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Prstenovanjem i telemetrijskim metodama obiljeavanja nastoje

se pratiti selidbeni pravci i zimovalita pojedinih vrsta kako bi se


pojedineugroenevrsteboljezatitile.

Banding and telemetric marking methods constitute attempts to


monitor the migratory routes and winter feeding grounds of individual
speciestoensurebetterprotectionforindividualendangeredspecies.

Prstenovanje mladog kopca


Banding of young Sparrowhawk

Kanjon Male Paklenice (Mala Paklenica Canyon)

Protection of birds of prey and owls is still not sufficiently effective


in Croatia's protected zones, particularly in national parks and nature
parks. The simultaneous decline in numbers of individual species of
nesting birds, such as the GriffonVulture in Croatia and its extinction in
Paklenica National Park at the close of the twentieth century, indicate
the neglect and extreme indifference of the local population toward
animal species and nature in general, and the inadequacy of protection
efforts. Popularization and education in small educational centers,
such as this one in Mala Paklenica, are intended to raise awareness and
turn the attention of various groups of visitors, particularly younger
generations, children and students, to the importance of these
endangered species for whom protection is essential. It is high time to
preserve and better protect not just habitats but also these valuable
and diverse groups of birds, for if nothing is done even more of them
will become extinct.

Protection
Kemikalije pesticidi u poljoprivredi
Sve vea upotreba kemikalija u poljoprivredi nepovoljno djeluje i
na ovu skupinu ptica. Taloenjem kemikalija u tkivu ptica grabljivica
nakupljaju se ogromne koncentracije koje izazivaju najrazliitije
nepovoljne promjena u metabolizmu, to se odrava u uspjenosti
gnijeenja,brojumladihidr.

Agricultural chemicals and pesticides


Any substantial use of chemicals in agriculture has a negative
impact on these birds. Chemicals in the tissue of birds of prey build up
into enormous concentrations which lead to a multitude of harmful
metabolic changes, which are reflected in the success of nesting,
numberofchicks,etc.

Ope klimatske promjene


Globalne klimatske promjene koje se dogaaju zahvaljujui sve
brojnijim ljudskim aktivnostima, oituju se nepovoljno na mnoge vrste
ptica grabljivica i sova, osobito na ptice selice. Mijenjaju se klimatski
uvjeti u njihovim zimovalitima. Nagle temperaturne promjene,
zatopljenja i zahlaenja, orkanski vjetrovi pridonose varijabilnosti u
ponudi hrane, izboru nia za vrijeme gnijeenja, a izravno utjeu na
veimortalitetmladihptica.

General climate change


Global climate change caused by increasing human activity has
manifested itself negatively among many species of birds of prey and
owls, particularly migratory birds. The climatic conditions in their
winter feeding grounds are changing. Drastic changes in temperature,
warming, cooling and gale-force winds contribute to variations in food
supply, the choice of niches during nesting and also lead to higher
mortalityamongyoungbirds.

Glavni razlozi ugroenosti

Principal reasons for endangerment

Promjene u stanitima unitavanje stanita, manjak


hrane, gradnja dalekovoda, vjetroelektrana, autocesta
Ptice pripadaju meu najvanije pokazatelje ukupnog stanja
prirode. Njihova povezanost s podrujem na kojem obitavaju ini ih
upravo vrlo osjetljivim na vanjske utjecaje i promjene u stanitima, pa
suodlinibioindikatorikvalitetestanitaiekosustava.

Habitat changes-habitat destruction, food shortages,


construction power lines, windmills and highways
Birds are among the most vital indicators of the overall health of
the natural environment. Their bond with the territory in which they
reside makes them extremely sensitive to external impacts and habitat
change, so they are in fact excellent bio-indicators of habitat and ecosystemquality.
Mladunac male uare
A Long-eared Owl chick

