define
,
f () A, eH ,
H
g () e
eH [H, A] eH d .
(2.212)
(2.213)
(2.214)
(2.215)
Eyal Buks
44
2.15. Solutions
Tr (XY ) =
n
n,m
n,m
m
n XY n
n X m m Y n
m Y n n X m
m Y X m
= Tr (Y X) .
(2.216)
+
(2.217)
and
Tr A2 = 21 + 22 .
(2.218)
On the other hand, with the help of Eq. (2.172) one finds that
Tr (A) = Tr ( ) Tr ( ) = 0 ,
(2.219)
and
Tr A2 = Tr (  ) + Tr (  ) Tr (  ) Tr (  )
= 2  Tr ( )  Tr ( )
= 2 1  2 ,
(2.220)
thus
.
= 1  2 .
(2.221)
 = a  + c  ,
(2.222)
45
=
 A   A 
a c c2
Thus,
and
Tr A = 0 ,
(2.224)
2
2
2
2
Det A = c c + a = 1   ,
(2.225)
(2.226)
(2.227)
where
k =
6
n=1
eikn n .
(2.228)
thus
H k = E0 k a
6
n=1
(
eikn
(n1) +
(n+1)
= E k , (2.229)
(2.230)
or
km =
m
,
3
(2.231)
6
n=1
eikm n n ,
(2.232)
46
2.15. Solutions
H km = E0 km aeikm
6
n=1
(
(
eikm (n1)
(n1) aeikm
eikm (n+1)
(n+1)
n=1
(2.233)
thus
H km = Em k ,
(2.234)
where
Em = E0 2a cos km .
Eyal Buks
(2.235)
47
L
qj
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
1
[, ] .
i
(3.5)
(3.6)
(3.7)
(3.8)
Note that here we use the same notation for a classical variable and its
quantum observable counterpart. In this chapter we will derive some results
that are solely based on Eqs. (3.6), (3.7) and (3.8).
(3.9)
(3.10)
(3.11)
(3.12)
where x R.
Recall that in general the meaning of a function of an operator can be
understood in terms of the Taylor expansion of the function, that is, for the
present case
n
1
ix p
J (x ) =
.
n!
n=0
(3.13)
(3.14)
(3.15)
Eyal Buks
50
dB
,
dp
(3.16)
x
J (x ) .
i
(3.17)
(3.19)
An important consequence of the last result is that the spectrum of eigenvalues of the operator x is continuous and contains all real numbers. This point
will be further discussed below.
The position wavefunction (x ) of a state vector  is defined as:
(x ) = x  .
(3.20)
(3.21)
Eyal Buks
(3.23)
51
(3.25)
thus
x  J (x )  = (x ) +
ix
2
x  p  + O (x ) .
(3.26)
On the other hand, according to Eq. (3.24) also the following holds
x  J (x )  = (x + x ) .
(3.27)
(x + x ) (x )
+ O (x ) .
x
(3.28)
d
.
dx
(3.29)
J (x ) = exp x
dx
2
1
d
d
= 1 + x
+
x
+ .
dx 2!
dx
(3.30)
In view of the Taylor expansion of an arbitrary function f (x)
df
(x )2 d2 f
f (x0 + x ) = f (x0 ) + x
+
+
dx
2! dx2
d
= exp x
f
dx
x=x0
= J (x ) f
,
x=x0
(3.31)
52
dx x x  = 1 ,
(3.32)
dx x x  =
dx (x ) x ,
(3.33)
dx x x  =
dx (x ) (x ) .
(3.34)
dx  (x ) .
(3.35)
(3.36)
1 =
dx
dx x x x x  =
(x x )
dx x x  ,
(3.37)
thus, as expected 12 = 1.
Eyal Buks
53
f (x ) = x  =  (x )
(3.38)
(3.40)
(3.41)
x1
(3.43)
(3.44)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
54
(3.46)
(3.47)
 (p ) = p  .
(3.48)
dp p p  =
dp (p ) p .
(3.49)
dp p p  =
dp (p ) (p ) .
(3.50)
dp  (p ) .
(3.51)
(3.52)
55
(3.53)
x p ,
x
(3.54)
thus
x p .
x
The general solution of this differential equation is
ip x
,
x p = N exp
p x p = i
(3.55)
(3.56)
dp N  exp
2
= N 
ip (x x )
dkeik(x x ) .
2(x x )
(3.57)
(3.58)
The last result together with Eqs. (3.32) and (3.45) yield
/ ip x
dp e (p )
dp x p p  =
(x ) = x  =
,
2
(p ) = p  =
(3.59)
ip x
dx e (x )
dx p x x  =
. (3.60)
2
That is, transformations relating (x ) and (p ) are the direct and inverse
Fourier transformations.
Eyal Buks
56
*
(3.61)
r =
qx , qy , qz ,
one has
*
qx r = qx
qx , qy , qz ,
*
qy r = qy
qx , qy , qz ,
*
qz r = qz
qx , qy , qz .
(3.62)
(3.63)
(3.64)
dx dy dz r r  ,
(3.65)
(3.66)
*
p =
px , py , pz ,
(3.67)
one has
*
px p = px
px , py , pz ,
*
py p = py
px , py , pz ,
*
pz p = pz
px , py , pz .
(3.68)
(3.69)
(3.70)
(3.71)
(3.72)
57
r p =
exp
.
3/2
(2)
(3.74)
(3.75)
3.4 Problems
1. Show that
dA
,
dx
dB
[x, B (p)] = i
,
dp
[p, A (x)] = i
(3.76)
(3.77)
(3.78)
(3.79)
(3.80)
(x ) =
exp ikx 2 .
(3.81)
2d
1/4 d
Calculate
'
('
(
a) (x)2 (p)2
b) p 
Eyal Buks
58
3.4. Problems
4. Show that the state  with wave function
+
1/ 2a for x a
x  =
0 for x > a
(3.82)
dx x
d
x  .
dx
(3.83)
6. Show that
1
(2)
d3 p exp
ip (r r )
= (r r ) .
(3.84)
(3.85)
where K is a real constant, p is the momentum operator, which is canonically conjugate to the position operator x. Calculate the wavefunction
of the eigenvectors.
8. Let  be the state vector of a point particle having mass m that moves
in one dimension along the x axis. The operator p is defined by the
following requirements: (1) p is Hermitian (i.e. p = p ) (2) [x, p ] = 0
(i.e. p commutes with the position operator x) and (3)
 (p p )2  = min  (p O)2  ,
O
(3.86)
where p is the momentum operator (i.e. the minimum value of the quantity  (p O)2  is obtained when the operator O is chosen to be
p ).
a) Calculate the matrix elements x  p x of the operator p in the
position representation.
b) The operator P is the difference between the true momentum operator and p
P = p p .
(3.87)
'
(
(P)2 =  P 2   P 2 .
(3.88)
'
(
Calculate the variance (P)2 with respect to the state 
Eyal Buks
59
where
(
'
(x)2 =  x2   x 2 ,
and where
'
(
(p)2 =  p2   p 2 .
(3.89)
(3.90)
(3.91)
3.5 Solutions
1. The commutator [x, p] = i is a constant, thus the relation (2.174) can
be employed
[p, xm ] = imxm1 = i
[x, pm ] = impm1 = i
dxm
,
dx
(3.92)
dp
.
dp
(3.93)
This holds for any m, thus, for any differentiable function A (x) of x and
for any differentiable function B (p) of p one has
dA
,
dx
dB
[x, B (p)] = i
.
dp
[p, A (x)] = i
(3.94)
(3.95)
+
2
=
dx (x ) (x a) (x)
'
(
= (x a)2
) *
= x2 2a x + a2 .
(3.96)
The requirement
dF
=0
da
Eyal Buks
(3.97)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
60
3.5. Solutions
leads to 2 x + 2a = 0, or a = x. At that point one has
'
( ) *
2
2
Fmin = (x x) = x2 x .
(3.98)
+
x =
dx (x ) x (x )
+
2
x
= 1/2
dx exp 2 x
d
d
=0,
(3.99)
)
+
=
dx (x ) x2 (x )
+
2
x
dx exp 2 x2
= 1/2
d
d
d3 1/2
1/2 d 2
d2
=
,
2
(3.100)
+
d
p = i
dx (x )
dx
+
2
x
x
= 1/2
dx exp 2
ik 2
d
d
d
i
i
1/2 d
= k ,
ikd1/2
(3.101)
Eyal Buks
61
+
d2
dx (x )
dx2
""
+
2
2 !!
x
x
1
ik 2
= (i) 1/2
dx exp 2
2
d
d
d
d
2d4 k2 + d2
1
1
= (i)2 1/2
d
2
d4
d
!
"
1
2
,
= (k) 1 +
2
2 (dk)
2
(3.102)
a) thus
'
('
( d2
(x)2 (p)2 =
2
(k)
1+
1
2 (dk)
"
(k)
"
2
.
4
(3.103)
=
dx exp
ik
x 2
2d
2 1/4 d
!
"
d
(k p )2 d2
exp
=
.
22
1/4
(3.104)
4. The momentum wavefunction is found using Eq. (3.60)
1
ip x
(p ) =
dx exp
x 
2
a
1
ip x
=
dx exp
4a
a
0
a sin ap
=
.
ap
(3.105)
The momentum wavefunction )(p )*is normalizable, however, the integrals for evaluating both p and p2 do not converge.
Eyal Buks
62
3.5. Solutions
5. Using Eqs. (3.29) and (3.32) one has
p  =
dx x x  p 
= i
dx x
d
x  ,
dx
(3.106)
dx x
d
x  .
dx
(3.107)
6. With the help of Eqs. (3.66), (3.71) and (3.75) one finds that
(r r ) = r r
= d3 p r p p r
1
ip (r r )
3
=
d
p
exp
.
(2)3
(3.108)
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + . (3.109)
2!
3!
dg
,
dx
(3.110)
g(x)
pe
dg i
dg
i
dg
= p + i +
g (x) ,
+
g (x) , g (x) ,
+ .
dx 2!
dx
3!
dx
(3.111)
Kx2
2i
(3.112)
yields
UpU = p + Kx = O ,
Eyal Buks
(3.113)
63
iKx2
2
(3.114)
(3.115)
ip x
1
e ,
2
(3.116)
iKx2
2
x p
i
1
e
=
2
p x Kx
2
.
(3.117)
dx
dx x x  p x x  .
(3.118)
dx
dx x x  p x (x x ) x  = 0 ,
(3.119)
(3.120)
dx x (x ) x  .
(3.121)
64
3.5. Solutions
a) With the help of Eq. (3.83), which is given by
p = i
d
x  ,
dx
dx x
(3.122)
d
dx x i (x ) x  ,
dx
(3.123)
(p p )  =
dx x i (x ) (x )
dx
=
d log
dx x (x ) i
(x ) .
dx
(3.124)
Similarly
 (p p ) =
dx
(x )
d log
i
(x ) x  , (3.125)
dx
and thus
 (p p )2 
2
d log
=
dx (x )
i
+ (x )
.
dx
(3.126)
where
(x ) =  (x ) .
(3.127)
2i
dx
dx
d log
,
2i dx
(3.128)
and thus
Eyal Buks
65
d log
(x x ) .
2i dx
x  p x =
(3.129)
Note: Comparing this result with the expression for the current density J associated with the state  [see Eq. (4.200)] yields the following relation
d
Im
J=
m
dx
(x ) d log d log
=
m 2i
dx
dx
(x )
=
(x ) .
m
(3.130)
b) As can be seen from Eqs. (3.123) and (3.128) the following holds
d log
d
1
dx x +
x  ,
(3.131)
P = i
dx
2 dx
hence
 P  = i
i
=
2
=
i
2
=0,
d
1
d
d
dx +
dx
2
dx
dx
d
d
dx +
dx
dx
dx
d (x )
dx
(3.132)
thus'[see Eqs.
( (3.126) and (3.128)]
2
(P) =  P 2 
2
2
d log
d log
=
dx (x )
+
2
dx
dx
2
2
d log (x )
=
dx (x )
.
2
dx
(3.133)
Note that the result  P  = 0 implies that p and p have the
same expectation value, i.e.  p  =  p . On the other hand,
Eyal Buks
66
3.5. Solutions
contrary to p, the operator p commutes with the position operator
x.
c) '
Using the

( relation
'
( p  =  p  one finds that
2
2
(p) (p ) =  p2   p2 
=  (p p )2  +  pp + p p 2p2 
=  P 2  +  pp + p p 2p2  .
(3.134)
As can be see from Eq. (3.128), the following holds
p =
dx x Im
d log
dx
x  ,
(3.135)
thus
 pp + p p 2p2 
p x
 x p
+
d
log
d log
=
dx
2 Im
Im
dx
dx
=0,
(3.136)
and 'therefore
'
(
(
(p)2 =  P 2  + (p )2
 P 2 
2
2
d log (x )
=
dx (x )
.
2
dx
(3.137)
For general real functions f (x ) , g (x ) : R R the Schwartz inequality (2.166) implies that
2
2
dx f (x ) g (x )
dx (f (x ))
dx (g (x )) . (3.138)
(3.139)
(3.140)
dx (x ) x
67
d
log
x
(
)
dx (x ) (x x) dx
2
d log (x )
'
(
dx (x )
,
2
dx
(x)
(3.141)
where
'
(
2
2
dx (x ) (x x)
(x) =
(3.142)
dx (x ) (x x)
=
dx (x x)
dx
dx
dx (x )
= 1 .
(3.143)
Combining these results [see Eqs. (3.137) and (3.141)] lead to
'
('
( 2
(x)2 (p)2
.
2
Eyal Buks
(3.144)
68
4. Quantum Dynamics
d 
= H  ,
dt
(4.1)
d 
=  H .
dt
(4.2)
(4.4)
Claim. The time evolution operator satisfies the Schrdinger equation (4.1).
Proof. Expressing the Schrdinger equation (4.1) in terms of Eq. (4.4)
i
d
u (t, t0 )  (t0 ) = Hu (t, t0 )  (t0 ) ,
dt
(4.5)
d
u (t, t0 )  (t0 ) = Hu (t, t0 )  (t0 ) .
dt
(4.6)
du (t, t0 )
= Hu (t, t0 ) .
dt
(4.7)
(4.10)
where
an ,i an,i = nn ii .
(4.11)
gn
n i=1
Eyal Buks
an,i an,i  ,
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(4.12)
70
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.16)
2B
S,
(4.17)
e
2me c
Eyal Buks
(4.18)
71
(4.20)
(4.21)
where
=
e B
me c
(4.22)
u (t, 0) = e
it
2
+ + + e
it
2
  .
(4.25)
(4.26)
2
it
it
2
2
=
(+ ) e
+ + + e   (+ + )
1
it
it
=
e 2 e 2
,
2
(4.27)
Eyal Buks
72
t
,
2
t
p (t) = sin2
.
2
p+ (t) = cos2
(4.28)
(4.29)
Sx =
(4.30)
(4.31)
(4.33)
(4.34)
(4.35)
73
(4.36)
(4.37)
Furthermore, the desired equation of motion for A is found using Eqs. (4.32)
and (4.37)
5
6
d A
1
A
=
[A, H] +
.
(4.38)
dt
i
t
We see that the Poissons brackets in the classical equation of motion (4.31)
for the classical variable A(c) are replaced by a commutation relation in the
quantum counterpart equation of motion (4.38) for the expectation value A
{, }
1
[, ] .
i
(4.39)
Note that for the case where the Hamiltonian is time independent, namely
for the case where the time evolution operator is given by Eq. (4.9), u commutes with H, namely [u, H] = 0, and consequently
H(H) = u Hu = H .
(4.40)
Eyal Buks
1
[, ] ,
i
(4.41)
74
(4.42)
However,
what
is the quantum operator corresponding to a general func
tion A x(c) , p(c) of x(c) and p(c) ? This question raises the issue of order
ing. As an example, let A x(c) , p(c) = x(c) p(c) . Classical variables obviously
commute, therefore x(c) p(c) = p(c) x(c) . However, this is not true for quantum
operators xp = px. Moreover, it is clear that both operators xp and px cannot
be considered as observables since they are not Hermitian
(4.43)
(4.44)
(xp) = px = xp ,
(px) = xp = px .
(4.45)
where
=
1
2
(2)
(c)
e ((x
i
x)+(p(c) p))
dd .
(4.46)
dkeik(x x ) = 2 (x x ) ,
implies that
(c)
i
1
e (x x) d = x(c) x ,
2
(c)
i
1
e (p p) d = p(c) p .
2
(4.47)
(4.48)
(4.49)
75
4.6 Problems
1. Consider spin 1/2 in magnetic field given by B = B
z, where B is a
constant. At time t = 0 the system is in the state +; x
. Calculate Sx ,
Sy and Sz as a function of time t.
2. Consider a point particle having mass m moving in one dimension under
the influence of the potential V (x). Let n be a normalized eigenvector
of the Hamiltonian of the system with eigenvalue En . Show that the corresponding wavefunction n (x ) in the coordinate representation satisfies
the following equation
2 d2 n (x )
+ V (x ) n (x ) = En n (x ) .
2m dx2
(4.50)
p2
+ V (r) ,
2m
(4.51)
(4.52)
d 
= H  ,
dt
(4.53)
p2
+ V (r) ,
2m
(4.54)
(4.55)
Eyal Buks
d2
r = V (r) .
dt2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(4.57)
76
4.6. Problems
6. Show that if the potential energy V (r) can be written as a sum of functions of a single coordinate, V (r) = V1 (x1 ) + V2 (x2 ) + V3 (x3 ), then the
timeindependent Schrdinger equation can be decomposed into a set of
onedimensional equations of the form
d2 i (xi ) 2m
+ 2 [Ei Vi (xi )] i (xi ) = 0 ,
dx2i
(4.58)
(4.59)
(4.62)
77
(4.63)
where (x) is the delta function. The value of the parameter suddenly
changes from 1 at times t < 0 to the value 2 at times t > 0. Both
1 and 2 are positive real numbers. Given that the particle was in the
ground state at times t < 0, what is the probability p that the particle
will remain bounded at t > 0?
14. Consider a point particle having mass m in a one dimensional potential
given by
V (x) = (x) ,
(4.64)
where (x) is the delta function, and where > 0. Let  0 be the
ground state and let E0 be the energy of the ground state. The particle
is prepared in the state
ip0 x
g (p0 ) = exp
(4.65)
 0 ,
where p0 is real and where x is the position operator. Calculate the
probability s (p0 ) that a measurement of energy will yield the result E0 .
15. Consider a point particle having mass m in a one dimensional potential
given by
+
(x) x < a
V (x) =
,
(4.66)
x a
where (x) is the delta function and is a constant. Let E0 be the energy
of the ground state. Under what conditions E0 < 0?
16. The same as the previous exercise, however for the potential
+
x<0
V (x) =
,
(4.67)
(x x0 ) x 0
where is real and x0 is positive.
17. ThomasReicheKuhn sum rule  Let
H=
p2
+ V (r)
2m
(4.68)
78
4.6. Problems
k
2
,
2m
(4.69)
where the sum is taken over all energy eigenstates of the particle (where
H k = Ek k ), and x is the x component of the position vector operator
r (the ThomasReicheKuhn sum rule).
18. A particle having mass m is confined in a one dimensional potential well
given by
+
0 0<x<a
V (x) =
.
else
a) At time t = 0 the position was measured and the result was x = a/2.
The resolution of the position measurement is x , where x << a.
After time 1 the energy was measured. Calculate the probability pn
to measure that the energy of the system is En , where En are the
eigenenergies of the particle in the well, and where n = 1, 2, .
b) Assume that the result of the measurement in the previous section
was E2 . At a later time 2 > 1 the momentum p of the particle
was measured. Calculate the expectation value p.
19. A particle having mass m is in the ground state of an infinite potential
well of width a, which is given by
+
0 0<x<a
V1 (x) =
.
(4.70)
else
At time t = 0 the potential suddenly changes and becomes
+
0 0 < x < 2a
V2 (x) =
,
else
(4.71)
namely the width suddenly becomes 2a. (a) Find the probability p to
find the particle in the ground state of the new well. (b) Calculate the
expectation value of the energy H before and after the change in the
potential.
'
(
20. Calculate the uncertainties in position (x)2 and in momentum
'
(
(p)2 of the energy eigenstates of a particle having mass m, which
is confined in a one dimensional potential well given by
+
0 0<x<a
V (x) =
.
(4.72)
else
21. The continuity equation  Consider a point particle having mass m
and charge q placed in an electromagnetic field. Show that
d
+ J = 0 ,
dt
Eyal Buks
(4.73)
79
(4.74)
q
Im ( )
A
m
mc
(4.75)
V (x ) =
.
(4.77)
0 x  > a2
Consider a solution to the time independent Schrdinger equation, whose
wavefunction in the range x > a/2 has the form
+ ikx
e
+ reikx x < a2
(x ) =
,
(4.78)
teikx
x > a2
where k is a constant. Calculate the transmission and reflection coefficients t and r respectively.
24. Calculate the Weyl transformation A (x, p) of the classical variable A x(c) , p(c) =
p(c) x(c) .
25. Invert Eq. (4.45), i.e. express the variable A x(c) , p(c) as a function of
the operator A (x, p).
4.7 Solutions
1. The operators Sx , Sy and Sz are given by Eqs. (2.102), (2.103) and (2.99)
respectively. The Hamiltonian is given by Eq. (4.21). Using Eqs. (4.38)
and (2.131) one has
Eyal Buks
80
4.7. Solutions
d Sx
=
[Sx , Sz ] = Sy ,
dt
i
d Sy
=
[Sy , Sz ] = Sx ,
dt
i
d Sz
=
[Sz , Sz ] = 0 ,
dt
i
where
=
e B
.
me c
(4.79)
(4.80)
(4.81)
(4.82)
(4.83)
thus
(+ + ) (+  +  +) (+ + ) = .
4
2
Sy (t = 0) = (+ + ) (i +  + i  +) (+ + ) = 0 .
4
Sz (t = 0) = (+ + ) (+ +  ) (+ + ) = 0 .
4
The solution is easily found to be given by
Sx (t) =
cos (t) ,
(4.84)
2
Sy (t) =
sin (t) ,
(4.85)
2
Sz (t) = 0 .
(4.86)
Sx (t = 0) =
p2
+ V (x) .
2m
(4.87)
(4.88)
2 d2 n (x )
+ V (x ) n (x ) = En n (x ) ,
2m dx2
(4.89)
where
n (x ) = x n
(4.90)
81
n  p n =
(4.92)
4. Multiplying Eq. (4.53) from the left by the bra p  and inserting the
closure relation
1 = dp p p 
(4.93)
yields
i
d (p )
=
dt
dp p  H p (p ) .
(4.94)
dr p r r  V (r) r r p
ip r
ip r
3
V (r ) (r r ) exp
= (2)
dr dr exp
i (p p ) r
= (2)3 dr exp
V (r )
= U (p p ) ,
(4.96)
p  V (r) p =
Eyal Buks
(4.95)
dr
82
4.7. Solutions
thus the momentum wave function (p ) satisfies the following equation
d
p2
i
=
+ dp U (p p ) .
(4.97)
dt
2m
5. The Hamiltonian is given by
H=
p2
+ V (r) .
2m
(4.98)
and
* px
d x
1
1 ),
=
[x, H] =
x, p2x =
,
dt
i
i2m
m
d px
1
=
[px , V (r)] ,
dt
i
(4.99)
(4.100)
(4.101)
(4.102)
Similar equations are obtained for y and z, which together yield Eq.
(4.57).
6. Substituting a solution having the form
(r) = 1 (x1 ) 2 (x2 ) 3 (x3 )
(4.103)
2m
[E V (r)] (r) = 0 ,
2
(4.104)
1 d2 i (xi ) 2m
2m
2 Vi (xi ) = 2 E .
2
i (xi ) dxi
(4.105)
In the sum, the ith term (i {1, 2, 3}) depends only on xi , thus each
term must be a constant
1 d2 i (xi ) 2m
2m
2 Vi (xi ) = 2 Ei ,
2
i (xi ) dxi
(4.106)
where E1 + E2 + E3 = E.
Eyal Buks
83
(4.107)
(4.108)
thus
1 d2 1
1 d2 2
=
,
1 dx2
2 dx2
(4.109)
or
d2 1
d2 2
d
=
2
1
2
2
dx
dx
dx
d1
d 2
2
1
=0,
dx
dx
(4.110)
therefore
2
d1
d
1 2 = C ,
dx
dx
(4.111)
(4.112)
(4.113)
(4.114)
(4.115)
(4.116)
84
4.7. Solutions
with the same E. Therefore, all eigenwavefunctions can be chosen to be
real (i.e., by the transformation (x) ( (x) + (x)) /2). We have
d2 n 2m
+ 2 (En V (x)) n = 0 ,
(4.117)
dx2
d2 n+1 2m
+ 2 (En+1 V (x)) n+1 = 0 .
(4.118)
dx2
By multiplying the first Eq. by n+1 , the second one by n , and subtracting one has
n+1
d2 n+1 2m
d2 n
(4.119)
or
d
dx
d
d
n+1 n n n+1
dx
dx
2m
[En En+1 ] n n+1 = 0 . (4.120)
2
x2
x2
d
2m
d
n+1
n+1 n n
=
(E
E
)
dx n n+1 .
n+1
n
dx
x1
dx
2
=0
x1
>0
(4.121)
Without lost of generality, assume that n (x) > 0 in the range (x1 , x2 ).
Since n (x) is expected to be continuous, the following must hold
dn
>0,
(4.122)
dx
x=x1
dn
<0.
(4.123)
dx
x=x2
As can be clearly seen from Eq. (4.121), the assumption that n+1 (x) > 0
in the entire range (x1 , x2 ) leads to contradiction. Similarly, the possibility that n+1 (x) < 0 in the entire range (x1 , x2 ) is excluded. Therefore,
n+1 must have at least one zero in this range.
9. Clearly if (x) is an eigen function with energy E, also (x) is an
eigen function with the same energy. Consider two cases: (i) The level E
is nondegenerate. In this case (x) = c (x), where c is a constant.
Normalization requires that c2 = 1. Moreover, since the wavefunctions
can be chosen to be real, the following holds: (x) = (x). (ii) The
level E is degenerate. In this case every superposition of (x) and (x)
can be written as a superposition of an odd eigen function odd (x) and
an even one even (x), which are defined by
Eyal Buks
85
(4.124)
(4.125)
(4.126)
x0 +
x +
d (x)
0
2m
= 2
(V (x) E) (x) = 0 .
dx
x0
(4.127)
x0
if x > a
Aex
(x) = B cos (kx) if a x a ,
(4.128)
Aex
if x < a
where
2mE
=
,
(4.129)
and
2m (W + E)
k=
.
(4.130)
Requiring that both (x) and d (x) /dx are continuous at x = a yields
Aea = B cos (ka) ,
(4.131)
(4.132)
and
or in a matrix form
A
0
C
=
,
B
0
(4.133)
where
Eyal Buks
86
4.7. Solutions
C=
ea cos (ka)
ea k sin (ka)
(4.134)
= tan (ka) .
k
(4.135)
This condition can be rewritten using Eqs. (4.129) and (4.130) and the
dimensionless parameters
K = ka ,
2mW
K0 =
a,
(4.136)
(4.137)
as
cos2 K =
1
1
=
2 =
2
1 + tan K
1 + k
K
K0
2
(4.138)
Note, however, that according to Eq. (4.135) tan K > 0. Thus, Eq. (4.135)
is equivalent to the set of equations
K
,
K0
tan K > 0 .
cos K =
(4.139)
(4.140)
This set has at least one solution (this can be seen by plotting the functions cos K and K/K0 ).
12. Final answers: (a) a1 2 + a2 2 . (b)
7
! 3
"2
8 3
2 2 8
9
2 4
2 2
E =
an  n
an  n
.
(4.141)
2ma2 n=1
n=1
(c) The same as at t = 0. (d) E = 22 2 / ma2 , E = 0.
13. The Schrdinger equation for the wavefunction (x) is given by
2
d
2m
+ 2 E (x) = 0 .
(4.142)
dx2
The boundary conditions at x = 0 are
0+ = 0 ,
+
2
d (0 ) d (0 )
= (0) ,
dx
dx
a0
where
a0 =
Eyal Buks
2
.
m
(4.143)
(4.144)
(4.145)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
87
2mE
.
=
(4.146)
(4.147)
The parameter is real for E < 0. This even wavefunction satisfies the
Schrdinger equation for x = 0 and the boundary condition (4.143). The
condition (4.144) leads to a single solution for the energy of the ground
state
E=
m2
.
22
(4.148)
p=
2
4m2 1 2
m (1 + 2 )
exp
x
dx
4
2
0
41 2
=
.
(1 + 2 )2
=
(4.150)
14. The normalized wavefunction of the ground state is given by [see Eq.
(4.149)]
0
m
m
0 (x) =
exp
2 x .
(4.151)
2
Thus, the probability s (p0 ) is given by
Eyal Buks
88
4.7. Solutions
2
ip0 x
 0
s (p0 ) =
0  exp
m
ip0 x
2m
=
2
exp
exp 2 x dx
=
1+
2 p20
4m2 2
2 .
(4.152)
d (0+ ) d (0 )
2
= (0) ,
dx
dx
a0
where
a0 =
2
.
m
(4.154)
(4.155)
(4.156)
(4.157)
2mE0
=
.
(4.159)
The parameter is real for E0 < 0. This even wavefunction satisfies Eq.
(4.153) for x = 0 and the boundary conditions (4.154) and (4.155). The
condition (4.156) reads
a0 = tanh (a) .
(4.160)
Nontrivial ( = 0) real solution exists only when a > a0 , thus E0 < 0 iff
a > a0 =
Eyal Buks
2
.
m
(4.161)
89
= (x0 ) ,
dx
dx
a0
where
a0 =
2
.
m
(4.162)
(4.163)
(4.164)
(4.165)
(4.166)
where
=
2mE0
.
(4.167)
2x0
.
a0
(4.168)
(4.169)
(4.170)
(4.171)
(4.172)
or
x0
2
.
2m
(4.173)
(4.174)
therefore
Eyal Buks
90
4.7. Solutions
k
dx(H)
1
i (Ek El )
l =
k x(H) H Hx(H) l =
k x(H) l .
dt
i
(4.175)
Integrating yields
(H)
k x
(H)
(t = 0) l exp
i (Ek El ) t
(4.176)
k
k
(Ek El )
k x(H) l
dx(H)
dx(H)
(H)
(H)
=
k
l l x k k x l l
k
2i
dt
dt
k
dx(H)
dx(H)
(H)
(H)
=
l l
k k x l
l x k k
2i k
dt
dt
=
dx(H) dx(H) (H)
l x(H)
x l .
2i
dt
dt
(4.177)
Using again Eq. (4.37) one has
dx(H)
1 3 (H) 4 px
=
x ,H =
,
dt
i
m
(H)
(4.178)
therefore
3
4
(Ek El ) k x l2 =
l x(H) , p(H)
l
x
2im
k
i
2im
2
=
.
2m
=
(4.179)
18. The wavefunctions of the normalized eigenstates are given by
0
2
nx
n (x) =
sin
,
a
a
(4.180)
91
2 2 n2
.
2ma2
(4.181)
x
+ 1
2
2
x
(x) =
.
(4.182)
0
else
Thus in the limit x << a
a
x 2 n
pn =
2
sin
.
a
2
0
(4.183)
Namely, pn = 0 for all even n, and the probability of all energies with
odd n is equal.
b) Generally, for every bound state in one dimension p = 0 [see Eq.
(4.52)].
19. For a well of width a the wavefunctions of the normalized eigenstates are
given by
0
2
nx
(a)
n (x) =
sin
,
(4.184)
a
a
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
En(a) =
2 2 n2
.
2ma2
a
32
(a)
(2a)
p=
= 2 .
9
0
(4.185)
(4.186)
(a)
(b) For times t < 0 it is given that H = E1 . Immediately after the
change (t = 0+ ) the wavefunction remains unchanged. A direct evaluation
(a)
of H using the new Hamiltonian yields the same result H = E1 as for
t < 0. At later times t > 0 the expectation value H remains unchanged
due to energy conservation.
20. The wavefunctions of the normalized eigenstates are given by [see Eq.
(4.181)]
0
2
nx
n (x) =
sin
,
(4.187)
a
a
and the corresponding eigenenergies are [see Eq. (4.180)]
En =
Eyal Buks
2 2 n2
,
2ma2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(4.188)
92
4.7. Solutions
where n = 1, 2, . By symmetry for all states x = a/2. Furthermore,
for all states p = 0 [see Eq. (4.52)]. For the nth state the following
holds
) 2 * 2 a 2 2 nx
a2 2n2 2 3
=
x =
dx x sin
,
(4.189)
a 0
a
6n2 2
thus
'
( ) *
1
1
2
2
(x) = x2 x = a2
2 2
12 2n
2
'
( ) * 2 n 2 a
nx
n
(p)2 = p2 =
dx sin2
=
, (4.190)
a
a
a
a
0
(4.191)
d 
= H  ,
dt
(4.192)
(4.193)
d
1
q 2
=
i A + q ,
dt
2m
c
= (x ) = x  .
(4.194)
(4.195)
(4.197)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
93
2 2
2
A+
A
= +
A +
c
c
c
q 2
iq
2 2
2 iq
+
A
A
A
c
c
c
= 2 2 2
iq
+
( A + A + A + A )
c
iq
= 2 ( ) +
( A + A ) .
c
(4.198)
Thus, Eq. (4.196) can be written as
d
+ J = 0 ,
dt
(4.199)
where
J=
q
Im ( )
A.
m
mc
(4.200)
22. The current density J [see Eq. (4.75)] that is associated with the wave
J=
Im
m
x
=
Im ik A eikx + B eikx
Aeikx Beikx
m
=
Im ik A2 B2 + AB e2ikx A Be2ikx
m
k 2
=
A B2 .
m
(4.201)
Thus for a solution to the time independent Schrdinger equation, for
which the current density = is time independent, the continuity
equation (4.73) yields the relation
A1 2 B1 2 = A2 2 B2 2 .
(4.202)
23. In this problem the potential is piecewise constant. At the points where
the piecewise constant potential abruptly changes the solution has to
satisfy the requirements that both (x) and d/dx [see Eq. (4.127)] are
Eyal Buks
94
4.7. Solutions
continuous. Consider first a general case, where a given potential is taken
to be given by
+
Ul x x0
V (x ) =
,
(4.203)
Ur x > x0
where Ul and Ur are constants, and the wavefunction is expressed as
+
Al eikl x + Bl eikl x x x0
,
(4.204)
(x ) =
M=
(4.208)
and where the matrix () is defined by
i
e
0
() =
.
0 ei
(4.209)
The above general result (4.207) is employed below for the given piecewise
constant potential (4.77). Assume first that the wave function on the right
side of the barrier in the region x > a/2 is given by (x ) = eikx , and
on the left side of the barrier in the region x < a/2 it is given by
(x ) = Aeikx + Beikx . With the help of Eq. (4.207) one finds that
Eyal Buks
95
A
B
1
ka
1 + k 1 k
(a)
1 k 1 + k
4
2
ka
1 + k 1 k
1
0
1 k 1 + k
2
ika
i k
cos a
2 + k sin a
e
,
=
1
k
2 i k sin a
where
2 k2
=E,
2m
2 2
= E Ub ,
2m
and thus
(4.210)
(4.211)
(4.212)
eika
1
=
,
A
cos a 2i k + k sin a
k ika
1
sin a
B
2 i k e
.
r=
=
A
cos a 2i k + k sin a
t=
(4.213)
(4.214)
Note that, as is expected from current conservation [see Eq. (4.202)], the
following holds t2 + r2 = 1.
24. Using Eq. (4.45) one has
A (x, p) =
1
2
(2)
(c)
x)+(p(c) p)]
dddx(c) dp(c) .
(4.215)
(4.216)
one has
i
e x e p = e (x+p) e 2 2 [x,p] ,
(4.217)
thus
(c)
(c)
i
1
i
i
i
A (x, p) =
p(c) x(c) e (x +p ) e 2 e x e p dddx(c) dp(c)
2
(2)
(c)
(c)
i
1
i
i
=
p(c) x(c) e [((x + 2 )+p )] e x e p dddx(c) dp(c) .
2
(2)
(4.218)
Changing the integration variable
Eyal Buks
96
4.7. Solutions
x(c) = x(c)
one has
,
2
(4.219)
i (x(c) +p(c) ) i x i p
p(c) x(c)
e
e e dddx(c) dp(c)
2
(2)
1
i (x(c) x) i (p(c) p)
(c)
(c)
=
p
x
e
e
dddx(c) dp(c) .
2
(2)2
(4.220)
A (x, p) =
dkeik(x x ) = 2 (x x ) ,
(4.221)
(4.222)
(4.223)
thus
(c)
i
1
i (p(c) p)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c) 1
A (x, p) =
p
x
e
ddx dp
e (x x) d
2
2
2
i (p(c) p)
1
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)
=
x
ddx dp x(c) x
p
e
2
2
i (c)
1
=
p(c) x
e (p p) ddp(c)
2
2
(c)
i
1
1
i (c)
= p(c) xdp(c)
e (p p) d
p(c) e (p p) ddp(c)
2
2
2
(c)
i
1
= px
p(c) e (p p) ddp(c)
2
2
(c)
i
p)
(p
1
(c) e
= px
p
ddp(c)
2 2i
p(c)
(c)
i
1
= px
dp(c) p(c) (c)
de (p p) .
2i
p 2
(p(c) p)
(4.224)
Integration by parts yields
Eyal Buks
97
A (x, p) = px
(4.225)
(c) (c)
25. Below we derive an expression for the variable A x , p
in terms
of the matrix elements of the operator A (x, p) in the basis of position
eigenvectors
x . To
thatend
( we begin by evaluating the matrix element
'
x
x
x 2
A (x, p)
x + 2 using Eqs. (4.218), (3.19) and (4.222)
5
6
x
x
x
A (x, p)
x +
2
2
i
(c)
(c)
1
(c) (c)
A
x
=
,
p
e [((x + 2 )+p )]
2
(2)
5
6
x
i x i p
x
e
x
+
e
dddx(c) dp(c)
2
i
i
x
(c)
1
+ 2 )+p(c) )] x 2
(c) (c)
[( (x
=
A
x
,
p
e
e
(2)2
5
6
x
x
+
x
x
+
dddx(c) dp(c)
2
2
i (c)
(c)
i
1
(c) (c)
x p
(c)
(c)
A
x
e [(x x )] d
=
,
p
e
dx
dp
2
(2)
i (c)
1
=
A x(c) , p(c) e x p dx(c) dp(c) x(c) x
2
i (c)
1
=
A x , p(c) e x p dp(c) .
2
i
6
5
x
x
x
A (x, p)
x +
e x p dx
2
2
(c)
i
1
=
A x , p(c) dp(c) e x (p p ) dx ,
2
and
(4.226)
thus with the help of Eq. (4.223) one finds the desired inversion of Eq.
(4.45) is given by
Eyal Buks
98
4.7. Solutions
6
5
x
x
x +
A (x , p ) =
x
A
(x,
p)
e x p dx .
2
2
(4.227)
Note that A (x , p ), which appears on the left hand side of the above
equation (4.227) is a classical variable, whereas A (x, p) on the right hand
side is the corresponding quantum operator. A useful relations can be
obtained by integrating A (x , p ) over p . With the help of Eq. (4.222)
one finds that
6
5
x
x
x +
A
(x,
p)
e x p dp
A (x , p ) dp = dx x
2
= 2 x  A (x, p) x .
(4.228)
Another useful relations can be obtained by integrating A (x , p ) over
x .With the help of Eqs. (3.52) and (4.223) one finds that
6
5
x
i
x
A (x , p ) dx =
x
A (x, p)
x +
e x p dx dx
2
2
6
5
x
x
i
=
x
p p  A (x, p) p p
x +
e x p dx dx dp dp
2
2
i
i x
1
i
=
e x (p p ) e 2 (p p ) p  A (x, p) p e x p dx dx dp dp
2
i x
i
=
(p p ) e 2 (p p ) p  A (x, p) p e x p dx dp dp
i
=
p  A (x, p) p e x (p p ) dx dp
= 2 p  A (x, p) p (p p ) dp
= 2 p  A (x, p) p .
Eyal Buks
(4.229)
99
U
= m 2 x .
x
(5.1)
where x0 is a constant having dimension of length. Using Eq. (5.1) one finds
that
1
i
1
i 2
=
(5.3)
=
x + x
x x = i .
x0
x0
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
p2
m 2 x2
+
.
2m
2
(5.7)
In quantum mechanics the variables x and p are regarded as operators satisfying the following commutation relations [see Eq. (3.9)]
[x, p] = xp px = i .
(5.8)
5.1 Eigenstates
The annihilation and creation operators are defined as
0
m
ip
x+
,
a=
2
m
0
m
ip
a =
x
.
2
m
The inverse transformation is given by
0
x=
a + a ,
2m
0
m
p=i
a + a .
2
The following holds
,
i
([p, x] [x, p]) = 1 ,
a, a =
2
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
=
2m
2
2
H
1
=
.
2
(5.15)
Thus, the Hamiltonian can be written as
1
H = N +
.
2
(5.16)
102
5.1. Eigenstates
N n = n n .
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
(5.20)
(5.21)
(5.22)
(5.23)
N a n =
and
,
N, a + a N n = (n + 1) a n ,
(5.24)
(5.25)
(5.27)
103
a n = n n 1 ,
a n = n + 1 n + 1 .
(5.28)
(5.29)
Claim. The spectrum (i.e. the set of eigenvalues) of N are the nonnegative
integers {0, 1, 2, }.
Proof. First, note that since the operator N is positivedefinite the eigenvalues are necessarily non negative
n = n a a n 0 .
(5.30)
n=0
n n .
(5.31)
Furthermore, using Eq. (5.29) one can express the state n in terms of the
ground state 0 as
n
a
(5.32)
n = 0 .
n!
(5.33)
(5.34)
Clearly these states dont oscillate in phase space as classical harmonic oscillators do. Can one find quantum states having dynamics that resembles
classical harmonic oscillators?
Eyal Buks
104
(5.35)
where
D () = exp a a ,
(5.36)
In the set of problems at the end of this chapter the following results are
obtained:
The displacement operator is unitary D () D () = D () D () = 1.
The coherent state  is an eigenvector of the operator a with an eigenvalue
, namely
a  =  .
(5.37)
For any function f a, a having a power series expansion the following
holds
D () f a, a D () = f a + , a + .
(5.38)
The displacement operator satisfies the following relations
2
2
D () = e 2 ea e a = e 2 e a ea ,
m
2
2
+
i
x m
p 4
2
2
D () = e
e
e
,
D ( + ) .
D () D ( ) = exp
2
(5.39)
(5.40)
(5.41)
 = e
2
2
n
n .
n!
n=0
(5.42)
Eyal Buks
105
p =  p  = 2m Im () ,
0
.
2
x =  (x)  =
,
2m
0
.
m
2
,
p =  (p)  =
2
x p = .
2
The wave function of a coherent state is given by
(5.43)
(5.44)
(5.45)
(5.46)
(5.47)
(5.48)
(5.49)
(5.50)
(x ) = x 
2
2
x x
2 m 1/4
x
= exp
exp
+ i p
.
4
2x
(5.51)
(5.52)
 2
iEn t n0
20
n
 (t) = e
exp
n!
n=0
n
exp (int) 0 n
n!
n=0
n
0 2
0 eit
= eit/2 e 2
n
n!
n=0
*
= eit/2
= 0 eit .
= eit/2 e
Eyal Buks
0 2
2
(5.53)
106
5.3. Problems
In view of Eqs. (5.43), (5.45) (5.48) and (5.49), we see from this results that
H , H , x and p are all time independent. On the other hand, as
can be seen from Eqs. (5.46) and (5.47) the following holds
0
2
Re 0 eit ,
x =  x  =
(5.54)
m
p =  p  = 2m Im 0 eit .
(5.55)
These results show that indeed, x and p have oscillatory time dependence identical to the dynamics of the position and momentum of a classical
harmonic oscillator [compare with Eqs. (5.5) and (5.6)].
5.3 Problems
1. Calculate the wave functions n (x ) = x n of the number states n
of a harmonic oscillator.
2. Show that
tn
exp 2Xt t2 =
Hn (X)
,
n!
n=0
(5.56)
n=0
n
2
Hn (X) Hn (Y )
=
n!
exp
(2XY X 2 Y 2 )
12
1 2
(5.58)
(5.59)
Eyal Buks
107
(x)20 = 0  (x x0 )2 0 ,
(p)20
= 0  (p p0 ) 0 .
(5.60)
(5.61)
(5.62)
(5.63)
(5.64)
m2 2
x + x .
2
(5.66)
m2 2
x .
2
(5.67)
else
where and a are positive real constants. Find the eigenenergies of the
system.
11. Consider a harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency 0 .
At time t = 0 the systems state is given by
1
 (t = 0) = (0 + 1) ,
2
Eyal Buks
(5.69)
108
5.3. Problems
where the states 0 and 1 are the ground and first excited states, respectively, of the oscillator. Calculate as a function of time t the following
quantities:
a) x
b) )p *
c) x2
d) xp
12. Harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency is in state
1
 (t = 0) = (0 + n)
2
(5.70)
at time t = 0, where 0 is the ground state and n is the eigenstate
with eigenenergy (n + 1/2) (n is a non zero integer). Calculate the
expectation value x for time t 0.
13. Consider a harmonic oscillator having mass m and angular resonance
frequency . At time t = 0 the systems state is given by (0) = c0 0+
c1 1 , where n are the eigenstates with energies En = (n +.1/2).
2
2
ea e
=e
2
2
e a ea .
1
2
m ,
(5.71)
2
2
n
n .
n!
n=0
(5.72)
17. Show that the coherent state  is an eigenvector of the operator a with
an eigenvalue , namely
a  =  .
18. Show that
(5.73)
0
m
x
D () = exp
2
2
+
2
i
p exp
exp
.
4
2
m
(5.74)
19. Show that for any function f a, a having a power series expansion the
following holds
D () f a, a D () = f a + , a + .
(5.75)
Eyal Buks
109
e) p = 
Im ().
. p  = 2m.
2
f) x =  (x)  = 2m
.
.
.
2
g) p =  (p)  = m
2 .
21. Consider a harmonic oscillator of mass m and angular resonance frequency . The Hamiltonian is given by
H=
1
p2
+ m 2 x2 .
2m 2
(5.76)
(5.77)
(5.78)
D ( + ) .
(5.79)
(5.80)
110
5.3. Problems
26. A one dimensional potential acting on a particle having mass m is given
by
1
V1 (x) = m 2 x2 + m 2 x .
2
(5.81)
(5.82)
(5.84)
(5.85)
111
(5.86)
(5.87)
r is a real number, and a and a are the annihilation and creation operators respectively. Based on the above definition calculate the expectation
values r x r of the position operator x, the expectation value r p r
2
of the momentum operator p, the variance (x) of x and the variance
(p)2 of p with respect to the state r.
31. Consider one dimensional motion of a particle having mass m. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = 0 a a + 1 a a aa ,
where
a=
m 0
2
ip
x+
,
m0
(5.88)
(5.89)
(5.90)
where the real nonnegative parameter has units of energy, and where
the operator N is given by
N = b b .
(5.91)
(5.92)
(5.93)
(5.94)
112
5.3. Problems
a) Find the eigenvalues of H. Clue: show first that N 2 = N .
b) Let 0 be the ground state of the system, which is assumed to be
nondegenerate.
Define
the two states
+ = A+ 1 + b 0 ,
(5.95a)
(5.95b)
 = A 1 b 0 ,
where the real nonnegative numbers A+ and A are normalization
constants. Calculate A+ and A . Clue: show first that b 0 is an
eigenvector of N .
c) At time t = 0 the system is in the state
 (t = 0) = + ,
(5.96)
creation
a
operators.
The
normal
ordering
of
f
a, a , which is denoted
by : f a, a : places the a operators on the right and the a operators
on the left. Some examples are given below
: aa : = a a ,
: a a : = a a ,
n
n
: a a : = a an .
(5.97)
(5.98)
(5.99)
Normal ordering is linear, i.e. : f + g :=: f : + : g :. Show that the projection operator Pn = n n, where n is an eigenvector of the Hamiltonian
of a harmonic oscillator, can be expressed as
Pn =
1 n
exp a a an : .
: a
n!
(5.100)
dx x x  ,
(5.101)
ea a =: exp e 1 a a : .
(5.102)
Eyal Buks
113
(5.105)
1
exp
1+
x2
1 + x20
2
x
=: exp 2 : ,
x0
(5.106)
(5.107)
x
a + a
=
,
x
2
0
(5.108)
(5.110)
(5.111)
where a and a are the annihilation and creation operators, both and
1 are positive, and where k is integer. At initial time t = 0 the state
of the system is an eigenstate of the operator a with eigenvalue , i.e.
 (t = 0) = c , where a c = c .
Eyal Buks
114
5.4. Solutions
a) Find a general expression for the state of the system  (t) at time
t > 0.
b) Evaluate  (t) at time t = 2/ 1 .
c) Evaluate  (t) at time t = /1 .
d) Evaluate  (t) at time t = /2 1 for the case where k is even.
41. Consider two normalized coherent states  and , where , C.
The operator A is defined as
A =     .
(5.112)
5.4 Solutions
1. The Hamiltonian is given by
H=
p2
m2 x2
+
.
2m
2
2 d n
x  a n = 2x0
x n (x ) + x0
,
dx
1/2
d
x  a n = 2x20
x n (x ) x20 n
,
dx
(5.113)
(5.114)
where
x0 =
.
m
(5.115)
For the ground state 0, according to Eq. (5.28), a 0 = 0, thus
x 0 (x ) + x20
d0
=0.
dx
1
0 (x ) = A0 exp
2
(5.116)
x
x0
2 "
(5.117)
thus
Eyal Buks
115
2
(5.119)
x0
0 (x ) =
.
exp
1/2
2 x0
1/4 x
(5.120)
All other wavefunctions are found using Eqs. (5.32) and (5.114)
n
1
2 d
n (x ) =
x
x
0 (x )
0
dx
(2x0 )n/2 n!
!
2 "
n
1
1
1 x
2 d
=
x x0
exp
.
dx
2 x0
1/4 2n n! x0n+1/2
(5.121)
Using the notation
2
n
X
X2
d
exp
Hn (X) = exp
X
,
2
dX
2
the expression for n (x ) can be rewritten as
2
x
exp 2x
Hn xx0
2
0
n (x ) =
.
1/2 n
1/4 x0
2 n!
(5.122)
(5.123)
(5.124)
(5.125)
(5.126)
(5.127)
(5.128)
2. Therelation (5.56),
which is a Taylor expansion of the function f (t) =
exp 2Xt t2 around the point t = 0, implies that
dn
Hn (X) = n exp 2Xt t2
.
(5.129)
dt
t=0
2
Eyal Buks
116
5.4. Solutions
2 dn
2
Hn (X) = exp X
exp (X t)
.
dtn
t=0
(5.130)
d
d
2
2
exp (X t) =
exp (X t) ,
dt
dX
(5.131)
dn
2
(X
t)
dX n
t=0
n
2
n d
2
= exp X (1)
exp X .
dX n
(5.132)
(5.133)
and
exp
X2
2
d
X2
d
X
exp
g = 2X
g,
dX
2
dX
(5.134)
thus
Hn (X) = exp
X2
2
n
d
X2
X
exp
.
dX
2
(5.135)
exp ax2 + bx + c dx =
2
14 4ca+b
a
e
,
a
(5.136)
according to which the following holds (for the case a = 1, b = 2iX and
c = 0)
1
exp X 2 =
exp x2 + 2iXx dx ,
(5.137)
Eyal Buks
117
Hn (X) =
exp x2 + 2iXx dx
dX
1
=
1
=
n
(2ix) exp X 2 x2 + 2iXx dx
2
(2ix) e(X+ix) dx ,
(5.138)
n
Hn (X) Hn (Y )
2
2 (2xy)
1
2
dx
dy e(X+ix) e(Y +iy)
=
n!
n!
n=0
n=0
e2xy
1
=
x(x2iY )
e
2
2
2
dx e(1 )x +2i(XY )x+X
exp
=
dx e(X+ix)
(2XY X 2 Y 2 )
12
1 2
.
(5.139)
4. With the help of Eqs. (5.9), (5.10), (5.11), (5.12) and (5.13) one finds
n x n = 0 ,
n x2 n =
n aa + a a n =
(2n + 1) ,
2m
2m
n p n = 0 ,
m
m
n p2 n =
n aa + a a n =
(2n + 1) ,
2
2
thus
2
'
('
(
1
2
2
(x)
(p) = n +
2 .
2
(5.140)
(5.141)
(5.142)
(5.143)
p2
.
2m
(5.144)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
118
5.4. Solutions
Using Eqs. (4.37) and (5.8) one finds that
and
dx(H)
1 3 (H) (H) 4 p(H) 3 (H) (H) 4 p(H)
=
x ,H
=
x ,p
=
,
dt
i
im
m
(5.145)
dp(H)
1 3 (H) (H) 4
=
p ,H
=0.
dt
i
(5.146)
1 (H)
p (0) t .
m
(5.147)
p2
m2 x2
+
.
2m
2
(5.149)
and
dx(H)
1 3 (H) (H) 4 p(H)
=
x ,H
=
,
dt
i
m
(5.150)
dp(H)
1 3 (H) (H) 4
=
p ,H
= m2 x(H) .
dt
i
(5.151)
(5.152)
and
p(H) (t) = p(H) (0) cos (t) m sin (t) x(H) (0) .
Eyal Buks
(5.153)
119
(5.154)
3
4
= m (cos (t1 ) sin (t2 ) sin (t1 ) cos (t2 )) x(H) (0) , p(H) (0)
(5.155)
and 3
4
x(H) (t1 ) , x(H) (t2 )
3
4
1
(cos (t1 ) sin (t2 ) sin (t1 ) cos (t2 )) x(H) (0) , p(H) (0)
m
i
=
sin ( (t1 t2 )) .
m
(5.156)
7. Due to the infinite barrier for x 0 the wavefunction must vanish at
x = 0. This condition is satisfied by the wavefunction of all number
states n with odd value of n (the states n are
of the regu
eigenstates
lar harmonic oscillator with potential V (x) = m 2 /2 x2 ). These wavefunctions obviously satisfy the Schrdinger equation for x > 0.
a) Thus the possible energy values are Ek = (2k + 3/2) where k =
0, 1, 2, .
b) The corresponding normalized wavefunctions are given by
+
22k+1 (x) x > 0
k (x) =
,
(5.157)
0
x0
=
where n (x) is the wavefunction of the number states n. Thus for
a given k
Eyal Buks
120
5.4. Solutions
) 2*
x k=
0
=2
2
dx
k (x)
x
0
2
dx
2k+1 (x)
x2
2
dx
2k+1 (x)
x2
= 2k + 1 x2 2k + 1 ,
(5.158)
(5.159)
m2
2
2
.
x+
2
m 2
2m 2
(5.160)
(5.161)
where n = 0, 1, 2, .
9. In the classically forbidden region V (x) > E0 = /2, namely x > x0
where
0
x0 =
.
(5.162)
m
Using Eq. (5.120) one finds
p=2
0 (x)2 dx
x0
! 2 "
2
x
= 1/2
exp
dx
x0
x0 x0
= 1 erf (1)
= 0.157 .
(5.163)
Eyal Buks
121
(5.164)
a n = n n 1 ,
a n = n + 1 n + 1 ,
, a, a = 1 ,
thus
a)
(5.165)
(5.166)
(5.167)
(5.168)
(5.169)
(5.170)
(t) a + a  (t)
2m 0
0
1
=
0 + ei0 t 1 a + a 0 + ei0 t 1
2m 0 2
0
1 i0 t
=
+ ei0 t
e
2m 0 2
0
=
cos ( 0 t) .
2m 0
(5.171)
x =
b)
m 0
(t) a + a  (t)
2
m 0 1
=i
0 + ei0 t 1 a + a 0 + ei0 t 1
2 2
0
m 0
=
sin ( 0 t) .
2
(5.172)
p = i
0
c)
Eyal Buks
122
5.4. Solutions
) 2*
x =
2
(t) a + a  (t)
2m 0
2 ,
=
(t) a2 + a + a, a + 2a a  (t)
2m 0
1
=
1+2
2m 0
2
=
.
m 0
(5.173)
d) Similarly
) 2*
2
m 0
p =
(t) a + a  (t)
2
2 ,
m 0
(t) a2 + a a, a 2a a  (t)
=
2
= m0 ,
(5.174)
thus
:
0
cos2 ( 0 t)
sin2 (0 t)
xp = 1
1
2
2
0
1
=
2 + sin2 (2 0 t) .
2
4
(5.175)
12. The state  (t) is given by
1
iE0 t
iEn t
 (t) = exp
0 + exp
n ,
(5.176)
2
where
1
En = n +
,
2
thus, using
0
x=
and
a + a ,
2m
a n = n n 1 ,
a n = n + 1 n + 1 ,
(5.177)
(5.178)
(5.179)
(5.180)
Eyal Buks
123
(t) a + a  (t)
2m
0
cos (t) .
=
2m
x (t) =
(5.181)
1
,
2
a n = n n 1 ,
a n = n + 1 n + 1 ,
that
cos =
2
.
2
(5.182)
(5.183)
(5.184)
(5.185)
(5.186)
(5.187)
(5.188)
(5.189)
thus
p (t = 0) =
m
m 2
sin =
= mx (t = 0) . (5.190)
2
2 2
(5.191)
124
5.4. Solutions
14. According to identity (2.175), which states that
1
(5.192)
provided that
[A, [A, B]] = [B, [A, B]] = 0 ,
(5.193)
2
2
2
2
ea e
e a ea .
(5.194)
2
2
ea e
=e
2
2
e a ea ,
(5.195)
thus
D () D () = D () D () = 1 .
(5.196)
16. Using Eqs. (5.35), (5.28) and (5.29) one finds that
 = e
2
2
ea e a 0 = e
n
2
n .
= e 2
n!
n=0
2
2
ea 0
(5.197)
2
2
= e
n
a n
n!
n=0
2
2
=  .
n1
n 1
(n 1)!
n=1
D () = exp
( ) x i
( + ) p ,
2
2m
(5.198)
(5.199)
thus with the help of Eqs. (2.175) and (5.8) the desired result is obtained
Eyal Buks
125
D () = exp
0
(5.200)
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (5.201)
2!
3!
(5.202)
D () aD () = a + ,
D () a D () = a + .
(5.203)
(5.204)
(e.g., D a2 D = D aDD aD = (a + )2 ).
20. Using Eq. (5.75) and the following identities
1
H = a a +
,
(5.206)
2
0
a + a ,
x=
(5.207)
2m
0
m
p=i
a + a ,
(5.208)
2
all these relations are easily obtained.
21. Expressing the state  in the basis of eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian
n
 =
n=0
cn n ,
(5.209)
using
Eyal Buks
126
5.4. Solutions
a  =  ,
(5.210)
and
a n =
n n 1 ,
(5.211)
one finds
n=0
cn n n 1 =
cn n ,
(5.212)
n=0
thus
cn+1 =
cn ,
n+1
(5.213)
therefore
 = A
n
n .
n!
n=0
2
2
1 = A2
= A2 e .
n!
n=0
(5.214)
(5.215)
2
2
(5.216)
n
.
n!
(5.217)
thus
cn = e
2
2
Eyal Buks
127
p = 2m Im () ,
(5.220)
(5.221)
2
i x p
i p x
2
x  = x  exp
exp
exp
0
4
2
i p x
2
= exp
exp
x x 0 .
4
(5.223)
x 0 =
exp
,
(5.224)
2x
(2)1/4 x
where
x =
,
2m
(5.225)
thus
2
x x
exp
2x
i p x
2 2
x  = exp
exp
1/4
4
(2)
x
2
2
2
1/4
x x
m
x
= exp
exp
+ i p
.
4
2x
(5.226)
23. Using Eqs. (5.36) and (2.175) this relation is easily obtained.
24. With the help of Eq. (5.42) one has
2
1
1
1
  d2 =
n m
e n m d2 .
n,m
n!m!
Eyal Buks
128
5.4. Solutions
(5.227)
Employing polar coordinates in the complex plane = ei , where is
nonnegative real and is real, leads to
1
2
1
1
  d =
n m
dn+m+1 e
dei(nm)
n,m
n!m!
0
0
2
2nm
n
n
n
n n
2
n!
d2n+1 e
1
n n (n + 1)
n!
=n!
n n
=1.
(5.228)
25. Using Eqs. (5.35) and (5.41) one finds that
 = 0 D () D () 0
= 0 D () D () 0
+
= exp
0 D ( + ) 0
2
+
= exp
0  .
2
(5.229)
= exp
+
2
2
!
"
 2
= exp
+ i Im ( ) .
2
(5.230)
26. The following holds
Eyal Buks
129
V1 (x) =
(5.231)
where
x = x + .
(5.232)
a) Thus, using Eqs. (5.152) and (5.153) together with the relations
x(H) (t) = x(H) (t) + ,
(5.233)
(H)
(H)
p (t) = p
(t) ,
(5.234)
one finds
sin (t) (H)
x(H) (t) = x(H) (0) + cos (t) +
p (0) , (5.235)
m
p(H) (t) = p(H) (0) cos (t) m sin (t) x(H) (0) + . (5.236)
b) For '
this case (at time t = 0
x(H) (0) = 0 ,
(
'
p(H) (0) = 0 ,
thus
'
(
x(H) (t) = (cos (t) 1) .
(5.237)
(5.238)
(5.239)
(5.240)
0
2
m
+
i
2
x exp
p exp
0 .
4
2
2
m
(5.241)
*
 (t) = eit/2
= 0 eit ,
Eyal Buks
(5.242)
(5.243)
130
5.4. Solutions
and the following holds
0
,
2
x (t) =
Re 0 eit = x cos (t) ,
m
(5.244)
(5.245)
/2
n
n ,
n!
n
(5.246)
2
n
e0  2n
1
m2x
m2x
0
.
=
exp
n!
n!
2
2
(5.247)
(5.248)
(5.249)
(5.250)
(5.251)
(5.252)
(5.253)
(5.254)
thus at time t = 0
xp = i 0 aa a a 0 = i .
2
2
(5.255)
p2
+ gx .
2m
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(5.256)
131
thus
dx(H)
p(H)
=
,
dt
m
dp(H)
= g ,
dt
dx2(H)
1
1
=
x p + p(H) x(H) =
2x(H) p(H) i ,
dt
m (H) (H)
m
(5.260)
(5.261)
(5.262)
(5.263)
,
(5.264)
m
2m
2 t
+
x (t ) p(H) (t ) dt
m 0 (H)
p(H) (0) t gt2 ,
2 t
x(H) (0) +
+
p(H) (0) gt dt
m 0
m
2m
it
m
it
= x2(H) (0)
m
it
= x2(H) (0)
m
"
t!
2
2 3
p2(H) (0) t gt2
p
(0)
gt
2
g
t
(H)
+
x(H) (0) p(H) (0) +
it
= x2(H) (0)
m
!
"
p2(H) (0) t2 p(H) (0) gt3 x(H) (0) gt2 p(H) (0) gt3 g2 t4
2
+
x(H) (0) p(H) (0) t +
+
.
m
2m
6m
2
3m
8m
(5.265)
Using the initial conditions Eqs. (5.248), (5.249), (5.250), (5.251) and
(5.255) one finds
x (t) =
Eyal Buks
gt2
,
2m
(5.266)
132
5.4. Solutions
g 2 t4
,
4m2
p (t) = gt ,
2
x (t) =
and
) 2 *
x (t) =
(5.267)
(5.268)
it
2
+
2m
m
m
it t2 g2 t4
+
+
,
2
4
8m
'
( )
*
(x)2 (t) = x2 (t) x (t)2 =
(5.269)
t2
+
=
1 + 2 t2 .
2m
2m
2m
(5.270)
1
1
[L, [L, O]] + [L, [L, [L, O]]] + , (5.271)
2!
3!
(5.272)
(5.273)
(5.274)
[L, O] = ra ,
[L, [L, O]] = r2 a ,
[L, [L, [L, O]]] = r3 a ,
[L, [L, [L, [L, O]]]] = r4 a ,
(5.275)
(5.276)
(5.277)
(5.278)
(5.279)
a) Thus
T = Aa + Ba ,
where
A = cosh r ,
B = sinh r .
b) Using the0relations
x=
a + a ,
2m
0
m
p=i
a + a .
2
Eyal Buks
(5.280)
(5.281)
(5.282)
(5.283)
(5.284)
133
0 S (r) a + a S (r) 0
2m
0
=
0 T 0 + 0 T 0
2m
=0,
r x r =
(5.285)
m
r p r = i
0 S (r) a + a S (r) 0
2
0
0 T 0 + 0 T 0
=
2m
=0.
(5.286)
c) Note that S (r) is unitary, namely S (r) S (r) = 1, since the operator
2
a2 a is anti Hermitian. Thus
r x2 r =
0 S (r) a + a a + a S (r) 0
2m
=
0 S (r) a + a S (r) S (r) a + a S (r) 0
2m
2
=
0 T + T 0
2m
2
(A + B)2
=
0 a + a 0
2m
(cosh r sinh r)2
=
2m
e2r
=
,
2m
(5.287)
and
2
m
r p2 r =
0 S (r) a a S (r) 0
2
2
m
=
0 T T 0
2
2
m (A B)2
=
0 a a 0
2
m (cosh r + sinh r)2
=
2
me2r
=
.
2
(5.288)
Thus
Eyal Buks
134
5.4. Solutions
e2r
,
2m
me2r
2
,
(p) =
2
(x) (p) = .
2
30. With the help of Eqs. (5.9) and (5.10) one finds that
0
r
Q (r) + Q (r) ,
x=e
2m
0
m
r
Q (r) Q (r) ,
p = ie
2
2
(x) =
(5.289)
(5.290)
(5.291)
(5.292)
(5.293)
(5.294)
(5.295)
one obtains
2
e2r
r Q (r) + Q (r) r
2m
e2r
=
r Q (r) Q (r) r
2m
e2r
=
,
2m
r x2 r =
(5.296)
and similarly
2
me2r
r Q (r) Q (r) r
2
me2r
=
r Q (r) Q (r) r
2
me2r
,
=
2
r p2 r =
(5.297)
thus
e2r
,
2m
me2r
(p)2 =
.
2
(x)2 =
Eyal Buks
(5.298)
(5.299)
135
(5.300)
one finds
H = 0 N + 1 N 2 N ,
(5.301)
where
N = a a
(5.302)
(5.303)
(5.304)
where
,
En = 0 n + 1 n2 n .
(5.305)
Note that
En+1 En
= 0 + 2 1 n ,
thus En+1 > En .
b) Using the relations
0
x=
a +a ,
2m 0
0
m 0
p=i
a a ,
2
x2 =
a a + aa + 2N + 1 ,
2m 0
m0
2
p =
a a aa + 2N + 1 ,
2
a n = n n 1 ,
a n = n + 1 n + 1 ,
one finds
i. 0x0 = 0
ii. 0p0 = 0
Eyal Buks
(5.306)
(5.307)
(5.308)
(5.309)
(5.310)
(5.311)
(5.312)
136
5.4. Solutions
'
(
2
0 (x) 0 =
'
(
iv. 0 (p)2 0 =
iii.
2m0
m0
2
(5.313)
(5.314)
Using the clue one finds that n2 = n, thus the possible values of n
are 0 (ground state) and 1 (excited state). Thus, the eigenvalues of
H are 0 and .
b) To verify the statement in the clue we calculate
N b 0 = b bb 0 = b (1 N ) 0 = b 0 ,
(5.315)
(5.316)
(5.317)
(5.318)
(5.319)
 = 2 A  .
(5.320)
choosing the normalization constants to be nonnegative real numbers lead to
1
A+ = A = .
2
(5.321)
Eyal Buks
137
iHt
1
iHt
exp
= 1+
n!
n=1
n
1
it
= 1+N
n!
n=1
!
"
1 it n
= 1 + N 1 +
n!
n=0
it
.
= 1 + N 1 + exp
(5.322)
Thus
iHt
p0 (t) =
 exp
+
2
it
=
4
2
1
it
1 exp
4
t
= sin2
.
2
(5.323)
33. The closure relation (5.31) can be written as
1=
n,m=0
1
d
m
= n,m ,
n! d
=0
(5.324)
(5.325)
which is obtained using the Taylor power expansion series of the function
m , one finds that
Eyal Buks
138
5.4. Solutions
1=
n,m=0
n
d
1
n m
m
d
n! m!
=0
n,m=0
n
m
a
a
d
=
0 0
m
n!
m! d
=0
n,m=0
! n n "
!
"
d
m m
a
a
d
=
0 0
n!
m!
n=0
m=0
=0
d
0 0 exp (a)
= exp a
.
d
=0
=
(5.326)
(5.327)
(5.328)
: f gh : =: f hg : ,
(5.329)
: f (: g : ) : = : f g : .
(5.330)
and
Thus
Eyal Buks
139
d
exp a
: Z : exp (a)
=0
d
Z exp (a)
: exp a
:
d
=0
d
exp (a) Z
: exp a
:
d
=0
d n
m
a d
(a)
:
Z
n!
m!
n,m
=0
d n
n d
am
:
a
m
Z:
n!
m!
n,m
=0
n,m
= : exp a a Z :
= : exp a a ( : Z : ) : ,
(5.331)
and therefore
0 0 = : exp a a : .
(5.332)
n
1 n
: a
exp a a a : .
n!
(5.333)
p2
m2 x2
+
+ xf (t) ,
2m
2
(5.334)
H = a a +
+ f (t)
a + a .
(5.335)
2
2m
1
i(tt0 )
a (t) = e
a (t0 ) i
dt ei(tt ) f (t ) ,
2m t0
Eyal Buks
(5.337)
140
5.4. Solutions
where the initial time t0 will be taken below to be . The Heisenberg
operator a (t) is found from the Hermitian conjugate of the last result.
Let Pn (t) be the Heisenberg representation of the projector n n. The
probability pn (t) to find the oscillator in the number state n at time t
is given by
pn (t) = 0 Pn (t) 0 .
(5.338)
To evaluate pn (t) it is convenient to employ the normal ordering representation of the operator Pn (5.100). In normal ordering the first term of
Eq. (5.337), which is proportional to a (t0 ) does not contribute to pn (t)
since a (t0 ) 0 = 0 and also 0 a (t0 ) = 0. To evaluate pn = pn (t )
the integral in the second term of Eq. (5.337) is evaluate from t0 =
to t = +. Thus one finds that
pn =
e n
,
n!
(5.339)
where
=
it
dt
e
f
(t
)
.
2m
(5.340)
x  P  =
dx x x x 
= x  ,
(5.341)
n (x ) =
,
(5.342)
n (x ) n even
thus
P n =
n n odd
,
n n even
(5.343)
(5.344)
141
(5.345)
yields
ea
=
=
=
=
n=0
en n n
n
n=0
n
a
an
0 0
n!
n!
en n
a
: exp a a : an
n!
n=0
en
n!
n=0
n
: a exp a a an :
en n
a a exp a a :
n!
n=0
=: exp e a a exp a a : ,
=:
(5.346)
thus
ea
=: exp
,
e 1 a a : .
(5.347)
n=0
n n x ,
(5.348)
where
n
a
n = 0 ,
n!
(5.349)
thus with the help of Eq. (5.123) and the generating function of Hermite
polynomials (5.56) one finds that (note that x n is real)
2
n
x
x
H
exp 2x
2
n x0
a
0
0
x =
1/2
2n n!
n!
1/4 x0
n=0
2
2
x
exp 2x
2 xx0 a a2
2 +
0
=
0 .
1/2
1/4 x0
(5.350)
Eyal Buks
142
5.4. Solutions
38. Using the relation x x = x x and Eq. (3.32) one finds that
exp kx2 =
dx ekx x x  .
(5.351)
1
x x  =
: e(X X ) : ,
x0
(5.352)
where
a + a
x
=
,
x0
2
X=
(5.353)
and where
X =
x
.
x0
(5.354)
Thus
1
exp kx2 =
1
=
dX : e(X
X ) +KX 2
dX : e(1K)X
+2X XX 2
: ,
(5.355)
where K = kx20 . With the help of the identity (5.136) this becomes
Kx2
1
K x2
exp
: exp
=
: .
(5.356)
x20
1 K x20
1K
Using the notation
=
K
,
1K
exp
=: exp 2 : .
2
1
+
x
x
1+
0
0
(5.357)
(5.358)
39. The orthogonality between number states yields according to Eq. (5.123)
Eyal Buks
143
m n =
=
2
exp xx2 Hm xx0 Hn xx0
0
dx
2m m!2n n!x0
dX
exp
X 2 Hm (X ) Hn (X )
2m m!2n n!
= nm .
(5.359)
2
Hn (z)
n=0
tn
,
n!
(5.360)
dz e(zt) Hm (z)
n
t
n!
n=0
dz ez Hm (z) Hn (z) ,
(5.361)
(5.362)
The relations x x = x x , X = a + a / 2 = x/x0 together with
Eq. (5.352) yield
Hn (X) =
dx Hn
1
= :
x
x0
x x 
dX e(X
X )
Hn (X ) : ,
(5.363)
(5.364)
144
5.4. Solutions
The last result together with the identity
dHn
= 2nHn1 (X ) ,
dX
(5.365)
yields
d
1 dHn (X)
: Xn : = n
dX
2
dX
Hn1 (X)
=n
2n1
= n : X n1 : ,
(5.366)
thus
d
d n
: X n : =:
X : .
dX
dX
(5.367)
Thus, for a general smooth function F (X) of the operator X the following
holds
d
dF
: F (X) : =:
: .
dX
dX
(5.368)
2
2
n
n .
n!
n=0
(5.369)
iHt
u (t) = exp
(5.370)
= ei1 (a a) t eia at ,
thus
 (t) = u (t)  (t = 0)
n
n
n!
n=0
it n
k
2 e
= ei1 (a a) t e 2
n
n!
n=0
it n
2 e
= e 2
ein n ,
n!
n=0
2
k

