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Submitted to: Dr. Minakshi Jain ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Hill Architecture

Submitted to:

Dr. Minakshi Jain

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Hill Architecture

Submitted to: Dr. Minakshi Jain ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Hill Architecture

``

 

CONTENTS

Introduction

1. Location

2. Physical Divisions

3. Climate

4. Natural Resources

5. Rivers

6. Flora

7. Fauna

8. Demographics & Socio-economic Profile

9. Area & Administrative Division

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Architecture

10. Stupa

11. Temple Architecture

12. House Architecture

`` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Architecture 10. Stupa 11. Temple Architecture 12. House Architecture Monday, March 23,

Monday, March 23, 2015

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`` INTRODUCTION ``
``
INTRODUCTION
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Monday, March 23, 2015

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1.LOCATION

Lies between two great eastern civilization:

- India - west, south and east

- China & Tibet in the north

Geographically : Nepal’s ecological zones run

east to west about 800 km along its

Himalayan axis, 150 to 250 km north to

south, and is vertically intersected by the

river systems.

- 26° 22‘N 30° 27' N latitude and

- 80° 4' E 88° 12' E longitude

Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal

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Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/

Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/ INDIA http://mapsofindia.com CHINA Monday, March 23, 2015

INDIA

http://mapsofindia.com

CHINA

Monday, March 23, 2015

INDIA

CHINA

4

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2.PHYSICAL DIVISIONS

Based on the similarity of landform and terrain, Nepal can be divided into 5 distinct physiographic zones :-

Kathmandu
Kathmandu

Terai Region (60 – 300 m)be divided into 5 distinct physiographic zones :- Kathmandu 1. Siwalik Hills (300 – 1500 m)

1.

Siwalik Hills (300 – 1500 m)zones :- Kathmandu Terai Region (60 – 300 m) 1. 2. Mahabharata Range (1500 – 2700

2.

Mahabharata Range (1500 – 2700 m)Region (60 – 300 m) 1. Siwalik Hills (300 – 1500 m) 2. 3. Lesser Himalayas

3.

Lesser Himalayas (2700 – 4500 m)(300 – 1500 m) 2. Mahabharata Range (1500 – 2700 m) 3. 4. Greater Himalayas (above

4.

Greater Himalayas (above 6000 m)(1500 – 2700 m) 3. Lesser Himalayas (2700 – 4500 m) 4. 5. ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

5.

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Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/

Monday, March 23, 2015

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2.1 : Terai Region (60 – 300m)

`` `` 2.1 : Terai Region (60 – 300m) • These are alluvial plains lying in

These are alluvial plains lying in the range

Jhapa district (60 m)

Kathmandu
Kathmandu

of 60-300 m.

Terai covers 14% of the country area which is around

58,872 sqkm.

Sub-tropical climate(hot summer & mild winters)

This is the fertile region of Nepal and lowest point in this

region is jhapa district with altitude of 60 m.

Considered as grain basket of Nepal.

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2.2 : Siwalik Hills (300 – 1500m)

`` 2.2 : Siwalik Hills (300 – 1500m) • These are foothills regions immediately north to

These are foothills regions immediately north to Terai region reaching up to 1500 m and stretching from East to West.

This region covers about 13% of the country area which

is around 19,133 sqkm.

Sub-tropical climate.

It is the groundwater recharge zone for Terai.

``

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IN NEPAL Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/ Kathmandu Monday, March 23, 2015 7

Kathmandu

IN NEPAL Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/ Kathmandu Monday, March 23, 2015 7

Monday, March 23, 2015

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2.3 : Mahabharta Range (1500 – 2700m)

`` 2.3 : Mahabharta Range (1500 – 2700m) • Moderate elevation range of 1500-2700 m. •

Moderate elevation range of 1500-2700 m.

Covers 29% of the country area which

is around 42,682 sqkm.

There are steep slopes and narrow valleys toward North.

Sub-tropical climate at bottom of hills but gradually gets cooler towards higher elevation.