Zatita ptica grabljivica i sova jo uvijek nije dovoljno uinkovita u


naim zatienim podrujima, posebno u nacionalnim parkovima i
parkovima prirode. Ujedno, opadanje brojnosti pojedinih vrsta
gnjezdarica, poput bjeloglavog supa u Hrvatskoj i njegovo izumiranje u
Nacionalnom parku Paklenica krajem XX st., ukazuje na nemaran i
krajnje bezobziran odnos naeg ovjeka prema vrstama i prirodi, te
slabu uinkovitost zatite na terenu. Popularizacijom i edukacijom u
malim edukacijskim centrima, poput ovog u Maloj Paklenici, eli se
podii razina svijesti i usmjeriti panja razliitih skupina posjetitelja,
posebno mlaih narataja, djece i studenata, na vanost ovih
ugroenihvrstakojimajezatitaneophodna.
Krajnjijeasdaseouvajuikvalitetnijezatite,osimstanita,iove
vrijedne i raznolike skupine i vrste ptica, jer e u protivnom izumrijeti
jomnogeodnjih.

This flyer is financed under the Karst Eco-system Conservation Project (KEC) through a grant (IBRD
GEF TF 050539 HR) from the Global Environmental Fund (GEF) via the International Bank for
ReconstructionandDevelopment(IBRD)andfundsfromtheCroatianMinistryofCulture.

Republika
Hrvatska
Ministarstvo
kulture
Republic
of Croatia
Ministry
of Culture

Izrada letka financirana je u okviru ProjektaOuvanje krkih ekolokih sustava KEC, sredstvima
darovnice(IBRDGEFTF050539HR)Globalnogfondazazatituokolia(GEF)putemMeunarodne
bankezaobnovuirazvoj(IBRD)tesredstvimaMinistarstvakultureRepublikeHrvatske.

Tekst: Gordan Luka i Melani Markovi Dizajn: Tomislav Nemah


Grafika priprema i tisak: ASTROIDA d.o.o., Zagreb
Text: Gordan Luka & Melani Markovi Design by Tomislav Nemah
Graphic layout & printing by ASTROIDA d.o.o., Zagreb

NP Paklenica
Javna ustanova Nacionalni park Paklenica
Paklenica National Park Public Institution

Dr. Franje Tumana 14a 23244 Starigrad-Paklenica Hrvatska (Croatia)


Tel. 023 369 155, 369 202 Fax. 023 359 133
sluzba-zastite@paklenica.hr np-paklenica@zd.t-com.hr
www.paklenica.hr

Jadransko more
Adriatic Sea

RIJEK

ZADAR

Seline
Starigrad-Paklenica

Kanjon Male Paklenice - ULAZ 2


Mala Paklenica Canyon - ENTRANCE 2

Kanjon Velike Paklenice - ULAZ 1


Velika Paklenica Canyon - ENTRANCE 1

Zatita
Trovanjeugroavaitavnizvelikihpticagrabljivica
Skupina strvinara, prvenstveno bjeloglavi sup (Gyps fulvus)
nestao je iz Nacionalnog parka Paklenica upravo zbog postavljanja
zatrovanih mamaca. Donedavno je trovanje bila velika prijetnja
posljednjoj koloniji i jedinom hrvatskom utoitu ovih strvinara, na
Kvarnerskimotocima-Krku,Cresu,PlavnikuiPrviu.

Poisoningthreatensanentireseriesoflargebirdsofprey
The carrion-eaters, primarily the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus),
have disappeared from Paklenica National Park precisely due to poison
traps. Until recently, poisoning was a major threat to the last colony
and sole Croatian refuge of these vultures on the Kvarner islands:
Krk,Cres,Plavnik and Prvi.

Lov i krivolov ubijanje ptica grabljivica i sova elja za


trofejem
Ptice grabljivice i sove i danas se ubijaju u mnogim lovitima, jer
se smatra da su smetnja i konkurencija u lovitu. Premda su sve ptice
grabljivice i sove strogo zatiene, jo i sada ih se nemilo progoni i ubija
toutjeenaopadanjenjihovogbrojauprirodi.

Hunting and poaching killing birds of prey and owls and


thedesirefortrophies
Birds of prey and owls are even today killed in many hunting
zones because they are deemed pests and hunting competitors. Even
though all birds of prey and owls are strictly protected, today they are
nonetheless still mercilessly hunted and killed, which leads to
decliningnumbersinthewild.