= ei1 (a a) t eia at e 2
Eyal Buks
(5.371)
145
(5.372)
(5.373)
and therefore
6
2i
2
=
e 1
.
1
c
(5.374)
n
ein = (1) ,
(5.376)
and therefore
n
i
6
1
e
2

(1)n n
= e 2
1
n!
n=0
i
.
=
e 1
c
(5.377)
d) At time t = /2 1 the phase factor n is given by n = (/2) nk .
For the case where k is even one has
+
0 n is even
mod nk , 4 =
,
(5.378)
1 n is odd
thus
in
1 n is even
,
i n is odd
(5.379)
and therefore
n
i
2
6
1
e
2

= e 2
ein n .
2 1
n!
n=0
(5.380)
6
(
(
1 i
i
i
4
e 2 1
4
e 2 1
=
e
+
e
. (5.381)
2 1
c
c
2
Eyal Buks
146
5.4. Solutions
41. Let {n } be the set of eigenvalues of A. Clearly A is Hermitian, namely
A = A, thus the eigenvalues n are expected to be real. Since the trace
of an operator is basis independent, the following must hold
Tr (A) =
n ,
(5.382)
n
and
2
Tr A2 =
n .
(5.383)
On the other hand, with the help of Eq. (2.172) one finds that
Tr (A) = Tr ( ) Tr ( ) = 0 ,
(5.384)
and
Tr A2 = Tr (  ) + Tr (  )
Tr (  ) Tr (  )
= 2  Tr ( )  Tr ( )
= 2 1  2 .
(5.385)
Clearly, A cannot have more than two nonzero eigenvalues, since the
dimensionality of the subspace spanned by the vectors { , } is at
most 2, and therefore A has three eigenvalues 0, + and , where [see
Eq. (5.230)]
.
2
(5.386)
= 1  2 = 1 e .
Eyal Buks
147
6. Angular Momentum
x
y
z
L = r p = det x y z ,
px py pz
where r = (x, y, z) is the position vector and where p = (px , py , pz ) is the
momentum vector. In classical physics the following holds:
Claim.
{Li , Lj } = ijk Lk ,
where
ijk
1 i, j, k is an odd permutation of x, y, z
(6.1)
(6.2)
Proof. Clearly, Eq. (6.1) holds for the case i = j. Using Eq. (1.48), which
reads
{xi , pj } = ij ,
(6.3)
one has
{Lx , Ly } = {ypz zpy , zpx xpz }
= {ypz , zpx } + {zpy , xpz }
= y {pz , z} px + x {z, pz } py
= ypx + xpy
= Lz .
(6.4)
In a similar way one finds that {Ly , Lz } = Lx and {Lz , Lx } = Ly . These
results together with Eq. (1.49) complete the proof.
Using the rule (4.41) {, } (1/i) [, ] one concludes that in quantum
mechanics the following holds:
[Li , Lj ] = iijk Lk .
(6.5)
(6.7)
Below we will see that one can define a unitary operator that generates rotations.
Exercise 6.1.1. Show that
x
x
y
Dz ()
Dz () = Rz y ,
z
z
(6.8)
where
iLz
Dz () = exp
,
(6.9)
and where
cos sin 0
Rz = sin cos 0 .
0
0 1
(6.10)
(6.11)
= x sin + y cos ,
(6.12)
=z.
(6.13)
As an example, we prove below the first one. Using the identity (2.173), which
is given by
eL AeL = A + [L, A] +
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + ,
2!
3!
(6.14)
one has
Dz () xDz ()
= x+
i
1
[Lz , x] +
2!
Eyal Buks
i
2
1
3!
i
3
(6.15)
150
(6.16)
(6.17)
(6.18)
thus
Dz () xDz ()
2 4
= x 1
+
+
2!
4!
= x cos y sin .
3
y
+
3!
(6.19)
Dn () = exp
.
(6.20)
In view of Eq. (3.73), it can be said that linear momentum p generates
translations. Similarly, in view of the above equation (6.20), angular momentum L generates rotation. However, there is an important distinction between
these two types of geometrical transformations. On one hand, according to
Eq. (3.7) the observables px , py and pz commute with each other, and consequently translation operators with different translation vectors commute
[J (1 ) , J (2 )] = 0 .
(6.21)
On the other hand, as can be seen from Eq. (6.5), different components of L do
not commute and therefore rotation operators Dn () with different rotations
axes n
need not commute. Both the above results, which were obtained from
commutation relations between quantum operators, demonstrate two well
known geometrical facts: (i) different linear translations commute, whereas
(ii) generally, different rotations do not commute.
Eyal Buks
151
(6.22)
Namely, we assume that Eq. (6.5), which was obtained from the corresponding
Poissons brackets relations for the case of orbital angular momentum holds
for general angular momentum.
(6.23)
(6.24)
(6.25)
152
(6.26)
(6.27)
Recall that we have shown in chapter 5 for the case of harmonic oscillator
that the ketvectors a n and a n are eigenvectors of the number operator
N provided that n is an eigenvector of N. Somewhat similar claim can
be made regrading the current problem under consideration of simultaneous
diagonalization of J2 and Jz :
Theorem 6.3.1. Let a, b be a normalized simultaneous eigenvector of the
operators J2 and Jz with eigenvalues 2 a and b respectively, i.e.
J2 a, b = a2 a, b ,
Jz a, b = b a, b ,
a, b a, b = 1 .
(6.28)
(6.29)
(6.30)
(6.31)
where
J+ = Jx + iJy ,
(6.32)
(6.33)
(6.34)
(6.35)
where
J = Jx iJy ,
(6.36)
Eyal Buks
(6.37)
(6.38)
153
(6.39)
Similarly
(6.40)
where
[Jz , J ] = [Jz , Jx iJy ] = (iJy Jx ) = J ,
(6.41)
thus
Jz (J a, b) = (b 1) (J a, b) .
(6.42)
J+ = J J+
J+
= (Jx iJy ) (Jx + iJy )
= Jx2 + Jy2 + i [Jx , Jy ]
= J2 Jz2 Jz ,
(6.43)
J
J = J+ J
= (Jx + iJy ) (Jx iJy )
= Jx2 + Jy2 + i [Jy , Jx ]
= J2 Jz2 + Jz ,
(6.44)
a, b J+
J+ a, b = a, b J2 a, b a, b Jz (Jz + ) a, b
= 2 [a b (b + 1)] ,
(6.45)
and
a, b J
J a, b = a, b J2 a, b a, b Jz (Jz ) a, b
= 2 [a b (b 1)] .
(6.46)
154
(6.47)
(6.48)
Thus, also
J+
J+ a, bmax = 0
(6.49)
a bmax (bmax + 1) = 0 ,
(6.51)
a = bmax (bmax + 1) .
(6.52)
or
In a similar way with the help of Eq. (6.44) one can show that there exists a
minimum value bmin for which
a = bmin (bmin 1) .
(6.53)
(6.54)
or
Eyal Buks
155
(6.55)
(6.56)
(6.57)
(6.58)
(6.61)
(6.62)
(6.63)
(6.64)
(6.65)
(6.66)
1
3
j = 0, , 1, , ,
(6.67)
2
2
and for each given j, the quantum number m can take any of the 2j + 1
possible values
m = j, j + 1, , j 1, j .
Eyal Buks
(6.68)
156
S =
,
(6.69)
01
4
1 0
z ,
Sz =
(6.70)
2 0 1
2
S+ =
S =
01
00
00
10
(6.71)
(6.72)
x ,
2 10
2
0 i
=
y .
2 i 0
2
Sx =
(6.73)
Sy
(6.74)
can be
Sx
Sy
(6.75)
(6.76)
The matrices x , y and z are called Paulis matrices, and are related to
the corresponding spin angular momentum operators by the relation
k .
Sk =
2
(6.77)
157
(6.78)
(6.79)
(6.80)
where
r0,
0,
0 2 .
(6.81)
(6.82)
(6.83)
x  .
(6.84)
2.
r  L  = i exp (i) i
cot
r  .
(6.85)
3.
r  L  =
1 2
1
2
2 + sin
sin
sin
r  .
x
y
z
L = r p = det x y z ,
px py pz
r  r  = r r  ,
r  p  = r  ,
i
[see Eqs. (3.21) and (3.29)] one finds that
r  Lx  =
y
z
(r ) ,
i
z
y
r  Ly  =
z
x
(r ) ,
i
x
z
x
y
(r ) ,
r  Lz  =
i
y
x
(6.86)
(6.87)
(6.88)
(6.89)
(6.90)
(6.91)
(6.92)
where
(r ) = r  .
Eyal Buks
(6.93)
158
(6.94)
(6.95)
(6.96)
x
y
z
=
+
+
x y z
= r sin sin
+ r sin cos
x
y
= y
+x
,
x
y
(6.97)
thus using Eq. (6.92) one has
r  Lz  = i
(r ) .
(6.98)
2. Using Eqs. (6.90) and (6.91) together with the relation L+ = Lx + iLy
one has
i
i
r  L+  = r  Lx + iLy 
z
+ iz
ix
(r )
= y
z
y
x
z
= z i
i (x + iy)
(r )
x y
z
= z i
ir sin ei
(r ) .
x y
z
(6.99)
Thus, by using the identity
x
y
z
=
+
+
x y z
= r cos cos
+ sin
r sin
,
x
y
z
(6.100)
or
r sin
Eyal Buks
= r cos cos
+ sin
,
z
x
y
(6.101)
159
i
r  L+  = z i
ie
cot x
+y
(r )
x y
x
y
i
i
i
z + ie y cot
+ ie
(r )
= i z e x cot
x
y
i
i tan + iy + i (r )
= ei i cot ze
tan x x cot ze
y
xiy
xiy
= ei cot y
x
+i
(r )
x
y
i
i
cot
(r ) .
=e
(6.102)
In a similar way one evaluates r  L . Both results can be expressed
as
(6.103)
r  L  = i exp (i) i
cot
(r ) .
i
=
e
cot
i
+e
cot
+i
(r )
2
= i cos cot
+ sin
(r ) .
(6.104)
Similarly
r  Ly  = i sin cot
cos
(r ) ,
(6.105)
thus
r  L2  = r  L2x + L2y + L2z 
2
2
2
2
=
cos cot
+ sin
+ sin cot
cos
+ 2 (r )
2
2
= 2 1 + cot2
(r )
2 + cot +
2
1 2
1
+
= 2
sin
(r ) .
sin2 2 sin
(6.106)
Eyal Buks
160
(6.107)
(6.108)
1 2
sin
(r ) = l (l + 1) (r ) , (6.109)
sin2 2 sin
i (r ) = m (r ) ,
(6.110)
where
m = l, l + 1, , l 1, l .
(6.111)
(6.112)
1=
0
drr2 f (r)2 ,
d sin
2
0
(6.113)
d Ylm (, )2 .
(6.114)
dx
dy
dz  (r ) .
1 2
1 sin
+
Ylm = l (l + 1) Ylm ,
sin2 2 sin
i
m
Y = mYlm .
l
(6.115)
(6.116)
(6.117)
161
(6.118)
(6.119)
(6.120)
(6.121)
which is of first order [contrary to Eq. (6.116), which is of the second order].
Using the identity (6.85), which is given by
i
r  L+  = ie
(6.122)
i
cot
r  ,
one has
l cot Fll () = 0 .
(6.123)
(6.124)
(6.125)
162
6.6. Problems
and Eq. (6.85), which is given by
r  L  = i exp (i) i
cot
r  ,
(6.127)
ei
m cot Ylm (, ) = l (l + 1) m (m 1)Ylm1 (, ) ,
(6.128)
which allows finding Ylm (, ) for all possible values of m provided that
Yll (, ) is given. The normalized spherical harmonics are found using this
method to be given by
(1)l
Ylm (, ) = l
2 l!
2l + 1 (l + m)! im
dlm
e
(sin )m
(sin )2l .
lm
4 (l m)!
d (cos )
(6.129)
(6.130)
(6.131)
(6.132)
6.6 Problems
1. Let R (where i {x, y, z} ) be the 33 rotation matrices (as defined in
the lecture). Show that for infinitesimal angle the following holds
[Rx () , Ry ()] = 1 Rz 2 ,
(6.133)
where
[Rx () , Ry ()] = Rx () Ry () Ry () Rx () .
2. Show that
iJz
iJz
exp
Jx exp
= Jx cos Jy sin .
Eyal Buks
(6.134)
(6.135)
163
(6.136)
a) Show that
( a) ( b) = a b + i (a b) ,
(6.137)
where a and b are vector operators which commute with , but not
necessarily commute with each other.
b) Show that
i n
exp
= 1 cos i n
sin ,
(6.138)
2
2
2
where n
is a unit vector and where 1 is the 2 2 identity matrix.
4. Find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix n
(
n is a unit
vector).
5. Consider an electron in a state in which the component of its spin along
the z axis is +/2 . What is the probability that the component of the spin
along an axis z , which makes an angle with the z axis, will measured
to be +/2 or /2 . What is the average value of the component of the
spin along this axis?
6. The 2 2 matrix U is given by
U=
1 + i ( n
)
,
1 i ( n
)
(6.139)
where
= xx
+ y y
+ z
z
(6.140)
(6.141)
(6.142)
164
6.6. Problems
7. A particle is located in a box, which is divided into a left and right
sections. The corresponding vector states are denoted as L and R
respectively. The Hamiltonian of the system is given by
H = EL L L + ER R R + (L R + R L) .
(6.143)
(6.144)
Calculate the probability pR (t) to find the particle in the state R at
time t.
8. A magnetic field given by
z + B1 (
x cos (t) + y
sin (t))
B (t) = B0
(6.145)
(6.146)
(6.147)
0
t<0
0 t < p
1
p t < p + 0
g (t) = 0
,
(6.148)
1 p + 0 t < 2 p + 0
0
2 p + 0 t
i.e. two oscillatory magnetic field pulses, both having duration of p , are
applied, and the dwell time between these pulses is 0 . The normalized
pulse duration p is defined to be
p = 1 p ,
(6.149)
(6.150)
,
1
(6.151)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
165
(6.152)
(6.153)
(6.154)
Calculate the probability P++ (t) to find the system in the state +;
z
at time t > 2 p + 0 . Assume that the normalized detuning is small, i.e.
 1, and expand P++ (t) to lowest nonvanishing order in for the
case where the normalized pulse duration is taken to be given by
p =
.
2
(6.155)
10. Find the time evolution of the state vector of a spin 1/2 particle in
a magnetic field along the z direction with time dependent magnitude
B (t) = B (t)
z.
11. A magnetic field given by B = B cos (t) z, where B is a constant, is
applied to a spin 1/2. At time t = 0 the spin is in state  (t), which
satisfies
Sx  (t = 0) =
 (t = 0) ,
2
(6.156)
4Sz
,
1 + (t)2
(6.157)
166
6.6. Problems
14. An ensemble of spin 1/2 particles are in a normalized state
 = + +  ,
where the states + and  are the eigenstates of Sz (the z component
of the angular momentum operator). At what direction the magnetic field
should be aligned in a SternGerlach experiment in order for the beam
not to split.
15. Consider a spin 1/2 particle having gyromagnetic ratio in a magnetic
field given by B (t) u
. The unit vector is given by
u
= (sin cos , sin sin , cos ) ,
(6.158)
t<0
0
B (t) = B0 0 < t < .
(6.159)
0
t>
At times t < 0 the spin was in state + , namely in eigenstate of Sz with
positive eigenvalue. Calculate the probability P (t) to find the spin in
state  at time t , where t > .
16. Consider a spin 1/2 particle. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = Sx ,
(6.160)
17. Consider a spin 1/2 particle. No external magnetic field is applied. Three
measurements are done one after the other. In the first one the z component of the angular momentum is measured, in the second one the
component along the direction u
is measured and in the third measurement, again the z component is measured. The unit vector u
is described
using the angles and
u
= (sin cos , sin sin , cos ) .
(6.161)
Calculate the probability psame to have the same result in the 1st and
3rd measurements.
Eyal Buks
167
(6.162)
(6.163)
(6.165)
21. Find the condition under which the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in
a magnetic field
H=
1
q 2
p A .
2m
c
(6.166)
q
q2
1 2
p
pA+
A2 .
2m
mc
2mc2
(6.167)
can be written as
H=
22. Consider a point particle having mass m and charge q moving under the
influence of electric field E and magnetic field B, which are related to
the scalar potential and to the vector potential A by
E =
1 A
,
c t
(6.168)
and
B=A.
(6.169)
Eyal Buks
168
6.6. Problems
23. A particle of mass m and charge e interacts with a vector potential
Ax = Az = 0 ,
Ay = Bx .
(6.170)
(6.171)
Calculate the ground state energy. Clue: Consider a wave function of the
form
(x, y, z) = (x) exp (iky y) exp (ikz z) .
(6.172)
24. Find the energy spectrum of a charged particle having mass m and charge
q moving in uniform and timeindependent magnetic field B = B
z and
electric field E = E
x.
25. Consider a particle having mass m and charge e moving in xy plane under
the influence of the potential U (y) = 12 m 20 y 2 . A uniform and timeindependent magnetic field given by B = B
z is applied perpendicularly
to the xy plane. Calculate the eigenenergies of the particle.
26. Consider a particle with charge q and mass confined to move on a circle
of radius a in the xy plane, but is otherwise free. A uniform and time
independent magnetic field B is applied in the z direction.
a) Find the eigenenergies.
b) Calculate the current Jm for each of the eigenstates of the system.
27. The Hamiltonian of a non isotropic rigid rotator is given by
H=
L2y
L2x
L2
+
+ z ,
2Ixy
2Ixy
2Iz
(6.173)
(6.174)
b) Calculate the expectation value Lx for the state 12 1, 1 + 2 1, 0 + 1, 1 .
c) The same as the previous section for the state 12 [1, 1 1, 1].
d) Write the 3 3 matrix representation in this basis of the rotation
operator at angle around the z axis.
e) The same as in the previous section for an infinitesimal rotation with
angle d around the x axis.
29. Consider a particle of mass m in a 3D harmonic potential
1
V (x, y, z, ) = m 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 .
2
Eyal Buks
(6.175)
169
(6.176)
(6.177)
(6.178)
(6.182)
L2x + L2y
L2
+ z ,
2I1
2I2
(6.183)
(6.185)
(6.186)
where f (r) is a function of the radial coordinate r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 .
Eyal Buks
170
6.6. Problems
a) In a measurement of L2 what are the possible outcomes and the
corresponding probabilities.
b) The same for a measurement of Lz .
33. Consider a system comprising of two spin 1/2 particles.
a) Show that
, 2
(6.187)
S , Sz = 0 ,
where S = S1 + S2 , Sz = S1z + S2z and where S1 and S2 are the angular momentum vector operators of the first and second spin repetitively, i.e. S1 = (S1x , S1y , S1z ) and S2 = (S2x , S2y , S2z ).
b) Find an orthonormal basis of common eigenvectors of S2 and Sz
[recall that the existence
, of such
 a basis is guaranteed by the result
of the previous section S2 , Sz = 0, see Eqs. (2.147) and (2.148)].
34. Consider a system in a common eigenvector j, m of the angular momentum operators J2 and Jz . A measurement of the operator Jn = n
J is
being performed, where n
= (cos sin , sin sin , cos )
is
a
unit
'
( vector.
2
Calculate the expectation value Jn and the variance (Jn ) .
35. Consider a harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency and
mass m. The operator S (, ) is defined by [compare with Eq. (5.83)]
i 2
e a ei a2
S (, ) = exp
,
(6.188)
2
where both and are real and
0
m
ip
a=
x+
2
m
(6.189)
exp
aa + a a
2
i
e
2
exp
a tanh .
2
(6.190)
36. Show that the operator S (, ) (6.188) satisfies
S (, 0) = Q e ,
(6.191)
Eyal Buks
171
dx
x / x  ,
(6.192)
6.7 Solutions
1. By cyclic permutation of
cos sin 0
Rz = sin cos 0 ,
0
0
1
one has
(6.193)
1 0
0
Rx = 0 cos sin ,
0 sin cos
cos 0 sin
0 .
Ry = 0 1
sin 0 cos
(6.194)
(6.195)
On one hand
1 [Rx () , Ry ()]
1
1 + cos2 sin sin cos
1 cos2
1
sin cos sin
=
sin sin cos sin cos sin
1
2
1 0
= 2 1 0 + O 3 .
0 0 1
On the other hand
cos 2 sin 2
2
Rz = sin 2 cos 2
0
0
thus
0
1 2 0
0 = 2 1 0 + O 3 , (6.197)
1
0 0 1
1 [Rx () , Ry ()] = Rz 2 + O 3 .
Eyal Buks
(6.196)
(6.198)
172
6.7. Solutions
2. Using the identity (2.173), which is given by
eL AeL = A + [L, A] +
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (6.199)
2!
3!
iJz
Jx exp
exp
2
i
1 i
= Jx +
[Jz , Jx ] +
[Jz , [Jz , Jx ]]
2!
3
1 i
+
[Jz , [Jz , [Jz , Jx ]]] +
3!
1 2
1 3
= Jx 1 + Jy +
2!
3!
Jx cos Jy sin .
iJz
(6.200)
(6.201)
(6.202)
a) The following
holds
ax iay
az
a=
,
(6.203)
ax + iay az
bz
bx iby
b =
,
(6.204)
bx + iby bz
thus
az bz + (ax iay ) (bx + iby ) az (bx iby ) (ax iay ) bz
( a) ( b) =
(ax + iay ) bz az (bx + iby ) az bz + (ax + iay ) (bx iby )
10
= ab
01
01
+i (ay bz az by )
10
0 i
+i (az bx ax bz )
i 0
1 0
+i (ax by ay bx )
0 1
= a b + i (a b) .
Eyal Buks
(6.205)
173
(6.206)
thus with the help of the Taylor expansion of the functions cos (x)
and sin (x)
one finds
i n
exp
= cos
i sin
2
2
2
= 1 cos i n
sin .
2
2
(6.207)
4. In spherical coordinates the unit vectors n
is expressed as
n
= (cos sin , sin sin , cos ) ,
(6.208)
thus
n
=
cos sin ei
sin ei cos
(6.209)
(6.210)
+ = Det ( n
) = 1 ,
(6.211)
and
thus
= 1 .
(6.212)
,
sin 2 exp i
2
sin 2 exp i
2
 =
.
cos 2 exp i
2
(6.213)
(6.214)
5. Using Eq. (6.213) one finds the probability p+ to measure +/2 is given
by
cos exp i
2
2
2
= cos2 ,
(6.215)
p+ =
1 0
sin 2 exp i
2
2
and the probability p to measure /2 is
p = 1 p+ = sin2
Eyal Buks
.
2
(6.216)
174
6.7. Solutions
The average value of
cos2 sin2
2
2
= cos .
(6.217)
2
2
1
1 i ( n
)
(6.218)
= 1 i ( n
) + [(i) ( n
)]2 +
=
1
,
1 + i ( n
)
(6.219)
therefore
1 + i ( n
) 1 i ( n
)
=1,
1 i ( n
) 1 + i ( n
)
UU =
(6.220)
and similarly U U = 1.
b) Exploiting again the fact that all smooth functions of the matrix
( n
) commute and using Eq. (6.206) one has
[1 i ( n
)] ( n
) + [1 + i ( n
)] ( n
)
dU
=i
2
d
[1 i ( n
)]
2 ( n
)
[1 i ( n
)]2
2 ( n
)
1 + i ( n
)
=i
[1 i ( n
)] [1 + i ( n
)] 1 i ( n
)
2i ( n
)
=
U.
1 + 2
=i
(6.221)
c) By integration one
has
d
U = U0 exp 2i ( n
)
2
0 1+
1
U0 exp 2i ( n
) tan ,
(6.222)
where U0 is a the matrix U at = 0. With the help of Eq. (6.138)
one thus finds that
,
U = U0 1 cos 2 tan1 + i n
sin 2 tan1 ,
(6.223)
Eyal Buks
175
(6.224)
(6.225)
2
1 2
+ i n
.
1 + 2
1 + 2
(6.226)
(6.227)
where
Ea =
EL + ER
EL ER
, Ed =
,
2
2
0 =
(6.228)
and
10
01
, x =
01
10
, z =
1 0
0 1
exp
= cos i n
sin ,
2
2
2
(6.229)
(6.230)
(6.232)
thus
"
!
2 + Ed2 t
t 2 + Ed2
iEa t
x + Ed z
u (t) = exp
cos
i
sin
.
2 + Ed2
Eyal Buks
176
6.7. Solutions
(6.233)
The probability pR (t) is thus given by
2
2
EL ER 2 sin
2
.
2
R
t 2 + EL E
2
.
(6.234)
(6.235)
where
e B0
,
me c
e B1
1 =
.
me c
0 =
(6.236)
(6.237)
The matrix representation in the basis {+ , } (where + = +;
z
and  = ;
z) is found using Eqs. (6.70), (6.75) and (6.76)
1 exp (it)
0
.
(6.238)
H=
0
2 1 exp (it)
The Schrdinger equation is given by
i
d
 = H  .
dt
(6.239)
(6.240)
(6.241)
or
Eyal Buks
177
i
=
2
e
0
it
2
0
1 eit
it
b+
e 2 0
b +
+
it
it
b
b
e 2
0 e 2
it
e 2 0
b+
1 eit
.
it
0
2
b
0 e
(6.242)
b
b
2
2
1
0
(6.243)
or
i
b +
b
=
2
b+
b
(6.244)
where
=
1
1
= z + 1 x ,
(6.245)
and
= 0 .
(6.246)
At time t = 0
b+ (0)
1
=
.
b (0)
0
(6.247)
sin
cos i
i 21 sin 2
21 +()2
1 +()
=
sin
i 21 sin 2
cos + i
2
1 +()
1 +()2
1
,
0
(6.248)
where
=
Eyal Buks
.
21 + ()2 t
2
(6.249)
178
6.7. Solutions
The probability is thus given by
.
2
21 + ()2 t
1
2
P+ (t) = 2
.
2 sin
2
1 + ()
9. The transformation into the rotating frame reads
it
it
 (t) = b+ (t) exp
+ + b (t) exp
 .
2
2
(6.250)
(6.251)
For time periods where g (t) is constant the time evolution is governed
by Eq. (6.248). Thus at time t = 2 p + 0 one has
1
b+ (2 p + 0 )
,
(6.252)
= Mp M0 Mp
b (2 p + 0 )
0
where
Mp =
M0 =
sin 2p
cos p i
1+
i sin p
1+
i sin p
cos p +
1+ 2
1+
ei 2 0
0
0 ei 2
i sin p
and where
1 + 2 p
p =
.
2
(6.253)
(6.254)
(6.255)
2
"2
2
i0
i
sin
e
sin
p
p
=
cos p
1 + 2
1 + 2
1 ei0 sin2 p
i sin (2 p )
=
cos (2p )
+
1 + 2
1 + 2
(6.256)
1 cos 0
+ sin 0 + O 2 .
2
(6.257)
179
d 
= H  ,
dt
(6.258)
where
H = Sz ,
(6.259)
and
(t) =
e B (t)
.
me c
(6.260)
(6.261)
(6.262)
and
where
Sz  =  ,
2
(6.263)
= c (0) exp
B (t ) dt .
2me c 0
c+ =
(6.264)
(6.265)
(6.266)
11. At time t = 0
1
 (t = 0) = (+ + ) .
2
(6.267)
eB
,
mc
(6.268)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
180
6.7. Solutions
one finds
t
t
1
i
i
c
c
 (t) = exp
cos (t ) dt + + exp
cos (t ) dt 
2
2
2
0
0
i c sin t
ic sin t
1
+ + exp
 ,
= exp
2
2
2
(6.269)
thus
Sz (t) = (t) Sz  (t) = 0 .
(6.270)
du
= Hu ,
dt
(6.271)
thus
du
4iSz
1
u.
=
dt
1 + (t)2
By integration one finds
t
4iS
dt
z
(6.272)
(6.273)
(6.274)
Eyal Buks
181
+; S n
= cos ei 2 + + sin ei 2  .
2
2
(6.278)
(+ +  ) .
2
(6.279)
a) Thus
+; S n
 Sz +; S n
=
2
2
2
cos
sin
= cos . (6.280)
2
2
2
(6.282)
where +; S n
is given by Eq. (6.213)
i+
i+
+
+
exp
++sin
exp
 , (6.283)
+; S n
= cos
2
2
2
2
thus the following hold
ctg
=
,
2
(6.284)
and
+ = arg () arg () .
(6.285)
(6.286)
where
; S n
= sin
i
i
exp ++cos
exp
 , (6.287)
2
2
2
2
one finds
tan
=
,
2
= arg () arg () + .
Eyal Buks
(6.288)
(6.289)
182
6.7. Solutions
15. The Hamiltonian at the time interval 0 < t < is given by
) ,
H = B0 (S u
(6.290)
where is the gyromagnetic ratio and S is the angular momentum operator. The eigenvectors of S u
with eigenvalue /2 are given by [see
Eqs. (6.213) and (6.214)]
+; S u
= cos ei 2 + + sin ei 2  ,
2
2
(6.291)
; S u
= sin ei 2 + + cos ei 2  ,
(6.292)
2
2
Thus in the time interval 0 < t < the state vector is given by
iB0 t
iB0 t
 = +; S u
+; S u
+ exp
+ ; S u
; S u
+ exp
2
2
iB0 t
iB0 t
= +; S u
cos ei 2 exp
; S u
sin ei 2 exp
2
2
2
2
iB0 t
iB0 t
= ei cos2 exp
+ sin2 exp
+
2
2
2
2
iB0 t
iB0 t
+ sin cos
exp
exp

