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# Formulating Compressed Sensing

Applications
Conclusions

## Image reconstruction using Compressed

Sensing
Anna Scaife
Yves Wiaux, Laurent Jacques, Gilles Puy & Pierre Vandergheynst

CALIM09 31/03/09

Anna Scaife

Applications
Conclusions

Outline

Applications

Conclusions

Anna Scaife

## Formulating Compressed Sensing

Applications
Conclusions

Deconvolution
CLEAN
Local iterative deconvolution
Matching Pursuit
Implicitly implies sparsity
MEM
Global minimization problem
Assumes an entropic prior
Both methods are flexible enough to consider a variety of bases
(Dirac, wavelet etc)

Anna Scaife

Applications
Conclusions

Sparsity

## The main premise of CS is that although our signal is not

necessarily sparse in real space or Fourier space, it is
sparse or compressible in some basis.
If we consider a real signal x = {xi }1iN
and define a real basis = {i }1iN;1T
Then we can say that the decomposition = { }1T .
x =
...is spare or compressible if it contains only K << N
non-zero or significant co-efficients.

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Applications
Conclusions

## If we then probe the signal using m real linear

measurements (visibilities) y = {yr }1r m in some sensing
basis = {ri }1r m;1iN
and these measurements are possibly affected by some
independent and identically distributed noise:
n = {nr }1r m , so that:
y = + n, where = RmT

Anna Scaife

## Formulating Compressed Sensing

Applications
Conclusions

Restricted Isometry

P

Q
p
l=1 |ul |

1/p

## By definition the matrix satisfies a RIP of order K if there

exists a constant K < 1 such that
The RIP
(1 K )||K ||22 || K ||22 (1 + K )||K ||22

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Applications
Conclusions

## Satisfying the RIP

The incoherence of the sensing matrix with the sparsity
basis will satisfy the RIP if the number of measurements
(m) is large enough relative to the sparsity K .
For radio interferometry the RIP is satisfied if
K

Cm
.
2 ln4 N

## is the mutual coherence of the elements of the Fourier

basis and the elements of the sparsity basis:
=

Anna Scaife

## Formulating Compressed Sensing

Applications
Conclusions

Basis Pursuit
the `1 norm of the vector is simply the sum of the
absolute values of the vector
PT components:
||||1 = =1 | |.

Laplacian Prior

## The Optimization Problem

min ||0 ||1 s.t. ||y 0 ||2 
Anna Scaife

## Formulating Compressed Sensing

Applications
Conclusions

Recovery
If the solution of the BP is then the corresponding recovered
signal is
x = .
Solutions
CS shows
that if satisfies a RIP of order 2K with
2K < 2 1 then the solution x provides an accurate
reconstruction.
It can be said to be optimal in the sense that exactly sparse
signals in the absense of noise are recovered exactly.
In the presence of noise very strong stability results are
obtained.

Anna Scaife

## Formulating Compressed Sensing

Applications
Conclusions

Interferometer Data

## We consider 5 different sets of coverage in uv with different

% coverage of the Fourier plane
Two examples:
1
2

## a field filled with multi-variate compact sources

a CMB cosmic string signal simulation
0

SNR(s,s ) = 20 log10

(ss
(s)

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0)

## Formulating Compressed Sensing

Applications
Conclusions

Cosmic Strings
Topological defects in the CMB.
CDM cosmology.
String signal is well modelled by GGDs in wavelet space
GGDs
 h i 
v
j
j ( ) exp u
j
s-norm
() exp
s
P ||||
vj
|
||||s | u
j

Anna Scaife

Applications
Conclusions

## The three methods

BP
min ||0 ||1 s.t. ||y 0 ||2 
BP+
ri x 0 and x 0 0.
min ||x 0 ||1 s.t. y =
SBP
min ||0 ||s s.t. ||y Wcmb ri s 0 ||2 

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Applications
Conclusions

Compact Sources

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Applications
Conclusions

Cosmic Strings

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Applications
Conclusions

SNR

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Applications
Conclusions

Conclusions

## A new framework for image reconstruction in interferometry

Simple BP provides the same image fidelity as CLEAN
BP is more rapid than CLEAN in terms of no. iterations and
computation time
Prior statistical knowledge of the signal can greatly
improve the reconstruction

Anna Scaife