Mladi kopci u gnijezdu

kanjac (Buzzard)

Sparrowhawk chicks in the nest

Edukacijski centar za popularizaciju ptica grabljivica i sova


Education Center to Popularize Birds of Prey and Owls

Mala Paklenica

Birds of prey and owls are today the most endangered groups of
birdsinCroatia.Alargenumberofbirdsofpreyandowlsarethreatened
duetohumanactivitywhichdirectlyimpactsthemortheirhabitats.

Nacionalni park Paklenica


Paklenica National park

Reasons for endangerment

Ptice grablji ice

Ptice grabljivice i sove danas su najugroenije skupine ptica u


Hrvatskoj. Veliki broj ptica grabljivica i sova ponajvie je ugroen zbog
ljudskihaktivnostikojedirektnoutjeunanjihilinjihovastanita.

Razlozi ugroenosti
a)

Ptice grabljivice (Falconiformes) su predatori-lovci i nainom


prehrane su na vrhu hranidbenog lanca. Danas su ptice grabljivice
soko300 vrsta rasprostranjenepocijelojZemlji.
Veina vrsta ptica grabljivica love aktivnim letom svoj plijen ili se
hrane strvinom. Otar vid i poloaj oka omoguava im brzo uoavanje i
precizno lociranje plijena, a snana krila i sposobnost manevriranja
omoguava im brzo dostizanje plijena, koji love u zraku, na zemlji ili na
vodi. ivotinje, od kukaca pa do kraljenjaka svladavaju snanim
nogama s tri prsta okrenuta naprijed i jednim natrag, oboruanim
otrim pandama. Snaan, svinut kljun otrih rubova omoguava im
usitnjavanjeulovljenogplijena.
U Hrvatskoj je zabiljeeno ukupno 36 vrsta ptica grabljivica, a od
toga je 16 vrsta uvrteno u jednu od kategorija ugroenosti, dok su ak
tri vrste izumrle. Na podruju Nacionalnog parka Paklenica do sada su
zabiljeeneukupno22vrstepticagrabljivica.

b)

c)
a)

Birds of prey
Birds of prey (Falconiformes) are predators, or hunters, and they
are at the top of the food chain. Today there are approximately 300
speciesofthesebirdslivingthroughouttheworld.
Most birds of prey actively hunt their prey in flight, or they feed on
carrion. Sharp vision and the position of their eyes enables them to
quickly observe and accurately pinpoint their prey, while their
powerful wings and maneuvering ability help them seize their prey,
which they catch on land, in the water or air.They overpower animals
ranging from insects to vertebrates with their powerful legs and feet,
featuring three toes turned forward and one back, armed with sharp
talons. A strong, bent beak with sharpened edges helps them tear their
preyintosmallerpieces.
A total of 36 species of birds of prey have been recorded in Croatia,
and out of these 16 are classified in various endangered species
categories, and three species have even become extinct. So far, a total
of 22 species of birds of prey have been recorded in the territory of
PaklenicaNationalPark.
kanjac (Buzzard)

Danas je u svijetu poznato oko 200 vrsta sova


(Strigiformes). Ono to sove izdvaja od veine ostalih
ptica prilagodbe su na nonu aktivnost. Razvijeno
osjetilo sluha i vida, gusto i meko perje koje im
omoguuje beuman let, te otre pande za hvatanje
plijena omoguavaju im da izuzetno uinkovito djeluju
kao noni grabeljivci. Meutim, samo etrdesetak
vrsta sova aktivno je iskljuivo danju, najee u sumrak
i zoru, dok su ostale vrste podjednako aktivne nou i
danju.
U Hrvatskoj je zabiljeeno 11 vrsta sova od kojih je
jedna vrsta, sova movarica (Asio flammeus) kritino
ugroena, a druga vrsta, mali uk (Glaucidium
passerinum) je uvrtena u kategoriju osjetljivih vrsta. Na
podruju Nacionalnog parka Paklenica zabiljeeno je
ukupno6vrstasova.

O ls
Today there approximately 200 species of owls
(Strigiformes) in the world. What sets owls apart from
mostotherbirdsistheiradaptationtonocturnalactivity.
Well-developed hearing and vision, thick and soft
feathers that enable virtually silent flight, and sharp
talons to seize prey make it possible for them to function
as highly effective nocturnal predators. Only forty
species of owl are actively solely at day-time, mostly a
dawn and dusk, while the rest are active both at night
andduringtheday.
In Croatia, 11 species of owl have been recorded, of
which one, the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) is
critically endangered, while another species, the Pygmy
Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) has been listed as
vulnerable. A total of six species of owl have been
recordedintheterritoryofPaklenicaNationalPark.