Some higher elevation experiences occasional snowfall during winter season

``

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Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/

http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/ Kathmandu Chitwan valley Sindhuli valley Monday, March 23,

Kathmandu

Chitwan valley

Kathmandu Chitwan valley Sindhuli valley Monday, March 23, 2015 8

Sindhuli valley

Monday, March 23, 2015

8

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2.4. Lesser Himalayas (2700 – 4500m)

`` 2.4. Lesser Himalayas (2700 – 4500m) • The elevation range from 2000 to 4500 m.

The elevation range from 2000 to 4500 m.

Covers 20% of the country area which is around

29,436 sqkm .

There are steep slopes and narrow valleys.

The climate is cold temperate.

Snowfall often covers the mountain tops during winter.

``

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Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/

http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/ K a t h m a n d u Langtang National park Makalu

Kathmandu

Langtang National park

Makalu Barun National park
Makalu Barun
National park

Monday, March 23, 2015

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`` `` 2.5 : Greater Himalayas (above 6000m) Dhaulagiri Annapurna • The elevation in this region

2.5 : Greater Himalayas (above 6000m)

Dhaulagiri

Annapurna

2.5 : Greater Himalayas (above 6000m) Dhaulagiri Annapurna • The elevation in this region is above

The elevation in this region is above 6000 m.

Manasalu

Cho Oyu Mt. Everest Lhotse Makalu Kathmandu Kanchenjunga
Cho Oyu
Mt. Everest
Lhotse
Makalu
Kathmandu
Kanchenjunga

This region has highest point in the earth

at 8848m(Mt. Everest).

Covers 24% of country area which is around 35,323 sqkm.

There are steep slopes and narrow valleys.

The climate is alpine to tundra.

Most of the parts are under snow or glaciers through- -out the year .

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Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/

Monday, March 23, 2015

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Dhaulagiri Greater Himalayas (above 6000m) Annapurna • Eight of 14 eight-thousanders of world lie in
Dhaulagiri
Greater Himalayas (above 6000m)
Annapurna
Eight of 14 eight-thousanders of world lie in this region.
Manasalu
Cho Oyu
Mt. Everest
Lhotse
Makalu
Kathmandu
Kanchenjunga

``

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Source :- http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/physiography/

Monday, March 23, 2015

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3. CLIMATE

Nepal experiences different types of precipitation pattern across the country.

Average precipitation of Nepal is 1530 mm .

Huge variation from the south to north as well as east to west.

There are two patterns of monsoon seasons

I. Easterlies (appearing in summer)

II. Westerlies (appearing in winter )

The winter is the driest period in Nepal.

``

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Source : http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/

IN NEPAL Source : http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Kathmandu Monday, March 23, 2015 1 2

Kathmandu

IN NEPAL Source : http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Kathmandu Monday, March 23, 2015 1 2
IN NEPAL Source : http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Kathmandu Monday, March 23, 2015 1 2

Monday, March 23, 2015

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4. NATURAL RESOURCES

Rivers of Nepal

Nepal is divided into 3 major river systems:-

1. The Koshi River

2. The Naryani River(India’s Gandhak River)

3. The Karnali River

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River 2. The Naryani River(India’s Gandhak River) 3. The Karnali River ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday, March

Monday, March 23, 2015

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4.1 : The Koshi River

The Koshi or Kosi River drains the northern

slopes of the Himalayas in the Tibet and

the southern slopes in Nepal.

It flows through Bagmati, Janakpur and Koshi

states of Nepal .

The Koshi is 720 km long and drains area

of Tibet, Nepal and Bihar.

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Bagmati

Tibet

Janakpur

Monday, March 23, 2015

Koshi

14

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4.2 : The Narayani River

It originates from Kali and Gandaki rivers of

Nepal.

It is also called Krishna Gandaki in Nepal.

It is known as the Narayani in southern Nepal.

Kali river flows through Dhawalagiri, Rapti and

merge with Gandaki at Lumbini state to form

the Narayani river.

The Narayani is 630 km long.

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Rapti

Dhawalagiri

Lumbini

Gandaki

Monday, March 23, 2015

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4.3 : The Karnali River

Karnali originates on the Tibetan Plateau

near Lake Mansarovar.

It is also called Ghaghara.