2
2
2
2
1 + cos
iB0 t
1 cos
iB0 t
= ei
exp
+
exp
+
2
2
2
2
B0 t
+i sin sin

2
B0 t
B0 t
B0 t
= ei cos
+ i cos sin
+ + i sin sin
 .
2
2
2
(6.293)
B0
2
(6.294)
B0
( u
) ,
2
(6.295)
(6.296)
183
(6.297)
(6.298)
2
B0
1
2
2
P (t) =
0 1 u (t)
=
sin
sin
.
0
(6.299)
(
x ) ,
2
(6.300)
(6.301)
(6.302)
(6.303)
where u =
u is a threedimensional real vector and u
is a threedimensional real unit vector, one finds
t
t
u (t) =
1 cos
i1 sin
2
2
t
cos t
i
sin
2
2
=
.
i sin t
cos t
2
2
(6.304)
Eyal Buks
184
6.7. Solutions
b) Let P++ (t) be the probability to measure Sz = +/2 at time t > 0
given that at time t = 0 the spin was found to have Sz = +/2.
Similarly, P (t) is the probability to measure Sz = /2 at time
t > 0 given that at time t = 0 the spin was found to have Sz = /2.
These probabilities
are given by
2
t
1
P++ (t) =
1 0 u (t)
,
(6.305)
= cos2
0
2
t
0
P (t) =
0 1 u (t)
.
(6.306)
= cos2
1
2
Thus, assuming that the first measurement has yielded Sz = +/2
T N
,
one finds psame = P++ N
, whereas assuming that the first mea,
T N
.
surement has yielded Sz = /2 one finds psame = P N
Thus in general independently on the result of the first measurement
one has
psame = cos2N
c) Using
psame
T
.
2N
(6.307)
T
= exp 2N log cos
2N
!
!
4 ""
2
1 T
1
= exp 2N log 1
+O
2 2N
N
!
3 "
1
(T )2
= exp
+O
,
4N
N
(6.308)
one finds
lim psame = 1 .
(6.309)
(6.310a)
+; u
= cos ei 2 + + sin ei 2  ,
2
2
; u
= sin ei 2 + + cos ei 2  ,
(6.310b)
2
2
where the states  are eigenvectors of S
z. Let P (3 , 2 1 ) be the
probability to measure S u
= 2 (/2) in the second measurement and to
measure S
z =3 (/2) in the third measurement given that the result of
the first measurement was S
z =1 (/2), and where n {+, }. The
following holds
Eyal Buks
185
,
(6.311a)
2
2
P (+, +) = +; u
2 +; u
(6.311b)
 = sin 4 ,
2
2
2
P (, ) = ; u
 ; u
 = cos4 ,
(6.311c)
2
2
2
P (, +) = +; u
 +; u
 = sin 4 ,
(6.311d)
2
thus independently on what was the result of the first measurement one
has
2
1
+ sin 4 = 1 sin2 .
2
2
2
18. The Hamiltonian is given by
psame = cos4
(6.312)
H = B .
(6.313)
(6.314)
(6.316)
q 2
A + i ((p qA) (p qA))
c
q 2
q
A i (A p + p A) .
c
c
(6.317)
Eyal Buks
(6.318)
186
6.7. Solutions
thus, with the help of Eq. (3.76) one finds that
dAx dAy
(A p + p A)
z = i
= i ( A)
z . (6.319)
dy
dx
Similar results can be obtained for the x and y components, thus
3
q 2 q
q 42
p A
= p A B.
c
c
c
(6.320)
(6.321)
(6.322)
20. Since
and
(6.324)
(6.325)
or
(6.326)
A=0 .
(6.327)
or
2
p qc A
+ q ,
2m
(6.328)
(6.329)
187
(6.330)
for the wavefunction together with Eqs. (3.23) and (3.29) one has
1
q 2
i A + q (r ) = E (r ) .
(6.331)
2m
c
(6.332)
where
c =
eB
.
mc
(6.333)
(6.334)
one finds that the time independent Schrdinger equation for the wave
function (x) is thus given by
2
p2x
1
cky
2 kz2
2
+ m c x
(x) = E
(x) , (6.335)
2m 2
eB
2m
where px = i/x, thus the eigenenergies are given by
1
2 kz2
+
,
En,k = c n +
2
2m
(6.336)
c
.
2
(6.337)
y
c
p + pz
= x
+
qEx .
2m
2m
(6.338)
Eyal Buks
188
6.7. Solutions
The last two terms can be written as
2
3
4
py qBx
p2y
c
1
2
qEx =
+ m 2c (x x0 ) x20 ,
2m
2m 2
(6.339)
where
c =
qB
,
mc
(6.340)
x0 =
mc2
qpy
qE
+
B .
q2 B2
mc
(6.341)
and
(6.342)
2 ky2 + 2 kz2
1
p2x
1
2
2
2 2
0 ) m c x
0 +
+ m c (x x
(x) = E (x) ,
2m 2
2
2m
(6.343)
(6.344)
+
,
2
2
2B
B
2m
(6.345)
where n = 0, 1, 2, and where the momentum variables ky and kz can
take any real value.
25. The Schrdinger equation reads
2
p
ec A
+ U (y) (x, y) = E (x, y) ,
(6.346)
2m
Eyal Buks
189
(6.347)
(6.348)
(6.349)
or
p2y
eBk
2 k2 1
2 2
+
+ mc0 y
y (y) = E (y) ,
2m
2m
2
mc
(6.350)
(6.352)
1 2
q
q2
p pA+
A2 .
2
c
2c2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(6.353)
190
6.7. Solutions
The Schrdinger equation in cylindrical coordinates (, z, ) is given by
2
iqB
B
1
1 2 2
q2
+ 2
+ 2 +
+
= E .
2
z
2c 2c2
2
(6.354)
2 2 iqB q 2 a2 B 2
+
+
= E .
2a2 2
2c
8c2
(6.355)
(6.356)
where the pre factor (2a)1/2 ensures normalization. The continuity requirement that (2) = (0) implies that m must be an integer. Substituting this solution into the Schrdinger equation (6.355)
yields
2 m2 qBm q 2 a2 B 2
Em =
+
2a2
2c
8c2
!
"
2
2 2
2
qBa
1
qBa
=
m+
m2
2a2
c
4
c
2
qBa2
2
m
=
2a2
2c
2
2
=
m
,
2a2
0
(6.357)
where
= Ba2 ,
(6.358)
ch
.
q
(6.359)
b) In general the current density is given by Eq. (4.200). For a wavefunction having the form
(r) = (r) ei(r) ,
Eyal Buks
(6.360)
191
c
2
q 2
=
() A
c
2

q
=
() A .
c
In the present case one has
B
A=
,
2
m
=
,
a
and the normalized wavefunctions are
(6.361)
(6.362)
(6.363)
1
exp (im) ,
m () =
2a
(6.364)
thus
Jm =
1
2a
m q aB
=
m
.
a c 2
2a2
0
(6.365)
c Em
.
q
(6.366)
L2z ,
2Ixy
2Iz
2Ixy
(6.367)
Thus the states l, m (the standard eigenstates of L2 and Lz ) are eigenstates of H and the following holds
H l, m = El,m l, m ,
(6.368)
where
El,m = 2
l (l + 1)
+
2Ixy
1
1
2Iz
2Ixy
m2
(6.369)
Eyal Buks
192
6.7. Solutions
Y11 (, )
3
sin ei ,
8
(6.370)
2 1
Y1 Y11 ,
3
(6.371)
(6.372)
(6.374)
(6.375)
(6.376)
one finds
a)
b)
010
1 0 1 .
Lx =
2 010
1
Lx =
2
2
1 1
2 2
c)
1
2 0
Lx =
2
Eyal Buks
(6.377)
1
010
2
1 0 1 1 = .
2
1
010
2
1
2
1
2
010
1 0 1 0 = 0 .
1
010
2
(6.378)
(6.379)
193
exp (i) 0
0
iLz
.
0
1
0
=
Dz () = exp
0
0 exp (i)
(6.380)
e) In general
i (d) L n
i (d) L n
=1
+ O (d)2 ,
Dn (d) = exp
(6.381)
thus
i(d)
Dx (d) =
2
0
29. Using
i(d)
2
i(d)
2
2
+ O (d)
i(d)
.
2
(6.382)
Lz = xpy ypx ,
0
x=
ax + ax ,
2m
0
ay + ay ,
y=
2m
0
m
px = i
ax + ax ,
2
0
m
py = i
ay + ay ,
2
one finds
i ,
Lz =
ax + ax ay + ay ay + ay ax + ax
2
= i ax ay ax ay .
(6.383)
(6.384)
(6.385)
(6.386)
(6.387)
(6.388)
a) Thus
Lz = i x y x y .
b) Using
relations
, thecommutation
ax , ax = 1 ,
,
ay , ay = 1 ,
one finds
Eyal Buks
(6.389)
(6.390)
(6.391)
194
6.7. Solutions
) 2*
Lz = 2 x , y , z  ax y x ay x ay ax y x , y , z
3
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
= 2 x  1 + y  + y  1 + x  x y (x ay ) ,
(6.392)
thus
3
4
2
2
(Lz )2 = 2 x 2 1 + y 2 + y 2 1 + x 2 + x y x y x y (x ay )2
3
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
= 2 x  1 + y  + y  1 + x  2 x  y 
2
2
= 2 x  + y  ,
(6.393)
and
.
Lz = x 2 + y 2 .
(6.394)
(6.395)
(6.396)
(6.397)
Lx  =
2 2
(1, 0 1, 0)
=
=0,
2
(6.398)
thus
Lx = 0 .
(6.399)
(6.400)
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
+ z z =
+ z ,
2I1 2I2 2I1
2I1 2Ie
(6.401)
I1 I2
.
I1 I2
(6.402)
195
(6.403)
(6.404)
are eigenvector of H
H l, m = El,m l, m ,
(6.405)
where
l (l + 1) 2 m2 2
2
=
+
=
2I1
2Ie
2I1
El,m
2
2 I1
l (l + 1) m + m
. (6.406)
I2
(6.407)
(6.408)
L+ + L
.
2
In general
L+ l, m = l (l + 1) m (m + 1) l, m + 1 ,
L l, m = l (l + 1) m (m 1) l, m 1 ,
thus
L+ 0, 0 = L 0, 0 = 0 ,
and consequently
iLx
exp
0 = 0 ,
(6.409)
(6.410)
(6.411)
(6.412)
(6.413)
thus
Ax () = 0  H 0 = E0,0 = 0 .
(6.414)
(6.415)
where f (r) is a function of the radial coordinate r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . As
can be see from Eqs. (6.131) and (6.132), which are given by
Eyal Buks
196
6.7. Solutions
0
3
=
sin ei ,
8
0
3
0
Y1 (, ) =
cos .
4
the following holds
0
2
x=r
Y11 + Y11
3
0
2 1
Y1 + Y11
y = ir
3
0
4 0
z=r
Y .
3 1
and thus
0
1 + i 1 1 + i 1
0
Y1 + Y1 + 2Y1 rf (r) .
(r) = 2
3
2
2
Y11 (, )
(6.416)
(6.417)
(6.418)
(6.419)
(6.420)
(6.421)
(6.422)
(6.423)
and
S21 1 , 2 = S22 1 , 2 =
32
1 , 2 .
4
(6.424)
(6.425)
Any operator of the first particle commutes with any operator of the
second one thus
S2 = S21 + S22 + 2S1 S2
= S21 + S22 + 2 (S1x S2x + S1y S2y + S1z S2z ) .
(6.426)
In terms of the operators S1 and S2 , which are related to S1x , S2x ,
S1y and S2y by
Eyal Buks
197
(6.427)
(6.428)
(6.429)
With
, 2 the
 help
, Eqs. (6.24) and (6.41) one finds that
S , Sz = S21 + S22 + S1+ S2 + S1 S2+ + 2S1z S2z , S1z + S2z
= [S1+ S2 + S1 S2+ , S1z + S2z ]
= [S1+ , S1z ] S2 + [S1 , S1z ] S2+ + S1+ [S2 , S2z ] + S1 [S2+ , S2z ]
= (S1+ S2 + S1 S2+ + S1+ S2 S1 S2+ ) ,
(6.430)
thus
, 2
(6.431)
S , Sz = 0 .
+, +
2000
+, +
+,
2 0 1 1 0 +,
S2
, + = 0 1 1 0 , + ,
,
0002
,
(6.432)
and
+, +
100 0
+, +
+,
0 0 0 0 +,
Sz
, + = 0 0 0 0 , + .
,
0 0 0 1
,
(6.433)
198
,
(6.434)
S = 0, M = 0 =
2
S = 1, M = 1 = +, + ,
(6.435)
+, + , +
S = 1, M = 0 =
,
(6.436)
2
S = 1, M = 1 = , ,
(6.437)
forms the desired complete and orthonormal basis of common eigenvectors of S2 and Sz , and the following holds
S2 S, M = S (S + 1) 2 S, M ,
(6.438)
Sz S, M = M S, M .
(6.439)
34. The following holds [see Eqs. (6.32) and (6.36)]
Eyal Buks
6.7. Solutions
Jn =
sin ei J+ + ei J
+ cos Jz ,
2
(6.440)
(6.441)
(6.442)
thus the expectation value is given by Jn = m cos and the variance
is given by
'
(
j (j + 1) m2
(Jn )2 = 2
sin2 .
2
(6.443)
x =
(6.444)
(6.445)
(6.446)
(6.447)
[x , y ] = 2iz ,
(6.448)
[y , z ] = 2ix ,
(6.449)
[z , x ] = 2iy ,
(6.450)
thus
[i , j ] = 2iijk k ,
(6.451)
199
(6.452)
where
1
a2
(x + iy ) =
,
2
2
1
a2
= (x iy ) = .
2
2
+ =
(6.453)
(6.454)
The vector of Pauli matrices = (x , y , z ) satisfies a similar set of commutation relations [ i , j ] = 2iijk k as the set (6.451). Thus, all identities that are derived for the vector of Pauli matrices = (x , y , z ) are
applicable for the vector = (x , y , z ) provided that the derivation
uses only the commutation relations [i , j ] = 2iijk k . With the help
of the identity (6.138) one finds that the 2 2 matrix s (, ), which is
defined by [compare with Eq. (6.452)]
,
s (, ) = exp ei + + ei ,
(6.455)
where
1
01
+ = ( x + iy ) =
,
00
2
1
00
= ( x iy ) =
,
10
2
(6.456)
(6.457)
is given by
s (, ) =
cosh ei sinh
i
e
sinh cosh
0
elog(cosh )
1
0
,
ei tanh 1
(6.458)
(6.459)
Eyal Buks
200
6.7. Solutions
s (, )
= exp ei tanh +
exp ( log (cosh ) z )
exp ei tanh .
(6.460)
The above expression for s (, ) yields a similar identity for the operator
S (, )
i
e 2
S (, ) = exp
a tanh
2
log (cosh )
exp
aa + a a
2
i
e
exp
a2 tanh .
2
(6.461)
36. With the help of Eqs. (5.332) and (5.103) one finds that
1
Q () =
dx
x0
x a2
x2
exp 2 2 + 2
a
2 x
x0
2
0
: exp a a :
x
x2
a2
exp 2 + 2 a
.
2x0
x0
2
(6.462)
: e
1+ 12 x2
2x2
0
dx
2 a+ a
x
x0
(a+a )2
2
: ,
(6.463)
201
2
:e
1 + 2
2
a+ a
1+ 12
(a+a )
Q () =
:
0
(1)2
12 a2 a2
2
1+2 aa
2
1+2
=
:
e
: .
1 + 2
(6.464)
(6.465)
(6.466)
(6.467)
(6.468)
2
2
1
2
tanh a a
+( cosh
2
1)aa :
:
e
Q () =
1 + 2
0
tanh 2
tanh 2
1
1
=
e 2 a : e( cosh 1)aa : e 2 a .
cosh
1
Q () =
e 2 a e log(cosh )a a e 2 a .
cosh
(6.469)
(6.470)
Using also
0
1
1
= e 2 log(cosh )
cosh
and
a a +
1
aa + a a
=
2
2
one has
Q () = e
tanh 2
a
2
log(cosh )
2
2
a
(aa +a a) e tanh
2
.
(6.471)
(6.472)
202
7. Central Potential
p2
+ V (r) .
2m
(7.2)
(7.3)
(7.4)
[xi , pj ] = i ij ,
Lz = xpy ypx ,
(7.5)
(7.6)
one has
, 2
 ,
 ,
 ,
p , Lz = p2x , Lz + p2y , Lz + p2z , Lz
,
 ,
= p2x , xpy p2y , ypx
= i (2px py + 2py px )
=0,
(7.7)
and
,
 ,
 ,
 ,
r2 , Lz = x2 , Lz + y 2 , Lz + z 2 , Lz
,
 ,
= y x2 , px + y 2 , py x
=0.
(7.8)
(7.9)
and
H, L2 = 0 .
(7.10)
(7.11)
(7.12)
imply that it is possible to find a basis for the vector space made of common
eigenvectors of the operators H, L2 and Lz .
(7.13)
(7.14)
(7.15)
(7.16)
or
one has
Eyal Buks
204
(7.17)
By cyclic permutation one obtains similar expression for L2x and for L2y . Combining these expressions lead to
L2 = L2x + L2y + L2z
i
1 2 2
(ypy + zpz ) +
y py ypy ypy + z 2 p2z zpz zpz
2
2
i
1 2 2
2 2
2 2
+z px + x pz zpz xpx xpx zpz + (zpz + xpx ) +
z pz zpz zpz + x2 p2x xpx xpx
2
2
i
1 2 2
2 2
2 2
+x py + y px xpx ypy ypy xpx + (xpx + ypy ) +
x px xpx xpx + y 2 p2y ypy ypy
2
2
= x2 + y2 + z 2 p2x + p2y + p2z (xpx + ypy + zpz )2 + i (xpx + ypy + zpz )
= y 2 p2z + z 2 p2y ypy zpz zpz ypy +
= r2 p2 (r p)2 + ir p .
(7.18)
2
2
2
r r  2 2 r  L  .
r  p  =
r r2
r
(7.19)
and
L2 = r2 p2 (r p)2 + ir p ,
(7.20)
r  r  = r r  ,
(7.21)
r  p  =
r  ,
i
(7.22)
(7.23)
r  ,
r
2
r  (r p)2  = 2 r r 
r
2
= 2 r2 2 + r r  ,
r
r
Eyal Buks
(7.24)
(7.25)
205
(7.26)
thus
r  p2  = 2
2
2
+
r2 r r
r 
1
2
r

L

,
2 r2
(7.27)
(7.28)
or
r  p  =
1
1 2
r r  2 2 r  L2 
r r2
r
(7.29)
where the Hamiltonian H is given by Eq. (7.2), can thus be written using the
above results as
2 1 2
1
2
r  H  =
r r  2 2 r  L  +V (r ) r  . (7.30)
2m r r2
r
(7.31)
(7.32)
(7.33)
The above equation, which is called the radial equation, depends on the quantum number l, however, it is independent on the quantum number m. The
different solutions for a given l are labeled using the index k
2 1 d2
1
rR
l
(l
+
1)
R
+ V Rkl = ERkl .
(7.34)
kl
kl
2m r dr2
r2
It is convenient to introduce the function ukl (r), which is related to Rkl (r)
by the following relation
1
Rkl (r) = ukl (r) .
r
Eyal Buks
(7.35)
206
(7.36)
l (l + 1) 2
+ V (r) .
2mr2
(7.37)
(7.38)
0
0
dr ukl (r)2 .
(7.39)
(7.40)
The wave functions klm (r) represent common eigenstates of the operators
H, Lz and L2 , which are denoted as klm and which satisfy the following
relations
klm (r ) = r klm ,
(7.41)
(7.42)
(7.43)
(7.44)
and
The following claim reveals an important property of the radial wavefunction near the origin (r = 0):
Claim. If the potential energy V (r) does not diverge more rapidly than 1/r
near the origin then
lim u (r) = 0 .
(7.45)
r0
Eyal Buks
207
(7.46)
2 2
(r) + V (r) (r) = E (r) .
2m
(7.47)
since
2
1
= 4 (r) .
r
(7.48)
We thus conclude that only the solution s = l + 1 is acceptable, and consequently limr0 u (r) = 0.
p2
+ V (r) ,
2
(7.49)
m1 m2
.
m1 + m2
Eyal Buks
(7.50)
208
m1 r 21 m2 r 22
+
V (r1 r2 ) .
2
2
(7.51)
m1 r 0 + m1m+m
2
0
m1 +m2
2
+
V (r)
L=
2
2
M r 20 r2
=
+
V (r) ,
2
2
(7.54)
where the total mass M is given by
M = m1 + m2 ,
(7.55)
m1 m2
m1 m22 + m2 m21
=
.
2
m1 + m2
(m1 + m2 )
(7.56)
Note that the Euler Lagrange equation for the coordinate r0 yields that
r0 = 0
(since the potential is independent on r0 ). In the center of mass frame r0 = 0.
The momentum canonically conjugate to r is given by
p=
L
.
r
(7.57)
p2
+ V (r) .
2
(7.58)
For the case of hydrogen atom the potential between the electron having
charge e and the proton having charge e is given by
V (r) =
e2
.
r
(7.59)
Since the protons mass mp is significantly larger than the electrons mass
me (mp 1800me ) the reduced mass is very close to me
=
me mp
me .
me + mp
Eyal Buks
(7.60)
209
(7.61)
where
Veff (r) =
e2 l (l + 1) 2
+
.
r
2r2
(7.62)
(7.63)
where
a0 =
2
= 0.53 1010 m ,
e2
(7.64)
(7.65)
where
e4
= 13.6 eV ,
22
is the ionization energy, the radial equation becomes
d2
2 + Vl () + 2kl ukl = 0
d
EI =
(7.66)
(7.67)
where
2 l (l + 1)
Vl () = +
.
(7.68)
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Eyal Buks
210
(7.69)
+
y=0.
(7.70)
+
2
kl
d2
<
cq q .
(7.71)
q=0
<
q=0
q (q 1) cq q2 + 2 (l + 1)
2kl
<
q=0
<
qcq q2
q=0
qcq q1 + 2 (1 kl (l + 1))
<
cq q1 = 0 ,
q=0
(7.72)
thus
2 [kl (q + l) 1]
cq
=
.
cq1
q (q + 2l + 1)
(7.73)
We argue below that for physically acceptable solutions y () must be a polynomial function [i.e. the series (7.71) needs to be finite]. To see this note that
for large q Eq. (7.73) implies that
lim
cq
q cq1
2kl
.
q
(7.74)
Similar recursion relation holds for the coefficients of the power series expansion of the function e2kl
e2kl =
<
q=0
where
Eyal Buks
cq q ,
(7.75)
211
(2kl )
,
q!
(7.76)
cq
2kl
.
=
cq1
q
(7.77)
cq =
thus
This observation suggests that for large the function ukl asymptotically
becomes proportional to ekl . However, such an exponentially diverging solution must be excluded since it cannot be normalized. Therefore, to avoid
such a discrepancy, we require that y () must be a polynomial function.
As can be see from Eq. (7.73), this requirement is satisfied provided that
kl (q + l) 1 = 0 for some q. A polynomial function of order k 1 is obtained when kl is taken to be given by
kl =
1
,
k+l
(7.78)
(7.79)
(7.80)
n=k+l ,
(7.83)
,
(7.81)
2
.
(7.82)
6
The coefficient c0 can be determined from the normalization condition.
As can be seen from Eqs. (7.65) and (7.78), all states having the same
sum k + l, which is denoted as
have the same energy. The index n is called the principle quantum number.
Due to this degeneracy, which is sometimes called accidental degeneracy, it
is common to label the states with the indices n, l and m, instead of k, l and
m. In such labeling the eigenenergies are given by
En =
EI
,
n2
(7.84)
where
n = 1, 2, .
(7.85)
For a given n the quantum number l can take any of the possible values
l = 0, 1, 2, , n 1 ,
Eyal Buks
(7.86)
212
7.4. Problems
and the quantum number m can take any of the possible values
m = l, l + 1, , l 1, l .
(7.87)
n1
(2l + 1) = 2
l=0
2 (n 1) n
+ n = 2n2 .
2
(7.88)
Note that the factor of 2 is due to spin. The normalized radial wave functions
of the states with n = 1 and n = 2 are found to be given by
3/2
1
er/a0 ,
(7.89)
R10 (r) = 2
a0
3/2
r
r
1
R20 (r) = 2
e 2a0 ,
(7.90)
a0
2a0
3/2
r
1
r
R21 (r) =
e 2a0 .
(7.91)
2a0
3a0
The wavefunction n,l,m (r) of an eigenstate with quantum numbers n, l and
m is given by
nlm (r, , ) = Rnl (r) Ylm (, ) .
(7.92)
While the index n labels the shell number, the index l labels the subshell.
In spectroscopy it is common to label different subshells with letters:
l=0 s
l=1p
l=2d
l=3 f
l=4g
7.4 Problems
1. Consider the wave function with quantum numbers n, l, and m of a
hydrogen atom n,l,m (r).
a) Show that the probability current in spherical coordinates r, , is
given by
2
n,l,m (r)
,
(7.93)
Jn,l,m (r) = m
r sin
Eyal Buks
213
else
where r = x2 + y2 + z 2 .
7. Consider a particle having mass m in a 3D potential given by
V (r) = A (r a) ,
(7.96)
where r =
x2 + y 2 + z 2 is the radial coordinate, the length a is a
constant and () is the delta function. For what range of values of the
constant A the particle has a bound state.
8. Consider a particle having mass m in a 3D central potential given by
+
U0 r r0
V (r) =
.
(7.97)
0 r > r0
Eyal Buks
214
7.5. Solutions
where r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 is the radial coordinate, U0 is real and r0 is
positive. For what range of values of the potential depth U0 the particle
has a bound state.
9. A spinless point particle is in state . The state vector  is an eigenvector of the operators Lx , Ly and Lz (the x, y and z components of
the angular momentum vector operator). What can be said about the
wavefunction (r ) of the state ?
10. Consider two (nonidentical) particles having the same mass m moving
under the influence of a potential U (r), which is given by
1
U (r) = m 2 r2 .
2
In addition, the particles interact with each other via a potential given
by
1
V (r1 , r2 ) = m 2 (r1 r2 )2 ,
2
where r1 and r2 are the (three dimensional) coordinate vectors of the first
and second particle respectively. Find the eigenenergies of the system.
7.5 Solutions
1. In general the current density is given by Eq. (4.200). For a wavefunction
having the form
(r) = (r) ei(r) ,
(7.98)
2
=
J=
2
.
(7.99)
2
n,l,m (r)
Jn,l,m (r) =
(m) .
Eyal Buks
(7.101)
215
=x
+y
+
z
x
y
z
1
=
r
+
+
,
r
r
r sin
(7.102)
thus
2
n,l,m (r)
.
Jn,l,m (r) = m
r sin
(7.103)
b) The contribution of the volume element d3 r to the angular momentum with respect to the origin is given by r Jn,l,m (r) d3 r. In
spherical coordinates the total angular momentum is given by
2
n,l,m (r)
3
L = rJn,l,m (r) d r = m
r
d3 r . (7.104)
r sin
By symmetry, only the component along
z of r
contributes, thus
L = m
z.
(7.105)
2
e
2r
.
(7.106)
= e 1,0,0 (r) = 3 exp
a0
a0
The Poissons equation is given by
2 = 4 .
(7.107)
To verify that the electrostatic potential given by Eq. (7.94) solves this
equation we calculate
1 d2
(r)
r dr2
2
e d
r
2r
=
+ 1 exp
r dr2
a0
a0
2r
4e exp a0
=
a30
= 4 .
2 =
(7.108)
(7.109)
216
7.5. Solutions
3. The radial wave function of the ground state is given by
R10 (r) = 2
1
a0
3/2
r
exp
a0
(7.110)
rf (r) dr = 4a0
3
x3 exp (2x) dx = a0 .
2
(7.112)
(7.113)
thus
r0 = a0 .
(7.114)
e 0 .
(7.117)
R21 (r) =
2a0
3a0
The change in reduced mass is neglected. Therefore
a) For the 1s state
2
7 2a3 2
2
(Z=1)
(Z=2)
0
2
Pr (1s) = drr R10 R10 = 3
= 0.702 .
a0 33
0
2
2
16 a30
(Z=1) (Z=2)
Pr (2s) = drr2 R10 R20 = 6
(2 3) = 0.25 .
a0 8
0
Eyal Buks
217
R21 (r) =
e 2a0 ,
2a0
3a0
0
1
3
Y11 (, ) =
sin ei ,
2 2
0
1
3
1
Y1 (, ) =
sin ei ,
2 2
x = r sin cos .
(7.118a)
(7.118b)
(7.118c)
(7.118d)
(7.118e)
In general
n l m  x nlm =
dr r R
n l
Rnl
1
d (cos )
2
0
d sin cos Ylm
Ylm .
(7.119)
thus
2, 1, 1x2, 1, 1
2
d cos = 0 ,
(7.120)
2, 1, 1x2, 1, 1
2
d cos = 0 ,
(7.121)
2, 1, 1x2, 1, 1
2
d cos e2i = 0 ,
(7.122)
2, 1, 1x2, 1, 1
2
d cos e2i = 0 ,
(7.123)
and therefore
x (t) = 0 .
(7.124)
+
+
V
(r)
uk,l (r) = Ek,l uk,l (r) .
2m dr2
2mr2
Eyal Buks
(7.125)
218
7.5. Solutions
Since the centrifugal term l (l + 1) 2 /2mr2 is nonnegative the ground
state is obtained with l = 0. Thus the ground state energy is [see Eq.
(4.181)]
E0 =
2 2
.
2m (b a)2
(7.126)
+
+
V
(r)
uk,l (r) = Ek,l uk,l (r) .
2m dr2
2mr2
(7.127)
(7.128)
(7.129)
du (a+ ) du (a )
2
= u (a) .
dr
dr
a0
where
a0 =
2
.
mA
(7.130)
(7.131)
2mE
=
.
(7.133)
2
sinh (a) ,
a0
(7.134)
or
a0
1
=
.
2
1 + coth (a)
A real solution exists only if
a0
<a,
2
or
A>
Eyal Buks
2
.
2ma
(7.135)
(7.136)
219
+
+ V (r) uk,l (r) = Ek,l uk,l (r) .
2m dr2
2mr2
(7.137)
The boundary condition that is imposed upon u (r) at the origin is u (0) =
0. Since the centrifugal term l (l + 1) 2 /2mr2 is nonnegative the ground
state is obtained with l = 0. For that case the solution in the range r r0
has the form u (r) = sin kr, where k is related to the energy E by
h2 k2
= E + U0 .
2m
(7.138)
In the range r > r0 the general solution has the form u (r) = Aer +
Ber , where
h2 2
= E .
2m
(7.139)
A bound state can be obtained provided that E < 0 (to ensure that
is real) and B = 0 (to ensure that limr u (r) = 0; it is assumed that
is nonnegative). The requirements that both u (r) and du/dr [see Eq.
(4.127)] are continuous at r = r0 yield (for the case B = 0)
sin kr0 = Aer0 ,
k
cos kr0 = Aer0 ,
k
.
(7.140)
(7.141)
(7.142)
kr0 =
r0 .
(7.143)
h2
2
This together with the requirement that E < 0 yield
0
2mU0
r0 ,
h2
2
or
U0
Eyal Buks
2 h2
.
8mr02
(7.144)
(7.145)
220
7.5. Solutions
9. The state vector  is an eigenvector of the operators Lx , Ly , therefore it
is easy to see that it consequently must be an eigenvector of the operator
[Lx , Ly ] with a zero eigenvalue. Thus, since [Lx , Ly ] = iLz , one has
Lz  = 0. Similarly, one finds that Lx  = Ly  = 0. Therefore, 
is also an eigenvector of the operator L2 = L2x + L2y + L2z with a zero
eigenvalue. Therefore the wavefunction has the form
R (r )
m=0
(r ) = R (r ) Yl=0
, =
,
4
(7.146)
(7.150)
(7.151)
m
.
2
(7.152)
221
Eyal Buks
222
8. Density Operator
Consider an ensemble of N identical copies of a quantum system. The ensemble can be divided into subsets, where all systems belonging to the same
subset have the
state vector. Let N wi be the number of systems having
same
*
state vector
(i) , where
0 wi 1 ,
(8.1)
and where
wi = 1 .
(8.2)
'
(
(i)
(i) = 1 .
(8.3)
(8.4)
am an = nm ,
(8.5)
an an  = 1 .
(8.6)
from
(
(
2
'
A =
wi (i)
A
(i) =
wi
an
(i)
an .
(8.7)
i
(8.8)
where
=
i
('
wi
(i) (i)
(8.9)
Proof. Let {bm } be an orthonormal and complete basis for the vector space
bm bm  = 1 .
(8.10)
m
(
'
wi (i)
A
(i)
A =
i
'
(
wi (i)
A bm bm
(i)
bm 
i
= Tr (A) ,
('
wi
(i) (i)
A bm
(8.11)
where
=
i
('
wi
(i) (i)
.
Eyal Buks
<
m bm bm 
= 1 one
224
Tr () =
bm 
'
(
wi (i)
(i)
i
"
('
(i)
(i)
wi
bm
!
"
'
(
(i)
wi
bm bm 
(i)
i
!
wi
=1.
(8.12)
Exercise 8.0.3. Show that for any normalized state  the following holds
0   1 .
(8.13)
2
('
'
wi
(i) (i)  =
wi
(i) 
0 .
  =
(8.14)
one has
.)
'
(i)