Diet
Most birds of prey feed on a wide variety of live animals, from
caterpillars and snails, to amphibians, mammals and other birds. Even
so, sometimes they feed on carrion. Only a small number of species,
such as the Griffon Vulture, feed exclusively on carrion. Some species
have very specialized diets. The Honey Buzzard, for example, feeds on
wasps and their larvae, while the White-tailed Eagle and Osprey feed
onfish.

Ishrana
Veina ptica grabljivica hrani se velikim brojem ivih ivotinja, od
liinki i pueva, do vodozemaca, sisavaca i drugih ptica. No, povremeno
se hrane i strvinama. Samo manji broj vrsta, poput bjeloglavog supa,
hrani se iskljuivo strvinama. Neke vrste specijalizirane su u ishrani,
tako npr. kanjac osa se hrani osama i njihovim liinkama dok orao
tekavacibukoloveribu.

Senses
Precisely because they hunt by observation, birds of prey have
very sharp vision. Some species have vision that is at a minimum four
timesstrongerandmoredetailedthanthatofhumans,sothattheycan
spot their prey from great distances. For example, the American kestrel
can recognize a 5 cm long mouse from a distance of 275 m, or 0.6 cm
insectfromadistanceof34m.

Osjetila
Ptice grabljivice upravo zato to love plijen promatranjem imaju
iznimno otar vid. Neke vrste mogu vidjeti najmanje 4 puta bolje i
detaljnije od ovjeka to im omoguuje da plijen uoe s velike
udaljenosti. Npr. amerika vjetrua na udaljenosti od 275 m raspoznaje
miaduljine5cmilikukcaduljine0,6cmnaudaljenostiod34m.

Build
Birds of prey vary in size. While some are slim and aerodynamic,
such as some small falcons no larger than a sparrow, others are heavy
with wide wing spans, such as the Golden Eagle, with wing spans
reaching 2.4 m. Most species have large heads, short necks, powerful
bent beaks with sharp edges to tear meat, and sturdy legs with sharp
talonstocatchtheirprey.

Graa tijela
Ptice grabljivice variraju po veliini. I dok su neke vrste vitke i
aerodinamine, poput sokolia, koji nije vei od vrapca, druge su teke i
irokihkrila(npr.surioraoimarasponkrilaido2,4m!).Veinavrstaima
velikuglavu,kratakvrat,snaanisvinutkljunsotrimrubomzakidanje
mesa,tesnanenogesotrimpandamazahvatanjeplijena.

Sivi sokol (Peregrine Falcon)

Vjetrua (Kestrel)

Graa tijela
Sove su prepoznatljive prema okruglastom izgledu, uspravnom
dranju, velikoj glavi i oima koje su smjetane naprijed te kratkom
repu. Kljun je kratak i kukast i slabo vidljiv izmeu perja. Noge su im
snane i esto prekrivene perjem, a za hvatanje plijena slue im snane
duge i zakrivljene pande. Sve sove imaju meko i gusto perje koje ini
njihovletneujnim.
Osjetila
Sove imaju izuzetno razvijeno
osjetilo vida i sluha. Velike i vrlo osjetljive oi, koje koriste i najmanje
koliine svjetla, omoguuju im da
u potpunom mraku mogu
pronai i uhvatiti plijen. Oi sove
gotovo posve su usmjerene
prema naprijed, to im
omoguuje da vide slino
ovjeku, te da precizno odrede
udaljenost plijena. Iako nemaju
vanjskih uiju, sove imaju najbolji sluh od svih ptica. Razlog
tomu je veliko unutarnje uho te
velikibrojivanihstanicazasluh.

b)
d)

d)

a) Sparrowhawk
b) Honey Buzzard
c) Osprey
d) Lammergeier

a) kobac
b) kanjac osa
c) buko
d) kostoberina

Appearance of talons:

Izgled nogu:

a) White-tailed Eagle
b) Peregrine Falcon
c) Honey Buzzard
d) Egyptian Vulture

a) orao tekavac
b) sivi sokol
c) kanjac osa
d) crkavica

Beak forms:

Oblici kljunova:

c)

a) Golden Eagle
b) Goshawk
c) Harrier
d) Eleonora's Falcon

a) suri orao
b) jastreb
c) eja
d) mrki sokol

Appearance of some
species in flight:

Izgled nekih
vrsta u letu:

a)
b)

c)
(preuzeto iz T. Mebs & D. Schmidt (2006) Die Greifvgel
Europas, Afrikas und Vordreasiens. Kosmos Naturfhrer).

d)

(from: T. Mebs & D. Schmidt (2006) Die Greifvgel


Europas, Afrikas und Vordreasiens. Kosmos Naturfhrer)

Build
Owls are recognizable by their rounded contours, upright posture,
large heads and eyes positioned on the front of their heads, and short
tails. Their beaks are short and hooked and difficult to see in their
plumage. Their legs are strong and often covered with feathers, while
they use their long, powerful bent talons to catch prey. All owls have
softandthickfeatherswhichmakestheirflightvirtuallysilent.
Senses
Owls have exceptionally sharp sight and
hearing. Their large and very sensitive
eyes, which can make use of even the
tiniest amounts of light, allow
them to detect and catch prey in
complete darkness. The owl's
eyes are almost entirely on the
frontofitshead,sotheycansee
in a manner similar to humans
and precisely gauge the
distanceoftheirprey.
Although they have no external
ears,owlshavethebesthearingof
all birds.The reason for this is a large
internal ear and a high number of
auditorynervecells.

uk
(Scops Owl )
Ishrana
Najee se hrane sitnim sisavcima, uglavnom glodavcima, ali
love i ptice, vodozemce, gmazove i kukce. Manje vrste sova kao npr. uk
(Otus scops) i sivi uk (Athene noctua) hrane se kukcima, dok vee vrste
kao uara (Bubo bubo), hvataju vee ivotinje, jeeve, takore, puhove,
zeeve. Kao ni ostale ptice, sove nemaju zube i ne mogu savakati
hranu. Stoga manje ivotinje gutaju, a vee dijelove plijena kljunom
trgaju na manje komade. Neprobavljive dijelove perja i kostiju izbacuju
uoblikuispljuvakailigvalica.

Mala uara (Long-eared Owl)

Diet
Most often they feed on tiny mammals, mainly rodents, but they
also hunt birds, amphibians, reptiles and insects. Smaller species, such
as the Scops Owl (Otus scops) and Little Owl (Athene noctua), feed on
insects, while larger species, such as the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo), catch
larger animals, like hedgehogs, rats, dormice and hares. Like other
birds, owls have no teeth so they cannot chew their food. They thus
swallowsmalleranimalswhole,andusetheirbeakstotearapartlarger
prey. Indigestible parts such as bones and feathers are regurgitated as
pellets.

Mlada umska sova


(Young Tawny Owl)

Kanjon Male Paklenice (Mala Paklenica Canyon)

Prstenovanjem i telemetrijskim metodama obiljeavanja nastoje


se pratiti selidbeni pravci i zimovalita pojedinih vrsta kako bi se
pojedineugroenevrsteboljezatitile.

Banding and telemetric marking methods constitute attempts to


monitor the migratory routes and winter feeding grounds of individual
speciestoensurebetterprotectionforindividualendangeredspecies.

Protection of birds of prey and owls is still not sufficiently effective


in Croatia's protected zones, particularly in national parks and nature
parks. The simultaneous decline in numbers of individual species of
nesting birds, such as the GriffonVulture in Croatia and its extinction in
Paklenica National Park at the close of the twentieth century, indicate
the neglect and extreme indifference of the local population toward
animal species and nature in general, and the inadequacy of protection
efforts. Popularization and education in small educational centers,
such as this one in Mala Paklenica, are intended to raise awareness and
turn the attention of various groups of visitors, particularly younger
generations, children and students, to the importance of these
endangered species for whom protection is essential. It is high time to
preserve and better protect not just habitats but also these valuable
and diverse groups of birds, for if nothing is done even more of them
will become extinct.