It cuts through the Himalayas in Karnali and border of Seri and Bheri states of Nepal, and joins the Sarda River at Brahmaghat in India.

The Karnali is 1080 km long.

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Tibet

Seri

Karnali

Bheri

Monday, March 23, 2015

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5. FOREST COVER

25.4% of Nepal's land area

is covered with forest which

is around 37,383 sq. km.

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land area is covered with forest which is around 37,383 sq. km. ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday,

Monday, March 23, 2015

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6. FLORA AND FAUNA

The flora and fauna of Nepal can be divided into four regions :-

• Tropical Zone (up to 1000 m)

• Subtropical Zone (1100-2400 m)

• Temperate Zone (2500-4000 m)

• Sub alpine and Alpine Zone (more than 4000 m)

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6.1 : Tropical Zone (up to 1000 m)

This region includes the Terai (lowland) and the large valleys or

Duns found between successive hill ranges. The main tree

species of this area are Sal, Semal, Asna. Two-meter high

elephant grass originally covered much of the Dun valleys but

now it has been largely replaced by agricultural settlements.

This tropical zone is the richest area of Nepal for wildlife such

as gaurs, buffaloes, leopards, rhinoceros and swamp deer.

``

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: http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Sal forest Swamp deer G a u r Rhino Monday, March 23,

Sal forest

http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Sal forest Swamp deer G a u r Rhino Monday, March 23, 2015 1 9

Swamp deer

http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Sal forest Swamp deer G a u r Rhino Monday, March 23, 2015 1 9

Gaur

http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Sal forest Swamp deer G a u r Rhino Monday, March 23, 2015 1 9

Rhino

Monday, March 23, 2015

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6.2 : Subtropical Zone (1100-2400 m)

The trees found in this region are Acer oblongum, various

species of oak and rhododendron which cover the higher

slopes.

This zone is generally poor in wildlife. The only mammals,

which are at all widely distributed, are wild boar, barking deer,

Goral and bears.

``

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: http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Acer oblongum Swamp deer Bear Garol Monday, March 23, 2015 2

Acer oblongum

: http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Acer oblongum Swamp deer Bear Garol Monday, March 23, 2015 2 0

Swamp deer

: http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Acer oblongum Swamp deer Bear Garol Monday, March 23, 2015 2 0

Bear

: http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Acer oblongum Swamp deer Bear Garol Monday, March 23, 2015 2 0

Garol

Monday, March 23, 2015

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6.3 : Sub alpine and Alpine Zone (more than 4000 m)

Above the tree line, rhododendron, juniper scrub and other

woody vegetation may extend to about 4200m and up to the

lower limit of perpetual snow and ice at about 5100m.

The wildlife of this region includes the Himalayan marmots,

mouse hare, thar, musk deer, snow leopard and occasionally

``

blue sheep.

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: http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/ Rhododendron M a r m o t s Himalayan Thar Snow Leopard

Rhododendron

Rhododendron M a r m o t s Himalayan Thar Snow Leopard Monday,

Marmots

Rhododendron M a r m o t s Himalayan Thar Snow Leopard Monday, March 23, 2015

Himalayan Thar

Rhododendron M a r m o t s Himalayan Thar Snow Leopard Monday, March 23, 2015

Snow Leopard

Monday, March 23, 2015

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7. ECOLOGICAL ZONES

Nepal has various ecological zones in the form of National park.

Khaptad National Park

Rara National Park

Royal Bardia National Park

Shey Phoksundo National Park

Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve

Langtang National Park

Sagamatha National Park

Makalu Barun National Park

Royal Chitwan National Park

Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve

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Park • Royal Chitwan National Park • Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday, March

Monday, March 23, 2015

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8. DEMOGRAPHY

As per census 2011.