 (i)
(i) = 1 .
(8.16)
On the other hand, according to the Schwartz inequality [see Eq. (2.166)],
which is given by
u v u u v v ,
(8.15)
Moreover,
<
i wi
  =
= 1, thus
i
'
wi
(i) 
1 .
(8.17)
Exercise 8.0.4. Show that Tr 2 1.
and
qm qm = mm ,
qm qm  = 1 ,
Eyal Buks
(8.18)
(8.19)
225
(8.20)
where the eigenvalues qm are real. Using this basis one has
2
Tr 2 =
qm  2 qm =
qm
.
m
(8.21)
(8.22)
thus
2
qm
Tr 2 =
m
!
qm
"2
= (Tr ())2 = 1 .
(8.23)
Exercise 8.0.5. Show that Tr 2 = 1 iff represents a pure ensemble.
(8.24)
qm qm  = 1 ,
(8.25)
qm = qm qm ,
(8.26)
and
qm qm = mm ,
(8.27)
For this basis the assumption Tr 2 = 1 yields
2
1 = Tr 2 =
qm .
(8.28)
(8.29)
(8.30)
226
('
(t) =
wi
(i) (t) (i) (t)
,
(8.31)
*
where the state vectors
(i) (t) evolve in time according to
(
d
(i)
i
= H
(i) ,
(8.32)
)dt(i)
'
i
= (i)
H ,
(8.33)
dt
where H is the Hamiltonian. Taking the time derivative yields
!
"
('
('
d
1
(i)
(i)
(i)
(i)
(t)
=
wi H
wi
(t)
H , (8.34)
dt
i
i
i
thus
d
1
= [, H] .
dt
i
(8.35)
* evolution operator
* t0 ), which relates the state vector
at time
(i) (t0 ) with its value
(i) (t) at time t [see Eq. (4.4)]
(
(
(i)
(8.36)
(t) = u (t, t0 )
(i) (t0 ) .
With the help of this relation Eq. (8.31) becomes
(t) = u (t, t0 ) (t0 ) u (t, t0 ) .
(8.37)
H i = Ei i ,
i i = 1 .
Eyal Buks
(8.38)
(8.39)
227
1 Ei
,
e
Z
(8.40)
(8.41)
eH
.
Tr (eH )
(8.42)
(8.43)
(8.44)
and
i
i
eH i i = eH
i
i i = eH ,
(8.45)
thus
=
eH
.
Tr (eH )
(8.46)
As will be demonstrated below [see Eq. (8.446)], the last result for can
also be obtained from the principle of maximum entropy.
8.3 Problems
1. Consider a spin 1/2 in a magnetic field B = B
z and in thermal equilibrium at temperature T . Calculate S u
, where S is the vector operator
of the angular momentum and where u
is a unit vector, which can be
described using the angles and
u
= (sin cos , sin sin , cos ) .
Eyal Buks
(8.47)
228
8.3. Problems
2. A spin 1/2 particle is an eigenstate of the operator Sy with eigenvalue
+/2.
a) Write the density operator in the basis of eigenvectors of the operator
Sz .
b) Calculate n , where n is integer.
c) Calculate the density operator (in the same basis) of an ensemble of
particles, half of them in an eigenstate of Sy with eigenvalue +/2,
and half of them in an eigenstate of Sy with eigenvalue /2.
d) Calculate n for this case.
3. A spin 1/2 is at time t = 0 in an eigenstate of the operator S = Sx sin +
Sz cos with an eigenvalue +/2, where is real and Sx and Sz are
the x and z components, respectively, of the angular momentum vector
operator. A magnetic field B is applied in the x direction between time
t = 0 and time t = T .
a) The z component of the angular momentum is measured at time
t > T . Calculate the probability P+ to measure the value /2.
b) Calculate the density operator of the spin at times t = T .
4. A spin 1/2 electron is put in a constant magnetic field given by B =
B
z, where B is a constant. The system is in thermal equilibrium at
temperature T .
a) Calculate the correlation function
Cz (t) = Sz (t) Sz (0) .
(8.48)
(8.49)
p2
m2 x2
+
.
2m
2
(8.50)
Eyal Buks
229
d2   P () ,
(8.51)
p2
m2 x2
+
.
2m
2
(8.53)
230
8.3. Problems
of the MS. The initial state of the MS can be expanded in the basis of
eigenvectors {an } of the observable A
cn an ,
(8.54)
 =
n
(8.55)
(x ) =
exp
.
(8.56)
1/2
2 x0
1/4 x
0
(8.57)
where f (t) is assumed to have compact support with a peak near the
time of the measurement.
a) Express the vector state of the entire system  (t) at time t in the
basis of states {p an }. This basis spans the Hilbert space of
the entire system (MS and MD). The state p an is both, an
eigenvector of A (with eigenvalue an ) and of the momentum p of the
MD (with eigenvalue p ).
b) In what follows the final state of the system after the measurement
will be evaluated by taking the limit t . The outcome of the
measurement of the observable A, which is labeled by A, is determined by performing a measurement of the momentum variable p of
the MD. The outcome, which is labeled by P, is related to A by
A=
P
,
pi
(8.58)
where
pi =
dt f (t ) .
(8.59)
231
cn cn e
n ,n
a
n an
2
2
an an  .
(8.61)
12. A particle having mass m moves in the xy plane under the influence of
a two dimensional potential V (x, y), which is given by
V (x, y) =
m 2 2
x + y 2 + m 2 xy ,
2
(8.62)
p x
dx exp i
5
6
x
x
x +
, (8.63)
2
232
8.3. Problems
16. Consider a point particle having mass m in a potential of a harmonic
oscillator having angular frequency . Calculate the Wigner function
W (x , p ) for the case where the system is in thermal equilibrium at
temperature T .
17. Consider a point particle having mass m in a potential of a harmonic
oscillator having angular frequency . Calculate the Wigner function
W (x , p ) for the case where the system is in the number state n = 1.
18. The Wigner function of a point particle moving in one dimension is
given by Eq. (8.63). Show that the marginal distributions x  x and
p  p of the position x and momentum p observables, respectively, are
given by
1
x  x =
dp W (x , p ) ,
(8.64)
p  p = 1
dx W (x , p ) .
(8.65)
19. Show that for a pure state the Wigner function is bounded by W (x , p )
1/2. Note that this bound together with Eqs. (8.64) and (8.65) can be
used to demonstrate the uncertainty principle (3.10).
20. Consider a particle having mass m moving along the x axis under the
influence of the potential V (x). Show that the time evolution of the
Wigner function W (8.63) is governed by
2l
<
dW
2l+1 V 2l+1 W
2i
,
= {H, W } +
2l+1
dt
(p )2l+1
l=1 (2l + 1)! (x )
(8.66)
W (X , P ) =
1
(2)
(, ) eiX +iP ,
dd W
(8.67)
(, ) is given by
where the function W
(, ) = Tr [exp (iX iP ) ] ,
W
(8.68)
Eyal Buks
a + a
a a
, P = ,
2
i 2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(8.69)
233
dX
6
X
X
X
X +
eiX P , (8.70)
2
(8.71)
(X , P ) =
1
(2)
dd ei(X
X )+i(P P )
(8.72)
Note that the operator given by Eq. (8.72) is the dimensionless version
of the Weyl kernel (4.46), which defines the Weyl transformation (4.45).
Show that
X + iP
X + iP
PD
,
(8.73)
(X , P ) = 1 D
2
2
where
D () = exp a a
(8.74)
is the displacement operator [see Eq. (5.36)], a is the annihilation operator and
P=
dX X X 
(8.75)
a ei + aei
,
2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(8.76)
234
8.3. Problems
where a and aare
annihilation and creation operators [see Eqs. (5.9) and
a) To generalize Eqs. (8.64) and (8.65) show that the following holds
for any real
w X =
dP W X cos P sin , X sin + P cos .
(8.77)
p2
m2 x2
+
.
2m
2
(8.78)
,
2
X =
(8.79)
a and a are annihilation and creation operators [see Eqs. (5.9) and (5.10)]
and
both
* and are real. Use your result for the expectation value
) iX
to evaluate
e
the Wigner function of the system.
0
d w
() J0 X 2 + P 2 ,
(8.80)
where w
() is the ( independent) Fourier transform of w X , i.e.
w
() =
Eyal Buks
dX w X eiX .
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(8.81)
235
density operator
displaced
is
according to = D ( ) D ( ), where
5
6 5
6 2
X
X
X
X
X
2
X
,
R
X +
= X
X +
e
2
2
2
2
(8.82)
where the dimensionless parameter characterizes the strength of the
measurement, and where X represents an eigenvector of the dimensionless position operator X [see Eq. (8.69)] having eigenvalue X , i.e.
X X = X X . Express the reduced Wigner function WR (X , P ),
which is given by [see Eq. (8.70)]
1
WR (X , P ) =
2
dX
6
5
X
X
+
eiX P , (8.83)
X
2
R
1
(8.84)
V (r) = m2 r2 ,
2
2
2
2
where
) r2 *= x + y + z and where is a real constant. Calculate x
and x in thermal equilibrium at temperature T .
31. The entropy is defined by
= Tr ( log ) .
(8.85)
1
(1 + k ) ,
2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(8.86)
236
8.3. Problems
where k = (kx , ky , kz ) is a three dimensional vector of complex numbers
and where = ( x , y , z ) is the Pauli matrix vector.
a) Under what conditions on k the matrix can represent a valid density
operator of a spin 1/2 particle?
b) Under what conditions on k the matrix can represent a valid density
operator of a spin 1/2 particle in a pure state?
c) Calculate the term Tr (
u ), where u
is a unit vector, i.e. u
u
= 1.
33. The matrix representation in the basis of eigenvectors of Sz of the density
operator of a spin 1/2 particle is given by
=
1
(1 + k ) ,
2
(8.87)
(8.88)
a) Calculate .
b) A measurement of Sz is performed. Calculate the entropy after the
measurement.
34. The maximum entropy principle  The entropy is defined by
() = Tr ( log ) .
(8.89)
Consider the case where the density matrix is assumed to satisfy a set of
contrarians, which are expressed as
gl () = 0 ,
(8.90)
(8.91)
Moreover, assume that the other constrains l = 1, L are the requirements that the expectation values of the Hermitian operators
X1 , X2 , XL are the following real numbers X1 , X2 , ,XL respectively, i.e. gl () for l 1 can be taken to be given by
gl () = Tr (Xl ) Xl = 0 .
Eyal Buks
(8.92)
237
(8.94)
n2
(8.95)
(8.96)
(8.97)
238
8.4. Solutions
As in the previous exercise, the system is composed of two subsystems,
which are labeled as 1 and 2. Let {n1 1 } ({n2 2 }) be an orthonormal
basis spanning the Hilbert space of subsystem 1 (2). The set of vectors {n1 , n2 }, where n1 , n2 = n1 1 n2 2 , forms an orthonormal basis
spanning the Hilbert space of the combined system. The reduced density
operators 1 and 2 of subsystems 1 and 2 respectively are giving by
1 =
(8.98)
2 n2  n2 2 = Tr2 ,
n2
2 =
n1
1 n1  n1 1
= Tr1 ,
(8.99)
(8.100)
(8.101)
Show that
1 + 2 .
(8.102)
(8.103)
(8.105)
8.4 Solutions
1. The Hamiltonian is given by
Eyal Buks
239
(8.106)
where
=
e B
me c
(8.107)
2
(8.108)
(8.109)
+ + + e
e 2
+e
2
2
 
,
(8.110)
where = 1/kB T , and therefore with the help of Eqs. (2.102) and (2.103),
which are given by
Sx = (+  +  +) ,
(8.111)
2
Sy = (i +  + i  +) ,
(8.112)
2
one has
Sx = Tr (Sx ) = 0 ,
Sy = Tr (Sy ) = 0 ,
(8.113)
(8.114)
(+ +  ) ,
2
(8.115)
one has
Sz = Tr (Sz )
!
"
e 2 + + + e 2  
= Tr
(+ +  )
2
e 2 + e 2
e 2 e 2
2 e
2
+e 2
= tanh
,
2
2
=
Eyal Buks
(8.116)
240
8.4. Solutions
thus
S u
=
cos
tanh
2
2
(8.117)
2. Recall that
1
; y
= (+ i ) ,
2
(8.118)
a) thus
1
=
1 1 i
1
1 i =
.
i
2 i 1
1
1 10
=
+; y
+; y
 + ; y
; y
 =
,
2
2 01
(8.119)
(8.120)
=1
d) and
n =
1
2n
10
01
,
sin 2
and the one at time t = T is
iT x
 (t = T ) = exp
 (t = 0) ,
2
(8.121)
(8.122)
(8.123)
eB
.
me c
(8.124)
exp
= cos i n
sin ,
2
2
2
(8.125)
one finds
T
i n
T
T
cos T
2 i sin 2
exp
= cos
+ix sin
=
, (8.126)
T
i sin T
2
2
2
2 cos 2
Eyal Buks
241
T
cos T
2 i sin 2
T
T
i sin 2 cos 2
cos 2
sin 2
cos T
2 cos 2 + i sin 2 sin 2
T
T
i sin 2 cos 2 + cos 2 sin 2
.
(8.127)
P+ = cos2
cos2 + sin2
sin2
2
2
2
2
1 + cos (T ) cos
=
,
(8.128)
2
and
T
P = cos2
sin 2 + sin2
cos 2
2
2
2
2
1 cos (T ) cos
=
.
(8.129)
2
b) The density operator is given by
11 = P+ ,
22 = P ,
T
21 = cos
cos + i sin
sin
i sin
cos + cos
sin
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
sin
i
=
sin T cos ,
2
2
12 = 21 .
4. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = Sz ,
(8.130)
where
=
eB
,
me c
(8.131)
0
1 exp 2kB T
,
=
Z
0
exp 2k
BT
(8.132)
(8.133)
where
Z = exp
Eyal Buks
2kB T
+ exp
.
2kB T
242
8.4. Solutions
a) Using
Sz (t) = exp
iHt
iHt
Sz (0) exp
= Sz (0) ,
(8.134)
one finds
)
*
2
Cz (t) = Sz2 (0) = Tr Sz2 (0) =
.
4
(8.135)
(8.137)
cos (t)
+ sin (t) Sy (0) Sx (0) .
4
exp 2k
0
2
0
i
0
1
T
B
2
0
i
exp
2kB T
=
Tr
4Z
0
i exp 2k
BT
i2
=
tanh
,
4
2kB T
(8.138)
thus
2
Cx (t) =
cos (t) i sin (t) tanh
.
(8.139)
4
2kB T
5. The variance N is given by
a) For an energy eigenstate n one has
N n = n n ,
(8.140)
thus
N = n N n = n ,
(8.141)
and
) 2*
N = n N 2 n = n2 ,
Eyal Buks
(8.142)
243
(8.143)
(8.144)
thus
2
N =  N  =  a a  =  ,
(8.145)
and
) 2*
,
N =  a aa a  =  a a, a + a a a  = 2 + 4 ,
=1
(8.146)
therefore
N =
N .
(8.147)
(8.148)
where O is an operator,
1
= eH ,
(8.149)
Z
Z = Tr eH ,
(8.150)
and = 1/kB T and H is the Hamiltonian. For the present case
1
H = N +
,
(8.151)
2
thus
Eyal Buks
244
8.4. Solutions
N = Tr (N )
<
n eH N n
n=0
= <
n eH n
n=0
<
nen
n=0
<
en
< n
e
log
n=0
1
n=0
e
=
,
1 e
=
(8.152)
and ) *
N 2 = Tr N 2
<
n eH N 2 n
n=0
= <
n eH n
n=0
<
n2 en
n=0
<
n=0
en
<
1 2 2
en
2
n=0
<
en
n=0
e
+ 1 e
(1 e )
(8.153)
and therefore
) *
(N)2 = N 2 N2 =
e
2
(1 e )
= N (N + 1) . (8.154)
1 H
e
.
Z
(8.155)
where
Eyal Buks
245
1
Z = tr eH =
e(n+ 2 ) =
n=0
1
e 2
, (8.156)
=
1 e
2 sinh
2
2 2
a + a
+ 2a a + 1 ,
2m
(8.157)
one finds
) 2*
x = Tr x2
1
=
n x2 eH n
Z n=0
1 (n+ 12 )
e
n x2 n
Z n=0
1 (n+ 12 )
1
n+
=
e
m Z n=0
2
1
1
d (n+ 12 )
=
e
.
m Z
d n=0
(8.158)
However
e(n+ 2 ) = Z ,
1
(8.159)
n=0
thus
) 2*
x =
1 d
log Z 1
m 2 d
d
sinh
d
2
1
=
m 2 sinh
2
1
=
coth
.
m 2 2
2
(8.160)
(8.161)
246
8.4. Solutions
7. In the basis of number states the density operator is given by
<
eH n n
H
e
n=0
=
= <
Tr (eH )
n eH n
n=0
<
= n=0
<
=
n=0
<
n=0
<
n=0
en
= 1 e
en n n ,
n=0
(8.162)
= 1 e
nen
n=0
= 1 e
en
n=0
1
= 1 e
1 e
e
=
.
1 e
(8.163)
1
,
1 e
N
= e ,
N + 1
(8.164)
(8.165)
Eyal Buks
247
= 1e
en n n
n=0
n
1
N
=
n n .
N + 1 n=0 N + 1
(8.166)
(8.167)
2
2
n
n ,
n!
n=0
(8.168)
2
d exp
N
2
"
n
2
m
.
e
n! m!
(8.169)
n m =
N n!m!
2 nm
=
N n!
2
1
(1+ N
n+m+1
)r
dre
2
0
dre(1+ N )r r2n+1 ,
1
dei(nm)
2nm
(8.170)
and the transformation of the integration variable
1
t = 1+
r2 ,
N
1
dt = 1 +
2rdr ,
N
(8.171)
(8.172)
lead to
Eyal Buks
248
8.4. Solutions
n m =
nm
N 1 +
1
N
n+1
nm
n+1
1
N 1 + N
N n nm
(1 + N )
n+1
n! 0
dtet tn
(n+1)=n!
(8.173)
(8.174)
e
1 e
(8.176)
(8.177)
where
2
Re () ,
m
0
.
2
x =  (x)  =
,
2m
x =  x  =
Eyal Buks
(8.178)
(8.179)
249
d exp
N
2x
1 m 1/2
=
N
2
!
"
2

x
d2 exp
exp 2 .
Re ()
N
2
f (x ) = x  x =
m 1/2
=
e
1 + 2 N
1
=
x2
m
1+2N
1
e2
(1 + 2 N)
m
2
x
1
= e
x2
m
1+2N
where
=
(1 + 2 N) ,
m
and where
1 + 2 N = 1 + 2
e
= coth
1 e
2
a =
q
,
2
L
one has 0
a + a ,
2L
1
H = a a +
.
2
q=
Eyal Buks
(8.180)
(8.181)
(8.182)
(8.183)
(8.184)
250
8.4. Solutions
The density operator is given by
=
1 H
e
,
Z
(8.185)
1
,
kB T
(8.186)
where
=
and
Z = Tr eH =
e(n+ 2 ) =
1
n=0
e 2
1
=
, (8.187)
1e
2 sinh
2
thus
1
q = Tr (q) =
Z
n a + a eH n = 0 . (8.188)
2L n=0
b) Similarly
) 2*
q = Tr q 2
2
1
=
n a + a eH n
2L Z n=0
1 (n+ 12 )
1 1
=
n
+
e
L2 Z n=0
2
1 1 dZ
L 2 Z d
C
=
coth
.
2
2kB T
(8.189)
10. In general, 0 can be expressed as
('
0 =
wi
(i) (i)
,
(8.190)
) (i)
(i) *
<
(i) *
that the system is initially in the state . The probability for this to
be the case is wi . In general, the possible results of a measurement of the
observable A are the eigenvalues {an }. The probability p
n to *measure the
eigenvalue an given that the system is initially in state
(i) is given by
'
(
pn = (i)
Pn
(i) .
(8.191)
After a measurement of A with an outcome an the state vector collapses
onto the corresponding eigensubspace and becomes
Eyal Buks
251
(
Pn
(i)
(i)
.
)
*.
(i)
Pn
(i)
(8.192)
*
Thus, given that the system is initially in state
(i) the final density
operator is given by
*
) (i)
(
'
Pn
Pn
(i)
(i)
(i)
(i)
.)
1 =
Pn
* .)
*
(i)
Pn
(i)
(i)
Pn
(i)
n
('
=
Pn
(i) (i)
Pn .
n
(8.193)
('
(i)
1 =
wi 1 =
Pn
wi
(i) (i)
Pn =
Pn 0 Pn . (8.194)
n
11. Since [V (t) , V (t )] = 0 the time evolution operator from initial time t0
to time t is given by
i t
u (t, t0 ) = exp
dt V (t )
t0
ipi A
= exp
x ,
(8.195)
where
pi =
dt f (t ) .
(8.196)
t0
While the initial state of the entire system at time t0 is given by  (t0 ) =
i , the final state at time t is given by
 (t) = u (t, t0 )  (t0 )
=
cn Jn i an ,
n
Eyal Buks
(8.197)
(8.198)
252
8.4. Solutions
/
a) By introducing the identity operator dp p p  = 1MD on the
Hilbert space of the MD, where p are eigenvectors of the momentum operator p, which is canonically conjugate to x, the state  (t)
can be expressed as
 (t) =
cn dp p  Jn  i p an .
(8.199)
n
dA
,
dx
(8.200)
(8.201)
ip x
dx e x  i
(p ) =
2
!
2 "
1
1 p
=
exp
,
1/2
2 p0
1/4 p
0
(8.202)
where
p0 =
.
x0
(8.203)
n
Eyal Buks
cn
dp (p pi an ) p an .
(8.204)
253
= pi
n
1/2
cn 2 e
(Aan )2
,
(8.205)
where
pi
x0
=
=
p0
dt f (t ) .
(8.206)
t0
n
n
dA g (A ) A
2
cn 
1/2
2
dA e(A ) (A + an )
cn  an .
(8.207)
n
an  BR an ,
(8.208)
(8.209)
254
8.4. Solutions
is called the reduced density operator. Note that R is an operator
on the Hilbert space of the MS. With the help of the expressions
 () =
cn
dp (p pi an ) p an ,
(8.210)
n
() =
cn
dp (p pi an ) an  p  , (8.211)
cn cn dp
R =
n ,n
(p pi an ) (p pi an ) an an  .
(8.212)
2p pi (an + an )
,
2p0
(8.213)
(8.214)
2
2 n 2 n
dp (p pi an ) (p pi an ) = e
,
(8.215)
thus
R =
cn cn e
n ,n
a
n an
2
2
an an  .
y
y = .
2
(8.216)
(8.217)
(8.218)
The Lagrangian of the system can be written using these coordinates [see
Eq. (9.189)] as
L = L+ + L ,
(8.219)
where
Eyal Buks
255
mx 2 m2
(1 + ) x2 ,
2
2
(8.220)
L =
my 2 m2
(1 ) y 2 .
2
2
(8.221)
and
x =
,
(8.222)
coth
2
2m 1 +
) 2 *
1
,
(8.223)
y =
coth
2
2m 1
where = 1/kB T . Moreover, due to symmetry, the following holds
x = y = 0 ,
x y = 0 .
(8.224)
(8.225)
,
2
x y
y=
,
2
one thus finds
(8.226)
x=
(8.227)
x = 0 ,
(8.228)
and
) 2 * 1 ) 2
*
x =
x + y2
2
1+
1
coth
coth
2
2
.
=
+
4m
1+
1
(8.229)
p(H) (0)
sin (t) ,
m
(8.230)
(8.231)
256
8.4. Solutions
Using the relations
0
x=
a + a ,
2m
0
m
p=i
a + a ,
2
, a, a = 1 ,
[cos (t) i sin (t)] =
exp (it) .
2m
2m
(8.232)
(8.233)
(8.234)
(8.235)
(8.236)
(8.237)
n
1
N
n n ,
N + 1 n=0 N + 1
(8.238)
where
N = Tr (N ) =
e
,
1 e
(8.239)
(x ) = x 
2
x x 2
2 m 1/4
x
= exp
exp
+ i p
.
4
2x
(8.241)
where
Eyal Buks
257
2
,
m
p =  p  = 2m ,
= Re () ,
= Im () ,
0
.
2
x =  (x)  =
,
2m
Using the definition (8.63) and the identity
x =  x  =
exp ax2 + bx + c dx =
one has
W (x , p ) =
=
(8.243)
(8.244)
(8.245)
(8.246)
2
14 4ca+b
a
e
,
a
(8.247)
5
6
1
px
x
x
exp i
x

x +
dx
2
2
2
m 1/2
dx
2
!
(8.242)
x x x
2
2x
e
m 1/2
"2 !
"2
+i
p p
dx
(x x )2 +( x2
2(x )2
x + x x
2
2x
+i
p p
,
(8.248)
thus
1 12
W (x , p ) = e
x x
x
2
12
p p
p
2
(8.249)
*
15. At time t > 0 the system is in a coherent state
= 0 eit , where [see
Eqs. (5.53) and (5.240)]
0
m
0 = x
.
(8.251)
2
Thus, with the help of Eq. (8.249) one finds that the Wigner function of
the system at time t is given by
Eyal Buks
258
8.4. Solutions
1 12
W (x , p ) = e
x x
x
2
12
p p
p
2
(8.252)
where
x = x cos (t) ,
p = mx sin (t) ,
0
x =
,
2m
0
m
.
p =
2
(8.253)
(8.254)
(8.255)
(8.256)
(8.257)
e
1 e
(8.259)
(8.260)
where
1
W (x , p ) =
2
p x
exp i
5
6
x
x
x

x +
dx ,
2
2
(8.261)
x x
x
2
12
p p
p
2
(8.262)
where
Eyal Buks
259
=  p  = 2m = 2p ,
= Re () ,
= Im () ,
0
.
2
,
=  (x)  =
2m
0
.
m
2
=  (p)  =
=
.
2
2x
x =  x  =
p
x
p
(8.263)
(8.264)
(8.265)
(8.266)
(8.267)
(8.268)
Thus W (x , p ) is given by
2
2
x x
p p
2
12
12
1
x
p