Prstenovanje mladog kopca


Banding of young Sparrowhawk

Protection
General climate change
Global climate change caused by increasing human activity has
manifested itself negatively among many species of birds of prey and
owls, particularly migratory birds. The climatic conditions in their
winter feeding grounds are changing. Drastic changes in temperature,
warming, cooling and gale-force winds contribute to variations in food
supply, the choice of niches during nesting and also lead to higher
mortalityamongyoungbirds.

Ope klimatske promjene


Globalne klimatske promjene koje se dogaaju zahvaljujui sve
brojnijim ljudskim aktivnostima, oituju se nepovoljno na mnoge vrste
ptica grabljivica i sova, osobito na ptice selice. Mijenjaju se klimatski
uvjeti u njihovim zimovalitima. Nagle temperaturne promjene,
zatopljenja i zahlaenja, orkanski vjetrovi pridonose varijabilnosti u
ponudi hrane, izboru nia za vrijeme gnijeenja, a izravno utjeu na
veimortalitetmladihptica.

Agricultural chemicals and pesticides


Any substantial use of chemicals in agriculture has a negative
impact on these birds. Chemicals in the tissue of birds of prey build up
into enormous concentrations which lead to a multitude of harmful
metabolic changes, which are reflected in the success of nesting,
numberofchicks,etc.

Kemikalije pesticidi u poljoprivredi


Sve vea upotreba kemikalija u poljoprivredi nepovoljno djeluje i
na ovu skupinu ptica. Taloenjem kemikalija u tkivu ptica grabljivica
nakupljaju se ogromne koncentracije koje izazivaju najrazliitije
nepovoljne promjena u metabolizmu, to se odrava u uspjenosti
gnijeenja,brojumladihidr.

Habitat changes-habitat destruction, food shortages,


construction power lines, windmills and highways
Birds are among the most vital indicators of the overall health of
the natural environment. Their bond with the territory in which they
reside makes them extremely sensitive to external impacts and habitat
change, so they are in fact excellent bio-indicators of habitat and ecosystemquality.

Promjene u stanitima unitavanje stanita, manjak


hrane, gradnja dalekovoda, vjetroelektrana, autocesta
Ptice pripadaju meu najvanije pokazatelje ukupnog stanja
prirode. Njihova povezanost s podrujem na kojem obitavaju ini ih
upravo vrlo osjetljivim na vanjske utjecaje i promjene u stanitima, pa
suodlinibioindikatorikvalitetestanitaiekosustava.

Principal reasons for endangerment

Glavni razlozi ugroenosti

Mladunac male uare


A Long-eared Owl chick

This flyer is financed under the Karst Eco-system Conservation Project (KEC) through a grant (IBRD
GEF TF 050539 HR) from the Global Environmental Fund (GEF) via the International Bank for
ReconstructionandDevelopment(IBRD)andfundsfromtheCroatianMinistryofCulture.

Tekst: Gordan Luka i Melani Markovi Dizajn: Tomislav Nemah


Grafika priprema i tisak: ASTROIDA d.o.o., Zagreb
Text: Gordan Luka & Melani Markovi Design by Tomislav Nemah
Graphic layout & printing by ASTROIDA d.o.o., Zagreb

Republika
Hrvatska
Ministarstvo
kulture
Republic
of Croatia
Ministry
of Culture

Izrada letka financirana je u okviru ProjektaOuvanje krkih ekolokih sustava KEC, sredstvima
darovnice(IBRDGEFTF050539HR)Globalnogfondazazatituokolia(GEF)putemMeunarodne
bankezaobnovuirazvoj(IBRD)tesredstvimaMinistarstvakultureRepublikeHrvatske.

NP Paklenica
Javna ustanova Nacionalni park Paklenica
Paklenica National Park Public Institution

Dr. Franje Tumana 14a 23244 Starigrad-Paklenica Hrvatska (Croatia)


Tel. 023 369 155, 369 202 Fax. 023 359 133
sluzba-zastite@paklenica.hr np-paklenica@zd.t-com.hr
www.paklenica.hr