Total Area - 1,47,181 sq. km States – 14 Population – 26.6 million Sex Ratio – 1000 : 941 Population Density – 180 person/sqkm Literacy Rate – 65.9%

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ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Source – Nepal Demographic and health survey 2011

Rate – 65.9% `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Source – Nepal Demographic and health survey 2011 Monday,

Monday, March 23, 2015

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Political map of Nepal

There are 14 states in Nepal :-

 

Mahakali

Seti

Bheri

Karnali

Dhawalagiri

Lumbini

Gundaki

Narayani

Bagmati

Janakpur

Sagarmatha

Kosi

Mechi

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• Sagarmatha • Kosi • Mechi `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Kathmandu Monday, March 23, 2015 2

Kathmandu

• Sagarmatha • Kosi • Mechi `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Kathmandu Monday, March 23, 2015 2

Monday, March 23, 2015

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9. AREAS AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS :-

Nepal is mainly divided into five regions :

Eastern Region

Central Region

Western Region

Mid Western Region

Far Western Region

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Source – Nepal Demographic and health survey 2011

Region `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Source – Nepal Demographic and health survey 2011 Kathmandu Monday, March

Kathmandu

Region `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Source – Nepal Demographic and health survey 2011 Kathmandu Monday, March

Monday, March 23, 2015

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``

ARCHITECTURE

Stupa / Chorten

Temple Architecture

House Architecture

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Monday, March 23, 2015

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11. STUPAS / CHORTEN (oldest monuments)

I. SWAYAMBHUNATH STUPA, Katmandu

It is an ancient monument on a hill.

Stands on a low narrow plinth (base or podium)

a hill. • Stands on a low narrow plinth (base or podium) SWAYAMBHUNATH STUPA, Katmandu ARCHITECTURE

SWAYAMBHUNATH STUPA, Katmandu

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Monday, March 23, 2015

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`` • Swayambhunath Stupa Located on a hill. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
``
Swayambhunath Stupa Located on a hill.
``
ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Monday, March 23, 2015

http://www.sacredsites.com/asia/nepal/swayambhunath_stupa.html

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Revered by Buddhist as well as Nepalese Hindus.

Gaya - jatri - festival to worship the holy cows.

Conical spire in 13 diminishing tiers symbolizing the 13 Buddhist heaven with umbrella apex.

Square base which has a large pair of human eyes – symbolizes the “All Seeing One.

Stairway to Swayambhunath temple

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ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Stairway to Swayambhunath temple `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday, March 23, 2015 2 9

Monday, March 23, 2015

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http://www.sacredsites.com/asia/nepal/swayambhunath_stupa.html

`` 12. TEMPLES: Types of Temple : I. Pagoda Style(Chinese Influence) II. Shikhara Style(Indian Influence)
``
12. TEMPLES:
Types of Temple :
I. Pagoda Style(Chinese Influence)
II. Shikhara Style(Indian Influence)
Pagoda Style
``
ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
II. Shikhara Style(Indian Influence) Pagoda Style `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Shikhara Style Monday, March 23, 2015

Shikhara Style

Monday, March 23, 2015

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I. PAGODA STYLE (CHINESE INFLUENCE)

Pasupati Nath Temple :-

Original pagoda styled temple before

century.

6 th

One of the most famous places of Hindu pilgrimage in the world.

Dedicated to Lord Shiva the guardian deity of Nepal.

Temples and shrines with golden gilt roof and large

richly carved silver gates.

All the dying's are brought for cremation.

``

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are brought for cremation. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Pasupati Nath Temple (Kathmandu) Monday, March 23, 2015

Pasupati Nath Temple (Kathmandu)

Monday, March 23, 2015

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``

Nyatapoloa Temple

Nyatapola Temple is a 5-story pagoda located in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

Mark of Nepalese temple designed in 1700 AD.

Shows significant innovations

1. increase of roof storey's and plinth steps on the one hand

2. Introduction of an open gallery surrounding the shrine cella on the other

Integrated various styles of near-contemporary monuments.

This beautifully sculptured building is considered one of the tallest pagodas in the country.

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

building is considered one of the tallest pagodas in the country. ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday, March

Monday, March 23, 2015

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`` `` VIEW ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
``
``
VIEW
ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
`` `` VIEW ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL PLAN Monday, March 23, 2015 3 3

PLAN

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`` ELEVATION `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
``
ELEVATION
``
ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
`` ELEVATION `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL SECTION Monday, March 23, 2015 3 4

SECTION

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II.