2
N
e
W (x , p ) = 2
d e
N
2
2
2
2
1 x 2x
1
1 p 2x
N 2
x
p
d e
= 2
d e N 2
.
N
(8.269)
With the help of the identity (5.136) one thus finds that
1
12 2N +1
1
1
W (x , p ) =
e
2 N + 1
2 2
p
+ p
x
x
(8.270)
where
2 N + 1 = 1 + 2
e
= coth
1 e
2
(8.271)
n=1 (x ) = x n = 1 =
,
(8.272)
1/2
1/4 x0
where
x0 =
.
m
(8.273)
thus
W (x , p ) =
Eyal Buks
ei
p x
x x2
x0
(x x2 )
x + x2
x0
1/2 x0
2x2
0
(x + x2 )
2x2
0
dx ,
260
8.4. Solutions
(8.274)
or
W (x , p ) =
2
xx
1
1/2
!
x
x0
2
X2
"
ip
e p0 X
X2
4
dX , (8.275)
where X = x /x0 and where p0 = /x0 . The integration, which is performed with the help of Eq. (5.136), yields
2
2
2 xx0 2 pp0 2
x
p
1
W (x , p ) = e
.
(8.276)
+
x0
p0
2
Note that near the origin the Wigner function W (x , p ) becomes negative.
18. The relation (8.64) is proven by
1
dp W (x , p )
6
5
p x
x
1
=
x +
dx
dp ei
x
2
2
2
(x )
= x  x .
(8.277)
With the help of the identities (3.45) and (3.52) W (x , p ) can be expressed as
W (x , p )
p x +p (x x )p (x + x )
2
2
1
i
=
dx
dp
dp e
p  p
(2)2
p
p
x p
x (p p )
2
2
1
1
i
dp
dp e
p  p
dx e
.
=
2
2
p p2 p2
(8.278)
Eyal Buks
261
p p
dp
dp p  p p
=
2
2
x (p p )
1
dx ei
2
(p p )
= p  p .
(8.279)
19. For a pure state =   one finds that the Wigner function is given
by [see Eq. (8.63)]
1
W (x , p ) =
2
dx ei
p x
x
x
x
x +
, (8.280)
2
2
2
1
x
2
i p x
W (x , p )
e
dx
(2)2
2
dx
x +
,
2
(8.281)
thus
W (x , p )
1
.
2
(8.282)
p2
+ V (x) ,
2m
(8.283)
(8.284)
Eyal Buks
262
8.4. Solutions
dW
1
=
dt
2
dx e
ip x
= Sk + Sp ,
5
6
x
x
x
x
+
2
dt
2
(8.285)
dx e
ip x
6
x
p2
x
x
,
x +
2
2m
(8.286)
represents the contribution of the kinetic energy, and where the term
1
Sp =
2i
dx e
ip x
5
6
x
x
x +
x
[,
V
(x)]
(8.287)
5
6
p2
x
x
x
,
x +
2
2m
6
5
1 x
x
2
=
n n  p
x +
x
2m n
2
5
6
1
x
2
x
x
p n n 
x +
.
2m n
2
(8.289)
x
,
x = x +
2
and employing the relations [see Eq. (3.29)]
5
x
2
d2
x
p n = 2 2 x n ,
2
dx
x
d2
n  p2
x +
= 2 2 x n ,
2
dx
x = x
Eyal Buks
(8.290)
(8.291)
(8.292)
(8.293)
263
5
6
x
p2
x
,
x +
2
2m
2
2
d2
d2
=
x  x .
2m dx2 dx2
(8.294)
dx
x dx
x dx
2 dx
dx
d
x d
x d
1 d
d
=
+ =
+ ,
dx
x dx
x dx
2 dx
dx
one finds that
d2
d2
d2
=
2
,
dx2 dx2
dx dx
and thus
5
6
x
p2
x
,
x
+
2
2m
5
6
2 d2
x
x + x
=
x
.
m dx dx
2
(8.295)
(8.296)
(8.297)
(8.298)
5
6
d2
x
x
ip x
Sk =
dx e
x
x +
2im
dx dx
2
p 1
=
m 2
dx e
ip x
d
dx
6
5
x
x +
,
x
2
(8.299)
5
6
x
x
x +
x
[,
V
(x)]
5
6
x
x
x
x
= V x +
V x
x
x
+
.
2
2
2
2
(8.301)
Sk =
Eyal Buks
264
8.4. Solutions
The term V (x + x /2)V (x x /2), which represents an odd function
of x , can be Taylor expanded as
V
2l+1
<
x
x
1
2l+1 V
x
V x
=2
x +
.
2l+1
2
2
2
l=0 (2l + 1)! (x )
(8.302)
dx (x )
2l+1
ip x
5
6 2l+1 2l+1
x
W
x
x
+
=
.
2
2
i
(p )2l+1
(8.303)
Employing the above results to evaluate Eq. (8.287) and separating the
first term from all higher order terms yield
2l
<
V W
2l+1 V 2l+1 W
2i
Sp =
+
.
2l+1
x p
(p )2l+1
l=1 (2l + 1)! (x )
(8.304)
2l
p W V W <
2l+1 V 2l+1 W
dW
2i
=
+
+
, (8.305)
dt
m x x p l=1 (2l + 1)! (x )2l+1 (p )2l+1
<
dW
2l+1 V 2l+1 W
2i
= {H, W } +
.
2l+1
dt
(p )2l+1
l=1 (2l + 1)! (x )
(8.306)
Note that when 2l+1 V/ (x )2l+1 = 0 for l 1 the above result coincides with the classical equation of motion dW/dt = {H, W }. Thus one
concludes that the quantum time evolution of W of a harmonic oscillator
is identical to the classical one.
21. With the help of Eq. (2.175) one finds that
exp (iX iP ) = e
i
2
eiP eiX .
(8.307)
By evaluating the trace in Eq. (8.68) using an orthonormal basis of dimensionless position eigenstates (i.e. X X = X X ) one finds that
[see Eq. (3.19) and recall that Tr (AB) = Tr (BA)]
Eyal Buks
265
i
2
(, ) = e
W
= e
i
2
dX X  eiP eiX X
dX eiX X  X +
dX eiX
'
(
X
X +
,
2
2
(8.308)
thus
W (X , P ) =
1
(2)2
1
2
(, ) eiX +iP
dd W
dX
'
( iP
e
X
X +
2
2
1
dei(X X )
2
1
=
2
(X X )
dX
5
6
X
X
X +
eiX P .
2
(8.309)
dd eiXiP ,
(8.310)
1
2
(2)
dd e
i
2
eiP eiX ,
(8.311)
Eyal Buks
266
8.4. Solutions
(0, 0) X =
1
(2)2
1
=
2
dd e
iP
d e
= 1 e2iX
i
2
eiP eiX X
1
X
d ei( 2 +X )
2
( 2 +X )
X ,
(8.312)
(8.313)
(8.314)
a + a
a a
, P =
,
2
2i
(8.315)
i a+a
i aa
2
2i
P=
dd e
4
=
1
4
i+
a i
a
2
2
dd e
(8.316)
i+
a X
i
a X
2
2
2
2
=
dd
e
(2)2
=
Eyal Buks
1
(2)2
1
(2)2
i+
2
dd e
dd ei(X
X+iP
+iP
X
2
X )+i (P P )
i
2
XiP
iP
(8.317)
267
(8.318)
a + a
a a
, P = ,
2
i 2
(8.319)
X =
(8.320)
The associated dimensionless momentum operator P is defined as P =
X sin + P cos , i.e.
X
cos sin
X
=
,
(8.321)
P
sin cos
P
and the inverse transformation is given by
X
cos sin
X
=
.
P
sin cos
P
a) The expectation value
) iX *
e
= Tr [exp (iX ) ]
(8.322)
(8.323)
is the
function of the probability distribution
function
characteristic
w X by
) iX *
e
=
dX w X eiX = w
() .
(8.324)
(, ) of the Wigner
On the other hand, the Fourier transform W
(8.325)
268
8.4. Solutions
The comparison between Eq. (8.323) and Eq. (8.325) yields the following relation (recall that X = X cos + P sin )
( cos , sin ) = w
W
() .
(8.326)
1
w X =
d eiX w
()
2
=
1
2
( cos , sin ) ,
d eiX W
(8.327)
and thus by employing the inverse Fourier transform to Eq. (8.67)
, =
W
dX dP ei X
i P
W (X , P ) ,
(8.328)
ddX dP ei (X
cos +P sin X
)
W (X , P ) .
(8.329)
d ei (X X )
2
X
(X
)
=
dP W X cos P sin , X sin + P cos .
(8.330)
b) The relation (8.326) allows evaluating the Wigner function, which is
(, ) by Eq. (8.67),
related to its Fourier transformed function W
using the socalled inverse Radon transform. In polar coordinates
(8.67) becomes
Eyal Buks
269
W (X , P ) =
1
(2)2
0
( cos , sin ) ei (X
d  W
cos +P sin )
(8.331)
W (X , P ) =
1
2
(2)
0
d  w
() ei (X
cos +P sin )
(8.332)
0
dX  w X ei (X cos +P sin X ) .
(8.333)
(8.334)
e
1 e
(8.336)
(8.337)
where
Eyal Buks
270
8.4. Solutions
0
2
,
(8.338)
m
(8.339)
p =  p  = 2m ,
= Re () ,
(8.340)
= Im () ,
(8.341)
0
.
2
x =  (x)  =
,
(8.342)
2m
one finds that
x  x =
d2 P () x  x
!
"
m 1/2
2
2
=
d exp
N
N
2
x x 2
x x
(x x )
+ i p
exp
2x
2x
m 1/2
2 + 2
=
d2 exp
N
N
2
2
X 2
X 2
exp
+ i (X X )
2
2
m 1/2
2 N + 1 2
X 2 + X 2
=
d exp
+ (X + X )
N
N
4
2
d exp
+ i (X X ) .
N
(8.343)
x =  x  =
where
2m
x ,
0
2m
X =
x .
With the help of the identity (5.136) one finds that
X =
x  x =
m 1/2
(X
1
e
2 N + 1
(8.344)
(8.345)
2
2 +X 2 N (X X )2 + N (X +X )
2N +1
4
(8.346)
(X + X )2 + (X X )2
,
2
(8.347)
271
x  x =
m 1/2
e
2 N + 1
X +X 2
2
2(2N +1)
2 2N +1
X X
2
2
(8.348)
1
x  x = e
x +x
2
2
(2N+1)2
x x
2
2
(8.349)
where
=
(2 N + 1) ,
m
(8.350)
e
2 N + 1 = 1 + 2
= coth
1 e
2
(8.351)
2
2
+x
x
tanh( 2 ) x 2x
coth( 2 ) x 2x
0
x0 coth
2
(8.352)
where
x0 =
.
m
(8.353)
= aei ,
(8.355)
= a ei ,
(8.356)
eia a aeia
eia a a eia
X = eia a X0 eia
(8.357)
272
8.4. Solutions
X0 =
a + a
,
2
(8.358)
(8.359)
where
x0 =
.
m
(8.360)
(8.361)
and thus [see Eq. (8.354) and recall that Tr (AB) = Tr (BA)]
) iX * ) iX0 * ' i m x (
= e
= e
.
e
(8.362)
) iX *
In other words,
e
is found to be independent on . The expecta'
m (
i
x
tion value e
can be calculated by employing the expression
for the matrix elements x  x of the density operator given by Eq.
(8.352)
) iX *
e
=
=
dx x  ei
dx ei
m
m
x
2
tanh( 2 ) xx
0
,
x0 coth 2
(8.363)
and where = 1/kB T . Using the the identity (5.136) one finds that
2 coth( )
) iX *
2
4
e
=e
.
(8.364)
(8.365)
e
,
1 e
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(8.366)
273
e
= e 2
.
(8.367)
) iX *
The factor e
is thecharacteristic function of the probability
distribution function Pr X of X , which is denoted below as w X ,
and thus it is related
() of the probability
to the Fourier transform w
=
e
dX w X eiX = w
() .
(8.368)
With the help of Eqs. (8.324), (8.326) and (8.367) one finds that the
(, ) of the Wigner function W (X , P ) satisfy the
Fourier transform W
following relation for any real
( cos , sin ) = e
W
2
2 X0
2
(8.369)
and thus
(, ) = e
W
(2 +2 )X02
2
(8.370)
The inverse Fourier transformation [see Eqs. (5.136) and (8.309)] yields
2
2
2 X0
2 X0
iX 1
iP
1
2
2
W (X , P ) =
d e
e
d e
e
2
2
2
X +P
1
2
2X0
e
2 X02
X 2 +P 2
1
=
e 2N +1 .
(2 N + 1)
(8.371)
It is easy to see that the above result for the Wigner function W (X , P )
for the dimensionless variables X and P is consistent with Eq. (8.270)
for the Wigner function W (x , p ) for the displacement x and momentum
p variables.
26. By using Eqs. (8.67) and employing cylindrical coordinates
= cos , = sin ,
X = R cos , P = R sin ,
(8.372)
Eyal Buks
274
8.4. Solutions
W (X , P ) =
1
(2)2
cos()
(8.373)
thus since w X is independent [see Eqs. (8.324) and (8.326)] one
has [note that contrary to Eq. (8.333), integration over below is taken
to be over positive values only]
1
W (X , P ) =
(2)2
d w
()
d eiR
cos()
(8.374)
where
w
() =
dX w X eiX .
(8.375)
in Jn (z) einx ,
(8.376)
n=
iR cos()
d e
in
i Jn (R ) e
n=
d ein
= 2J0 (R ) ,
(8.377)
thus
1
W (X , P ) =
2
0
d w
() J0 X 2 + P 2 ,
(8.378)
or
W (X , P ) =
/
0
dz w
z
X 2 +P 2
zJ0 (z)
2 (X 2 + P 2 )
(8.379)
275
2
2 X0
2
(8.380)
ze
z2 A2
2
J0 (zR) dz =
1 R22
e 2A ,
A2
(8.381)
X +P
1
2X 2
0
e
,
2 X02
(8.382)
(8.383)
where u (t) is the time evolution operator for the system. The Wigner
function W (X , P ; t) can be expressed according to Eq. (8.333) as
W (X , P ; t) =
1
(2)
0
dX  w X ei (X cos +P sin X ) ,
(8.384)
where w X is the probability distribution function of the observable
X , which is given by
X =
a ei + aei
.
2
(8.385)
In terms of the density operator (t) one has [recall that Tr (AB) =
Tr (BA)]
* )
w X = Tr
X X
(t)
*)
= Tr u (t)
X X
u (t) 0 ,
(8.386)
where
X is an eigenvector of X with eigenvalue X , i.e. X
X =
X
X . With the help of Eqs. (2.173) and (4.9) one finds that
Eyal Buks
276
8.4. Solutions
+ aei i(a a+ 12 )t
e
2
i
a e
+ aei ita a
= eita a
e
2
a ei(+t) + aei(+t)
=
2
= X+t ,
i
a+ 12 )t a e
(8.387)
thus the following holds
*
X+t u (t)
X = X u (t)
X ,
(8.388)
i.e. u (t)
X is an eigenvector of X+t with eigenvalue X . This eigen
vector is labeled below as
X+t
. Using these results and the trigonometric identities
cos (x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y ,
sin (x + y) = cos x sin y + sin x cos y ,
(8.389)
(8.390)
*)
Tr
X+t X+t
0 ei (X cos +P sin X )
1
=
d d
dX 
(2)2
0
* )
i (X cos( t)+P sin( t)X )
Tr
X X
0 e
,
(8.391)
thus
Eyal Buks
(, ) eiX +iP ,
dd W
(8.393)
277
(8.394)
and where
+ i
=
,
2i
(8.395)
thus for the displaced system one has [see Eq. (5.41) and recall that
Tr (AB) = Tr (BA)]
W (X , P ) =
dd Tr D () D ( ) D ( ) eiX +iP
2
(2)
=
1
(2)2
dd e
Tr (D () ) eiX
+iP
(8.396)
thus using
e
iX +iP
i X +
+i P
2
2i
=e
(8.397)
(8.398)
where
+
,
(8.399)
2
.
(8.400)
P =
i 2
29. In general, the convolution theorem states that
1
iX P
dX f (X ) g (X ) e
=
dP F (P ) G (P P ) ,
2
X =
(8.401)
F (P ) =
dX f (X ) eiX P ,
(8.402)
2
G (P ) =
Eyal Buks
1
2
dX g (X ) eiX
(8.403)
278
8.4. Solutions
thus with the help of the identity
P 2
e( )
1
=
2
2
X
iX P
2
dX e
(8.404)
WR (X , P ) =
P P 2
e(
dP W (X , P )
(8.405)
WR (X , P ) =
2
X
P
2 +2
2
e
.
2
+ 2
(8.407)
p2x
1
+ m 2 x2 .
2m 2
(8.408)
) *
By symmetry x = 0. The expectation value x2 was calculated in Eq.
(8.160) and found to be given by
) 2*
1
x =
coth
.
(8.409)
m 2 2
2
(8.410)
an ( (t))n ,
(8.411)
n=0
using Eq. (8.37) and the fact that u (t, t0 ) u (t, t0 ) = 1, i.e. the unitarity
of the time evolution operator. By using this result for the function log
Eyal Buks
279
1
4
(8.413)
and the fact that all three Pauli matrices have a vanishing trace, one
finds that
1
1
Tr (
u ) = Tr (
u ) + Tr ((
u ) (k ))
2
2
1
= Tr ((
u ) (k ))
2
1
i
= Tr (
u k) + Tr ( (
u k))
2
2
1
= Tr (
u k)
2
=u
k .
(8.414)
33. Using the definition of the Pauli matrices (6.136) one finds that
1
1 + kz kx iky
.
(8.415)
=
2 kx + iky 1 kz
a) Let be the two eigenvalues of . The following holds
Tr () = + + = 1 ,
Eyal Buks
(8.416)
280
8.4. Solutions
and
Det () = + = 1 k2 /4 ,
(8.417)
1 k
,
2
(8.418)
and therefore
= f (k) ,
(8.419)
where
f (x) =
1x
1x 1+x
1+x
log
log
.
2
2
2
2
(8.420)
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
y
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.4
1x
2
0.6
log
0.8
1x
2
1+x
2
log 1+x
2 .
1 kz
1 kz
1 + kz
1 + kz
log
log
.
2
2
2
2
(8.422)
(8.423)
281
ak k ,
(8.424)
k=0
= Tr
k=0
k=0
2
.
ak k1 d + k2 (d) + k3 (d) 2 + + O (d)
k terms
(8.425)
(8.427)
g
d
.
nm nm
n,m
(8.428)
(8.429)
n,m
Eyal Buks
,
nm
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(8.430)
282
8.4. Solutions
and
d n,m = dnm .
(8.431)
(8.432)
l d ,
dgl = g
(8.433)
and
where l = 0, 1, 2, ...L.
a) In general, the technique of Lagrange multipliers is very useful for
finding stationary points of a function, when constrains are applied.
A stationary point of occurs iff for every small change d, which is
0 , g
1 , g
2 , ..., g
L (i.e. a change which
orthogonal to all vectors g
does not violate the constrains) one has
d .
0 = d =
(8.434)
L . In other
(8.435)
where the numbers 0 , 1 , ..., L , which are called Lagrange multipliers, are constants. By multiplying by d the last result becomes
d = 0 dg0 + 1 dg1 + 2 dg2 + ... + L dgL .
Using Eqs. (8.427), (8.89, (8.91) and (8.92) one finds that
d = Tr ((1 + log ) d) ,
dg0 = Tr (d) ,
dgl = Tr (Xl d) ,
thus
!
"
L
0 = Tr
1 + log + 0 +
l Xl d .
(8.436)
(8.437)
(8.438)
(8.439)
(8.440)
l=1
The requirement that the last identity holds for any d implies that
1 + log + 0 +
L
l Xl = 0 ,
(8.441)
l=1
thus
Eyal Buks
283
=e
exp
L
l Xl
l=1
"
(8.442)
where
!
Z = Tr
L
l=1
l Xl
"
(8.444)
As can be seen from the above expression for Z, the following holds
Xl =
log Z
1
Tr Xl eH =
.
Z
l
(8.445)
1 H
e
,
Zc
(8.446)
(8.447)
and where labels the Lagrange multiplier associated with the given
expectation value H. By solving Eq. (8.92), which for this case is
given by [see also Eq. (8.445)]
H =
log Zc
1
Tr HeH =
.
Zc
(8.448)
the Lagrange multiplier can be determined. Note that the temperature T is defined by the relation = 1/kB T , where kB is the
Boltzmanns constant.
d) For the case of a grandcanonical ensemble Eq. (8.443) yields
gc =
1 H+N
e
,
Zgc
(8.449)
284
8.4. Solutions
Zgc = Tr eH+N .
(8.450)
thus
H =
log Zgc
log Zgc
(8.451)
(8.452)
(8.453)
N can be expressed as
N =
log Zgc
.
(8.454)
p2
+ V (x) .
2m
(8.455)
(8.456)
285
(8.457)
p2
eH = eV (x) e 2m + O 2 .
(8.458)
x p =
exp
,
2
yield in the classical limit
p2
Zc = dx dp p x x  eV (x) e 2m p
p2
= dx
dp eV (x ) e 2m p x x p
1
dx dp eH(p ,x ) .
=
2
(8.459)
(8.460)
Note that the this result can be also obtained by taking the limit 0,
for which the operator x and p can be considered as commuting operators
(recall that [x, p] = i), and consequently in this limit eH can be
factored in the same way [see Eq. (8.458)].
36. The measurement of the observable A1 is describe by the its extension,
which is given by A1 12 , where 12 is the identity operator on subsystem
2. Thus with the help of Eq. (8.8) one finds that
A1 = Tr (A1 12 )
=
n1 , n2  A1 12 n1 , n2
n1 ,n2
n1
1 n1 
!
n2
2 n2  n2 2
"
A1 n1 1
= Tr1 (1 A1 ) .
(8.461)
37. In terms of the matrix elements n1 ,n2 ,m1 ,m2 of the operator , which are
given by
(n1 ,n2 ),(m1 ,m2 ) = n1 , n2  m1 , m2 ,
(8.462)
(8.463)
n2
Eyal Buks
286
8.4. Solutions
and
(2 )n2 ,m2 =
(8.464)
n1
(8.465)
and therefore
(n1 ,n2 ),(m1 ,n2 )
(1 )n1 ,m1 =
n2
n2
= (1 )m1 ,n1 ,
(8.466)
i.e. 1 is also Hermitian, and similarly 2 is also Hermitian. Thus the
eigenvalues of 1 and 2 are all real. Moreover, these eigenvalues represent
probabilities, and therefore they are expected to be all nonnegative and
smaller than unity. In what follows it is assumed that the set of vectors
{n1 1 } ({n2 2 }) are chosen to be eigenvectors of the operator 1 (2 ).
Thus 1 and 2 can be expressed as
1 =
wn(1)
n1 1 1 n1  ,
(8.467)
1
n1
and
2 =
n2
wn(2)
n2 2
1
2 n2 
(8.468)
(1)
(2)
2 = Tr2 (2 log 2 ) =
and
Eyal Buks
wn(2)
log wn(2)
,
2
2
(8.471)
n2
287
wk log wk .
(8.472)
As can be seen from Eqs. (8.462), (8.463) and (8.467), the following holds
wn(1)
= (1 )n1 ,n1
1
=
(n1 ,n2 ),(n1 ,n2 )
n2
n2
n1 , n2  n1 , n2
n2
thus
wn(1)
=
1
wn1 ,n2 ,
(8.474)
and similarly
=
wn1 ,n2 ,
wn(2)
2
(8.475)
n2
n1
where
wn1 ,n2 =
k
(8.476)
Note that
!
"
wn1 ,n2 =
wk k
n1 , n2 n1 , n2  k
n1 ,n2
k
n1 ,n2
wk k k ,
(8.477)
thus the normalization condition k k = 1 together with the requirement that
Tr =
wk = 1 ,
(8.478)
k
imply that
wn1 ,n2 = 1 ,
(8.479)
n1 ,n2
Eyal Buks
288
8.4. Solutions
i.e.
Tr1 1 =
wn(1)
=1,
1
(8.480)
wn(2)
=1.
2
(8.481)
n1
and
Tr2 2 =
n2
(1) (2)
Consider the quantity y wn1 ,n2 /wn1 wn2 , where the function y (x) is
given by
y (x) = x log x x + 1 .
(8.482)
(8.483)
1
d2 y
= ,
dx2
x
(8.484)
and
(8.485)
(1)
(2)
for x 0. For x = wn1 ,n2 /wn1 wn2 the inequality (8.485) implies that
wn1 ,n2
(1) (2)
wn1 wn2
log
wn1 ,n2
(1) (2)
wn1 wn2
(1)
wn1 ,n2
(1)
(2)
wn1 wn2
+10.
(8.486)
(2)
wn1 ,n2 +
wn(1)
wn(2)
0 , (8.487)
1
2
wn1 wn2 n1 ,n2
n1 ,n2
n1
n2
thus with the help of Eqs. (8.479), (8.480) and (8.481) one finds that
wn ,n2
wn1 ,n2 log (1)1 (2)
0,
(8.488)
wn1 wn2
n1 ,n2
and with the help of Eqs. (8.470) and (8.471) that
1 + 2
wn1 ,n2 log wn1 ,n2 .
(8.489)
n1 ,n2
Eyal Buks
289
n1 ,n2
n1 ,n2
n1 ,n2 k
!
wn1 ,n2
wk
n1 ,n2
wn1 ,n2
n1 ,n2
+ .
"
n1 , n2 k2 ,
=1
(8.490)
n1 ,n2
"
wk log wk
thus
wk
n1 ,n2
1
wn1 ,n2
!
n1 ,n2
!
k
wk
wn1 ,n2
"
(8.491)
=0.
(8.492)
These results together with inequality (8.489) yield
1 + 2 .
Eyal Buks
(8.493)
290
8.4. Solutions
38. With the help of Eq. (8.110), which is given by
=
eH
= p+ + + + p   ,
Tr (eH )
(8.494)
e
e
2
2
+e
2
(8.495)
= e B/me c is the Larmor frequency [see Eq. (4.22)] and where =
1/kB T , one finds that
= p+ log p+ p log p
=
1 tanh
1 tanh
1 + tanh
1 + tanh
2
2
2
2
log
log
.
2
2
2
2
(8.496)
39. With the help of Eqs. (6.77) and (8.414) one finds that
H Sz H = ,
2 2
(8.497)
thus
1
pz+ (1 pz+ ) = ,
2
(8.498)
and therefore
pz+ = cos2
.
8
(8.499)
= 1 e
en n n ,
(8.500)
n=0
=
1 e en log 1 e en
n=0
= 1 e log 1 e
en
n=0
+ 1 e
nen .
n=0
Eyal Buks
(8.501)
291
en =
n=0
1
,
1 e
(8.502)
n
ne
n=0
1 n
e
=
e
=
2 ,
n=0
(1 e )
(8.503)
Eyal Buks
.
e 1
(8.504)
292
(9.1)
k , i k, i = kk ii .
(9.2)
and
For a given k the degeneracy index i can take the values 1, 2, , gk . The
set of vectors {k, 1 , k, 2 , , k, gk } forms an orthonormal basis for the
eigensubspace Fk . The closure relation can be written as
1=
gk
k
i=1
k, i k, i =
Pk ,
(9.3)
where
Pk =
gk
i=1
k, i k, i
(9.4)
(9.5)
(9.6)
(9.7)
(9.9)
Pk
.
E
Ek
k
=n
(9.10)
(9.11)
(9.12)
Pk Pk
Pk
=
=R,
E Ek
E Ek
k
=n k
=n
(9.13)
k
=n
and similarly
RQn = R .
(9.14)
Furthermore, by expressing H0 as
H0 =
gk
Eyal Buks
i=1
Ek k, i k, i = En Pn +
Ek P k ,
(9.15)
k
=n
294
<
Pk E En Pn k
=n Ek Pk
k
=n
E Ek
Pk (E Ek )
E Ek
k
=n
= Qn ,
(9.16)
and similarly
(E H0 ) R = Qn .
(9.17)
The last two results suggest that the operator R can be considered as the
inverse of E H0 in the subspace of eigenvalue zero of the projector Pn
(which is the subspace of eigenvalue unity of the projector Qn ). Multiplying
Eq. (9.9) from the left by R yields
RV  = R (E H0 )  .
(9.18)
(9.19)
(9.20)
1
Pn  .
 = 1 RV
(9.21)
(9.22)
(9.23)
In general the eigenvector  is determined up to multiplication by a constant. For simplicity we choose that constant to be such that
Eyal Buks
295
(9.24)
namely
n  = 1 .
(9.25)
(9.26)
(9.27)
(9.28)
or
thus
E = En + n V  .
(9.29)
k
=n
i
k
=n k =
n
i
i
+ .
(9.30)
+3
k
=n k =
n
i
i
+ .
Eyal Buks
(9.31)
296
9.2. Example
Note that the right hand side of Eq. (9.31) contains terms that depend on E.
To second order in one finds
E = En + n V n +
k, i V n2
+ O 3 .
En Ek
(9.32)
k
=n
i
(9.33)
k
=n
i
(9.34)
(9.35)
(9.36)
Pn V Pn  + 2 Pn V RV Pn  + = (E En ) Pn  .
(9.37)
(9.38)
9.2 Example
Consider a point particle having mass m whose Hamiltonian is given by
H = H0 + V ,
(9.39)
where
Eyal Buks
297
p2
m2 x2
+
.
2m
2
(9.40)
and where
V =
m
x.
(9.41)
(9.42)
(9.43)
Note that, as was shown in chapter 5 [see Eq. (5.161)], the eigenvectors
and eigenvalues of H can be found analytically for this particular case. For
the sake of comparison we first derive this exact solution. Writing H as
0
m 2 x2
p2
m
H=
+
+
x
2m
2
!
"
0
2
p2
m 2
1
=
+
x+
2 ,
2m
2
m
2
(9.44)
one sees that H describes a one dimensional harmonic oscillator (as H0 also
does). The exact eigenenergies are given by
1
En () = En ( = 0) 2 ,
2
and the corresponding exact wavefunctions are
=
0
x n () = x +
n .
m
(9.45)
(9.46)
(9.47)
where J (x) is the translation operator, the exact solution (9.46) can be
rewritten as
! 0
"
x n () = x  J
n ,
(9.48)
m
Eyal Buks
298
9.2. Example
or simply as
n () = J
m
"
n .
(9.49)
Next we calculate an approximate eigenvalues and eigenvectors using perturbation theory. Using the identity
0
a + a ,
x=
(9.50)
2m
one has
V = a + a .
2
(9.51)
a n = n n 1 ,
a n = n + 1 n + 1 ,
(9.52)
(9.53)
one has
m V n = m a n + m a n
2
n m,n1 + n + 1 m,n+1 .
=
2
(9.54)
k, i V n2
+ O 3
En Ek
k
=n
i
2
n 1 V n
n + 1 V n2
= En +
+
+ O 3
En En1
En En+1
2
1
n
(n + 1) 2
= n +
+
+ O 3
2
2
2
2
1
= n +
+ O 3 ,
2
2
(9.55)
in agreement (to second order) with the exact result (9.45), and n () can
be expanded using Eq. (9.30) as
Eyal Buks
299
k
=n
i
n 1 n 1 V n n + 1 n + 1 V n
+
+ O 2
En En1
En En+1
n 1
n n + 1
n+1
2
2
+ O 2
= n +
2
= n + a n a n + O .
2
2
(9.56)
= n +
(9.57)
(9.58)
m
"
n + O 2 ,
(9.60)
9.3 Problems
1. The volume effect: The energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom was
calculated in chapter 8 by considering the proton to be a point particle.
Consider a model in which the proton is instead assumed to be a sphere
of radius 0 where 0 << a0 (a0 is Bohrs radius), and the charge of
the proton +e is assumed to be uniformly distributed in that sphere.
Show that the energy shift due to such perturbation to lowest order in
perturbation theory is given by
En,l =
e2 2
Rn,l (0)2 ,
10 0
(9.61)
300
9.3. Problems
2. Consider a particle having mass m in a 3D central potential given by
m 2 r2
+ gr4 .
(9.62)
2
where r = x2 + y2 + z 2 is the radial coordinate, and where and g
are both positive. Calculate to lowest nonvanishing order in g the energy
of the ground state.
3. Consider an hydrogen atom. A perturbation given by
V (r) =
V = Ar ,
(9.63)
where r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 is the radial coordinate and A is a constant is
added.
a) Calculate to first order in A the energy of the ground state.
b) Calculate to first order in A the energy of the first excited state.
4. A weak uniform electric field E = E
z, where E is a constant, is applied
to a hydrogen atom. Calculate to 1st order in perturbation theory the
correction to the energy of the
a) level n = 1 (n is the principle quantum number).
b) level n = 2.
5. A particle having mass m and charge q is confined in a 3D infinite potential well of width l, which is given by
+
0 if x l/2 and y l/2 and z l/2
V (x, y, z) =
. (9.64)
+
elsewhere
A weak uniform electric field E = E
z, where E is a constant, is applied.
Calculate the eigenenergies to first order in E.
6. Consider two particles, both having the same mass m, moving in a onedimensional potential with coordinates x1 and x2 respectively. The potential energy is given by
1
1
V (x1 , x2 ) = m 2 (x1 a)2 + m 2 (x2 + a)2 + m2 (x1 x2 )2 ,
2
2
(9.65)
where is real. Find the energy of the ground state to lowest nonvanishing order in .
7. A particle having mass m is confined in a potential well of width l, which
is given by
+
0 for 0 x l
V (x) =
.
(9.66)
+ elsewhere
Find to lowest order in perturbation theory the correction to the ground
state energy due to a perturbation given by
Eyal Buks
301
(9.67)
a
2
(9.69)
is added.
a) Calculate to lowest nonvanishing order in w0 the energy of the
ground state.
b) The same for the first excite state.
9. Consider a particle having mass m moving in a potential energy given by
V (x, y) =
m 2 2
x + y 2 + m 2 xy ,
2
(9.70)
Eyal Buks
302
9.3. Problems
12. JaynesCummings model  Consider a system composed of a harmonic
oscillator having angular resonance frequency r > 0 and a twolevel
system. The Hamiltonian of the system is assumed to be given by
H = Hr + Ha + V .
(9.73)
The term Hr is the Hamiltonian for the harmonic oscillator [see Eq.
(5.16)]
1
Hr = r a a +
,
(9.74)
2
where a and a are annihilation and creation operators respectively. The
term Ha is the Hamiltonian for the twolevel system
Ha =
a
z ,
2
(9.75)
where
z = + +   ,
the ket vectors  represent the two levels and where a > 0. The
coupling term between the oscillator and the twolevel system is given by
V = g a + a+ ,
(9.76)
where
+ = +  ,
=  + .
(9.77)
(9.78)
g
S ,
(9.79)
(9.80)
(9.81)
and where
= a r .
(9.82)
303
else
V1 =
x < 0
V (x) = x
0xL .
L
x>L
else
A perturbation given by
W (x, y) =
2 2
(x lx ) (y ly ) .
m
(9.87)
is added, where
0 lx l ,
(9.88)
0 ly l .
(9.89)
and
304
9.3. Problems
a) ground state.
b) first excited state.
17. Consider a rigid rotator whose Hamiltonian is given by
H=
L2x + L2y
L2x L2y
L2
+ z +
,
2Ixy
2Iz
2Ixy
(9.90)
p21
p2
+ 2 (x1 ) (x2 ) + (x1 x2 ) ,
2m 2m
(9.91)
where x1 and x2 are the coordinates of the first and second particle
respectively, p1 and p2 are the corresponding canonically conjugate momentums, and are both real positive constants and () denotes the
delta function. Calculate to first order in the energy of the ground state
of the system.
19. In this problem the main results of time independent perturbation theory
are derived using an alternative approach. Consider a general square
matrix
W = D + V ,
(9.92)
where R, D is diagonal
D n0 = n0 n0 ,
n0  D = n0 n0  ,
(9.93a)
(9.93b)
(9.94)
(9.95)
(9.96)
to second order in .
Eyal Buks
305
(9.97)
(9.98)
(9.99)
(9.100)
,
2
Ek Ek
Ek Ek
k
(9.101)
(9.102)
9.4 Solutions
1. The radial force acting on the electron is found using Gauss theorem
e2
r 2 r > 0
Fr (r) = e2 r 3
.
(9.103)
r2
r 0
0
Eyal Buks
306
9.4. Solutions
The potential energy V (r) is found by integrating Fr (r) and by requiring
that V (r) is continuous at r = 0
e2
r
r > 0
2
V (r) =
.
(9.104)
e2
r
2
3 r 0
2
0
r > 0
e
2
=
. (9.105)
Vp (r) = V (r)
20
e2
r
+ r 3 r 0
20
r
0
To first order one has
(9.106)
(9.107)
0
e2
drr Rnl (r)
20
!
r
0
2
2
+ 0 3
r
"
.
(9.108)
In the limit where 0 << a0 the term Rnl (r) can approximately be
replaced by Rnl (0)2 , thus
! 2
"
0
2
r
20
2
2 e
En,l = Rnl (0)
drr
+
3
20
0
r
0
e2 20
=
Rnl (0)2 .
10
(9.109)
2. For the unperturbed case, i.e. when g = 0, the energy eigenvectors are
denoted by nx , ny , nz , where the quantum numbers nx , ny and nz are
nonnegative integers, and the corresponding eigenenergies are given by
3
Enx ,ny ,nz =
+ nx + ny + nz .
(9.110)
2
Eyal Buks
307
(9.111)
one finds that the energy of the ground state Egs is given by
3
Egs =
+ g 0, 0, 0 r4 0, 0, 0 + O g2
2
2
3
=
+ 3g 0, 0, 0 x4 0, 0, 0 + 6g 0, 0, 0 x2 0, 0, 0 + O g 2
2
2
3
=
+ 15g
+ O g2 .
2
2m
(9.112)
3. The wavefunctions for the unperturbed case are given by
nlm (r, , ) = Rnl (r) Ylm (, ) ,
where for the states relevant to this problem
3/2
1
R10 (r) = 2
er/a0 ,
a0
3/2
r
1
R20 (r) = (2 r/a0 )
e 2a0 ,
2a0
3/2
r
1
r
R21 (r) =
e 2a0 ,
2a0
3a0
0
1
Y00 (, ) =
,
4
0
1
3
Y11 (, ) =
sin ei ,
2 2
0
1 3
0
Y1 (, ) =
cos ,
2
0
1
3
Y11 (, ) =
sin ei ,
2 2
and the corresponding eigenenergies are given by
En(0) =
EI
,
n2
(9.113)
(9.114a)
(9.114b)
(9.114c)
(9.114d)
(9.114e)
(9.114f)
(9.114g)
(9.115)
where
EI =
Eyal Buks
me e4
.
22
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(9.116)
308
9.4. Solutions
The perturbation term V in the Hamiltonian is given by V = Ar. The
matrix elements of V are expressed as
n l m  V nlm = A
dr r3 Rn l Rnl
= A l,l m,m
1
d (cos )
2
Ylm
Ylm
dr r3 Rn l Rnl .
(9.117)
a) Thus, to first order
(0)
(9.118)
where
100 V 100 = A
2
dr r3 R10
(r) =
3Aa0
.
2
(9.119)
21m V 21m = A
dr r3 R21 = 5Aa0 .
(9.120b)
(9.121)
(0)
(9.122)
(9.123)
Eyal Buks
309
1
a0
3/2
1
2a0
(9.124)
3/2
e 2a0 ,
(9.125)
3/2
1
r
r
e 2a0 ,
2a0
3a0
0
1
Y00 (, ) =
,
4
0
1
3
sin ei ,
Y11 (, ) =
2 2
0
1 3
0
cos ,
Y1 (, ) =
2
0
1
3
Y11 (, ) =
sin ei ,
2 2
and the corresponding eigenenergies are given by
R21 (r) =
En(0) =
er/a0 ,
(9.126)
(9.127)
(9.128)
(9.129)
(9.130)
EI
,
n2
(9.131)
where
EI =
me e4
.
22
(9.132)
(9.133)
n l m  V nlm = eE
dr r Rn l Rnl
1
d (cos )
2
0
d cos Ylm
Ylm .
(9.134)
(0)
E1 = E1 + 1, 0, 0 V 1, 0, 0 = E1 ,
since
1
d (cos ) cos = 0 ,
310
9.4. Solutions
b) The level n = 2 has degeneracy 4. The matrix of the perturbationV
in thedegenerate subspace is given by
M =
2, 1, 0 V 2, 0, 0 2, 1, 0 V 2, 1, 1 2, 1, 0 V 2, 1, 0 2, 1, 0 V 2, 1, 1 .
2, 1, 1 V 2, 0, 0 2, 1, 1 V 2, 1, 1 2, 1, 1 V 2, 1, 0 2, 1, 1 V 2, 1, 1
(9.135)
Using
1
d (cos ) cos = 0 ,
(9.136)
1
(9.137)
(9.138)
1
1
d (cos ) cos3 = 0 ,
2
(9.139)
d ei = 0 ,
(9.140)
0
0
,
0
0
(9.141)
one finds
0
0
M =
0
0
00
00
00
where
= 2, 0, 0 V 2, 1, 0
1
2
3
= eE dr r R2,0 R2,1 d (cos ) d cos Y00 Y10
0
eE
8
0
Eyal Buks
4
r
r
r
dr 2
e a0
a0
a0
1
d (cos ) cos
2
d .
(9.142)
311
d (cos ) cos2 =
2
,
3
(9.143)
and
x4 ex dx = 24
(9.144)
x5 ex dx = 120
(9.145)
one finds
= 2, 0, 0 V 2, 1, 0
4
r
r
eE
r
dr 2
e a0
=
24
a0
a0
0
a0 eE
=
24
0
dx (2 x) x4 ex
= 3a0 eE .
(9.146)
The eigenvalues of the matrix M are 0, 0, 3a0 eE and 3a0 eE. Thus
to 1st order the degeneracy is partially lifted with subspace of dimen(0)
sion 2 having energy E2 , and another 2 nondegenerate subspaces
(0)
having energies E2 3a0 eE.
5. For E = 0 the normalized wavefunctions (0)
nx ,ny ,nz (x , y , z ) are given by
(0)
nx ,ny ,nz (x , y , z )
= x , y , z nx , ny , , nz
3/2
nx x + 2l
ny y + 2l
nz z + 2l
2
=
sin
sin
sin
,
l
l
l
l
(9.147)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
2 2 n2x + n2y + n2z
(0)
Enx ,ny ,nz =
,
2ml2
(9.148)
(9.149)
where
Eyal Buks
312
9.4. Solutions
I
nz ,n
z
nz z + 2l
nz z + 2l
=
dz sin
sin
z .
l
l
l/2
l/2
(9.150)
Note that Inz ,nz = 0 if nz = nz (since for that case the integrand is an
odd function of z ), and thus
)
*
nx , ny , nz
V
nx , ny , nz nx ,nx ny ,ny 1 nz ,nz .
(9.151)
above
elements nx , ny , nz
V
nx , ny , nz that are needed for first order perturbation theory, for both nondegenerate and degenerate energy levels,
vanish, and consequently, to first order in E the energy eigenstates remain
unchanged.
6. To lowest order in perturbation theory the ground state energy is given
by
Egs = +m
dx1
dx2 20 (x1 a) 20 (x2 + a) (x1 x2 )2 +O 2 ,
(9.152)
(9.153)
(9.154)
+m2
2m
+O 2
+ a)
+ a2 + 2m 2 a2 + O 2
= + 2m2
2m
= + + 4m 2 a2 + O 2 .
Eyal Buks
(9.155)
313
x1 =
,
(9.158)
2
x+ x
x2 =
.
(9.159)
2
The following holds
x21 + x22 = x2+ + x2 ,
(9.160)
x 21 + x 22 = x 2+ + x 2 .
(9.161)
and
m x + + x 2
1
=
m 2 x2+ + x2 2a 2x + 2a2 + 4x2
2
2
= L+ + L ,
(9.162)
where
L+ =
mx 2+ 1
m2 x2+ ,
2
2
(9.163)
and
!
"2
2
mx 2 1
a
2
8a
. (9.164)
L =
m 2 (1 + 4) x
+
2
2
1 + 4
1 + 4
1
1
4m 2 a2
En+ ,n = n+ +
+ 1 + 4 n +
+
, (9.165)
2
2
1 + 4
314
9.4. Solutions
7. For w0 = 0 the normalized wavefunctions (0)
n (x) are given by
0
2
nx
(x)
=
x
n
=
(0)
sin
,
n
l
l
(9.167)
2 2 n2
.
2ml2
(9.168)
l
sin
nx
mx
l
sin
x
dx
l
l
2
2w0
n
m
=
sin
sin
.
l
2
2
(9.169)
For the ground state
1V 1 =
2w0
,
l
(9.170)
thus
E1 =
2 2
2w0
+
+ O w02 .
2
2ml
l
(9.171)
2
nx x
ny y
sin
sin
,
a
a
a
(9.172)
(9.173)
where nx = 1, 2, and ny = 1, 2, .
a) The ground state (nx , ny ) = (1, 1) is nondegenerate, thus to first
order in w0
2 2
E0 =
+ 1, 1W 1, 1
ma2
a/2
a/2
2 2 4w0
x
y
=
+ 2
sin2
dx
sin2
dy
ma2
a
a
a
0
2 2
w0
+
,
ma2
4
(9.174)
Eyal Buks
315
a/2
a/2
a/2
a/2
/
/
/
/
2y
y
2 x
2 2y
x
2x
sin a dx
sin a dy
sin a sin a dx
sin a sin a dy
4w0
0
0
0
0
= 2 a/2
a/2
a/2
a/2
/
/
/
a /
y
2y
2 2x
2 y
2x
1x
sin a sin a dx
sin a sin a dy
sin a dx
sin a dy
0
0
0
0
1 16
4 92
,
= w0 16
1
92
(9.175)
52 2 w0 16w0
+
+ O w02 .
2
2
2ma
4
9
(9.176)
(9.177)
(9.178)
(9.179)
ax + ax ay + ay .
2
a) For the ground state 0, 0, which is nondegenerate, one has
nx , ny  V1 0, 02
E0,0 () = + 0, 0 V1 0, 0 +
E0,0 (0) Enx ,ny
nx ,ny
=0,0
=0
= +
2
=
2
2
= 1
.
8
Eyal Buks
(9.180)
316
9.4. Solutions
b) The first excited state is doubly degenerate, thus the eigenenergies
are found by diagonalizing the matrix of V1 in the corresponding
subspace
0 1
1, 0 V1 1, 0 1, 0 V1 0, 1
.
(9.181)
=
0, 1 V1 1, 0 0, 1 V1 0, 1
10
2
Thus the degeneracy is lifted and the energies are given by 2 (1 /4).
Note that this problem can be also solved exactly by employing the
coordinate transformation
x+y
x = ,
(9.182)
2
xy
y = .
(9.183)
2
The inverse transformation is given by
x + y
x=
,
(9.184)
2
x y
.
(9.185)
y=
2
The following hold
x2 + y 2 = x2 + y 2 ,
(9.186)
2
2
2
2
x + y = x + y ,
(9.187)
1 2
(9.188)
xy =
x y 2 .
2
Thus, the Lagrangian
of the system can be written as
m x 2 + y 2
L=
V (x1 , x2 )
22
m 2 2
m x + y 2
m 2 2
=
x + y 2
x y 2
2
2
2
= L+ + L ,
(9.189)
where
L+ =
mx 2 m 2
(1 + ) x2 ,
2
2
(9.190)
L =
my 2 m 2
(1 ) y2 .
2
2
(9.191)
and
317
+ O 3 .
2
8
(9.193)
10. Using Eqs. (5.28) and (5.29) one finds that
m V n = n (n 1) m,n2 + (n + 1) (n + 2) m,n+2 , (9.194)
thus
1
En () = n +
2
+ n V n +
=0
2
m
=n
m V n2
+ O 3
En (0) Em (0)
+
[n (n 1) (n + 1) (n + 2)] + O 3
2
2
1
+ O 3 .
= n +
12
2
= n +
1
2
(9.195)
(9.196)
10 0
0 0 0 ,
Jz =
0 0 1
100
J2 =
22 0 1 0 ,
001
010
20 0 1 ,
J+ =
000
000
J =
21 0 0 .
010
Eyal Buks
(9.197)
(9.198)
(9.199)
(9.200)
(9.201)
(9.202)
(9.203)
(9.204)
318
9.4. Solutions
a) The Hamiltonian is given by
H = Sz2 + Sx2 Sy2
4
3
2
2
= Sz2 +
(S+ + S ) + (S+ S )
4
2
2
2
= Sz +
S+ + S
.
2
Thus, in matrix
form
100
001
000
H=
2 0 0 0 + 2 0 0 0 + 0 0 0
001
000
100
0
= 2 0 0 0 .
0
b) The eigenvalues
and
are given
eigenvectors
by
0
1
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
= ( + ) 0 ,
0
1
1
0
1
1
2 0 0 0 0 = 2 ( ) 0 ,
0
1
1
0
0
0
2 0 0 0 1 = 2 0 1 .
0
0
0
(9.205)
(9.206)
(9.207)
(9.208)
(9.209)
c) The Hamiltonian
as H = H0 + V where in matrix form
is written
100
H0 =
2 0 0 0 ,
(9.210)
001
001
V =
2 0 0 0 .
(9.211)
100
0
= 0 on has to second order
For the nondegenerate eigenenergy Em=0
in perturbation expansion
0
Em=0 = Em=0
+1, 0 V 1, 0+
m =1
0
For the degenerate eigenenergy Em=1
= 2 the perturbation in
the subspace spanned by {1, 1 , 1, 1} is given in matrix form by
01
Vm=1 =
2
,
(9.213)
10
Eyal Buks
319
(9.214)
12. For the unperturbed case V = 0, the eigenvectors and eigenenergies are
related by
0
(Hr + Ha ) n, = En,
n, ,
(9.215)
Using
2
2
(9.218)
(9.219)
(9.220)
and for = 1
1
a
En,1 = r n +
2
2
2
g
= r
n+
g2 n
a r
a +
1
+
2
2
g2
,
(9.221)
where
= a r .
For the general case this can be written as
g2
1
1
g2
En, = r +
n+
+
a +
.
2
2
Eyal Buks
(9.222)
(9.223)
320
9.4. Solutions
Thus, according to the above result (9.223), the energies of the states
(n, +1) and (n + 1, ), which are degenerate for the case where r =
a and where g = 0, are given to second order in g by
g2
(n + 1) +
,
(9.224)
En,+1 = r +
2
and
En+1,1
g2
(n + 1)
.
= r
(9.225)
n, + V n, +
n, + V n + 1,
n + 1,  V n, + n + 1,  V n + 1,
g n + 1
0
,
g n + 1
0
(9.227)
,
E = (n + 1) g n + 1 .
(9.228)
1
[L, [L, H]] + ,
2!
(9.229)
where
L=
g
a+ a .
(9.230)
(9.231)
(9.232)
(9.233)
(9.234)
(9.235)
321
and thus
1 + z
+ a az
2
, (9.236)
g2
g2
H = r + z a a +
a +
z
2
3
r + g
g
+
+O
.
2
(9.237)
Note that to second order in g/ the states n, are eigenvalues of
H , and the following holds
H n, = En, n, ,
(9.238)
where
En, =
g2
1
1
g2
r +
n+
+
a +
.
2
2
(9.239)
H n, + = r (n + 1) n, + +
n, + + g n + 1 n + 1, ,
2
(9.240)
and
n + 1, + g n + 1 n, + ,
H n + 1, = r (n + 1) n + 1,
2
(9.241)
where
= a r ,
(9.242)
or in a matrix
form
n, +
H
n + 1,
n cos sin
10
n, +
+
,
= r (n + 1)
01
sin cos
n + 1,
2
(9.243)
where
n = 2 + 4g 2 (n + 1) ,
(9.244)
2g n + 1
tan =
.
(9.245)
Thus, the states n+ and n , which are given by [see Eqs. (6.213)
and (6.214)]
Eyal Buks
322
9.4. Solutions
n, + + sin n + 1, ,
2
2
H n = En n ,
(9.246)
(9.247)
(9.248)
where
3
n 4
En = r (n + 1)
2
0
2
2
= r (n + 1)
+ g (n + 1) .
4
(9.249)
The ground state is the state 0,
H 0, = Eg n, ,
(9.250)
.
2
(9.251)
(9.252)
2g n + 1
tan =
.
(9.255)
(9.256)
N = a a + + + .
(9.257)
and
S n, + = n + 1 n + 1, ,
S n + 1, = n + 1 n, + ,
Eyal Buks
(9.258)
(9.259)
(9.260)
323
(9.261)
(9.262)
(9.263)
satisfies
I n, + = n + 1, ,
I n + 1, = n, + .
Therefore, Eqs. (9.246) and (9.247) can be rewritten as
n+ = U n, + ,
n = U n + 1, ,
where
U = cos
+ sin I .
2
2
(9.264)
(9.265)
(9.266)
(9.267)
(9.268)
Furthermore, with the help of Eq. (9.255) one finds that [note that
I 2 n, + = n, + and I 2 n + 1, = n + 1, ]
1/2
I
1 2gN
U = exp
tan
.
(9.269)
2
f) With the help of Eqs. (2.173) and (9.269) one finds that
H = H + [L, H] +
1
1
[L, [L, H]] + [L, [L, [L, H]]] + , (9.271)
2!
3!
where
L = Sf (N ) ,
(9.272)
+O
.
(9.273)
(9.274)
324
f 2 (x) =
Eyal Buks
g 2
9.4. Solutions
and
f 3 (x) =
g 3
+O
g 5
(9.275)
,
a + a+ , a a = a + a+ , + + = a + a+ ,
(9.276)
[H, S] = a + a+ +g 1 + 2 a a +
z .
2
(9.277)
(9.278)
(9.279)
(9.280)
[L, H] = [H, S] f (N ) ,
(9.281)
(9.282)
where
1
[[H, S] , S] = 1 + 2 a a +
z
2
1
4g a a +
a + a+ + 2g a + a+ z ,
2
(9.283)
and therefore (note that [[[H, S] , S] , N ] = 0)
[L, [L, [L, H]]]
,
= [[H, S] , S] f 2 (N ) , Sf (N )
= [[[H, S] , S] , S] f 3 (N ) ,
Eyal Buks
(9.284)
325
+2g 1 + 2 a a +
z z .
2
(9.285)
By combining the above results one finds that
4g 4
4g 4
1 H = r
+ z
a az a a
3
3
33
r
1
+
+ (a + ) z +
2
2
2
g 5
+O
.
(9.286)
where
g2
4g 2
=
1
.
(9.287)
32
13. Using creation and annihilation operators one has
H0 =
p2x + p2y
1
+ m 2 x2 + y 2 = (Nx + Ny + 1) ,
2m
2
(9.288)
where Nx = ax ax , Ny = ay ay , and
2
L
z
=
(xpy ypx )2
2
,
=
i ax ay ax ay
4
3 2 2
= a2x ay + ax a2y ax ax ay ay ax ax ay ay
3 2 2
4
= a2x ay + ax a2y (1 + Nx ) Ny Nx (1 + Ny ) .
V =
(9.289)
a) For the case = 0 the ground state 0, 0 is nondegenerate and has
energy E0,0 = . Since V 0, 0 = 0 one finds to second order in
Eyal Buks
326
9.4. Solutions
E0,0 = +0, 0 V 0, 0
1
nx , ny  V 0, 02
= +O 3 .
n
+
n
x
y
=0,0
nx ,ny
(9.290)
ad ad + ag ag =
and
1
1
ax + iay (ax iay )
ax iay (ax + iay )
2
2
= i ax ay ax ay ,
(9.297)
ad ad ag ag =
thus
H0 = (Nd + Ng + 1) ,
(9.298)
V = (Nd Ng ) ,
(9.299)
and the exact eigen vectors and eigenenergies are given by
3
4
(H0 + V ) nd , ng = nd + ng + 1 + (nd ng )2 nd , ng .
(9.300)
Eyal Buks
327
(0)
sin
,
n (x) = x n =
l
l
(9.301)
2 2 n2
.
2ml2
(9.302)
l
nx
mx
2x
sin
sin
dx .
l
l
l
sin
(9.303)
l
sin2
nx
2x
sin
dx
l
l
(9.304)
l/2
sin2
l/2
2V0
=
l
=0,
l/2
ny
l
1 cos
l/2
n
sin
2
2ny
l
+ n
2y
+ dy
l
(9.305)
2y
dy
l
(9.306)
sin
(9.307)
(9.308)
2 2 n2
+ O V02 .
2ml2
15. For the case = 0 the exact wave functions are given by
0
nx
2
(0)
n (x) =
sin
,
L
L
(9.309)
(9.310)
2 2 n2
,
2mL2
(9.311)
328
9.4. Solutions
(0)
E1 = E1 +
dx
0
2
(0)
1 (x) x + O 2
x
2 L
x + O 2
=
+ 2
dx sin2
L 0
L
(0)
= E1 + + O 2
2
(0)
E1
(9.312)
16. For the case = 0 the exact wave functions of the eigenstates are given
by
(0)
nx ,ny (x, y) =
2
nx x
ny y
sin
sin
,
l
l
l
(9.313)
(9.314)
2 2
=
ml2
l l
x 2 y
2 2
+ 2 4
sin2
sin
(x lx ) (y ly ) dxdy
ml
l
l
0 0
2 2
lx
ly
=
1 + 4 sin2
sin2
.
ml2
l
l
(9.315)
b) The first excited state is doubly degenerate. The matrix of the perturbation
W in the eigen subspaceis given by
2, 1 W 2, 1 2, 1 W 1, 2
W =
Eyal Buks
329
(9.317)
and
162 2 sin2
w2 =
lx
l
sin2
ly
l
cos2
lx
l
+ cos2
ly
l
ml2
(9.318)
2Ixy
2Iz
2Ixy
H=
(9.319)
thus the states l, m (the standard eigenstates of L2 and Lz ) are eigenstates of H and the following holds
H l, m = El,m l, m ,
(9.320)
where
2
El,m =
l (l + 1)
+
2Ixy
1
1
2Iz
2Ixy
(9.321)
V =
L2+ + L2
.
4Ixy
(9.322)
(9.323)
(9.324)
To second order in the energy of the ground state is found using Eq.
(9.32)
E0 = E0,0 +0, 0 V 0, 0+
l ,m
=0,0
l , m  V 0, 02
+O 3 . (9.325)
E0,0 El ,m
330
9.4. Solutions
l (l + 1) m (m + 1) l, m + 1 ,
L l, m = l (l + 1) m (m 1) l, m 1 ,
L+ l, m =
(9.326)
(9.327)
(9.329)
where
H1 =
p21
(x1 ) ,
2m
(9.330)
H2 =
p22
(x2 ) ,
2m
(9.331)
and
V = (x1 x2 ) .
(9.332)
(x
))
(1) (x1 ) = 0 .
(9.333)
1
dx21
2
Integrating around x1 = 0 yields the condition
d(1) (0+ ) d(1) (0 ) 2m (1)
+ 2 (0) = 0 .
dx1
dx1
(9.334)
x