Jadransko more
Adriatic Sea

RIJEK
A

ZADAR

Seline

Zatita ptica grabljivica i sova jo uvijek nije dovoljno uinkovita u


naim zatienim podrujima, posebno u nacionalnim parkovima i
parkovima prirode. Ujedno, opadanje brojnosti pojedinih vrsta
gnjezdarica, poput bjeloglavog supa u Hrvatskoj i njegovo izumiranje u
Nacionalnom parku Paklenica krajem XX st., ukazuje na nemaran i
krajnje bezobziran odnos naeg ovjeka prema vrstama i prirodi, te
slabu uinkovitost zatite na terenu. Popularizacijom i edukacijom u
malim edukacijskim centrima, poput ovog u Maloj Paklenici, eli se
podii razina svijesti i usmjeriti panja razliitih skupina posjetitelja,
posebno mlaih narataja, djece i studenata, na vanost ovih
ugroenihvrstakojimajezatitaneophodna.
Krajnjijeasdaseouvajuikvalitetnijezatite,osimstanita,iove
vrijedne i raznolike skupine i vrste ptica, jer e u protivnom izumrijeti
jomnogeodnjih.

Starigrad-Paklenica

Kanjon Male Paklenice - ULAZ 2


Mala Paklenica Canyon - ENTRANCE 2

Kanjon Velike Paklenice - ULAZ 1


Velika Paklenica Canyon - ENTRANCE 1

Zatita
Lov i krivolov ubijanje ptica grabljivica i sova elja za
trofejem
Ptice grabljivice i sove i danas se ubijaju u mnogim lovitima, jer
se smatra da su smetnja i konkurencija u lovitu. Premda su sve ptice
grabljivice i sove strogo zatiene, jo i sada ih se nemilo progoni i ubija
toutjeenaopadanjenjihovogbrojauprirodi.
Trovanjeugroavaitavnizvelikihpticagrabljivica
Skupina strvinara, prvenstveno bjeloglavi sup (Gyps fulvus)
nestao je iz Nacionalnog parka Paklenica upravo zbog postavljanja
zatrovanih mamaca. Donedavno je trovanje bila velika prijetnja
posljednjoj koloniji i jedinom hrvatskom utoitu ovih strvinara, na
Kvarnerskimotocima-Krku,Cresu,PlavnikuiPrviu.

kanjac (Buzzard)

Hunting and poaching killing birds of prey and owls and


thedesirefortrophies
Birds of prey and owls are even today killed in many hunting
zones because they are deemed pests and hunting competitors. Even
though all birds of prey and owls are strictly protected, today they are
nonetheless still mercilessly hunted and killed, which leads to
decliningnumbersinthewild.
Poisoningthreatensanentireseriesoflargebirdsofprey
The carrion-eaters, primarily the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus),
have disappeared from Paklenica National Park precisely due to poison
traps. Until recently, poisoning was a major threat to the last colony
and sole Croatian refuge of these vultures on the Kvarner islands:
Krk,Cres,Plavnik and Prvi.

Mladi kopci u gnijezdu

Sparrowhawk chicks in the nest

Edukacijski centar za popularizaciju ptica grabljivica i sova


Education Center to Popularize Birds of Prey and Owls

Ptice grabljivice i sove danas su najugroenije skupine ptica u


Hrvatskoj. Veliki broj ptica grabljivica i sova ponajvie je ugroen zbog
ljudskihaktivnostikojedirektnoutjeunanjihilinjihovastanita.

Mala Paklenica

Birds of prey and owls are today the most endangered groups of
birdsinCroatia.Alargenumberofbirdsofpreyandowlsarethreatened
duetohumanactivitywhichdirectlyimpactsthemortheirhabitats.

Nacionalni park Paklenica


Paklenica National park

Reasons for endangerment

Razlozi ugroenosti

Ptice grablji ice

b)

a)

Ptice grabljivice (Falconiformes) su predatori-lovci i nainom


prehrane su na vrhu hranidbenog lanca. Danas su ptice grabljivice
soko300 vrsta rasprostranjenepocijelojZemlji.
Veina vrsta ptica grabljivica love aktivnim letom svoj plijen ili se
hrane strvinom. Otar vid i poloaj oka omoguava im brzo uoavanje i
precizno lociranje plijena, a snana krila i sposobnost manevriranja
omoguava im brzo dostizanje plijena, koji love u zraku, na zemlji ili na
vodi. ivotinje, od kukaca pa do kraljenjaka svladavaju snanim
nogama s tri prsta okrenuta naprijed i jednim natrag, oboruanim
otrim pandama. Snaan, svinut kljun otrih rubova omoguava im
usitnjavanjeulovljenogplijena.
U Hrvatskoj je zabiljeeno ukupno 36 vrsta ptica grabljivica, a od
toga je 16 vrsta uvrteno u jednu od kategorija ugroenosti, dok su ak
tri vrste izumrle. Na podruju Nacionalnog parka Paklenica do sada su
zabiljeeneukupno22vrstepticagrabljivica.