SHIKHARA STYLE (INDIAN INFLUENCE)

 

Krishna Temple, Patan

 
 

Typical sikhara spire with clusters of small pavilions on each side of the 3 arcaded storey.

Carved

stone

frieze depicting romantic

Krishna legend.

21 golden pinnacles.

 

The

first

floor

holds

the

main

shrine

of

Krishna.

 

The second floor is dedicated to Shiva and the third to Lokeshwor (Lord Buddha)

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ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

 
to Shiva and the third to Lokeshwor (Lord Buddha) `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL   Monday, March

Monday, March 23, 2015

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13. HOUSES:

Chronological division of houses

a. Malla period (1200 - 1769)

b. Shah period (1769 - 1846)

c. Rana period (1846 - 1951)

d. Modern period (1951 onwards)

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Monday, March 23, 2015

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``

 

a.

Malla period (1200 - 1769)

 

This is the most valuable period of the traditional architecture of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

A central wall normally divides the ground floor into two narrow rooms, of which the front room is usually a shop front or workshop.

The first floor is used mainly for bedrooms.

To keep the privacy from the outside, this floor usually has only fixed lattice windows.

The most important communication to the street other than the ground floor door on the front façade is decorative bay window on the second floor.

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

window on the second floor. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Section of typical Newari House Monday, March

Section of typical Newari House

Monday, March 23, 2015

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``

``

`` `` • It has window bench and its latticed window shutter is openable. • This

It has window bench and its latticed window shutter is openable.

This floor is the main living and family room. A row of twin columns takes the place of the central wall to create a larger space in the house.

Third (attic) floor is used as kitchen, dining and shrine area.

It makes sense to have kitchen on the top floor when people use firewood for cooking, so smoke doesn't go through the whole building.

Same as on the second floor a row of columns is found in the center to hold the ridge of the building.

Section of typical Newari House

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Monday, March 23, 2015

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``

 

b. Shah period (1769 - 1846)

Most of the houses were still built in Malla Period style, but

enlarging in proportion.

There was the influence of Mughal architecture, which may

have introduced stucco plaster.

c. Rana period (1846 - 1951)

Most of the outside influence arrived in the valley in this period.

The trend towards lighter, larger and simple windows was

introduced.

The facade took on a vertical appearance.

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

introduced. • The facade took on a vertical appearance. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday, March 23,
introduced. • The facade took on a vertical appearance. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday, March 23,

Monday, March 23, 2015

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d. Modern period (1951 onwards)

Today's houses are built to maximize the use of the land they own.

The shape of the houses are not really comfortable and living spaces are limited.

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

are not really comfortable and living spaces are limited. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Monday, March 23,

Monday, March 23, 2015

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14. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

The construction technique of the traditional Newar house is same as that of the early Greek's and Egypt's - the trabeated system (lintel and post).

Wooden posts, beams and struts used in the houses.

A dressed natural Stone called Lohan or a wooden threshold ( lakanshin) supports the wooden post (than) and wooden bracket ( meth) which supports the load from the lintel ( nina ) and beams ( dalin ) on the post.

Lintels over openings are of timber and often in three parts, stepping upwards towards the inside.

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Source : http://vaastukala.blogspot.com/2008/08/traditional-newar-houses-of-nepal.html

Monday, March 23, 2015

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14.1 ROOFS

The roof is double- pitched with the ridge on the line of the central spine wall, and a projecting overhang of about 850 mm at front and back.

Protect brick walls in mud mortar from the rain and sun:

Overhang :

Dwelling - 1000mm Vihara - 1500mm Temples-up to 4000 mm

ROOF- CONSTRUCTION:

Design and detail of roof construction same in all buildings:

Pitched Roof

Purlin Construction

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Source : http://vaastukala.blogspot.com/2008/08/traditional-newar-houses-of-nepal.html

Monday, March 23, 2015

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14.2 ROOF - CONSTRUCTION

With rafters ( musins ) of the topmost roof of temple meeting at a point on central post ( than) Ridge piece ( dhuri ) rests on lower sleeper walls that are an extension of the lower wall structure Roof plate (nas) rests on either on an eave structure or slanting struts ( Tundals) Wooden nails ( chukus) keep the various components in place. Rafters and floor beams are spaced at intervals of 100-150mm depending on beam section Roofs are covered with special clay tiles (jhingati) Horizontal wooden planks placed over rafters - above which is laid clay is spread in 40-100 mm thick layer - into which jhingati, with overlap of 2/3rd , is pressed.