.
1
2
2
The corresponding eigenenergy is
(1)
E0 =
m2
.
22
The ground state of H2 can be found in a similar way. Thus, the normalized wavefunction of the only bound state of H1 + H2 , which is obviously
the ground state, is given by
m
m
m
0 (x1 , x2 ) = 2 exp 2 x1  exp 2 x2  ,
(9.335)
Eyal Buks
331
m2
.
2
(9.336)
Egs =
m 2
m
= 2 +
2
2
4m
dx1 exp 2 x1  + O 2
m2 m
= 2 +
+ O 2 .
22
(9.337)
and
n = n0 + n1 + 2 n2 + O 3 ,
= n0 + n1 + 2 n2 + O 3 ,
(9.338)
(9.339)
into Eq. (9.96) and collecting terms having the same order in (up to
second order) yield
(D n0 ) n0 = 0 ,
(D n0 ) n1 + (V n1 ) n0 = 0 ,
(D n0 ) n2 + (V n1 ) n1 n2 n0 = 0 .
(9.340)
(9.341)
(9.342)
(9.343)
(9.344)
(9.345)
(9.346)
(9.347)
332
9.4. Solutions
These results together with Eq. (9.344) yield
n0 n1 = n1 n0 = 0 ,
1
n0 n2 = n2 n0 = n1 n1 .
2
(9.348)
(9.349)
(9.350)
thus for m = n
n1 = n0  V n0 .
(9.351)
m0  V n0
,
n0 m0
(9.352)
m0  V n0
m0 .
n0 m0
m
(9.353)
(9.354)
(9.355)
Thus, using this result together with Eq. (9.351) one finds
= n0 + n0  V n0
n0  V m0 m0  V n0
+ 2
+ O 3 .
n0 m0
m
(9.356)
20. The condition [9.102] together with Eq. (9.98) can be used to evaluate
the matrix elements of L
k L k =
k V k
.
Ek Ek
(9.357)
333
Thus, for the case where condition (9.102) is satisfied the following holds
[note that according to Eq. (9.357) L = O ()]
3
4 1
HR = H0 + L, V + [L, [L, H0 ]] + O 3
2!
4
13
L, V + O 3 .
= H0 +
2
(9.359)
k
k
k
+ O 3 .
= Ek k,k +
2
(9.360)
21. Consider the Hamiltonian
H=
p2 (1 + ) e2
,
2
r
(9.361)
where is the reduced mass and e is the electron charge. The parameter
is a positive constant. The exact eigenenergies are given by Eq. (7.84)
(1 + )2 e4
.
(9.362)
22 n2
On the other hand, perturbation theory yields the following expansion
[see Eq. (9.32)]
En =
e4
e2
nlm
nlm + O 2 .
2
2
2 n
r
By comparing the above results for En one finds that
En =
nlm
e2
e4
nlm = 2 2 2 ,
r
2 n
(9.363)
(9.364)
e4
,
22 n2
(9.365)
e4
.
22 n2
(9.366)
334
9.4. Solutions
22. The energy eigenvalues Ekl of the radial equation of the hydrogen atom,
which is given by [see Eq. (7.61)]
2 2
d
e2 l (l + 1) 2
+
e4
22 (k + l)2
(9.368)
e4
22 (k + l + )2
(9.369)
e4
+ klm VH klm + ,
22 (k + l)2
(9.370)
VH =
(9.371)
22 e4
4 (2l + 1) (k + l)3
(9.372)
2
,
a20 (2l + 1) n3
(9.373)
where
a0 =
Eyal Buks
2
.
e2
(9.374)
335
d 
= H  ,
dt
(10.1)
(10.2)
N
>
u (tn , tn1 ) ,
(10.4)
n=1
where
tn = t0 + n ,
(10.5)
t t0
.
N
(10.6)
i
H (tn ) + O 2 .
(10.7)
In the limit where N higher than first order terms in , i.e. O 2
terms, are not expected to contribute, thus the time evolution operator can
be expressed as
N
>
i
1 H (tn ) .
u (t, t0 ) = lim
(10.8)
N n=1
(10.9)
where u0 (t, t0 ) is the time evolution of the Hamiltonian H0 . Such an expansion can be very useful for cases where u0 (t, t0 ) can be exactly calculated and
where the parameter is small, i.e.  1. For such cases only low order
terms in this expansion are needed for approximately evaluating u (t, t0 ).
By employing Eq. (10.8)
N
>
i
u (t, t0 ) = lim
1 (H0 (tn ) + H1 (tn )) ,
(10.11)
N n=1
one easily obtains the terms u0 , u1 and u2
N
>
i
u0 (t, t0 ) = lim
1 H0 (tn ) ,
N n=1
N i
<
u0 (t, tn ) H1 (tn ) u0 (tn , t0 )
N n=1
i /t
=
dt u0 (t, t ) H1 (t ) u0 (t , t0 ) ,
t0
(10.12)
u1 (t, t0 ) = lim
Eyal Buks
(10.13)
338
N1
<
N
<
N n=1 m=n+1
2
1 /t /t
dt
dt
2 t0
t0
u0 (t, t ) H1 (t ) u0 (t , t ) H1 (t ) u0 (t , t0 ) .
The expansion can be expressed as
u (t, t0 ) = u0 (t, t0 ) O (t) + O 3 ,
(10.14)
(10.15)
/t
i /t
2 /t
dt H1I (t ) 2 dt dt H1I (t ) H1I (t ) ,
t0
t0
t0
(10.16)
(10.17)
O (t)2
!
"
i /t
2 /t /t
= 1
dt H1I (t ) 2 dt dt H1I (t ) H1I (t )
t0
t0
t0
!
"
i /t
2 /t /t
1+
dt H1I (t ) 2 dt dt H1I (t ) H1I (t )
t0
t0
t0
!
"2
2 /t
= 1+ 2
dt H1I (t )
t0
2 /t /t
2 dt dt (H1I (t ) H1I (t ) + H1I (t ) H1I (t ))
t0
t0
3
+O ,
Eyal Buks
(10.18)
339
/t
t0
"2
dt H1I (t )
2 /t /t
dt dt H1I (t ) H1I (t ) ,
2 t0
t0
(10.19)
thus
2
O (t) = 1
2 /t /t
dt dt
2 t0
t0
(10.20)
or
2
O (t) = 1
where
2 /t /t
dt dt H1I (t ) H1I (t ) ,
2 t0
t0
(10.21)
(10.22)
(10.23)
where
an an = nn .
(10.24)
(10.25)
Assuming that initially at time t0 the system is in state an , what is the
probability to find it later at time t > t0 in the state am ? The answer to
this question is the transition probability pnm , which is given by
Eyal Buks
340
(10.26)
iEm (tt0 )
2 /t /t
dt dt am  H1I (t ) H1I (t ) an
2 t0
t0
3
+O ,
(10.27)
thus
i /t
=
nm
dt am  H1I (t ) an
t0
pnm
3
2 /t /t
t0
t0
(10.28)
In what follows, we calculate the transition probability pnm to lowest nonvanishing order in for the case where n = m, for which the dominant
contribution comes from the term of order in Eq. (10.28). For simplicity
the initial time t0 , at which the perturbation is turned on, is taken to be zero,
i.e. t0 = 0. We consider below the following cases:
10.3.1 The Stationary Case
In this case H1 is assumed to be time independent (after being turned on at
t0 = 0). To lowest nonvanishing order in Eq. (10.28) yields
2
= 2
pnm
where
mn =
/ i t
2
dt e mn
am  H1 an 2 ,
(10.29)
Em En
.
(10.30)
it
dt e
i t
2
= 2e
sin
t
2
(10.31)
341
t
4 sin2 mn
2
2
am  H1 an  .
2
2
mn
(10.32)
Note that in the limit t one finds with the help of Eq. (10.31) that
/ it
2
4 sin2 t
2
lim
=
lim
dt
t
t
0
2
/t
/t
= lim dt dt ei(t t )
t 0
/t
= 2 () dt
0
= 2t () .
(10.33)
In this limit pnm is proportional to the time t, i.e. pnm can be expressed as
pnm = wnm t, where wnm is the transition rate, which is given by
wnm =
2
( mn ) am  H1 an 2 .
2
(10.34)
The delta function (mn ) ensures that energy is conserved in the limit
of long time, and transitions between states having different energies are
excluded. However, such transitions have finite probability to occur for any
finite time interval t. On the other hand, as can be see from Eq. (10.32)
(see also the figure below, which plots the function f (x) = sin2 x/x2 ), the
probability is significant only when mn t 1, or alternatively when
Et ,
(10.35)
where E = mn .
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
10
8
6
4
2
4 x 6
10
Eyal Buks
342
H1 (t ) = Keit + K eit ,
(10.36)
(mn )t
(mn )t
ei
2
sin
am  K an
2
4
pnm = 2
mn
2
( mn +)t
2
ei
sin (mn2+)t am  K an
,
+
mn +
(10.37)
)t
2 (
42 sin mn2 2 am  K an 2 mn
(mn )
.
pnm
(10.38)
(
+)t
4 sin2 mn2 2
a  K a
2
(mn +)
mn
In the long time limit, i.e. in the limit t , the probability pnm is
found using Eq. (10.33) to be proportional to the time t, i.e. pnm = wnm t,
where the transition rate wnm is given by
?
2
2
mn
2 ( mn ) am  K an 
2
wnm 2
(10.39)
mn
.
2 ( mn + ) am  K an
In many cases of interest the final state am lie in a band of dense states. Let
wn be the total transition rate from the initial state an . Assume that the
matrix element am  K an does not vary significantly as a function of the
energy Em . For this case the total rate wn can be expressed in terms of the
density of states g (Em ) (i.e. number of states per unit energy) in the vicinity
of the final state am [see Eq. (10.39)] as
wn =
2
g (Em ) am  K an 2 ,
(10.40)
Eyal Buks
343
(10.41)
1 is time independent
where f (t ) is a real function of time and where H
Hermitian operator. To lowest nonvanishing order in Eq. (10.28) yields
pnm
/t imn t
1 an
2 .
= 2
dt e
f (t )
am  H
0
(10.42)
10.4 Problems
1. Find the exact time evolution operator u (t, 0) of the Hamiltonian H,
which is given by
H = H0 + Hp ,
(10.43)
where
H0 = a a ,
Hp = i (t) e2i(t) a2 e2i(t) a2 ,
(10.44)
(10.45)
a and a are the annihilation and creation operators (as defined in chapter
5), is positive, is real and (t) is an arbitrary real function of time t.
2. Consider a particle having mass m moving under the influence of a one
dimensional potential given by
V (x) =
m20 x2
,
2
(10.46)
(10.47)
Eyal Buks
344
10.4. Problems
3. Repeat the previous exercise with the perturbation
H1 (t ) = xf (t ) ,
where the force f (t ) is given by
2
exp t 2
f (t ) =
,
(10.48)
(10.49)
and where both and are real. Given that the system was initially at
time t in the ground state 0 of the unperturbed Hamiltonian,
find the transition probability pn0 to the number state n in the limit
t . Compare your approximated result with the exact result given
by Eq. (5.339).
4. Consider a spin 1/2 particle. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = Sx ,
(10.50)
( t )2
xe
,
a
(10.52)
345
10.5 Solutions
1. Expressing the ket vector state as
 = eiH0 t/ I ,
(10.53)
d 
= (H0 + Hp )  ,
dt
(10.54)
d I
= HI I .
dt
(10.55)
yield
i
(10.56)
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (10.57)
2!
3!
(10.58)
and
it ,
H0 , a2 = 2ita2 ,
(10.59)
(10.60)
(10.61)
a e
2 2it
=a e
thus
HI = i (t) e2i a2 e2i a2 .
Eyal Buks
(10.62)
(10.63)
346
10.5. Solutions
where
,
S (, ) = exp e2i a2 e2i a2 ,
and where
t
=
dt (t ) ,
(10.64)
(10.65)
(10.66)
( )t
22 sin2 0 2
n,1 .
m ( 0 )2
(10.67)
(10.68)
1
i0 t
dt
e
f
(t
)
2m 0
2
1 2 2
=
e 2 0 .
2m 0
(10.69)
The exact result is found from Eq. (5.339)
e n
.
n!
To first order in both results agree.
4. While the exact result is [see Eq. (6.305)]
pn =
t
,
2
(10.70)
(10.71)
p++ (t) = 1
Eyal Buks
347
n (x ) =
sin
,
(10.73)
a
a
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
2 2 n2
,
2ma2
En =
(10.74)
2
t
/ i(E E )t / t 2
2
2
1
dt e
e
p2,1 =
a
0
2 /
2x
x
dx x sin
sin
,
a 0
a
a
(10.75)
thus [see Eq. (5.136)
2562
94 2 2
exp
.
813
8m2 a4
p2,1 =
(10.76)
6. For the present case to second order in Eq. (10.27) becomes [see Eq.
(10.25)]
e
iEm (tt0 )
= 2
dt dt eiml t +iln t am  H1 (t) al al  H1 (t) an ,
l 0
0
2
(10.77)
where
mn =
Em En
,
(10.78)
or
Eyal Buks
348
10.5. Solutions
iEm (tt0 )
e
am  u (t, t0 ) an
2
Kml Kln /t
/t i(ml )t +i(ln )t
=
dt
dt e
2
0
0
2 K Kln /t
/t i( +)t +i( )t
lm
ln
dt dt e ml
2
0
0
l
2 Kml K /t
/t i(ml )t +i(ln +)t
nl
dt
dt e
2
0
0
l
2 K K /t
/t i(ml +)t +i(ln +)t
lm nl
dt dt e
,
2
0
0
(10.79)
where
Kln = al  K an .
(10.80)
dt
/t
dt ei1 t +i2 t =
/t
dt
ei(1 +2 )t ei1 t
,
i2
(10.81)
iEm (tt0 )
e
am  u (t, t0 ) an
2 Kml Kln /t
i(mn 2)t
i(ml )t
=
dt
e
e
i2 ( ln ) 0
l
2 K Kln /t
imn t
i(ml +)t
lm
dt
e
e
i2 ( ln ) 0
l
2 Kml K /t
imn t
i(ml )t
nl
dt
e
e
i2 ( ln + ) 0
l
2 K K /t
i(mn +2)t
i(ln +)t
lm nl
dt
e
e
,
i2 ( ln + ) 0
(10.82)
or
Eyal Buks
349
e
am  u (t, t0 ) an
2
Kml Kln /t
dt ei(mn 2)t
=
2
i ( ln ) 0
l
2 K K /t
lm nl
dt ei(mn +2)t
2
i ( ln + ) 0
l
Kml K
2
Kln
nl
+
Kml
/t i(ml )t
ln +
ln
+
dt e
i2
0
l
Kml K
2 Klm Kln
nl
+
/t imn t
ln
ln +
dt e
2
i
0
2 K Kln /t
lm
+
dt ei(ml +)t
i2 ( ln ) 0
l
2 K K /t
lm nl
+
dt ei(ln +)t .
2
i ( ln + ) 0
l
(10.83)
/ it
2
lim
e
dt
= 2t () ,
t
(10.84)
the transition rate wnm can be evaluated in the long time limit. To that
end it is assumed that = ml and = ln (i.e. it is assumed that the
harmonic perturbation is not at resonance with any first order transition
between the initial an or final am states and an intermediate state
al ), and it is further assumed that mn > 0 and that 0. Under
/t
2
2
2 Kml Kln
wnm = 4
(10.85)
(mn 2) .
(ln )
Eyal Buks
350
(11.1)
where E is the energy. In terms of the local momentum p (x), which is defined
by
p (x) = 2m (E V (x)) ,
(11.2)
the Schrdinger equation becomes
d2 (x) p 2
+
(x) = 0 .
dx2
(11.3)
(x) ,
dx2
dx2
dx
(11.4)
(11.5)
(11.6)
In the WKB approach the Planks constant is treated as a small parameter. Expanding W as a power series in
W = W0 + W1 + 2 W2 +
one finds that
2
dW0
d2 W0
dW0 dW1
+ p2 + O 2 = 0 .
+ i
2
2
dx
dx
dx dx
The terms of order zero in yield
2
dW0
+ p2 = 0 .
dx
(11.7)
(11.8)
(11.9)
thus
W0 (x) =
x
dx p (x ) ,
(11.10)
x0
where x0 is a constant.
What is the range of validity of the zero order approximation? As can be
seen by comparing Eq. (11.6) with Eq. (11.9), the approximation W W0
is valid when the first term in Eq. (11.6) is negligibly small in absolute value
in comparison with the second one, namely when
d W
dW
2
.
(11.11)
dx
dx
2
.
p (x)
(11.12)
2 .
(11.13)
dx
This means that the approximation is valid provided that the change in
wavelength over a distance of one wavelength is small.
Eyal Buks
352
d2 W0
dx2
dW0
dx
i d
log
2 dx
dW0
dx
(11.14)
(11.15)
(11.16)
where
1
i
(x) = exp
p
x
x0
dx p (x ) ,
(11.17)
(11.18)
relates the probability distribution function = 2 and the current density
J = (/m) Im ( d/dx) associated with a given one dimensional wavefunction (x). For a stationary (x) the probability distribution function
is time independent, and thus J is a constant. Consider a region where
E > V (x). In such a region, which is classically accessible, the momentum
p (x) is real and positive, and thus the probability distribution function (x)
of the WKB wavefunctions (x) is proportional to 1/p. This is exactly
what is expected from a classical analysis of the dynamics, where the time
spent near a point x is inversely proportional to the local classical velocity at
that point v (x) = p (x) /m. With the help of Eq. (4.200) one finds that the
current density J associated with the wavefunction (11.16) is given by
d+
d
J=
Im C+ + + C C+
+ C
m
dx
dx
d
d
2
2
+
=
C+  Im +
+ C  Im
m
dx
dx
d
d
+ Im C+
C + + C+ C
+
.
dx
dx
(11.19)
As can be seen from Eq. (11.17), the last term vanishes since (x) = + (x).
Therefor, with the help of Eq. (6.361) one finds that
Eyal Buks
353
1
C+ 2 C 2 .
m
(11.20)
Thus, the current density J associated with the state + (x) is positive,
whereas J < 0 for (x). Namely, + (x) describes a state propagating from
left to right, whereas (x) describes a state propagating in the opposite
direction.
C
1
exp dx p
x<a
a
xp
(x) =
.
(11.21)
x
/
/
C
C
(11.22)
354
Im( x )
V (x ) E
(a)
(b)
x
a
Im( x )
Im( x )
(c)
+
a
Re( x )
(d)
Re( x )
Re( x )
Fig. 11.1. (a) The turning point at x = a. (b) The integration trajectory . The
singly connected region + (c) and (d).
where
dV
=
,
dx
x=a
(11.23)
(11.24)
(11.25)
(11.26)
355
where the integration trajectory [see Fig. 11.1 (b)] contains two sections,
the first along the real axis from x = a to x = a + and the second along the
i 2m
I () =
d + i3/2 d ei3 /2
0
0
3
2 i 1
2i
e
i 2m 2 3/2
=
i3/2
3
3
2i 2m3/2 32 i
=
e
3
2 2m3/2 i((1 12 )+ 32 )
=
,
e
3
(11.27)
thus
2 2m3/2
I () =
,
(11.28)
3 3/2
2 2m
I () =
.
(11.29)
3
The last result allows expressing the analytical continuation of the wavefunction given by Eq. (11.21) for the case x > a and evaluate its value at the
point x = a . For the case where the singly connected region + ( ) is
employed, this is done using integration along the trajectory ( ), and
the result is labeled as + (a ) [ (a )]
Eyal Buks
356
+ (a ) =
(a ) =
C+ exp
2 2m3/2
3
3/2
+ C exp 2 2m
3
(2m)1/4 ei/4
3/2
2 2m3/2
+
C
C+ exp 2 2m
exp
3
3
(2m)1/4 ei/4
(11.30)
(11.31)
Note that the denominators of Eqs. (11.30) and (11.31) are evaluated by
analytical continuation of the factor p [see Eq. (11.26)] along the trajectories
and respectively. On the other hand, according to Eq. (11.21) in the
region x < a one finds by integration along the real axis that
!
"
3
C
2 2m 2
(a ) =
exp
.
(11.32)
3
(2m)1/4
Comparing Eqs. (11.30) and (11.31) with Eq. (11.32) shows that for each of
the two choices + and the analytical continuation yields one exponential
term having the same form as the one in Eq. (11.32), and another one, which
diverges in the limit x . Excluding the diverging terms one finds that
continuity of the non diverging term requires that
C=
C+
i/4
e
C
,
ei/4
C
1
2C
1
p cos dx p 4 x > a
(11.33)
(11.34)
The fact that analytical continuation of the wavefunction in the region x < a
along the trajectory ( ) yields only the right to left (left to right) propagating term in the region x > a, and the other term is getting lost along the
way, can be attributed to the limited accuracy of the WKB approximation.
As can be seen from Eq. (11.27), along the integration trajectory near the
point = /3 one term becomes exponentially larger than the other, and
consequently, within the accuracy of this approximation the small term gets
lost.
It is important to keep in mind that the above result (11.34) is obtained
by assuming a particular form for the solution in the region x < a, namely
by assuming that in the classically forbidden region the coefficient of the
exponentially diverging term vanishes. This tailoring role will be employed in
the next section that deals with bound states in a classically accessible region
between two turning points [see Fig. 11.2(a)]. On the other hand, a modified
tailoring role will be needed when dealing with quantum tunneling. For this
case, which will be discussed below, we seek a wave function having the form
Eyal Buks
357
V (x ) E
V (x ) E
(a)
(b)
x
a
x
a
x
/
/x
C+
C
1
1
C
i
i
exp
dx
p
+
x
>
a
p
4
a
Thus, in this case only the term describing propagation from left to right
is kept in the region x > a, and the coefficient of the other term in that
region that describes propagation in the opposite direction is assumed to
vanish. Using the same tailoring technique as in the previous case one find
that C+ = 0 and C = C, and thus
/x
C
1
exp
dx
p
x<a
p
x a
(x) =
.
(11.36)
/
C
i
i
exp
dx
p
+
x
>
a
p
4
a
2Ca
1
a (x) = cos
dx p ,
(11.37)
p
4
a
Eyal Buks
358
2Cb
1
(11.38)
b (x) = cos
dx p .
p
4
x
The requirement a (x) = b (x) can be satisfied for any x in the region
a x b only if
1
b
dx p =
+ n .
2
(11.39)
where n is integer. Alternatively, this result, which is known as BohrSommerfeld quantization rule, can be expressed as
@
1
1
(11.40)
dx p = n + ,
2
2
where
@
dx p = 2
b
dx p .
(11.41)
b
a
dx a (x) 2 Ca 
b
a
dx
.
p
(11.42)
Note that the time period T of classical oscillations between the turning
points x = a and x = b is given by
T =2
b
a
dx
.
v
(11.43)
where v (x) = p (x) /m is the local classical velocity. Thus, by choosing the
prefactor to be real, one finds that the normalized wavefunction is given by
x
0
m
1
(x) = 2
cos
dx p .
(11.44)
pT
4
a
Eyal Buks
359
E dx
= 2 .
(11.45)
p
In classical mechanics E/p is the velocity of the particle v, therefor
1
@
E
dx
=T ,
(11.46)
p
thus
E =
2
.
T
(11.47)
11.4 Tunneling
In this case we consider a classical forbidden region a x b bounded by
two turning points at x = a and x = b, namely, it is assumed that E < V (x)
for a x b and E > V (x) for x < a and for x > b [see Fig. 11.2(b)].
In classical mechanics a particle cannot penetrate into the potential barrier
in the region a x b, however such a process is possible in quantum
mechanics. Consider a solution having the form
x
/
/x
1
i
r
i
exp
dx p + p exp dx p
x<a
p
xa
ax
/
/
C+
C
exp 1 dx p +
exp 1 dx p a x b ,
(x) = p
p
x
b
t
i
i
exp
dx p + 4
x>b
p
b
x
x
1
1
dx p = 1/2 exp
dx p ,
(11.48)
exp
b
Eyal Buks
360
11.6. Solutions
where
2
= exp
b
a
dx p ,
b
2
2
t = = exp
dx p .
(11.49)
(11.50)
11.5 Problems
1. Calculate the transmission probability of a particle having mass m
and energy E through the potential barrier V (x), which vanishes in the
region x < 0 and which is given by V (x) = U ax in the region x 0,
where a > 0 and where U > E.
2. Calculate the transmission probability of a particle having mass m and
energy E through the potential barrier V (x) = m 2 x2 /2, where > 0.
Consider the general case without assuming 1.
3. Consider a particle having mass m moving in a one dimensional double
well potential (see Fig. 11.3), which is assumed to be symmetric, i.e.
V (x) = V (x). In the limit where the barrier separating the two wells
can be considered as impenetrable, each well is characterized by a set of
eigenstates having eigenenergies {En }. To lowest nonvanishing order in
the penetrability of the barrier calculate the eigenenergies of the system.
4. Employ the WKB approximation to derive the eigenenergies of the hydrogen atom.
11.6 Solutions
1. The classical turning points are x = 0 and x = (U E) /. Thus with
the help of Eq. (11.50) one finds that
Eyal Buks
361
V (x )
En
2 2m
= exp
!
(U E)/
dx
"
3
4 2m
= exp
(U E) 2 .
3
U E
(11.51)
2. The factor p/ can be expressed as
.
2 2
2m E + m2 x
p (x)
=
=
:
=
x
x20
1+
2Ex20
,
E0 x2
(11.52)
where x0 = /m and where E0 = . For sufficiently large x, namely
for x2 Ex20 /E0 , one has
p (x)
x
E
2+
,
x0 E0 x
(11.53)
where x is assumed to be positive. The corresponding WKB wavefunctions (11.17) in the same limit of large large x are given (up to multiplication by a constant) by
Eyal Buks
362
11.6. Solutions
x
1
i
dx p (x )
(x) =
exp
x0 p/
!
/x
/x
i
exp x2 dx x exp i EE0
0
x0
dx
x
1/2
1/4
2Ex20
x
1
+
2
E0 x2
x0
i EE 12
0
x
ix2
exp 2 .
x0
2x0
"
(11.54)
(x ) =
x
x0
i EE
12
i EE 12
2
0
ix2
ix
exp 2x
+ r xx0
exp 2x
x
2
2
0
,
i EE0 12
2
0
ix
t xx0
exp 2x
x
2
0
(11.55)
(11.56)
thus for = this term becomes identical to the reflected term at x/x0 =
, which is given by
2
i
i EE 12
0
r ()
exp
,
(11.58)
2
provided that
or
i E 1
t ei E0 2 exp
i2 e2i
2
= r ()i E0 2 exp
ite E0 = r .
Eyal Buks
i2
2
(11.59)
(11.60)
363
2
E
t +
ite E0
= 1 ,
(11.61)
2
and therefor the transmission probability = t is given by
1
1 + e
2E
E0
(11.62)
(11.64)
(11.65)
(11.66)
where
= n, L n, R ,
(11.67)
Eyal Buks
364
11.6. Solutions
=
(11.68)
where n,L (x) and n,R (x) are the wavefunctions of the states n, L
and n, R respectively, i.e.
n,L (x) = x n, L ,
n,R (x) = x n, R .
(11.69)
(11.70)
The main contribution to the overlap integral (11.68) comes from the
classically forbidden region x a, where x = a are turning points
(i.e., En = V (a) = V (a)). With the help of Eq. (11.36) one finds that
!
"
/x
/a
2
1
1
C
exp
dx
p
exp
dx
p
a
a
x
dx
(11.71)
p
a
a
a
1
dx
2
= C exp
dx p
,
(11.72)
p
a
(11.73)
/a
dx
p/m
1
exp
a
dx p .
(11.74)
Finally, By diagonalizing the matrix Hn one finds that the two eigenenergies are En (1 ).
4. The radial equation for the case of hydrogen is given by [see Eq. (7.61)]
2 2
d
+
V
(r)
ukl (r) = Ekl ukl (r) ,
(11.75)
eff
2 dr2
where me is the reduced mass (me is the electrons mass), and where
Veff (r) =
e2 l (l + 1) 2
+
.
r
2r2
(11.76)
The eigenenergies Ekl are calculated using the BohrSommerfeld quantization rule (11.40)
Eyal Buks
365
r2
dr
r1
1
2 (Ekl Veff (r)) = k + .
2
(11.77)
2
e2
(11.78)
(11.79)
(11.80)
(11.81)
e4
22
(11.82)
2 l (l + 1)
(11.83)
thus
1,2 =
1
1 1 l (l + 1) .
k
+
2
2
(11.84)
(11.85)
or
1
I = k +
,
2
(11.86)
2
Eyal Buks
( 1 ) (2 )
d
,
(11.87)
366
11.6. Solutions
can be calculated using the residue theorem
!
"
:
1 + 2
41 2
I =
1
.
2
(1 + 2 )2
(11.88)
1
Ekl
=
2 .
EI
l (l + 1) + k + 12
(11.89)
Comparing with the exact result (7.84) shows that the WKB result is a
good approximation provided that the quantum numbers are large.
Eyal Buks
367
In this chapter, which is mainly based on Ref. [4], the technique of Feynmans
path integration is briefly reviewed.
1 A
,
c t
(12.1)
and
B=A.
(12.2)
(12.3)
(12.4)
The solution of the Euler Lagrange equations (1.8) yields the classical equation of motion of the system, which is given by Eq. (1.60)
1
m
r = q E + r B .
(12.5)
c
In what follows, we consider for simplicity the case where both and A are
time independent. For this case H becomes time independent, and thus the
quantum dynamics is governed by the time evolution operator, which is given
by Eq. (4.9)
(12.6)
(12.7)
(12.8)
The identity operator in the position representation [see Eq. (3.65)] is given
by
1r = d3 r r r  .
(12.9)
Inserting 1r between any two factors in Eq. (12.8) and using the notation
ra = r0 ,
rb = rN ,
t
=
,
N
one finds that
(12.10)
(12.11)
(12.12)
*)
*)
rN  u ()
rN1 rN1
u ()
rN2 rN2
u () r1 r1  u () r0 ,
(12.13)
thus
K
(rb , t; ra )
N1
#
n=1
d3 rn
N1
#
m=0
K rm+1 , ; rm .
(12.14)
370
(12.15)
one has
iH
u () = exp
!
2 "
i p qc A
iq
= exp
exp
+ O 2 .
2m
=
d
r
exp
i
V
r
,
exp
2m
2
m
(2i)3/2
(12.16)
(12.17)
2 "
0
2
i p qc A
ir
1
q
3
exp
d
r
exp
=
i
p
A
r
.
2m
2
m
c
(2i)3/2
(12.18)
Moreover, with the help of Eq. (12.121), which is given by
e(A+B) = eB/2 eA eB/2 + O 3 ,
(12.19)
q Ar
q A r
= exp i
exp i
p r exp i
+ O 3/2 .
m c 2
m
m c 2
(12.20)
Combining these results yields
)
K rm+1 , ; rm = rm+1
u () rm
!0
"
,
2
ir
q A (rm ) + A rm+1 r
1
3
=
d r exp
exp i
2
m c
2
(2i)3/2
0
iq (rm ) )
exp
rm+1
exp i
p r rm
m
+O 3/2 .
(12.21)
Eyal Buks
371
p r rm
rm+1
exp i
m
!
"
0
ip rm+1 rm
1
3
d p exp
=
exp i
p r .
m
(2)3
(12.24)
Thus, by using Eq. (3.84), which is given by
ip r
1
3
d
p
exp
= (r ) ,
3
(2)
(12.25)
rm+1
exp i
p r rm = rm+1 rm
r , (12.26)
m
m
and thus
m 3/2
K rm+1 , ; rm =
exp
2i
i
Lm + O 3/2 ,
(12.27)
where
m
Lm =
r
m+1 rm
2
A (rm ) + A rm+1 rm+1 rm
. (12.28)
c
2
q
q (rm )+
Comparing Eq. (12.28) with the classical Lagrangian of the system, which
is given by Eq. (1.43)
1
q
L = mr2 q + A r ,
2
c
(12.29)
372
(12.30)
As we have discussed above, the terms of order 3/2 in Eq. (12.27) are not
expected to contribute to K (rb , t; ra ) in the limit of N . By ignoring
these terms Eq. (12.14) becomes
!
"
N/2 N1
N1
#
i t
Nm
d rn exp
K (rb , t; ra ) = lim
L (rm ) .
N 2it
N m=0
n=1
(12.31)
Recall that the action in classical physics [see Eq. (1.4)] associated with a
given path is given by
S = dt L .
(12.32)
Thus, by defining the integral operator
N/2 N1
rb
#
Nm
D [r (t)] = lim
d3 rn ,
N 2it
ra
n=1
(12.33)
(12.34)
where
Sr (t) =
t
0
dt L [r (t)] .
(12.35)
ra and
given by
r (t) = rb , where each path r (t ) contributes a phase factor
exp iSr (t ) / , where Sr (t ) is the classical action of the path r (t ).
A note regarding notation: In the above derivation of Eq. (12.34) eigenvalues and eigenvectors were denoted with prime (e.g., r , r , r , p ) to make
them distinguishable from the corresponding operators (e.g., r and p). This
distinction is no longer needed for the rest of this chapter, since no quantum operators are used to evaluate path integrals, and therefore, to make the
notation less cumbersome, we omit the prime notation.
373
(12.36)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
4
2
0
0.2
2 x
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
374
S=
t
dt
1 2
q
mr q + A r .
2
c
(12.37)
Consider first the case where the vector potential vanishes, i.e. A = 0. For
this case, the system is said to be conservative, and therefor, as we have seen
in chapter 1 [see Eq. (1.29)], the energy of the system
1
E = mr2 + q
(12.38)
2
is a constant of the motion (see exercise 5 below). In terms of E the action
S (12.37), which is labeled as S0 for this case where A = 0, can be expressed
as
t
1 2
mr q
S0 = dt
2
0
t
0
dt E + mr2
= Et + m
rb
ra
dr r .
(12.39)
where ra = r (0) and rb = r (t). Employing Eq. (12.38) again allows rewriting
S0 as
rb
(12.40)
S0 = Et + dr p (r) ,
ra
(12.41)
b
iS0
iEt
i
exp
= exp
exp
dr p (r) .
(12.42)
ra
Note the similarity between the second factor in the above equation and
between the WKB wavefunction [see Eq. (11.17)]. In the general case, where
A can be nonzero, the phase factor in the path integral becomes [see Eq.
(12.37)]
rb
iS
iS0
iq
exp
= exp
exp
dr A .
(12.43)
c
ra
Eyal Buks
375
collector
rb , t
impenetrable
long coil
B0
ra ,0
source
Fig. 12.1. Twoslit interference experiment with a very long impenetrable cylinder
placed near the gap between the slits.
(12.44)
rb
iS0,r(t)
ie
D [r (t)] exp
exp
dr A , (12.45)
K (rb , t; ra ) =
c
ra
r(t)
376
e
12 =
dr A
dr A
c
e
=
c
r1 (t)
r2 (t)
dr A ,
(12.46)
where the closed path integral is evaluated along the path r1 (t) in the forward
direction from ra to rb , and then along the path r2 (t) in the backward
direction from rb back to ra . This integral can be calculated using Stokes
theorem [see Eq. (12.2)]
@
e
e
12 =
,
(12.47)
dr A =
ds B = 2
c
c
0
where is the magnetic flux threaded through the area enclosed by the closed
path, and where
0 =
hc
e
(12.48)
is the so called flux quantum. While 12 vanishes for pairs of paths going
through the same slit, it has the same value 12 = 2/0 (12 = 2/0 )
for all the pairs where r1 (t) goes through the left (right) path and where r2 (t)
goes through the right (left) one. Thus, we come to the somewhat surprising
conclusion that the probability density Pb is expected to be dependent on
the magnetic field. The expected dependence is periodic in the magnetic
flux with flux quantum 0 period. Such dependence cannot be classically
understood, since in this example the electrons can never enter the region in
which the magnetic field B is finite, and thus the Lorentz force vanishes in
the entire region accessible for the electrons outside the impenetrable coil.
12.3.2 Gauge Invariance
Consider the following gauge transformation
= A + ,
AA
=,
(12.49)
(12.50)
377
q
c
rb
ra
= S+
t
0
q
dt r
c
dr
q
[ (rb ) (ra )] ,
c
(12.52)
iq (r )
(r , t ) = exp
(r , t ) ,
(12.53)
c
= A + and scalar
solves the Schrdinger equation with vector A
=
potentials.
Solution 12.3.1. Using Eq. (3.76) one finds that
iq
iq
p exp
exp
c
c
iq
iq
= exp
p, exp
+p
c
c
q
= p+
.
c
(12.54)
Eyal Buks
378
(12.55)
(12.56)
(12.57)
+ q ,
(12.58)
H=
2m
Thus, one finds
is the Hamiltonian corresponding to the vector potential A.
that the state vector
(
iq

(12.59)
= exp
c
(r , t ) = exp iq (r ) (r , t ) .
(12.60)
c
1
mx 2 V (x) .
2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(12.62)
379
(12.63)
dV
.
dx
(12.64)
(12.65)
Solution 12.4.1. The path integral (12.61) for this case becomes
N/2 N1
N1
#
imN
imN
2
K (xb , t; xa ) = lim
dxn exp
(xm+1 xm ) ,
N
2t
2t m=0
n=1
(12.66)
or
K (xb , t; xa ) = lim
N/2 N1
#
n=1
dxn exp
N1
m=0
(xm+1 xm )
(12.67)
where
=
imN
.
2t
(12.68)
/
3
4 0
3
4
2
2
dx1 exp (x2 x1 ) (x1 x0 ) =
exp (x2 x0 )2 ,
2
2
(12.69)
3
4 0 2
3
4
2
2
exp (x3 x0 )2 .
dx2 exp (x3 x2 ) (x2 x0 ) =
2
3
3
Eyal Buks
380
2
exp
(xn+1 x0 ) .
(n + 1)
n+1
(12.71)
N/2
4
3
2
(N 1)
2
exp (xb xa ) ,
2 3
N
N
(12.72)
or
K (xb , t; xa ) =
m
im
2
exp
(xb xa ) .
2it
2t
(12.73)
As can be seen from the classical equation of motion (12.64), a free particle
moves at a constant velocity. Thus, the classical path satisfying x (0) = xa
and x (t) = xb is given by
xc (t ) = xa +
(xb xa ) t
.
t
(12.74)
(12.75)
(t )
(12.76)
381
(12.78)
where the deviation (t ) from the classical path xc (t ) vanishes at the end
points (0) = (t) = 0. The action associated with the path x (t ) can be
expressed as
S=
dt L (x, x)
,
(12.79)
x(t )
(12.80)
dt L (x, x)
,
(12.81)
!
"
L
S1 = dt
+
,
(12.82)
x
x=xc
x
x=xc
!
"
2
2
2
L
L
L
S2 = dt
2 + 2
+
. (12.83)
x2
x=xc
x x
x=xc
x 2
x=xc
Sc =
In the general case, higher orders in such an expansion may play an important
role, however, as will be discussed below, in the classical limit the dominant
contribution to the path integral comes from the lowest order terms.
Claim. S1 = 0.
t
!
!
"
L
d
L
S1 =
+ dt
.
(12.84)
x
x=xc
x
x=xc
dt x
x=xc
0
The first term in Eq. (12.84) vanishes due to the boundary conditions (0) =
(t) = 0, whereas the second one vanishes because xc (t ) satisfies the Euler
Lagrange equation (12.63), thus S1 = 0. The fact that S1 vanishes is a direct
consequence of the principle of least action of classical mechanics that was
discussed in chapter 1.
Eyal Buks
382
(12.85)
where
iSc
,
3
i
S2 + O
K (t) = D [ (t )] exp
,
Pc (xb , t; xa ) = exp
(12.86)
(12.87)
and where
D [ (t )] = lim
Nm
2it
N/2 N1
#
d n .
(12.88)
n=1
The term K (t) is evaluated by integrating over all paths (t ) satisfying the
boundary conditions (0) = (t) = 0.
Exercise 12.4.2. Show that
/
dx Pc (xb , t2 ; x ) Pc (x , t1 ; xa )
K (t1 + t2 )
=
.
Pc (xb , t1 + t2 ; xa )
K (t1 ) K (t2 )
(12.89)
(12.90)
Requiring that this property is satisfied by the propagator K (xb , t; xa ) that
is given by Eq. (12.85) leads to
/
dx Pc (xb , t2 ; x ) Pc (x , t1 ; xa )
K (t1 + t2 )
=
.
(12.91)
Pc (xb , t1 + t2 ; xa )
K (t1 ) K (t2 )
12.4.3 One Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator
For this case the Lagrangian is taken to be given by
L (x, x)
=
Eyal Buks
mx 2 m 1 xx
m 2 x2
+
,
2
2
2
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(12.92)
383
(12.94)
x(t )
where
m
Sc =
2
t
S1 = m
t
4
3
1
dt x c +
xc + x c 2 xc ,
2
t
dt
m
S2 =
2
dt x 2c + 1 xc x c 2 x2c ,
2
+ 1 2 2 .
(12.95)
(12.96)
(12.97)
As we have seen above, the principle of least action implies that S1 = 0. Note
that in this case the expansion to second order in is exact and all higher
order terms vanish. Thus, the exact solution of this problem will also provide
an approximate solution for systems whose Lagrangian can be approximated
by a quadratic one.
Exercise 12.4.3. Find the classical action Sc of a classical path satisfying
x (0) = xa and x (t) = xb .
Solution 12.4.3. The Euler Lagrange equation (12.63)
d L
L
=
,
dt x
x
(12.98)
384
(12.99)
thus, indeed the term (m 1 /2) xx doesnt affect the dynamics. Requiring also
boundary conditions x (0) = xa and x (t) = xb leads to
xc (t ) =
(12.100)
dt x 2c 2 x2c =
2
sin2 (t)
t
0
3
2
dt (xb cos (t ) xa cos ( (t t)))
4
2
(xb sin (t ) xa sin (t t))
2
2xa xb
2
= xa + xb cot (t)
sin (t)
t
2
= (xa xb ) cot (t) 2xa xb tan
,
2
(12.101)
and
t
dt xc x c
=
=
/t
0
x2b x2a
,
2
(12.102)
xc (t )
m 1 x2b x2a
m
t
2
=
(xa xb ) cot (t) 2xa xb tan
+
.
2
2
4
(12.103)
Eyal Buks
385
(12.105)
Solution 12.4.4. By using Eqs. (12.103) and (12.104) one finds that
3 m
4
K (t1 + t2 )
dx exp i
(cot (t2 ) + cot (t1 )) x2 =
,
(12.106)
2
K (t1 ) K (t2 )
thus, using the general integral identity
0
i
dx exp ix2 =
,
(12.107)
(12.108)
(12.109)
(12.110)
(12.111)
where f (t) is an arbitrary function of time. Substituting this into Eq. (12.110)
yields
f (t1 ) + f (t2 ) = f (t1 + t2 ) ,
(12.112)
thus f (t) = At, where A is a constant. Combining all these results the propagator (12.85) for the present case becomes
Eyal Buks
386
t
2
2xa xb
= x2a + x2b cot (t)
.
sin (t)
(12.114)
(12.116)
thus, similar to the case of a free particle [see Eq. (12.77)], also for the present
case of a harmonic oscillator, the propagator can be expressed in terms of
the classical action Sc as
:
i d2 Sc
i
K (xb , t; xa ) =
exp
Sc .
(12.117)
2 dxa dxb
387
12.6 Problems
1. Show that
e(A+B) = eA eB + O 2 ,
(12.120)
e(A+B) = eB/2 eA eB/2 + O 3 ,
(12.121)
exp
d
r
exp
, (12.122)
=
i
V
r
3/2
2m
2
m
(2i)
where V is a vector operator.
4. Show that the energy (12.38) is indeed a constant of the motion.
5. Consider a quantum system having time independent Hamiltonian H and
a discrete energy spectrum. Express its partition function Z in terms of
the systemss propagator K (xb , t; xa ).
6. Consider a one dimensional harmonic oscillator having mass m and resonance angular frequency in thermal equilibrium at temperature T .
Calculate the matrix elements x  x of the density operator in the
basis of eigenvectors x of the position operator x.
Eyal Buks
388
12.7. Solutions
7. Consider a free particle in one dimension having mass m. Calculate the
position wavefunction (x , t) at time t given that the position wavefunction (x , 0) at time t = 0 is given by
!
2 "
1
1
x
(x , 0) =
exp
.
(12.123)
1/2
1/4
2
x
0
x
0
where x0 is a constant.
8. A particle having mass m is in the ground state of the potential well
V0 (x) = (1/2) m2 x2 for times t < 0 . At time t = 0 the potential
suddenly changes and becomes V1 (x) = mgx.
a) Calculate the propagator K (xb , t; xa ) from point xa to point xb in
the semiclassical limit for the case where the potential is V1 (x) (i.e.
for the Hamiltonian after the change at t = 0).
b) Use
the result
previous section to calculate the variance
'
( ) of the
*
(x)2 (t) = x2 (t) x (t)2 of the position operator x at time t.
12.7 Solutions
1. Consider the operator
C () = eA e(A+B) eB .
(12.124)
Clearly, C (0) = 1. Moreover, with the help of Eq. (2.170) one finds that
dC
= eA Ae(A+B) eB + eA e(A+B) (A + B) eB eA e(A+B) eB B ,
d
(12.125)
thus
dC
= A + (A + B) B = 0 ,
d
=0
(12.126)
namely
C () = 1 + O 2 ,
and therefor
e(A+B) = eA eB + O 2 .
(12.127)
Eyal Buks
(12.128)
389
dC
=0,
d
=0
d2 C
=0,
d2
(12.129)
(12.130)
(12.131)
=0
thus
C () = 1 + O 3 ,
(12.132)
and therefor
e(A+B) = eB/2 eA eB/2 + O 3 .
2 /4
ex +x dx =
e
.
(12.133)
(12.134)
(12.135)
(12.136)
where
an an = nn .
With the help of the closure relation
1=
an an  ,
(12.137)
(12.138)
Eyal Buks
(12.139)
390
12.7. Solutions
Taking xb = xa and integrating over xa yields
iEn t
dxa K (xa , t; xa ) =
exp
.
(12.140)
(12.141)
(12.142)
x  eH x
,
Z
(12.143)
where the partition function Z = Tr eH can be expressed in terms
of the propagator K (x , t; x ) [see Eq. (12.142)]
Z=
dx K (x , i; x ) .
(12.144)
iHt
x ,
(12.145)
(12.146)
Thus, with the help of Eq. (12.115) one finds for the case of a harmonic
oscillator that (recall that sin (ix) = i sinh x and cos (ix) = cosh x)
Z=
dx K (x , i; x )
0
m
m [cosh () 1] x2
dx exp
=
2 sinh ()
sinh ()
:
1
=
2 [cosh () 1]
=
1
,
2 sinh
2
(12.147)
Eyal Buks
391
K (x , i; x )
Z:
2m
2
sinh ()
, 2
m
x + x2 cosh () 2x x
exp
2 sinh ()
= sinh
where
x0 =
2
2
+x
x
tanh( 2 ) x 2x
coth( 2 ) x 2x
0
x0 coth
2
.
m
(12.148)
(12.149)
7. Denoting the state ket vector of the system by  (t) and the time evolution operator by u (t) one has
(x , t) = x  (t)
= x  u (t)  (0)
=
dx x  u (t) x x  (0)
=
dx K (x , t; x ) (x , 0) ,
(12.150)
K (x , t; x ) =
exp
,
2itx20
2t
x20
(12.151)
and where
=
,
mx20
(12.152)
thus
(x , t) =
1
dx
1/2
2itx20
1/4 x0
2
2
1
i
x
i x x
i
x
exp
1
+
.
2
t
x0
t x20
2t x0
1
(12.153)
Eyal Buks
392
12.7. Solutions
With the help of the identity
1
exp ax2 + bx + c dx =
2
1 14 4ca+b
a
e
,
a
(12.154)
1
1/2
1/4 x0
!
2 "
1
1
x
exp
. (12.155)
1 + it
2 (1 + it) x0
(12.156)
(12.157)
gt2
,
2
(12.158)
where the constants x0 and v0 are the initial values of the position and
velocity at time t = 0. Given that x = xa at time t = 0 and x = xb at
time t one finds that x0 = xa and
v0 =
xb xa gt
+
,
t
2
(12.159)
xc (t ) = xa +
+ t t t2 .
t
2
2
(12.160)
gt2
,
2
(12.161)
t
t2
+ xt 2 ,
t
t
(12.162)
393
x c (t ) =
(12.163)
1
mx 2c mgxc
2
m xb xta xt +
2xt t
t2
2
t2
t
mg xa + (xb xa xt ) + xt 2 ,
t
t
(12.164)
xc (t )
=m
t
0
=m
dt
xb xta xt +
2
2xt t
t2
2
t
t2
g xa + (xb xa xt ) + xt 2
t
t
x2t
3
(12.165)
a) In general, the propagator in the semiclassical limit is given by Eq.
(12.118)
:
i d2 Sc
i
exp
K (xb , t; xa ) =
Sc ,
(12.166)
2 dxa dxb
where for the present case Sc is given by Eq. (12.165) and
d2 Sc
m
= ,
dxa dxb
t
thus
(12.167)
!
"
x2
2
m
im (xb xa ) + 2xt (xb + xa ) 3t
K (xb , t; xa ) =
exp
2it
2t
!
"
0
x2
2
1
1
i (xb xa ) + 2xt (xb + xa ) 3t
=
exp
x0 2it
t
2x20
!
"
0
2
1
1
i 83 x2t + x2a + 2 (2xt xa ) (xb xt ) + (xb xt )
=
exp
,
x0 2it
t
2x20
0
(12.168)
where
Eyal Buks
394
12.7. Solutions
x0 =
.
m
(12.169)
exp
,
(12.170)
(x , t = 0) =
1/2
2 x0
1/4 x
0
where
x0 =
.
m
(12.171)
(x , t) =
dx K (x , t; x ) (x , 0)
0
1
1
1
=
x0 2it 1/4 x1/2
0
2
2
2
8 2
i 3 xt +(x ) +2(2xt x )(x xt )+(x xt )
12 xx
t
2x2
0
0
dx e
1
x0
1 e
2it
8 2
i 3 xt +4xt (x xt )+(x xt )
t
2x2
0
1/2
1/4 x0
i
(1 t
)(
2
dx e
x
x0
ix (x xt )
tx2
0
.
(12.172)
exp ax2 + bx dx =
1 4a
b2
e ,
a
(12.173)
12
1
1+it
x xt
x0
2
8 ix2 +4ix (x x )
t
t
t
3
2tx2
0
1/2
1/4 x0
1 + it
(12.174)
x xt
x0
2
e
.
f (x ) =
,
x0 1 + (t)2
Eyal Buks
(12.175)
395
(12.176)
Eyal Buks
396
d 
= H  .
dt
(13.1)
For any given value of the time t the Hamiltonian H (t) is assumed to have
a discrete spectrum
H (t) n (t) = En (t) n (t) ,
(13.2)
where n = 1, 2, , the momentary eigenenergies En (t) are real, and the set
of momentary eigenvectors is assumed to be orthonormal
n (t) m (t) = nm .
(13.3)
The phase factors n (t) in the expansion (13.4) are chosen to be given by
n (t) = n (t) + n (t) ,
where the phase factors
1 t
n (t) =
dt En (t )
are the socalled dynamical phases, and the other phase factors
(13.5)
(13.6)
dt n (t ) n (t )
(13.7)
are the socalled geometrical phases. As we will see below, choosing the phase
factor n (t) to be given by Eq. (13.5) ensures that the coefficients an (t)
become constants in the adiabatic limit.
Exercise 13.1.1. Show that the term n (t ) n (t ) is pure imaginary.
Solution 13.1.1. Note that by taking the derivative with respect to t (denoted by upperdot) of the normalization condition (13.3) one finds that
n m + n m
=0,
(13.8)
thus
n m
= m n
.
(13.9)
The last result for the case n = m implies that n (t ) n (t ) is pure imaginary, and consequently n (t) are pure real.
Substituting Eq. (13.4) into Eq. (13.1) leads to
i
a n (t) ein (t) n (t)
n
n
+i
=
n
n
yields
Em (t)
a m (t)+i m (t) am (t)+
an (t) ein (t) ei m (t) m (t) n (t) =
am (t) .
i
n
(13.11)
Em (t)
m (t) m
(t) ,
i
(13.12)
(13.13)
n
=m
Eyal Buks
398
m (t) H n (t)
.
En (t) Em (t)
(13.14)
(13.15)
and the inner product with m (t), where m = n, yields the desired identity.
n (t ) 
n (t ) = ei(t ) n (t ) ,
(13.16)
t0
dt n (t ) n (t ) ,
(13.17)
is transferred to
n (t) n (t) = n (t) + (t) (t0 ) .
(13.18)
Eyal Buks
399
(13.20)
(13.22)
cos
sin exp (i)
sin exp (i)
cos
(13.23)
The orthonormal eigenvectors are chosen to be given by [see Eqs. (6.213) and
(6.214)]
cos 2 exp i
2
+ =
,
(13.24)
sin 2 exp i
2
sin 2 exp i
2
 =
,
(13.25)
cos 2 exp i
2
(13.26)
dt n (t ) n (t ) = i
h(t)
h(0)
ctg .
2H
(13.28)
400
f
1 f
1 f
r+
+
,
r
r
r sin
(13.29)
sin exp i
cos 2 exp i
2
2
2
+
,
cos 2 exp i
sin 2 exp i
2H
2H sin
2
2
(13.30)
thus
i
+ h + =
sin 2 exp i
cos 2 exp i
2
2
2H sin
i
=
ctg .
2H
cos 2 exp i
2
sin 2 exp i
2
(13.31)
(13.33)
Solution 13.4.2. Using the general expression for the curl operator in spherical coordinates (again, note that the radial coordinate r in the present case
is H)
1
(sin A ) A
A =
r
r sin
1
1 Ar
(rA )
+
r sin
r
1 (rA ) Ar
+
,
r
r
(13.34)
ih
cos
ih
=
.
2H 2 sin
2 h3
(13.35)
401
(13.36)
where is the solid angle subtended by the close path h (t) as seen from the
origin. Due to the geometrical nature of the last result, these phase factors
were given the name geometrical phases.
(13.37)
(13.38)
Hmn = Hnm
= iei(n (t) m (t)) m (t) n (t)
(13.39)
(13.40)
is defined by
(a b) = (b a) =
am bm .
(13.41)
(13.42)
Consider the case where the system is initially at time t0 in the state n).
What is the probability pnn (t) to find it later at time t > t0 at the same state
n)? The adiabatic approximation is valid only when pnn 1. Considering
the matrix H as a perturbation, the probability pnn can be approximated
using time dependent perturbation theory.
Eyal Buks
402
/t
pnn (t) = 1
(13.43)
dt Hnm (t )
.
t0
Solution 13.5.1. By employing Eqs. (10.21) and (10.27) one finds that (recall that Hnn = 0)
pnn (t) = 1
/t
dt
t0
/t
t0
dt (n H (t ) H (t ) n) .
(13.44)
<
Inserting the identity operator 1 = m m) (m between H (t ) and H (t )
where
/t
pmn (t) =
dt Hnm (t )
.
t0
(13.46)
As can be seen from Eq. (13.39), the matrix elements Hnm (t ) are proportional to the oscillatory dynamical phase factors
Hmn
i t
In the adiabatic limit these terms rapidly oscillate and consequently the probabilities pmn (t) are exponentially small. From the same reason, the dominant
contribution to the integral is expected to come from regions where the energy gap En (t )Em (t ) is relatively small. Moreover, it is also expected that
the main contribution to the total survival probability pnn will come from
those states whose energy Em (t ) is close to En (t ). Having this is mind, we
study below the transition probability for the case of a two level system. As
we will see below, the main contribution indeed comes from the region near
the point where the energy gap obtains a minimum.
13.5.1 The Case of Two Dimensional Hilbert Space
We calculate below p+ for the case H=h
, where h (t) is the straight line
h (t) = (0, 1, t) ,
Eyal Buks
(13.48)
403
(13.49)
where
H =
.
1 + (t)2 ,
cot = t ,
(13.50)
(13.51)
and where = /2. Thus, the energy gap 2H obtains a minimum at time
t = 0. As can be seen from Eqs. (13.24) and (13.25), for any curve lying on
a plane with a constant azimuthal angle , the following holds
+
=  ,
2
(13.52)
and therefor
and
*
= ,
+
2
(13.53)
*
=
=0.
+
+
(13.54)
For the present case one finds using Eq. (13.51) that
*
1
=
+
.
2 1 + (t)2
/
i(+ (t ) (t ))
p+ =
dt e
(t ) + (t )
2
.
/ t
exp 2i 0 dt
1 + (t )
dt
1 + (t )2
/ t
exp 2i
1 + 2
0 d
dt
1 + (t )2
,
2
2
2
exp i
1 /
1 + ln + 1 +
.
=
2
1+
Eyal Buks
(13.55)
(13.56)
404
p+ exp
.
(13.57)
(13.58)
(13.59)
(13.60)
(13.61)
yield
p+
1
4
exp i
sinh
(2z)
+
z
1 /
.
=
dz
cosh z
(13.62)
(13.64)
where n is integer. Note, however that the term 1/ cosh z has poles at the same
points. Using the Cauchys theorem the path of integration can be deformed
to pass close to the point z1 = i/2. Since the pole at z1 is a simple one,
the principle value of the integral exists. To avoid passing through the pole at
z1 a trajectory forming a half circle "above" the pole with radius is chosen
were 0. This section gives the dominant contribution which is iR, where
R is the residue at the pole. Thus the probability p+ is approximately given
by
p+ exp
.
(13.65)
The last result can be used to obtain a validity condition for the adiabatic approximation. In the adiabatic limit p+ 1, and thus the condition
/ 1 is required to ensure the validity of the approximation.
Eyal Buks
405
(13.66)
where ml and l are the mass and angular frequency of mode l, respectively.
The Hamiltonian of the fast subsystem H1 (
x), which depends parametrically on x, has a set of eigenvectors and corresponding eigenvalues for any
given value of x
H1 n (
x) = n (
x) n (
x) ,
(13.68)
(13.69)
(13.70)
where 1F is the identity operator on the Hilbert space of the fast subsystem.
The state of the entire system (t) at time t is expanded at any point x
Eyal Buks
406
d
= H ,
dt
(13.72)
leads to
[H0 + n (
x)] n (
x, t) n (
x) = i
n (
x, t) n (
x) ,
n
(13.73)
(13.75)
(13.76)
Am,k;l Ak,n;l ,
(13.77)
one obtains
m (
x) p2l n (
x, t) n (
x)
!
= n (
x, t) pl Am,n;l +
2Am,n;l pl n (
x, t) +
Am,k;l Ak,n;l
k
mn p2l n (
x, t) .
"
(13.78)
With the help of Eqs. (13.67) and (13.74) one finds that
Eyal Buks
407
2Am,n;l pl n (
x, t) + mn p2l n (
x, t)
2ml n
l
ml 2 x2
l
x, t) + m (
x) m (
x, t) = i m (
x, t) .
m (
(13.79)
Defining the matrices Al
= Am,n;l , ()m,n = m mn , and the vector
m,n
= , the above can be written in a matrix form as
n
n
?
D
2 m 2 x2
1
l
l
l
pl Al +
+ = i .
2ml
2
(13.80)
(13.81)
Am,n;l = i
1
x)
m (
x) H
xl n (
.
n m
(13.82)
x
l
l
l
i m =
+
+ m (
x) m .
(13.83)
2ml
2
l
As can be seen from the above result (13.83), the adiabatic approximation
greatly simplifies the systems equations of motion. The effect of the fast
subsystem on the dynamics of the slow one is taken into account by adding a
vector potential Am,m;l (
x) and a scalar potential m (
x) to the Schrdinger
equation of the slow subsystem [compare with Eq. (4.194)]. However, both
potential terms depend on the state m that is being occupied by the fast
subsystem.
Exercise 13.6.1. Show that if m (
x) /xl m (
x) is pure real then
Amm;l (
x) = 0 .
Eyal Buks
(13.84)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
408
13.7. Problems
Solution 13.6.1. Note that in general the diagonal elements Am,m;l are real
since pl is Hermitian [see Eq. (13.76)]. On the other hand, if m (
x) /xl m (
x)
is pure real then Amm;l (
x) is pure imaginary, thus for this case Amm;l (
x) = 0.
13.7 Problems
1. Consider the following gauge transformation
*
cos 2 exp i
cos 2
2
+ =
+ =
,
sin 2 exp (i)
sin 2 exp i
2
*
sin 2 exp i
sin 2
2
 =
.
cos 2 exp (i)
cos 2 exp i
2
(13.85)
(13.86)
(13.88)
p2
m 20 x2
+
+ xf (t ) ,
2m
2
(13.89)
,
(13.90)
f (t ) =
and 0 , and are real constants. When is sufficiently large the problem can be treated using the adiabatic approximation. Expand the state
of the system  (t) in a basis of momentary eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian H (t ) and derive the equations of motion for the coefficients in
Eyal Buks
409
13.8 Solutions
1. The following holds
*
i
+
= exp
+ ,
2
*
i
= exp
 ,
2
(13.91)
(13.92)
thus the transformed geometrical phase (t) [see Eq. (13.18)] becomes
n (t) n (t) = n (t)
(t) (t0 )
+
.
2
2
(13.93)
2 2 n2
2 ,
2ma20 1 sin2 ( p t)
(13.94)
Eyal Buks
410
13.8. Solutions
The estimated transition probability for the two dimensional case
is given by Eq. (13.65). In view of the fact that all other energy
gaps between momentary eigenenergies is at least 5/3 larger than
H21 , it is expected that this estimate is roughly valid for the present
case. The requirement that the transition probability given by Eq.
(13.65) is small is taken to be the validity condition for the adiabatic
approximation. Comparing the above expression for H21 (t) near t =
0 with Eq. (13.50) yields the following validity condition
2p 1/2
33
.
2ma20
(13.96)
p2
m 20 x2
+
.
2m
2
(13.97)
(13.98)
,
(13.99)
H (t ) =
+
x+
2
2m
2
m 0
2m20
thus H (t ) describes a harmonic oscillator of angular frequency 0 having a parabolic potential centered at f (t ) /m 20 , and consequently the
momentary eigenvectors n (t) of the Hamiltonian H (t ) can be chosen
to be coherent states given by [see Eqs. (5.36) and (5.46)]
n (t ) = D ( (t )) 0 ,
(13.100)
where D () = exp a a is the displacement operator, (t ) is
given by
(t ) =
f (t )
21/2 m20 x0
(13.101)
and
Eyal Buks
411
.
m0
(13.102)
(13.103)
f 2 (t )
,
2m20
(13.104)
 (t ) =
an (t ) ein (t ) n (t ) ,
(13.105)
n
where n (t ) = n (t ) + n (t ),
1
n (t ) =
dt En (t ) ,
(13.106)
and
n (t ) = i
dt n (t ) n (t ) .
(13.107)
To lowest nonvanishing order in the adiabatic approximation the transition probability p0n is given by [see Eqs. (13.14) and (13.46)]
n
(t)
H
0
(t)
pn0 =
dt ei(0 (t )n (t ))
(13.108)
En (t) E0 (t)
= 2i 2 Im ,
(13.109)
(13.110)
412
13.8. Solutions
With the help of the above results one finds that
/
x20
i0 t
pn0 = 2 2
dt e
f
n,1 ,
2 0
or
pn0 = n,1 ,
(13.111)
where
=
2
1 2 2
e 2 0 .
2m 0
(13.112)
Note that the above result is identical to (10.68). Note also that the exact
result of this problem is given by [see Eq. (5.339)]
pn0 =
Eyal Buks
e n
.
n!
(13.113)
413
This chapter discusses the quantization of electromagnetic (EM) field for the
relatively simple case of a free space cavity.
B =
(14.1)
(14.2)
(14.3)
(14.4)
(14.5)
and the scalar potential vanishes in the absence of sources (charge and
current). In this gauge both electric and magnetic fields E and B can be
expressed in terms of A only as [see Eqs. (1.41) and (1.42)]
1 A
,
c t
(14.6)
B=A.
(14.7)
E=
and
1 2A
.
c2 t2
(14.8)
1 ( A)
1 B
=
,
c
t
c t
1 ( A)
=0,
c
t
B = ( A) = 0 ,
E=
(14.9)
(14.10)
(14.11)
1 2A
.
c2 t2
(14.12)
(14.13)
1 2A
.
c2 t2
(14.14)
(14.15)
(14.16)
d2 q
+ 2 q = 0 ,
dt2
(14.17)
and
(14.18)
(14.19)
416
1 d2 q
u
.
c2 dt2
(14.20)
1 d2 q
= 2
.
un
c q dt2
(14.21)
The left hand side of Eq. (14.21) is a function of r only while the right hand
side is a function of t only. Therefore, both should equal a constant, which is
denoted as 2 , thus
2 u+2 u = 0 ,
(14.22)
d2 q
+ 2 q = 0 ,
dt2
(14.23)
and
where
= c .
(14.24)
where the set {un } forms a complete orthonormal basis spanning the vector
space of all solutions of Eq. (14.16) satisfying the proper boundary conditions
on the conductive walls having infinite conductivity.
Solution 14.1.3. Equation (14.16) should be solved with the boundary conditions of a perfectly conductive surface. Namely, on the surface S enclosing
the cavity we have B
s = 0 and E
s = 0, where
s is a unit vector normal
to the surface. To satisfy the boundary condition for E we require that u be
normal to the surface, namely, u =
s (u
s) on S. This condition guarantees
also that the boundary condition for B is satisfied. To see this we calculate
the integral of the normal component of B over some arbitrary portion S of
S. Using Eq. (14.7) and Stokes theorem one finds that
(B
s) dS = q
[( u)
s] dS
S
@S
=q
u dl ,
C
(14.26)
where the close curve C encloses the surface S . Thus, since u is normal to
the surface, one finds that the integral along the close curve C vanishes, and
therefore
Eyal Buks
417
(B
s) dS = 0 .
(14.27)
where the integral is taken over the volume of the cavity. Using Eq. (14.16)
one finds that
2
2 21
(u1 u2 ) dV =
u1 2 u2 u2 2 u1 dV .
(14.29)
V
(14.30)
s (
s )
s (
s ), we find that the right hand side of (14.30) vanishes.
Thus, solutions with different 2 are orthogonal to each other. Let {un } be a
complete orthonormal basis spanning the vector space of all solutions of Eq.
(14.16) satisfying the boundary conditions. For any two vectors in this basis
the orthonormality condition is
un , um =
(un um ) dV = n,m .
(14.31)
V
(14.32)
Exercise 14.1.4. Show that the total electric energy in the cavity is given
by
1 2
UE =
q ,
(14.33)
8c2 n n
and the total magnetic energy is given by
1 2 2
UB =
q .
8 n n n
Eyal Buks
(14.34)
418
n
qn un .
(14.36)
The total energy of the field is given by UE +UB , where UE (UB ) is the energy
associated with the electric (magnetic) field, namely,
1
UE =
E2 dV ,
(14.37)
8 V
and
1
UB =
8
B2 dV .
(14.38)
1 2
q ,
8c2 n n
(14.39)
(14.40)
(14.41)
applied to un ( um ), thus
( un )( um ) = (un ( um ))+un [ ( um )] . (14.42)
Using the divergence theorem and the fact that un and ( um ) are orthogonal to each other on S one finds that the volume integral of the first
term vanishes. To calculate the integral of the second term it is convenient
to use the identity
( um ) = ( um ) 2 um .
(14.43)
Eyal Buks
1 2 2
q .
8 n n n
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(14.44)
419
,
4c2 n
2
2
(14.45)
where the symbol overdot is used for derivative with respect to time, and
where n = cn . The EulerLagrange equations, given by
d L
L
=0,
(14.46)
dt qn
qn
lead to Eq. (14.23).
The variable canonically conjugate to qn is [see Eq. (1.20)]
pn =
L
1
=
qn .
qn
4c2
(14.47)
HF
= 4c2 pn ,
pn
p n =
HF
2
= n2 qn ,
qn
4c
(14.49)
(14.50)
lead also to Eq. (14.23). Note that, as expected, the following holds
HF = UE +UB ,
(14.51)
(14.52)
[qn , qm ] = [pn , pm ] = 0 .
(14.53)
and
Eyal Buks
420
(14.54)
qn = 4c2 pn ,
(14.55)
and
p n =
2n
qn .
4c2
(14.56)
.
(14.58)
n
8c2
n
HF =
n an an +
.
(14.63)
2
n
The eigenstates are the photonnumber states s1, s2 , ..., sn , ..., which satisfy
[see chapter 5]
1
HF s1, s2 , , sn , =
n sn +
s1, s2 , , sn , . (14.64)
2
n
The following holds [see Eqs. (5.28) and (5.29)]
Eyal Buks
421
an s1, s2 , , sn , = sn s1, s2 , , sn 1, ,
an s1, s2 , , sn , = sn + 1 s1, s2 , , sn + 1, .
(14.65)
(14.66)
HF =
,
(14.68)
k ak, ak, +
2
k,
k, ei(krk t) ak, +
k, ei(krk t) ak, , (14.69)
k V
k,
where the eigen frequencies are given by k = c k. In the limit of large
volume the discrete sum over wave vectors k can be replaced by an integral
V
dk
dk
dkz ,
(14.70)
x
y
(2)3
k
and the commutation relations between field operators become
3
4
[ak, , ak , ] = ak, , ak , = 0 ,
3
4
ak, , ak , = , k k .
(14.71)
(14.72)
k,
k, = , . Furthermore, the Coulomb gauge condition requires that
Eyal Buks
422
14.4. Problems
k, k =
k, k = 0, i.e. the polarization vectors are required to be orthogonal
to the wave vector k. Linear polarization can be represented by two mutually
orthogonal real vectors
k,1 and
k,2 , which satisfy
k,1
k,2 = k/ k. For
the case of circular polarization the polarization vectors can be chosen to be
given by
1
k,+ = (
k,1 + i
k,2 ) ,
2
1
k, = (
k,1 i
k,2 ) .
2
For this case of circular polarization the following holds
k,
k, = , ,
k
k,
k, = i , .
k
(14.73)
(14.74)
(14.75)
(14.76)
where {+, }.
14.4 Problems
1. Find the eigen modes and eigen frequencies of a cavity having a pizza
box shape with volume V = L2 d.
2. Consider two perfectly conducting metallic plates placed in parallel to
each other. The gap between the plates is d and the temperature is assumed to be zero. Calculate the force per unit area acting between the
plates (the Casimir force).
3. Find the average energy per unit volume of the electromagnetic field in
thermal equilibrium at temperature T .
4. Consider an electromagnetic cavity having a set of normal modes. The
waveform of mode n is denoted by un (r), the angular frequency by n ,
the annihilation operator by an , and the creation operator by an . The
electric filed operator at point r and time t can be expressed as [see Eqs.
(14.6) and (14.67)]
E (r, t) = E() (r, t) + E(+) (r, t) ,
(14.77)
where
E() =
E(+) =
2n iein t un (r) an ,
(14.78)
2 n iein t un (r) an .
(14.79)
423
The normalized coherence function g(l) (r1 , , rl ; rl+1 , , r2l ) of degree l is defined by
g (l) (r1 , , rl ; rl+1 , , r2l )
Consider the case where all modes in the cavity are in their ground state
except of a single mode, which is in a number state with m photons.
Calculate g(l) (r1 , , rl ; rl+1 , , r2l ) for such a state.
14.5 Solutions
1. We seek solutions of Eq. (14.16) satisfying the boundary condition that
the tangential component of u vanishes on the walls. Consider a solution
having the form
0
8
(14.82)
ux (r) =
ax cos (kx x) sin (ky y) sin (kz z) ,
V
0
8
uy (r) =
(14.83)
ay sin (kx x) cos (ky y) sin (kz z) ,
V
0
8
uz (r) =
az sin (kx x) sin (ky y) cos (kz z) .
(14.84)
V
While the boundary condition on the walls x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 is
guaranteed to be satisfied, the boundary condition on the walls x = L,
y = L, and z = d yields
nx
kx =
,
(14.85)
L
ny
ky =
,
(14.86)
L
nz
kz =
,
(14.87)
d
where nx , ny and nz are integers. This solution clearly satisfies Eq.
(14.16), where the eigen value is given by
.
= kx2 + ky2 + kz2 .
(14.88)
Alternatively,
. using the notation n = (nx , ny , nz ) one has = (/L) n,
where n = n2x + n2y + n2z . Using Eq. (14.24) one finds that the angular
frequency of a mode characterized by the vector of integers n is given by
Eyal Buks
424
14.5. Solutions
n = c
0
n 2
x
n 2
y
n 2
z
(14.89)
In addition to Eq. (14.16) and the boundary condition, each solution has
to satisfy also the transversality condition u = 0 (14.19), which in
the present case reads
ka= 0 ,
(14.90)
(14.91)
8
= ax1 ax2
V
L
n
n
x1
x2
cos
x cos
x dx
L
L
0
L
n
n
y1
y2
sin
y sin
y dy
L
L
0
d
n
n
z1
z2
sin
z sin
z dz ,
d
d
0
8
L2 d
= ax1 ax2
nx1 ,nx2 ny1 ,ny2 nz1 ,nz2 .
V
8
(14.92)
Similar results are obtained for the contribution of the y and z components. Thus
u1 , u2 = (a1 a2 ) nx1 ,nx2 ny1 ,ny2 nz1 ,nz2 ,
(14.93)
425
d
0
nz 0
2
.
L
d
c
dkx
dky
dkz kx2 + ky2 + kz2 .
0
0
0
(14.94)
.
In polar coordinates u =
kx2 + ky2 and = tan1 (ky /kx ) one has
dkx dky = udud, thus
0
2
n 2
L
z
U (d) = c
du u u2 +
2 n 0
d
z
2
L
d
c
du u
dkz u2 + kz2 .
2 0
0
(14.95)
Changing the integration variables
2
ud
x=
,
kz d
Nz =
,
leads to
Eyal Buks
(14.96)
(14.97)
426
14.5. Solutions
2 cL2
U (d) =
4d3
2 cL2
=
4d3
!
!
nz
F (nz )
"
dNz F (Nz )
"
1
F (0) +
F (nz )
dNz F (Nz ) ,
2
0
n =1
z
2
F () =
dx x + =
dy y .
(14.98)
(14.99)
dy yf (y) .
(14.100)
F () =
2
<
1
F (n)
F (0) +
2
n=1
dN F (N) =
1
1
F (0) +
F (0) + ,
12
720
(14.101)
(14.102)
2 cL2
.
720d3
(14.103)
The force per unit area (pressure) P (d) is found by taking the derivative
with respect to d and by dividing by the area L2
Eyal Buks
427
2 c
.
240d4
(14.104)
where Zc = Tr eH is the canonical partition function, H is the
Hamiltonian [see Eq. (14.64)], = 1/kB T and kB is the Boltzmanns
constant. The partition function is found by summing over all photonnumber states s1, s2 , ...
U =
Zc =
s1, s2 ,...=0
s1, s2 ,...=0
#
n
#
n
<
n (sn + 12 )
sn =0
n (sn + 12 )
1
n
2 sinh
2
"
"
,
(14.106)
where n labels the cavity modes. Using the last result one finds that
U =
=
=
log Zc
log
n
n
n
1
2 sinh 2n
coth
n
.
2
(14.107)
It is easy to see that the above sum diverges since the number of modes
in the cavity is infinite. To obtain a finite result we evaluate below the
difference Ud = U (T ) U (T = 0) between the energy at temperature
T and the energy at zero temperature, which is given by (recall that
coth (x) 1 in the limit x )
Eyal Buks
428
14.5. Solutions
n
n
coth
1
2
2
n
n
=
.
en 1
n
Ud =
(14.108)
The angular frequencies n of the modes are given by Eq. (14.89). For
simplicity a cubical cavity having volume V = L3 is considered. For this
case Ud is given by (the factor of 2 is due to polarization degeneracy)
Ud = 2kB T
nx =0 ny =0 nz
where n =
given by
=
n
.
n 1
e
=0
(14.109)
.
n2x + n2y + n2z , and where the dimensionless parameter is
c
.
L
(14.110)
In the limit where 1 (macroscopic limit) the sum can be approximated by the integral
4
n
Ud = 2kB T
dn n2 n
8
e 1
0
kB T
3
x3 dx
,
ex 1
0
4
15
(14.111)
(14.112)
4. When only a single mode in the cavity is excited the normalized coherence function g(l) (r1 , , rl ; rl+1 , , r2l ) becomes [see Eqs. (14.78) and
(14.79) and the definition of g (l) ]
' l (
a al
(l)
,
(14.113)
g (r1 , , rl ; rl+1 , , r2l ) =
l
a a
where a and a are the annihilation and creation operators
of the excited
cavity mode. With the help of the relation a m = n m 1 [see Eq.
Eyal Buks
429
Eyal Buks
430
In this chapter the transitions between atomic states that result from interaction with an electromagnetic (EM) field are discussed.
15.1 Hamiltonian
Consider an atom in an EM field. The classical Hamiltonian HF of the EM
field is given by Eq. (14.48). For the case of hydrogen, and in the absence
of EM field, the Hamiltonian of the atom is given by Eq. (7.2). In general,
the classical Hamiltonian of a point particle having charge e and mass me
in an EM field having scalar potential and vector potential A is given by
Eq. (1.62). In the Coulomb gauge the vector potential A is chosen such that
A = 0, and the scalar potential vanishes provided that no sources
(charge and current) are present. The EM field is assumed to be sufficiently
small to allows employing the following approximation
e 2
e
p A p2 2 A p ,
(15.1)
c
c
where p is the momentum vector. Recall that in the Coulomb gauge the vector
operators p and A satisfy the relation p A = A p, as can be seen from
Eqs. (6.167) and (6.324). These results and approximation allow expressing
the Hamiltonian of the system as
H = H0 + HF + Hp ,
(15.2)
e
Ap ,
me c
(15.3)
k, ei(krk t) ak, +
A (r, t) =
k, ei(krk t) ak, . (15.5)
k V
k,
(15.6)
k,
2
e
4 c
wi,f =
( k i,f )
f
k, peikr ak, i
.
(15.8)
me c
k V
wi,f =
1
(i) p ,
me
(15.9)
thus
Eyal Buks
432
2
42 e2 k
( k i,f )
f
k, reikr ak, i
V
42 e2 k
( k i,f ) Mi,f 2 ,
=
V
wi,f =
(15.10)
where the atomic matrix element Mi,f is given by
k, reikr i .
Mi,f = f 
(15.11)
42 e2 k (sk, + 1)
(k i,f ) Mi,f 2 .
V
(15.12)
Note that for the case of emission it is assumed that the energy of the
atomic
state
i is larger than the energy of the atomic state f, i.e. i,f =
Ei Ef / > 0.
(a)
Absorption is the reverse process. Let w(i,sk, )(f,sk, 1), be the rate of
absorption of photons in mode k, , given that the initial photon occupation
number is sk, . With the help of Eq. (14.65) one finds using a derivation
similar to the one that was used above to obtain Eq. (15.12) that
(a)
4 2 e2 k sk,
( k + i,f ) Mi,f 2 .
V
(15.13)
Eyal Buks
433
d(i,s)(f,s+1),
d
V
(e)
dk k2 w(i,sk, )(f,sk, +1),
(2)3 0
e2 (s + 1)
2
=
Mi,f 
dx x3 (x i,f )
2c3
0
fs (s + 1) 3i,f
2
=
Mi,f  .
2c2
=
(15.14)
2
d(i,s)(f,s+1),
d
fs s3i,f
Mi,f 2 .
2c2
(15.15)
(15.16)
(15.17)
(15.18)
(15.19)
Since it is assumed that no magnetic field is externally applied, the eigenenergies Ekl are taken to be independent on the quantum numbers m and .
Radiation transitions between a pair of states ki , li , mi , i and kf , lf , mf , f
can occur only when the corresponding matrix element (15.16) is nonzero.
This requirement yields some conditions known as selection rules. The first
one refers to the spin quantum number . Note that Mi,f is a matrix element
of an orbital operator (15.16), and consequently it vanishes unless f = i , or
alternatively, unless = f i = 0. It is important to keep in mind that
this selection rule is valid only when spinorbit interaction can be neglected.
Eyal Buks
434
(15.20)
(15.21)
whereas the second relation together with Eq. (15.19) imply that
kf , lf , mf , f  [Lz , x iy] ki , li , mi , i
= (mf mi ) kf , lf , mf , f  x iy ki , li , mi , i
= kf , lf , mf , f  (x iy) ki , li , mi , i ,
(15.22)
thus
(mf mi 1) kf , lf , mf , f  x iy ki , li , mi , i = 0 .
(15.23)
Therefore Mi,f = 0 [see Eq. (15.16)] unless m {1, 0, 1}. The transition
m = 0 is associated with linear polarization in the z direction, whereas
the transitions m = 1 are associated with clockwise and counterclockwise
circular polarizations respectively.
Exercise 15.2.2. Show that the selection rule for the quantum number l is
given by
l = lf li {1, 1} .
Solution 15.2.2. Using Eq. (15.40), which is given by
, 2 , 2 
L , L , r = 22 rL2 +L2 r ,
(15.24)
(15.25)
(15.26)
Eyal Buks
435
(15.27)
Since both li and lf are non negative integers, and consequently li +lf +2 > 0,
one finds that kf , lf , mf , f  r ki , li , mi , i can be nonzero only when li =
lf = 0 or l = 1. However, for the first possibility, for which li = mi = lf =
mf = 0, the wavefunctions of both states ki , li , mi , i and kf , lf , mf , f is a
function of the radial coordinate r only [see Eq. (6.130)], and consequently
kf , lf , mf , f  r ki , li , mi , i = 0. Therefore the selection rule is given by l
{1, 1}.
it
e
eit ,
2
+ r  .
V
(15.29)
(15.30)
d
 = H  ,
dt
(15.31)
where the matrix representation in the basis {+ , } of the Hamiltonian
H is given by [see Eq. (15.29)]
Eyal Buks
436
2
i(t+)
ei(t+)
i(t+)a i(t+) 1 e
.
1 e
e
a
(15.32)
(15.33)
d
dt
b+
b
1
2
1 ei ei(2t+)
b+
,
b
ei ei(2t+)
(15.34)
where
= a .
(15.35)
,
(15.36)
2 1 eit a
and the equation of motion in the rotating frame can be taken to be given
by
d b+
1 1
b+
i
=
.
(15.37)
b
dt b
2 1
The time evolution is found using Eq. (6.138) [see also Eq. (6.248)]
b+ (t)
b (t)
sin
cos i
i 21 sin 2
2
2
b+ (0)
1 +()
1 +()
=
,
sin
b (0)
i 21 sin 2
cos + i
2
2
1 +()
1 +()
(15.38)
where
=
.
21 + ()2 t
Eyal Buks
(15.39)
437
15.4 Problems
1. Show that
, 2 , 2 
L , L , r = 22 rL2 +L2 r .
(15.40)
2me n,m
2
f  r  i  .
3
Show that
fn,n = 1 .
(15.41)
(15.42)
2
,
2 + t2
(15.43)
15.5 Solutions
1. Using the relations [Lx , z] = iy, [Ly , z] = ix and [Lz , z] = 0 one finds
that
, 2  , 2  , 2 L , z = Lx , z + Ly , z
= i (Lx y yLx + Ly x + xLy )
= iV
z,
(15.44)
Eyal Buks
438
15.5. Solutions
,
where V = r L L r. Thus the following holds L2 , r = iV. With
the help of the identities
[Lx , Vz ] = Lx [Lx , y] [Lx , y] Lx + [Lx , Ly ] x + x [Lx , Ly ] = iVy ,
[Ly , Vz ] = [Ly , Lx ] y y [Ly , Lx ] + Ly [Ly , x] + [Ly , x] Ly = iVx ,
[Lz , Vz ] = [Lz , Lx y] [Lz , yLx ] + [Lz , Ly x] + [Lz , xLy ] = 0 ,
one finds that
, 2 , 2 ,
L , L , z = i L2 , Vz
= 2 (Lx Vy + Vy Lx Ly Vx Vx Ly )
= 2 (L V V L)
z,
(15.45)
thus
, 2 , 2 L , L , r = 2 (L V V L)
= 2 (L (r L) L (L r) (r L) L+ (L r) L)
= 22 rL2 +L2 r .
(15.46)
if, = 4
fs 3i,f
Mi,f 2 .
2c2
(15.47)
if, =
33 5fs me c2
28
Mi,f
2
a0
.
Eyal Buks
(15.49)
439
2
0
(15.50)
where n, l and m are the quantum members of hydrogens energy eigenvectors. The final state is taken to be the ground state (n, l, m) = (1, 0, 0).
In the dipole approximation the transition (2, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0) is forbidden
due to the selection rule l {1, 1}. Using the identities
3/2
1
R10 (r) = 2
er/a0 ,
(15.51)
a0
3/2
r
1
R20 (r) = (2 r/a0 )
e 2a0 ,
(15.52)
2a0
3/2
r
1
r
e 2a0 ,
(15.53)
R21 (r) =
2a0
3a0
0
1
Y00 (, ) =
,
(15.54)
4
0
1
3
Y11 (, ) =
sin ei ,
(15.55)
2 2
0
1 3
Y10 (, ) =
cos ,
(15.56)
2
0
1
3
(15.57)
Y11 (, ) =
sin ei ,
2 2
where a0 is Bohrs radius [see Eq. (7.64)], one finds for the radial part
that
dr r R10 R21
27 6
=
a0 ,
35
(15.58)
Eyal Buks
440
15.5. Solutions
1
d (cos )
1
1
2
0
d (cos )
2
0
d (cos )
2
0
1
d cos Y00 Y10 = ,
3
d cos Y00 Y11 = 0 ,
d sin ei Y00 Y10 = 0 ,
(15.59)
(15.60)
(15.61)
and
1
d (cos )
2
0
d sin ei Y00 Y11 = 0 ,
0
0 1
2
0 1
1
1
i
d (cos ) d sin e
Y0 Y1 =
,
2
3
1
(15.63)
0 1
0
2
0 1
1
1
i
,
d (cos ) d sin e Y0 Y1 =
2
3
1
1
(15.62)
(15.64)
d (cos )
2
0
d sin ei Y00 Y11 = 0 .
(15.65)
Thus, by combining all these results one finds that the inverse lifetime of
the states (2, 1, 1), (2, 1, 0) and (2, 1, 1) is given by
(se) =
33 5fs me c2
28
7
2
35 2
,
(15.66)
whereas the lifetime of the state (2, 0, 0) is infinite (in the dipole approximation).
4. The probability p2pm to find the atom in the state n = 2, l = 1, m is
calculated using Eq. (10.42) together with Eq. (7.84)
p2pm
e2 E02 2
=
2
where
EI =
3E
2
i 4 I t
dt e
+t
e4
22
(15.68)
441
dt ei
3EI
4 t
/
1
dxeix
=
2
+t
1 + x 2
/
dxeix
,
=
(x i) (x + i)
(15.69)
where
=
3EI
,
4
(15.70)
thus with the help of the residue theorem one finds that
dt ei
3EI
4 t
= e .
+ t2
(15.71)
The matrix element 2, 1, m z 1, 0, 0 is calculated with the help of Eq.
(15.49)
2, 1, m z 1, 0, 0 =
0
dr r R21 R10
2 2a0
=
m,0 ,
35
7
1
d (cos )
2
(15.72)
where
a0 =
2
e2
(15.73)
(15.74)
dn0, =
2
q 2 (n)3
0 z n2
k,
z d ,
3
2c
(15.75)
2
q 2 (n)3 n
n,1
k,
z d .
3
2c 2m
(15.76)
where
k, is the polarization unit vector. With the help of Eqs. (5.11),
(5.28) and (5.29) one finds that
(se)
dn0, =
Eyal Buks
442
15.5. Solutions
Integrating over d in spherical coordinates and with the help of the
relation
1
4
,
(15.77)
d cos2 =
d
d (cos ) cos2 =
3
1
and summing over the two orthogonal polarization yields the total rate
of spontaneous emission
(se)
n0 =
2q 2 2
n,1 .
3mc3
(15.78)
6. The wave function of the final state k has the form r k = V 1/2 eik r ,
where V is the systemss volume. The perturbation that is induced by
the applied electric field can be expressed as H1 (t) = Keit + K eit ,
where
K=
eE0 r u
,
2
(15.79)
r = r (sin cos , sin sin , cos ) is the position vector operator and u
=
(sin 0 cos 0 , sin 0 sin 0 , cos 0 ) is a unit vector in the direction of the
applied electric field. The matrix element Mk = k  K n = 1, l = 0, m = 0
corresponding to the transition from the ground state n = 1, l = 0, m = 0
[see Eq. (7.92)] to the final state k is given by (the z axis is taken to
be in the direction of k )
Mk
3/2
1/2 eE0 a0
=
2
V 1/2
dr r
1
d (cos )
2
(15.80)
where
ru
= r sin sin 0 cos ( 0 ) + r cos cos 0 ,
(15.81)
thus
Mk =
1/2
3/2
eE0 a0 V 1/2 cos 0
3/2
= 1/2 eE0 a0
Eyal Buks
0
r/a0 3
dr e
1
16a40 k a0
V 1/2 cos 0
3 .
i (k a0 )2 + 1
(k r)2
(15.82)
443
2
(Ek ) Mk 2 ,
(15.83)
where
Ek =
2 k2
+ EI
2me
(15.84)
0
dk
2 k2
+ EI
2me
thus
w=
where
(k a0 )4
6 , (15.85)
(k a0 )2 + 1
2me ( EI )
k0 =
.
(15.86)
(15.87)
Note that for a given amplitude E0 the rate w obtains its maximum
value, which is given by [see Eq. (7.64)]
27 3 E02 a30
wmax =
,
(15.88)
16
when the angular frequency is chosen such that k0 a0 = 31/2 .
Eyal Buks
444
(16.1)
<
where N = i ni is the number of particles.
Alternatively, the particles can be considered as indistinguishable. In this
approach all states having the same vector of occupation numbers n
represent the same physical state, and thus should be counted only once. In
(16.2)
(16.3)
where 0 represents the state where all occupation numbers are zero. Equation (16.4) suggests that the creation operators ai maps a given state to a
state having additional particle in the single particle quantum state ai . The
operator ai is the Hermitian conjugate of the annihilation operator ai . The
number operator Ni is defined by
Ni = ai ai .
(16.5)
ai , aj
= ij ,
+
Eyal Buks
(16.8)
(16.9)
446
(a)
2
1
1
3
3
2
(b)
<
Fig. 16.1. In this example the number of particles is N = i ni = 3, where the
occupation numbers are given by n
= (n1 , n2 , n3 , n4 , ) = (0, 2, 1, 0, ). When
the particles are considered as distinguishable
> [see panel (a)] the corresponding
subspace is gn degenerate, where gn = N!/ ni ! = 3. On the other hand, when
i
the particles are considered as indistinguishable [see panel (b)], the corresponding
subspace is nondegenerate.
3
4
where ai , aj
denotes anticommutation, i.e.
+
[A, B]+ = AB + BA
(16.10)
(16.11)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
447
16.2 Bosons
Based on Eqs. (16.2), (16.4), (16.6) and (16.7) a variety of results can be
obtained:
Exercise 16.2.1. Show that for Bosons
3 n 4
n1
ai , ai
= n ai
.
(16.13)
Solution 16.2.1. Trivial by Eq. (2.174), which states that for any operators
A and B
[A, B n ] = nB n1 [A, B] ,
(16.14)
(16.15)
Solution 16.2.2. The norm of the vector ai 0 can be expressed with the
help of Eqs. (16.4) and (16.7)
3
4
0 ai ai 0 = 0 ai , ai + ai ai 0
thus with the help of the normalization condition (16.2) one finds that
0 ai ai 0 = 0 and therefore ai 0 = 0.
Exercise 16.2.3. Show that for Bosons
Ni 
n = ni 
n .
(16.17)
Solution 16.2.3. With the help of Eqs. (16.4), (16.13) and (16.15) one finds
that
Eyal Buks
448
16.3. Fermions
Ni 
n = ai ai 
n
ni
n1 n2
1
a2
=
a1
ai ai ai
0
n1 !n2 !
n1 n2
3 ni 4 ni
1
=
a2
+ ai
a1
ai ai , ai
ai 0
n1 !n2 !
n1
n2
ni 1
1
=
a2
ai ni ai
0
a1
n1 !n2 !
= ni 
n .
(16.18)
Exercise 16.2.4. Show that for Bosons
ai n1, n2 , , ni , = ni n1, n2 , , ni 1, ,
ai n1, n2 , , ni , = ni + 1 n1, n2 , , ni + 1, .
(16.19)
(16.20)
Solution 16.2.4. Equation (16.20) follows immediately from Eqs. (16.4) and
(16.6). Moreover, with the help of Eqs. (16.4), (16.13) and (16.15) one finds
that
n1 n2
ni
1
ai n1, n2 , , ni , =
ai ai
0
a1
a2
n1 !n2 !
n1 n2
3 ni 4 ni
1
=
a1
a2
ai , ai
+ ai
ai 0
n1 !n2 !
n1
n2
ni 1
ni
=
a1
a2
ai
0
n1 !n2 !
= ni n1, n2 , , ni 1, .
16.3 Fermions
2
The anticommutation relations (16.8) for the case i = j yields ai = 0. As
can be seen from Eq. (16.4), this implies that the only possible occupation
numbers ni are 0 and 1. This result is known as the Paulis exclusion principle,
according to which no more than one Fermion can occupy a given single
particle state. For Fermions Eq. (16.4) can be written as (recall that 0! =
1! = 1)
n1 n2

n = a1
a2
0 ,
(16.21)
(16.22)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
449
thus with the help of the normalization condition (16.2) one finds that
0 ai ai 0 = 0 and therefore ai 0 = 0.
Exercise 16.3.2. Show that for Fermions
n = ni 
n ,
Ni 
(16.24)
where Ni = ai ai .
Solution 16.3.2. Using Eqs. (16.8), (16.9) and (16.21) one finds that
n1 n2
Ni 
n = ai ai a1
a2
0
<
ni
2
nj n1 n2
= (1) j<i
a1
a2
ai ai ai
0
n1 n2
ni
= a1
ai ai ai
0 .
a2
(16.25)
ai n1, n2 , , ni , = ni (1)j<i
nj
n1, n2 , , ni 1, ,
<
ai n1, n2 , , ni , = (1 ni ) (1)j<i
nj
(16.26)
n1, n2 , , ni + 1, (16.27)
.
Eyal Buks
ni
= 1 ai ai and by
450
the single particle observable BSP , i.e. the following holds BSP
= BSP and
(16.28)
(16.29)
(16.30)
(16.32)
The single particle state ai can be expressed in the notation of many
particle states as ai 0, whereas the single particle state bj can be expressed
as bj 0, where the operator bj , which is the creation operator of the single
particle state bj , is given by [see Eq. (16.32)]
bj =
ai bj ai .
(16.33)
i
Eyal Buks
451
i,i
i (r ) i (r )
i
r ai ai r
= r r ,
thus [see Eq. (3.66)]
,
(r ) , (r ) = (r r ) .
(16.38)
(16.39)
[ (r ) , (r )] = 0 ,
(r ) , (r ) = 0 .
(16.40)
(16.41)
(16.42)
452
(16.43)
and where
Ni
N=
(16.44)
The operator (r ) is called the number density operator, and the operator
N is called the total number of particles operator.
Solution 16.4.2. Using the definition of (r ) one finds that
d3 r (r ) (r ) =
ai ai d3 r i (r ) i (r )
i,i
ai ai
=N .
(16.45)
This can be seen by recalling that the operator bj bj represents the number
of particles in the single particle state bj and that j is the corresponding
Eyal Buks
453
(16.48)
(16.49)
In the manyparticle case, the same physical variable that VTP represents
for the twoparticle case is represented by the operator V , which is given by
1
V =
vj,j bj bj bj bj .
(16.50)
2 j,j
To see that the above expression indeed represents the two particle interaction
consider the expectation value
n V 
n with respect to the many body state