``

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Source : http://vaastukala.blogspot.com/2008/08/traditional-newar-houses-of-nepal.html

Biswa Nath, Patan,construction system of a deg a temple

Biswa Nath, Patan,construction system of a deg a temple

Monday, March 23, 2015

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`` ROOF AND PILLAR CONSTRUCTION Maju Dega Peristyle,Kathmandu `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
``
ROOF AND PILLAR CONSTRUCTION
Maju Dega Peristyle,Kathmandu
``
ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
Maju Dega Peristyle,Kathmandu `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Maju Dega ,Kathmandu, construction system of a corner

Maju Dega,Kathmandu, construction system of a corner pillar supporting the peristyle

Monday, March 23, 2015

44

Source : Traditional Materials and Construction Technologies used in the Kathmandu Valley, By Caterina Bonapace and Valerio Sestini

``

``

14.3. FRAME AND WALL CONSTRUCTION

`` `` 14.3. FRAME AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Wood structure of the Kasthamandapa first roof ARCHITECTURE IN

Wood structure of the Kasthamandapa first roof

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

of the Kasthamandapa first roof ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL Details of the frame and supporting wall

Details of the frame and supporting wall

IN NEPAL Details of the frame and supporting wall Kasthamandapa,ground floor plan and section, Kathmandu

Kasthamandapa,ground floor plan and section, Kathmandu

Monday, March 23, 2015

45

Source : Traditional Materials and Construction Technologies used in the Kathmandu Valley, By Caterina Bonapace and Valerio Sestini

``

FRAME AND WALL CONSTRUCTION

`` FRAME AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Wall system of multi-tiered temples of Nepal. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
`` FRAME AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Wall system of multi-tiered temples of Nepal. `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Wall system of multi-tiered temples of Nepal.

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ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Monday, March 23, 2015

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014102960300202

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Source : Traditional Materials and Construction Technologies used in the Kathmandu Valley, By Caterina Bonapace and Valerio Sestini

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`` NEWAR HOUSE CONSTRUCTION Axonometric section of a Newar house `` ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL
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NEWAR HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
Axonometric section of a Newar house
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ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Overhanging eaves typical of traditional Newar buildings

Monday, March 23, 2015

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Source : Traditional Materials and Construction Technologies used in the Kathmandu Valley, By Caterina Bonapace and Valerio Sestini

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CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

1.

Wood :

Mainly used as columns ,beams, rafters and for construction of doors, windows, stairs.

Species of local trees were used.

Hard Wood : for structural members (sal wood)

Soft Wood : non structural members (pine wood)

2.

Metals :

Copper, iron, brass, bronze were commonly used.

Extremely expensive building material, it was used on religious and door facings, lattice- works, door latches.

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ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Source : http://vaastukala.blogspot.com/2008/08/traditional-newar-houses-of-nepal.html

Monday, March 23, 2015

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3. Natural Stone :

Sedimentary rocks or metamorphic stone gathered from the quarries situated on the north and south sides of mountain slopes.

4.

Bricks And Tiles :

Mud bricks were used for construction of walls.

Clay tiles were extensively used for roof coverings and for courtyard paving, terrace floors and floor coverings ( Ceramic tiles ).

5.

Mortar :

Grey clay was used as jointing material.

Lime-Surkhi, Lime stone was also used.

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ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Source : http://vaastukala.blogspot.com/2008/08/traditional-newar-houses-of-nepal.html

Monday, March 23, 2015

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Submitted by:

11611,11621,11635,11636

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

(Hill Architecture)

http://www.nepalinformation.com/patan.htm

http://vaastukala.blogspot.com/2008/08/traditional-newar-houses-of-nepal.html

http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/plants/

ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL

Monday, March 23, 2015

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