n = n1, n2 , . The following holds [see Eqs. (16.6) , (16.7), (16.8) and
(16.9)]
bj bj bj bj = bj bj bj bj
3
4
= bj bj , bj bj bj bj
3
4
= bj bj , bj bj bj bj
= bj j,j bj bj bj
= Nj j,j + Nj Nj ,
(16.51)
where the upper sign is used for Bosons and the lower one for Fermions. Thus
V can be rewritten as
Eyal Buks
454
16.6. Hamiltonian
V =
1
vj,j Nj (Nj j,j ) .
2
(16.52)
j,j
Separating the terms for which j = j from the terms for which j = j yields
V =
vj,j Nj Nj +
j<j
1
vj,j Nj (Nj 1) ,
2 j
(16.53)
nj nj vj,j +
j<j
nj (nj 1)
vj,j .
2
j
(16.54)
1
=
ai , ai 
j, j j, j  VTP ai , ai ai ai ai ai ,
2 i ,i ,i ,i
j,j
(16.55)
thus
V =
1
ai , ai  VTP ai , ai ai ai ai ai .
2 i ,i ,i ,i
(16.56)
16.6 Hamiltonian
Consider the case where the singleparticle Hamiltonian is given by
HSP = TSP + USP ,
(16.57)
p2SP
,
2m
(16.58)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
455
1
ai  p2SP ai ai ai .
2m i,i
(16.59)
The matrix element ai  p2SP ai can be written using the wavefunctions
i (r ) = r ai [recall Eq. (3.29), according to which r  p  = i
for a general state ]
2
d3 r (i (r )) (i (r )) .
(16.60)
ai  p2SP ai =
2m
Thus, in terms of the quantized field operator (r ) [see Eqs. (16.36) and
(16.37)] the operator T can be expressed as
2
T =
d3 r (r ) (r ) .
(16.61)
2m
Integration by parts yields an alternative expression
2
T =
d3 r (r ) 2 (r ) .
2m
(16.62)
d3 r USP (r ) (r ) (r ) .
(16.63)
In addition, consider the case where the particles interact with each other
via a twoparticle potential VTP (r1 , r2 ). The corresponding manyparticle
interaction operator is found using Eq. (16.56). The twoparticle matrix elements of VTP are given by
ai , ai  VTP ai , ai
3
= d r
d3 r i (r ) i (r ) VTP (r , r ) i (r ) i (r ) ,
(16.64)
thus
Eyal Buks
456
16.6. Hamiltonian
V =
1
2
d3 r
d3 r VTP (r , r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) .
(16.65)
(16.67)
Note that in the absence of twoparticle interaction the above equation for
the field operator (r , t) is identical to the singleparticle Schrdinger equation for the single particle wavefunction (r ). Due to this similarity the
manyparticle formalism of quantum mechanics is sometimes called second
quantization.
Solution 16.6.1. The Heisenberg equation of motion [see Eq. (4.37)] is given
by
i
d
= [H, ] .
dt
(16.68)
(16.69)
Eyal Buks
457
[T, (r )] =
(16.70)
and
,
d3 r USP (r ) (r ) (r ) , (r )
= d3 r USP (r ) (r r ) (r )
[U, (r )] =
= USP (r ) (r ) .
(16.71)
(16.72)
Similarly
[V, (r )]
,
1
3
=
d r
d3 r VTP (r , r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) , (r )
2
,
1
=
d3 r d3 r VTP (r , r ) (r ) (r ) , (r ) (r ) (r )
2
1
3
d3 r VTP (r , r ) (r ) (r r ) (r ) (r )
=
d r
2
1
d3 r d3 r VTP (r , r ) (r r ) (r ) (r ) (r )
2
= d3 r VTP (r , r ) (r ) (r ) (r )
(16.73)
where in the last step it was assumed that VTP (r , r ) = VTP (r , r ). Combining these results lead to Eq. (16.67).
p
.
Eyal Buks
(16.74)
458
(16.75)
2
(nx , ny , nz ) ,
L
(16.76)
1
d3 r k (r ) k (r ) =
d3 r ei(k k )r
V V
V
= k ,k .
(16.77)
In the momentum representation the manyparticle kinetic energy T is
given by [see Eq. (16.59)]
1 2
T =
k  pSP k ak ak
2m
k ,k
2 2
=
k ak ak ,
2m
k
(16.78)
(16.79)
k ,k
where
Uk k = k  USP (r ) k
1
=
d3 r USP (r ) ei(k k )r ,
V V
(16.80)
1
2
Eyal Buks
k ,k ,k ,k
k , k  VTP k , k ak ak ak ak ,
(16.81)
459
d r
d3 r VTP (r , r ) ei(k
k )r i(k k )r
(16.82)
(16.83)
r0 =
(16.84)
k , k  VTP k , k
i(k k k +k )r
1
2
d3 r0 ei(k k +k k )r0
d3 r VTP (r0 + r/2, r0 r/2) e
= 2
V V
V
i(k k k +k )r
1
2
= k +k ,k +k
d3 r vTP (r) e
,
V V
(16.85)
where
vTP (r) = VTP (r0 + r/2, r0 r/2) .
(16.86)
Thus the only allowed processes for this case are those for which the total
momentum is conserved, i.e. k + k = k + k . Using the notation
q = k k = k k ,
(16.87)
1
vq ak ak ak q ak +q ,
2
(16.88)
k ,k ,q
where
1
vq =
V
d3 r vTP (r) e
iqr
2
(16.89)
16.8 Spin
In addition to spatial (orbital) degrees of freedom, the particles may have
spin. We demonstrate below the inclusion of spin for the case of momentum
representation. The basis for singleparticle states is taken to be {k , }k , ,
Eyal Buks
460
(16.90)
The commutation (for Bosons) and anticommutation (for Fermions) relations [see Eqs. (16.6), (16.7), (16.8) and (16.9)] become
3
4
=0,
(16.91)
[ak , , ak , ] = ak , , ak ,
3
4
ak , , ak ,
= k ,k , ,
(16.92)
k ,
1
+
2
k ,k ,
k ,k ,q, ,
vq ak , ak , ak q, ak +q, .
(16.93)
2 2
k ak , ak , .
2m
(16.94)
k ,
In the momentum representation the single particle state k , has a wavefunction given by [see Eq. (16.75)]
1
r k , = eik r ,
V
(16.95)
and thus the quantized field operator (r ) is given by [see Eq. (16.37)]
1 ik r
e
ak , .
(r ) =
V k
(16.96)
2 k2
,
2m
(16.97)
461
The Fermi wave vector is chosen such that the number of single particle states
for which k  kF is N. Since the density of states per spin in k space is
V/83 one finds that
2
V 4 3
k = N ,
83 3 F
(16.99)
3 2 N
.
V
(16.100)
2 kF2
.
2m
(16.101)
thus
kF3 =
The density of states D () per spin and per unit volume is given by
D () =
1
( k ) .
V
(16.102)
1 V
4
=
V 83
1
= 2
4
0
2m
2
2 k2
dk k2
2m
3/2
m
= 2 3 2m .
2
( )
(16.103)
Eyal Buks
462
16.10. Problems
The ground state energy is given by
E0 = 2V
F
5/2
d D ( ) =
23/2 m3/2 VF
52 3
(16.104)
3N 2 kF2
.
5 2m
(16.105)
16.10 Problems
1. Find the manyparticle interaction operator V for the case where the
twoparticle potential is a constant VTP (r1 , r2 ) = V0 .
2. The same for the Coulomb interaction
VTP (r1 , r2 ) =
e2
.
r1 r2 
(16.106)
3. Show that
d
+ J = 0 ,
dt
(16.107)
,
(r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) .
2im
(16.108)
4. Consider two identical Bosons having mass m in a one dimensional potential U (x) well given by
+
0 if 0 x L
.
(16.109)
U (x) =
else
The particles interact with each other via a twoparticle interaction given
by VTP = V0 L (x1 x2 ), where V0 is a constant. Calculate the ground
state energy to lowest nonvanishing order in V0 .
5. By definition, an ideal gas is an ensemble of noninteracting identical
particles. The set of single particle eigenenergies is denoted by {i }. Calculate the average energy H and the average number of particles N in
thermal equilibrium as a function of the temperature T and the chemical
potential for the case of
a) Fermions.
b) Bosons.
Eyal Buks
463
(16.110)
(16.111)
where ak and ak are Boson annihilation and creation operators corresponding to the single particle state k , and where k and are real
coefficients.
8. Consider a system of identical spinless Bosons, whose Hamiltonian is
given by
k
k ak ak +
H=
ak ak + ak ak ,
(16.113)
2
 = dr
dr F (r , r ) (r ) (r ) 0 ,
(16.114)
where (r ) is the Bosonic quantized field operator, 0 represents the
state where all occupation numbers are zero, and F (r , r ) is complex.
Eyal Buks
464
16.11. Solutions
a) Find a condition that the function F (r , r ) must satisfy in order to
ensure that the state  is normalized.
b) Consider the case where F (r , r ) can be expressed as F (r , r ) =
Af1 (r ) f2 (r ), where A is a normalization constant (which is chosen
such that  = 1) and where both functions f1 () and f2 () are
normalized according to
2
2
1 = dr f1 (r ) = dr f2 (r ) .
Evaluate the function
g (r ) =  (r )  ,
where (r ) = (r ) (r ).
c) Calculate the total number of particles
N = dr g (r ) .
(16.115)
(16.116)
(16.117)
where 0 is the ground state of the N electrons gas, (r) is the quantized field operator and stands for a spin state.
13. Calculate the ground state energy of electron gas containing N 1
electrons filling a volume V. Consider the Coulomb interaction between
electrons as weak and calculate the energy shift due to this interaction to
lowest nonvanishing order in perturbation theory. Assume that the volume V contains a uniform background of positive charge density +eN/V
(without the positive background the system is expected to be unstable
due to the repulsive nature of the Coulomb interaction).
16.11 Solutions
1. In general V is given by Eq. (16.88) where for this case
vq = V0 q,0 ,
(16.118)
thus
V0
a a ak ak
2 k k
k ,k
4
V0 3
=
a ak ak , ak + ak ak ak .
2 k
V =
k ,k
Eyal Buks
(16.119)
465
= k ,k ak ,
(16.120)
N (N 1)
,
2
(16.121)
1
= 4 (r)
r
(16.123)
yield
4 (r) =
(16.124)
dk eikx = 2 (x) ,
(16.125)
1
,
22 q 2
(16.126)
(16.127)
With the help of this result one finds that V is given by [see Eqs. (16.88)
and (16.89)]
V =
1 4e2
a a ak q ak +q .
2V
q2 k k
(16.128)
k ,k ,q
Eyal Buks
466
16.11. Solutions
3. With the help of Eq. (16.67) and its Hermitian conjugate one finds that
d
d (r )
d (r )
=
(r ) + (r )
dt
dt
dt
1 2 ,
2
=
(r ) (r , t) 2 (r , t) (r ) ,
i 2m
(16.129)
d
+ J = 0 .
dt
(16.130)
Note the similarity between this result and the continuity equation that
is satisfied by a singleparticle wavefunction [see Eq. (4.73)].
4. For the unperturbed case, i.e. when V0 = 0, the singleparticle wavefunctions of the normalized eigenstates are given by
0
2
jx
j (x) =
sin
,
(16.131)
L
L
where j = 1, 2, , and the corresponding singleparticle eigenenergies
are
j =
2 2 j 2
.
2mL2
(16.132)
For this case the ground state is the manyparticle state GS = n1 = 2, n2 = 0, n3 = 0, ,
i.e. the state for which both particles are in the j = 1 singleparticle state.
In perturbation theory to first order in V0 the energy of this state is given
by [see Eq. (9.32)]
E = 21 + GS V GS + O V02 ,
(16.133)
where the manyparticle interaction operator V is given by Eq. (16.56).
The matrix element GS V GS is given by
1
1, 1 VTP 1, 1 GS a1 a1 a1 a1 GS
2
3
4
1
= 1, 1 VTP 1, 1 GS a1 a1 a1 a1 , a1 a1 GS
2
N1 (N1 1)
= 1, 1 VTP 1, 1 GS
GS
2
= 1, 1 VTP 1, 1 ,
(16.134)
GS V GS =
467
dx1
= V0 L
0
L
dx1 41 (x1 )
3
= V0 ,
2
(16.135)
thus
2 2 3
(16.136)
V0 + O V02 .
2
mL
2
5. The grandcanonical partition function [see Eq. (8.450)] is evaluated by
summing over all manyparticle states
Zgc = Tr eH+N
n1, n2 , , ni ,  eH+N n1, n2 , , ni , ,
=
E=
n1, n2 ,
(16.137)
where
H=
N=
i ai ai ,
(16.138)
ai ai ,
(16.139)
i
and
log Zgc =
(16.140)
ni
log
!
ni
ni (i )
"
(16.141)
i e(i )
=
,
1 + e(i )
i
Eyal Buks
(16.143)
468
16.11. Solutions
whereas the average number of particles is found using Eq. (8.454)
N =
1 + e(i )
i
(16.144)
1
,
exp [ ( )] + 1
(16.145)
(16.146)
and
N =
fFD (i ) .
(16.147)
where
fBE () =
1
exp [ ( )] 1
(16.150)
3
4
ak , ak
= k ,k .
(16.152)
Eyal Buks
469
3
4
bk , bk
= k ,k .
(16.153)
(16.154)
Using the definition (16.110) together with Eqs. (16.6) and (16.8) these
conditions become
3
4
3
4
vk uk ak , ak + uk vk ak , ak
=0,
(16.155)
3
4
3
4
vk uk ak , ak + uk vk ak , ak
=0,
(16.156)
3
4
3
4
uk uk ak , ak + vk vk ak , ak
= k ,k .
(16.157)
bk
ak
uk 0 0 v k
bk 0 uk vk 0 ak
=
(16.158)
bk 0 vk uk 0 ak ,
vk 0 0 uk
bk
ak
ak
ak
1
=
ak uk uk vk vk
ak
uk
0
0
vk
0
0
uk vk
vk uk
0
0
bk
vk
0
bk
.
bk
0
uk
bk
(16.159)
This result together with Eq. (16.111) imply that the expectation value
Vb  ak ak Vb is given by
2
vk
Vb  ak ak Vb =
Vb  bk bk Vb , (16.160)
uk uk vk vk
thus for both Bosons and Fermions [see Eq. (16.154)]
2
vk
Vb  ak ak Vb =
.
uk uk vk vk
(16.161)
a) For the case of Fermions one finds using Eq. (16.9) that the conditions (16.155), (16.156) and (16.157) become (recall that [A, B]+ =
[B, A]+ )
(vk uk + uk vk ) k ,k = 0 ,
(16.162)
(16.163)
(vk uk + uk vk ) k ,k = 0 ,
(uk uk + vk vk ) k ,k = k ,k ,
(16.164)
Eyal Buks
470
16.11. Solutions
thus
vk uk + uk vk = 0 ,
(16.165)
2
2
(16.166)
uk + vk = 1 .
These conditions are guarantied to be satisfied provided uk and vk
are expressed using a single real parameter k as
uk = cos k , vk = sin k ,
(16.167)
uk = cos k , vk = sin k .
(16.168)
For this case Eq. (16.159) becomes
ak
bk
cos k
0
0 sin k
ak 0
bk
cos k sin k
0
=
, (16.169)
ak 0 sin k cos k
bk
0
sin k
0
0
cos k
ak
bk
and Eq. (16.161) becomes
(16.170)
b) For the case of Bosons one finds using Eq. (16.7) that the conditions (16.155), (16.156) and (16.157) become (recall that [A, B] =
[B, A] )
vk uk + uk vk = 0 ,
(16.171)
2
2
uk vk = 1 .
(16.172)
These conditions are guarantied to be satisfied provided that uk and
vk are expressed using a single real parameter k as
uk = cosh k , vk = sinh k ,
(16.173)
uk = cosh k , vk = sinh k .
(16.174)
For this case Eq. (16.161) thus becomes
Vb  ak ak Vb = sinh2 k .
(16.175)
(16.176)
where
3
4
Hk = k ak ak + ak + ak
,
(16.177)
Lk = ak ak .
(16.178)
and where
1
1
[L, [L, A]] + [L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (16.179)
2!
3!
471
(16.180)
(16.181)
(16.182)
k = Hk k ak + a 2k 2 + k 2
H
k
2
= k ak ak .
(16.183)
(16.184)
where
!
U = exp
k
Lk
"
which yields
=
H
k ak ak 2 ,
(16.185)
(16.186)
(16.187)
(16.188)
Eyal Buks
472
16.11. Solutions
8. By employing the Bogoliubov transformation [see Eqs. (16.159), (16.173)
and (16.174)]
ak
ak
1
=
ak uk uk vk vk
ak
bk
uk
0
0 vk
0
uk vk 0
bk ,
0 vk uk
0 bk
vk 0
0
uk
bk
(16.190)
where
uk = uk = cosh k ,
vk = vk = sinh k ,
(16.191)
(16.192)
the identities
sinh (2 k ) = 2 sinh k cosh k ,
cosh (2 k ) = sinh2 k + cosh2 k ,
cosh (2k ) + 1
cosh2 k =
,
2
cosh (2k ) 1
sinh2 k =
,
2
3
4
and the commutation relation bk , bk = 1, one finds that
H=
(k cosh (2k ) k sinh (2k )) bk bk
(16.193)
(16.194)
(16.195)
(16.196)
2
2
k
cosh (2 k ) k sinh (2k )
k
+
bk bk + bk bk .
2
(16.197)
(16.198)
1
,
1 tanh2 (2k )
tanh2 (2 k )
,
1 tanh2 (2k )
(16.199)
(16.200)
473
k
2
k
k
2
bk bk
k
k
2
1 ,
(16.201)
2
k
1 k
+
1 ,
2
k
(16.202)
where the nonnegative integer nk is the number of socalled quasi particles in state k .
9. Consider the state  (r ), which is defined by
 (r ) = D(r ) 0 ,
(16.203)
where (r ) C and where the operator D(r ) is given by [see for comparison Eq. (5.36)]
/
D(r ) = e
dr ((r ) (r ) (r ) (r ))
(16.204)
For general operators A and B the following holds [see Eq. (2.175)]
1
(16.205)
provided that
[A, [A, B]] = [B, [A, B]] = 0 .
Moreover, with the help of Eq. (16.39) one finds that
dr (r ) (r ) , dr (r ) (r )
,
= dr dr (r ) (r ) (r ) , (r )
2
= dr  (r ) ,
(16.206)
(16.207)
474
16.11. Solutions
/
dr (r ) (r )
D(r ) = e
= e
dr (r ) (r )
dr (r ) (r ) 12
dr (r ) (r )
e2
dr (r )
2
dr (r )
.
(16.208)
Using the last result (16.208) it is easy to show that D(r ) is unitary
D(r
) D(r ) = D(r ) D(r ) = 1 ,
(16.209)
 (r ) = e 2
dr (r )
dr (r ) (r )
0 .
(16.210)
df
[A, B] ,
dA
(16.211)
provided that [[A, B] , A]/ = 0 [see Eq. (2.174)]. Using this general result
[with f (A) = eA , A = dr (r ) (r ) and B = (r)] together with
Eq. (16.39) yields
3 /
4
/
e dr (r ) (r ) , (r) = e dr (r ) (r )
dr (r ) (r ) , (r)
/
dr (r ) (r )
= e
dr (r ) (r r )
/
= e
dr (r ) (r )
(r) ,
(16.212)
The last result together with the relation (r) 0 = 0 can be used to
show that the state  (r ) is an eigenvector of (r) with eigenvalue (r)
(r)  (r )
/
1
= (r) e 2 dr (r ) e dr (r ) (r ) 0
/
3
/
/
1
= e 2 dr (r ) e dr (r ) (r ) (r) + (r) , e
12
= (r) e
dr (r
) e
dr (r )
(r ) 0 ,
dr (r ) (r )
4
0
(16.213)
that is
(r)  (r ) = (r)  (r ) .
Eyal Buks
(16.214)
475
(r ) N  (r ) = d3 r (r ) (r ) (r )  (r )
= d3 r  (r)2 ,
whereas the expectation value with respect to the Hamiltonian H [see
Eq. (16.66)] is given by
2
(r ) H  (r ) =
d3 r (r) (r)
2m
+ d3 r USP (r )  (r)2
1
2
2
3
+
d3 r VTP (r , r )  (r )  (r ) .
d r
2
(16.215)
10. First consider the unperturbed problem where the Coulomb interaction
between the electrons is disregarded. The singleelectron Hamiltonian is
obtained by substituting the factor e2 in the Hamiltonian of a hydrogen atom by Ze2 , where for helium Z = 2. The single electron energy
eigenstates n, l, m, are chosen to be also eigenvectors of the single
electron angular momentum operators Lz and L2 [see Eqs. (7.42), (7.43)
and (7.44)]. While n, l and m are orbital quantum numbers, labels the
spin state. The single electron eigenenergies are given by [see Eq. (7.84)]
En =
Z 2 EI
,
n2
(16.216)
me e4
,
22
(16.217)
and where me is the electrons mass. The position wavefunction n,l,m (r)
of a singleelectron energy eigenstates having orbital quantum numbers
n, l and m is given by [see Eq. (7.92)]
(Z)
(16.218)
(Z)
Eyal Buks
476
16.11. Solutions
 = an=1,l=0,m=0,= an=1,l=0,m=0,=+ 0 ,
(16.219)
where an,l,m, are creation operators and where 0 represents the state
where all occupation numbers are zero. The energy of the unperturbed
ground state is 2 22 EI = 8EI [see Eq. (16.216)]. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons is described by the twoparticle operator
[see Eq. (16.106)]
VTP (r1 , r2 ) =
e2
.
r1 r2 
(16.220)
2
e2
 V  = dr1 dr2
1,0,0 (r1 ) 1,0,0 (r2 )
r1 r2 
R(Z) (r ) R(Z) (r )
2
e2
1 10
2
= dr1 dr2
10
4
4
r1 r2 
6
4(r1 +r2 )
e2 a20
e a0
=
dr1 dr2
2
r1 r2 
= EI ,
(16.221)
the dimensionless factor is given by
27 1
= 2 5
a0
dr1
4(r1 +r2 )
e a0
dr2
,
r1 r2 
(16.222)
and where
a0 =
2
me e2
(16.223)
is the Bohrs radius [see Eq. (7.64)]. The integration over r2 is performed
in spherical coordinated, where the z axis is chosen in the direction of
the vector r1
Eyal Buks
477
dr1 e
dr2 r22 e
2
d (cos 2 )
d2
r12 + r22 2r1 r2 cos 2
1
0
4r2
a0
= 4
4r1
a0
2 1
4
2 a50
5
= ,
2
0
4r
a1
0
dr1 r12 e
1
r1
1
r1 +r2 r1 r2 
r1 r2
r1
4r
a2
0
dr2 r22 e
4r
a2
0
dr2 r2 e
r1
(16.224)
thus the ground state energy is 8EI +  V  = (11/2) EI . Note
that the fact the energy correction  V  is comparable with the unperturbed value of 8EI suggests that the accuracy of the first order
perturbation approximation is relatively poor.
11. With the help of the commutation relations (16.39), (16.40) and (16.41)
one finds that
 = dr
dr
dr
dr F (r , r ) F (r , r )
0 (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) 0
= dr dr dr F (r , r ) F (r , r ) 0 (r ) (r ) 0
+ dr
dr
dr
dr F (r , r ) F (r , r ) 0 (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) 0
2
= dr dr F (r , r ) + F (r , r ) F (r , r ) .
(16.225)
a) The condition is
2
1 = dr dr F (r , r ) + F (r , r ) F (r , r ) . (16.226)
b) The normalization
for this case reads
condition
2
2
1 = A
dr dr f1 (r ) f2 (r ) + f1 (r ) f2 (r ) f1 (r ) f2 (r )
= A2 1 +  12 2 ,
(16.227)
where
12 =
dr f1 (r ) f2 (r ) .
(16.228)
478
16.11. Solutions
g (r ) =
1
1 +  12 2
dr
dr
dr
dr f1 (r ) f2 (r ) f1 (r ) f2 (r )
0 (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) 0
=
(16.229)
(16.230)
1 i(k r k r )
e
0  ak , ak , 0 ,
V
(16.231)
k ,k
where 0 is the ground state of the free electron gas [see Eq. (16.98)],
thus
1 ik (r r )
e
C (r r ) =
.
(16.232)
V
k kF
For N 1 the summation can be approximately substituted by integration over the Fermi sphere having radius kF [see Eq. (16.100)]. In
spherical coordinates in which the z axis is taken to be in the direction
of the vector r r one has
V 2 kF 2 1
dk k
d (cos ) eik cos r r  , (16.233)
C (r r ) = 3
8 V 0
1
thus
C (r r ) =
(16.234)
(16.235)
13. First consider the unperturbed case, where the electronelectron Coulomb
interaction is disregarded. The ground state
Eyal Buks
479
k kF ,
ak , 0
(16.236)
is given by Eq. (16.98), and its energy E0 = (3N/5) 2 kF2 /2m by Eq.
(16.105), where kF is the Fermi wave vector. To first order in perturbation
(1)
theory the energy of the ground state becomes EGS = E0 + E, where
the energy shift E due to electronelectron Coulomb interaction is given
by [see Eqs. (9.32), (16.65), (16.93) and (16.106)]
1
3
E =
d r
d3 r VTP (r , r ) 0  (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) 0 ,
2
,
(16.237)
where
VTP (r , r ) =
e2
.
r r 
(16.238)
With the help of the expansion (16.96) and the commutation relations
(16.91) and (16.92) one finds that
0  (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) 0
1
ei(k k )r ei(k k )r 0  ak , ak , ak , ak , 0
= 2
V
k ,k ,k ,k
1
= 2 ,
V
+
1
V2
ei(k
k )r i(k k )r
k ,k ,k
k ,k ,k ,k
ei(k
k )r i(k k )r
0  ak , ak , 0
0  ak , ak , ak , ak , 0 .
(16.239)
The only nonvanishing terms in the second line are those for which either
k = k and k = k or k = k and k = k . For the second case
the two possibilities = and = are separately considered
Eyal Buks
480
16.11. Solutions
0  (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) 0
1
= 2 ,
eik (r r )
eik (r r )
V
k kF
1
+ 2
 Nk , Nk , 0
V 0
k ,k
1
ei(k k )(r r ) 0  ak , ak , ak , ak , 0
+ 2 ,
V
k ,k
1
+ 2 (1 , )
ei(k k )(r r ) 0  ak , ak , ak , ak , 0 ,
V
k ,k
(16.240)
thus
0  (r ) (r ) (r ) (r ) 0
1
= 2 ,
eik (r r )
eik (r r )
V
+
+
1
V2
k kF
k ,k kF
1
,
1
2
V
k kF
ik r r ik r r
1
)
(
)
,
e (
e
2
V
k
k kF
1
ik (r r )
2 ,
k kF
1
+ 2 (1 , )
1.
V
k kF
(16.241)
1
1
ik (r r )
= 2
1 2 ,
,
V
V
k kF
k ,k kF
(16.242)
Eyal Buks
481
(16.243)
where
C (r r ) =
(16.244)
(16.245)
3N 2 kF2
5 2m
2
e2 3N
(sin (kF r ) kF r  cos (kF r ))2
V d3 r
r  2V
(kF r )6
2
9Ve2 N
3N 2 kF2
(sin x x cos x)2
V
=
dx
,
2
5 2m
kF
x5
0
EGS =
1/4
(16.246)
.
5 2m
4
Eyal Buks
(16.247)
482
17. Superconductivity
In this chapter two models are discussed, the Londons model, in which a
macroscopic wavefunction is introduced to describe the state of a superconductor, and the model by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS), which provides an insight on the underlying microscopic mechanisms that are responsible for superconductivity.
1 A
,
c t
(17.1)
and
B=A,
(17.2)
8
d
+J=0 ,
dt
where
=
(17.7)
(17.8)
q
Im ( )
A
m
mc
(17.9)
is the current density [see Eq. (4.200)]. For a wavefunction having the form
= 1/2 ei ,
(17.10)
(17.11)
=,
(17.13)
(r , t ) = exp iq (r ) (r , t ) .
(17.14)
c
Eyal Buks
484
J
,
qn
(17.16)
(17.17)
H =
(17.18)
(17.19)
(17.20)
(17.21)
(17.22)
(17.23)
(17.24)
(17.25)
(17.26)
(17.27)
where P is the electric polarization, = 1 + 4e is the permittivity (dielectric constant of the medium), e is the electric susceptibility, M is the
magnetization, = 1 + 4m is the permeability and m is the magnetic
susceptibility.
Eyal Buks
485
(17.29)
A vector function F (r, t) can be decomposed into longitudinal and transverse parts with respect to the wave vector q according to
F = FL + FT ,
(17.30)
nq F) n
q , the transverse one
where the longitudinal part is given by FL = (
is given by FT = (
nq F) n
q , and where n
q = q/ q is a unit vector in
the direction of q. The following holds F = FL and F = FT .
Recall that for a general scalar and a vector A the following holds
(A) = A + A ,
(A) = A A ,
thus
F =
dq
d ei(qrt) iq FL (q, ) ,
(17.31)
and
F=
dq
d ei(qrt) iq FT (q, ) .
(17.32)
With the help of the above relations the Maxwells equations (17.18),
(17.19), (17.20) and (17.21) can be Fourier transformed into
4
i
Jext (q, ) D (q, ) ,
c
c
q ET (q, ) = B (q, ) ,
c
iq DL (q, ) = 4ext (q, ) ,
q BL (q, ) = 0 .
iq HT (q, ) =
(17.33)
(17.34)
(17.35)
(17.36)
486
(17.37)
(17.38)
DL (q, )
,
EL (q, )
(17.39)
ext (q, )
.
ext (q, ) + ind (q, )
(17.40)
(17.41)
(17.42)
Consequently, one finds that the longitudinal dielectric function (q, ) can
alternatively be expressed as [see Eq. (17.39)]
(q, ) =
ext (q, )
.
(q, )
(17.43)
For the case where the induced charge is carried by electrons having mass
me , charge qe , density ne and scattering time tr,e Eq. (17.17) becomes
1
me
Je
+
Je = E ,
(17.44)
qe2 ne t tr,e
where the electron current density Je is related to the induced electron charge
density ind = e by the continuity equation (17.7)
de
+ Je = 0 .
dt
(17.45)
Applying to Eq. (17.44) and using Eqs. (17.45) and (17.37) lead to
d2 e
1 de
+
= 2p,e (e + ext ) ,
2
dt
tr,e dt
(17.46)
4qe2 ne
,
me
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(17.47)
487
2p,e
,
1
2 + i tr,e
2p,e ext,0
(17.48)
2p,e i tr,e
.
2 i tr,e 1
(17.49)
(17.50)
2ic2
1
.
2 2 1 i
e
tr,e
(17.51)
(17.52)
where
e () =
e,0
,
1 i tr,e
(17.53)
qe2 ne tr,e
.
me
(17.54)
Eyal Buks
4 e ()
.
(17.55)
488
ns = s (r , t ) .
(17.56)
d s
1
=
dt
2ms
2
q
i s A s + qs s .
c
(17.57)
ns (r , t )ei(r ,t ) ,
qs ns (r , t )
ms
q
s A .
c
(17.58)
(17.59)
qs2 ns
B.
ms c
(17.60)
(17.61)
lead to
Eyal Buks
489
1
1 2B
2 B + c2 t2 ,
L
(17.62)
ms c2
4ns qs2
(17.63)
where
L =
is the London penetration depth in Gaussian units (L = ms /0 ns qs2 in
SI units). In terms of the superconducting plasma frequency p,s , which is
given by
2p,s =
4ns qs2
,
ms
(17.64)
c
.
p,s
(17.65)
d
m
= 2 s 2 J2s + qs .
dt
2qs ns
(17.67)
d
m
= 2 s 2 J2s + qs .
dt
2qs ns
(17.68)
Taking the time derivative of Eq. (17.59) and employing Eq. (17.1) together
with the last result yield the first London equation
Eyal Buks
490
Js
1
+ J2s
t 2qs ns
=E.
(17.69)
hand
2
the relation
J2s
2 Js  /l0 , where l0 is a length scale that characterizes
the spacial variations of the current density Js . Moreover, the ratio Js  /l0
can be estimated from the second London equation (17.60)
q 2 n
Js 
s s B .
l0
ms c
(17.70)
1
2qs ns
J2s
1 vs  B ,
c
(17.71)
Js
qs ns
(17.72)
(17.73)
(17.74)
Comparing the above relation with Eq. (17.17) of the Drude model yields
agreement provided that the scattering time tr is assumed to be infinite.
From this point of view the first London equation represents the nullification
of resistance in superconductors. Equation (17.74) implies that the superconducting conductivity s () for the homogeneous case is given by [see Eq.
(17.53)]
s () = i
Eyal Buks
qs2 ns
.
ms
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
(17.75)
491
(17.77)
The assumption that Ethe superconducting wavefunction s = ns ei is continuous implies that dr = 2n, where n is integer. The integral over
A can be calculated using Stokes theorem [see Eqs. (12.2) and (12.47)]
@
dr A = C ,
(17.78)
C
/
where C = ds B is the magnetic flux threaded through the area enclosed
by the closed path C. With these results Eq. (17.77) becomes
@
hq n
dr Js = s s n C ,
(17.79)
ms
s
C
where
s =
hc
qs
(17.80)
(17.81)
i.e. the magnetic flux is quantized in units of the superconducting flux quantum.
Two Fluid Model. In the limit of vanishing temperature only superconducting charge carriers are present in a superconductor. However, at finite
temperature also normally conducting charge carriers may be present. Consequently, the total complex conductivity () [see Eq. (17.52)] is taken to
be given by
() = n () + s () ,
Eyal Buks
(17.82)
492
qe2 nn tr,e
1
,
me
1 i tr,e
(17.83)
where nn is the density of normal charge carriers, and the super conductivity
s () is assumed to be given by Eq. (17.75)
s () = i
qs2 ns
.
ms
(17.84)
The electronic dielectric constant e () [see Eq. (17.55)] in the two fluid
model is thus given by
e () = 1 + i
4 n ()
4s ()
+i
,
(17.85)
or in terms of the skin depth [see Eq. (17.50)] and the London penetration
depth L [see Eq. (17.63)]
e () = 1 +
2i
1
1
,
1
i
tr,e
( e k)
(L k)2
2
(17.86)
qs ns
GI ,
ms
Eyal Buks
(17.88)
493
2
A.
s
(17.89)
In sin (n) ,
(17.91)
n=1
where In are all constants. As will be shown below [see Eq. (17.313)], for the
case where the superconductors are weakly coupled all terms except for the
first one can be neglected. For that case the general current phase relation
(17.91) becomes the socalled first Josephson relation, which is given by
I = Ic sin ,
(17.92)
=
Js (r2 ) Js (r1 ) + qs ( (r2 ) (r1 ))
dr
.
2qs2 n2
t
s
s r1
(17.93)
The assumption Js (r2 ) = Js (r1 ) leads to
2c r2
1 A
=
dr
.
s r1
c t
Eyal Buks
(17.94)
494
(17.95)
(17.96)
r1
is the voltage across the Josephson junction. As will be shown below, the
elementary superconducting charge carrier is a pair of electrons, i.e. qs = 2e,
and consequently Eq. (17.95) becomes
2eV
=
.
(17.97)
(17.100)
where
EJ =
Ic
Ic
= s .
2e
2c
(17.101)
(17.102)
495
UJ = EJ +
where
LJ =
(17.103)
s
2cIc
(17.104)
17.3 RF SQUID
A radio frequency (RF) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)
is made of a superconducting loop interrupted by a Josephson junction (see
Fig. 17.1). Consider a close curve C going around the loop. The requirement
that the phase of the macroscopic wavefunction is continues reads
@
2n = dr ,
(17.105)
C
where n is integer. The section of the close curve C inside the superconductor
is denoted by C and the integral through the junction is denoted as an
integral from point r1 to point r2 . With the help of Eq. (17.76) the above
condition becomes
r2
m
2
m
2n = s
dr Js + s
dr Js +
dr A . (17.106)
qs ns r1
qs ns C
s C
Consider the case where the curve is chosen such that the supercurrent density
Js vanishes everywhere on the curve C (i.e. inside the superconductor the
distance between any point on C and the nearest surface is much larger than
the London penetration depth L ). For this case Eq. (17.106) becomes
2n = +
2
,
s
(17.107)
where
=
ms
qs ns
r2
r1
dr Js =
r2
r1
dr GI
(17.108)
is the gauge invariant phase difference across the junction [see Eqs. (17.88)
and (17.90)] and where
@
= dr A
(17.109)
C
Eyal Buks
496
17.3. RF SQUID
is the magnetic flux threaded through the area enclosed by the closed path
C [see Eq. (17.78)].
The junctions critical current is labeled by Ic . It is assumed that the
junction has capacitance, which is denoted by CJ . Consider the case where a
magnetic flux that is denoted by e is externally applied by a magnetic field,
which is applied perpendicularly to the plane of the loop. The total magnetic
flux threading the loop is given by
= e + Is ,
(17.110)
where Is is the circulating current flowing in the loop and is the self inductance of the loop.
17.3.1 Lagrangian
The Lagrangian of the system [see Eq. (1.16)] can be expressed as a function
of the dimensionless flux coordinate , which is defined by
=
2
,
s
(17.111)
497
V = ,
c
(17.112)
and therefore the kinetic energy of the system T is the capacitance energy
T =
2
CJ
CJ 2s 2
=
.
2c2
82 c2
(17.113)
The potential energy U has two contributions, the inductive energy (in
Gaussian units)
Is2
( e )2
2 ( e )2
=
= s
,
2c
2c
8 2 c
(17.114)
where
2e
s
e =
(17.115)
is the normalized external flux, and the Josephson energy UJ [see Eqs.
(17.100) and (17.107)]
UJ =
s Ic
cos .
2c
(17.116)
CJ 2s 2 2s ( e )2 s Ic
+
cos ,
82 c2
8 2 c
2c
or in a dimensionless form by
!
"
2
L = E0
u (; e ) ,
LJ 2p
(17.117)
(17.118)
2s
,
82 c
(17.119)
(17.120)
(17.121)
498
17.3. RF SQUID
and the dimensionless parameter L is given by
L =
2Ic
.
s
(17.122)
thus
+ e + L sin = 0 .
LJ 2p
(17.124)
With the help of Eqs. (17.107), (17.110) and (17.112) the equation of motion
can be rewritten as
Is = Ic sin + CJ V .
(17.125)
The above equation states that the circulating current Is equals the sum of
the current Ic sin through the Josephson junction and the current CJ V
through the capacitor.
17.3.2 Flux Quantum Bit
Consider the case where the externally applied flux e is chosen to be close
to a half integer value in units of the superconducting flux quantum s . To
study this case the normalized externally applied flux e (17.115) is taken to
be given by
e = + e,r ,
(17.126)
(17.127)
(17.128)
2
Is .
s
Eyal Buks
(17.129)
499
Fig. 17.2. The LC resonator that is coupled to the RF SQUID allows readout.
Moreover, when e,r = 0 one finds to second order in r that the potential u
is given by
u = 2 L + (1 L ) 2r + O 4r .
(17.130)
Readout of the state of an RF SQUID can be performed by inductively coupling the superconducting loop to an LC resonator (see Fig. 17.2), which is
made of an inductor and a capacitor in parallel having inductance L and
capacitance C respectively. The mutual inductance between the RF SQUID
and the resonator is denoted by M . Detection is performed by injecting a
monochromatic input current Iin into the LC resonator at a frequency close
to the resonance frequency and measuring the output voltage Vout (see Fig.
17.2).
The total magnetic flux threading the SQUID loop is given by [compare
with Eq. (17.110)]
= e + i ,
Eyal Buks
(17.131)
Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes
500
17.3. RF SQUID
where the term i represents the flux generated by both, the circulating
current in the RF SQUID Is and by the current in the inductor of the LC
resonator IL
i = Is + M IL ,
(17.132)
where is the self inductance of the loop. Similarly, the magnetic flux in
the inductor of the LC resonator is given by
= IL L + MIs .
Eqs. (17.132) and (17.133) can be rewritten in a matrix form
i
M
Is
.
=
M L
IL
(17.133)
(17.134)
Inverting the above relation allows expressing the currents Is and IL in terms
of i = e and
i
M
,
(1 K 2 ) L (1 K 2 )
Mi
IL =
,
2
L (1 K ) L (1 K 2 )
Is =
(17.135)
(17.136)
(17.137)
CJ 2s 2 C 2
+ 2 .
8 2 c2
2c
(17.138)
The inductive energy UI stored in the RF SQUID loop and the lumped inductor L is calculated using Eqs. (17.135) and (17.136)
Eyal Buks
501
=
M
1
L
2c (1 K 2 ) i
L
UI =
2i
2 M
i
L
+ L
2c (1 K 2 )
2
M
2
i
L
+
=
2cL 2c (1 K 2 )
2
2
2M
2 2
e
s
s L
C e
=
+
,
2
2c
8 c (1 K 2 )
(17.139)
where
1
e =
LC
(17.140)
Iin s Ic
cos ,
c
2c
(17.141)
where the term Iin /c is the potential energy of the current source and
(s Ic /2c) cos is the Josephson energy [see Eq. (17.116)].
With the help of the above relations one finds that the Lagrangian of the
system L = T U can be expressed as
L = L0 + L1 ,
(17.142)
C 2 C2e 2 Iin
+
,
2c2
2c
c
(17.143)
is the Lagrangian of the driven LC resonator. The Lagrangian of the superconducting loop L1 is given by [see Eqs. (17.119), (17.120) and (17.122)]
2
2
2M
2 2
e
s
s L
CJ s
Ic
L1 =
+ s cos
82 c2
8 2 c (1 K 2 )
2c
!
"
2
= E0
uK (; e,eff ) ,
LJ 2p
(17.144)
Eyal Buks
502
17.3. RF SQUID
where the dimensionless potential uK (; e,eff ) is given by [compare with Eq.
(17.121)]
2
uK (; e,eff ) =
( e,eff )
2 L cos ,
1 K2
(17.145)
2M
.
s L
(17.146)
Note that L1 depends on the effective external flux e,eff , which, in turn,
depends on the coordinate of the LC resonator [see Eq. (17.146)]. This
dependence gives rise to the coupling between the LC resonator and the RF
SQUID.
The Euler  Lagrange equations (1.8) are given by
d L
L
=
,
(17.147)
dt
d L
L
=
,
(17.148)
dt
thus
CJ s
=
2c
s (e )
2
M
L
Ic sin ,
(1 K 2 )
(17.149)
and
( )
e
s
M
C
2
=
+ Iin .
c
L (1 K 2 )
(17.150)
With the help of Eqs. (17.135) and (17.136) the equations of motion can be
rewritten as
Is = Ic sin
CJ
,
c
(17.151)
and
Iin =
+ IL .
c
(17.152)
While Eq. (17.151) expresses the law of current conservation in the SQUID
loop, Eq. (17.152) expresses the same law in the LC resonator.
Eyal Buks
503
Q=
(17.153)
(17.154)
(17.155)
where
H0 =
c2 q 2 C 2e 2 Iin
+
,
2C
2c
c
(17.156)
LJ 2p Q2
+ E0 uK (; e,eff ) .
4E0
(17.157)
and where
H1 =
Quantization is achieved by regarding the variables {, Q, , q} as Hermitian operators satisfying the following commutation relations [see Eqs.
(3.6), (3.7) and (3.8)]
[, Q] = [, q] = i ,
(17.158)
[, ] = [, Q] = [q, ] = [q, Q] = 0 .
(17.159)
and
(17.160)
(17.161)
504
17.3. RF SQUID
J
n
d2 n
+ uK (; e,eff ) n =
,
d2
E0 n
(17.162)
where
LJ
J =
p
2E0
2
(17.163)
The state of the entire system (t) at time t is expanded at any point
using the local basis {n ()} [see Eq. (13.71)]
(t) =
n (, t) n () .
(17.164)
n
In the adiabatic approximation the time evolution of the coefficients n is governed by the following set of decoupled equations of motion [see Eq. (13.83)]
[H0 + n ()] n = i n .
(17.165)
Note that in the present case the geometrical vector potential [given by Eq.
(13.76) for the case m = m] vanishes since the wavefunctions n (, ) can
be chosen to be real [see Eq. (13.84)].
Two level approximation. Consider again the case where the externally
applied flux e is chosen to be close to a half integer value in units of the
superconducting flux quantum s . The potential uK (17.145) can be expressed
as
uK =
(r e,eff,r )2
+ 2 L cos r ,
1 K2
(17.166)
where e,eff,r and r are defined by [see Eqs. (17.126) and (17.127)]
2M
= + e,eff,r ,
s L
= + r .
e,eff = e +
(17.167)
(17.168)
In what follows we focus on the case where e,eff,r  1 and L 1 K 2 >
1. In this case the potential uK given by Eq. (17.166) contains two wells separated by a barrier near r = 0 (see Fig. 17.3). As was discussed above, at low
temperatures only the two lowest energy levels are expected to contribute. In
this limit the Hamiltonian H1 can be expressed in the basis of the states 
and , representing localized states in the left and right well respectively
having opposite circulating currents. In this basis, H1 is represented by the
2 2 matrix
e,eff,r
.
(17.169)
H1 =
e,eff,r
Eyal Buks
505
tan =
2c
=
,
e,eff,r
s Icc e,eff,r
H1 can be rewritten as
:
2
s Icc e,eff,r
cos sin
+ 2
.
H1 =
sin cos
2c
(17.171)
(17.172)
(17.173)
;

=
,
sin 2
cos 2
(17.174)
and where
:
2
s Icc e,eff,r
=
+ 2
2c
2
1 s Icc e,eff,r
= 1 +
+ O 4e,eff,r .
2
2c
(17.175)
Exercise 17.3.1. Show that the expectation value of the circulating current
Is when the qubit is in state n is given by
n Is n = c
n
.
e
(17.176)
Solution 17.3.1. With the help of Eqs. (17.110), (17.132), (17.135), (17.145)
and (17.157) one finds that
c
H1
= Is ,
e
(17.177)
thus
n Is n = c n
Eyal Buks
H1
n
n = c
.
e
e
(17.178)
506
17.3. RF SQUID
Fig. 17.3. Eigenstates of H1 . (a)(c) The first 3 lowest energy states for the case
e,eff,r = 0. (d) The energy of the two lowest states vs. e,eff,r .
Eyal Buks
507
 Is  = Icc 0
1+
s Icc e,eff,r
2c
2 .
(17.179)
In the limit where s Icc e,eff,r  /2c (i.e. when e,eff is far from the
point e,eff = ) the eigenvectors of H1 become the states  and  [see
Eqs. (17.171) and (17.174)]. Thus, in view of the above result (17.179), it is
evident the the constant Icc represents the absolute value of the circulating
current associated with the states  and .
In the adiabatic approximation the dynamics of the LC resonator is governed by the Hamiltonian H , which is given by
H = H0 + () ,
(17.180)
when the qubit is the state  [see Eq. (17.165)]. With the help of Eqs.
(17.156), (17.167) and (17.175) one finds that
H =
c2 q 2
Iin
+ U ()
,
2C
c
(17.181)
where
C 2e 2
U () =
2c
:
s Icc e,eff,r
2c
2
+ 2 ,
(17.182)
and where
e,eff,r = e +
2M
.
s L
(17.183)
For simplicity, consider the case where e = . For that case one finds to
second order in M that [see Eqs. (17.140) and (17.175)]
U () =
where
= e
C 2 2
+ O M4 ,
2c
2
M M Icc
.
L c
(17.184)
(17.185)
Thus the effective angular resonance frequency of the LC resonator depends on the state being occupied by the qubit. This dependence allows
reading out the qubit state by measuring the resonance frequency of the LC
resonator.
Eyal Buks
508
3/2
(2)
V
(17.187)
and Eqs. (4.47) and (16.127) one finds that [see Eq. (16.128) for comparison
with the analogous secondquantization expression]
4e2
1
(17.188)
V =
d3 q 2 (q) (q) .
2V
q
The effect of induced charges in the medium (i.e. screening) can be taken
into account by dividing by the dielectric constant of the medium [see Eq.
(17.43)]
1
4e2
V =
d3 q 2 (q) (q) .
(17.189)
2V
q
Ionic Dielectric Constant. The expression for the electronic dielectric constant e () given by Eq. (17.49) is evaluated by calculating the induced electron charge density e due to external charge density ext . Below, however,
we focus on the induced ion charge density i associated with lattice vibrations and the resultant ionic dielectric constant i . To account for the effect of
lattice vibrations on elect
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