c)
a)

Birds of prey
Birds of prey (Falconiformes) are predators, or hunters, and they
are at the top of the food chain. Today there are approximately 300
speciesofthesebirdslivingthroughouttheworld.
Most birds of prey actively hunt their prey in flight, or they feed on
carrion. Sharp vision and the position of their eyes enables them to
quickly observe and accurately pinpoint their prey, while their
powerful wings and maneuvering ability help them seize their prey,
which they catch on land, in the water or air.They overpower animals
ranging from insects to vertebrates with their powerful legs and feet,
featuring three toes turned forward and one back, armed with sharp
talons. A strong, bent beak with sharpened edges helps them tear their
preyintosmallerpieces.
A total of 36 species of birds of prey have been recorded in Croatia,
and out of these 16 are classified in various endangered species
categories, and three species have even become extinct. So far, a total
of 22 species of birds of prey have been recorded in the territory of
PaklenicaNationalPark.
kanjac (Buzzard)

Danas je u svijetu poznato oko 200 vrsta sova


(Strigiformes). Ono to sove izdvaja od veine ostalih
ptica prilagodbe su na nonu aktivnost. Razvijeno
osjetilo sluha i vida, gusto i meko perje koje im
omoguuje beuman let, te otre pande za hvatanje
plijena omoguavaju im da izuzetno uinkovito djeluju
kao noni grabeljivci. Meutim, samo etrdesetak
vrsta sova aktivno je iskljuivo danju, najee u sumrak
i zoru, dok su ostale vrste podjednako aktivne nou i
danju.
U Hrvatskoj je zabiljeeno 11 vrsta sova od kojih je
jedna vrsta, sova movarica (Asio flammeus) kritino
ugroena, a druga vrsta, mali uk (Glaucidium
passerinum) je uvrtena u kategoriju osjetljivih vrsta. Na
podruju Nacionalnog parka Paklenica zabiljeeno je
ukupno6vrstasova.

O ls
Today there approximately 200 species of owls
(Strigiformes) in the world. What sets owls apart from
mostotherbirdsistheiradaptationtonocturnalactivity.
Well-developed hearing and vision, thick and soft
feathers that enable virtually silent flight, and sharp
talons to seize prey make it possible for them to function
as highly effective nocturnal predators. Only forty
species of owl are actively solely at day-time, mostly a
dawn and dusk, while the rest are active both at night
andduringtheday.
In Croatia, 11 species of owl have been recorded, of
which one, the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) is
critically endangered, while another species, the Pygmy
Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) has been listed as
vulnerable. A total of six species of owl have been
recordedintheterritoryofPaklenicaNationalPark.
Mala uara (Long-eared Owl)

Vjetrua (Kestrel)

Sivi sokol (Peregrine Falcon)

Graa tijela
Ptice grabljivice variraju po veliini. I dok su neke vrste vitke i
aerodinamine, poput sokolia, koji nije vei od vrapca, druge su teke i
irokihkrila(npr.surioraoimarasponkrilaido2,4m!).Veinavrstaima
velikuglavu,kratakvrat,snaanisvinutkljunsotrimrubomzakidanje
mesa,tesnanenogesotrimpandamazahvatanjeplijena.

Build
Birds of prey vary in size. While some are slim and aerodynamic,
such as some small falcons no larger than a sparrow, others are heavy
with wide wing spans, such as the Golden Eagle, with wing spans
reaching 2.4 m. Most species have large heads, short necks, powerful
bent beaks with sharp edges to tear meat, and sturdy legs with sharp
talonstocatchtheirprey.

Osjetila
Ptice grabljivice upravo zato to love plijen promatranjem imaju
iznimno otar vid. Neke vrste mogu vidjeti najmanje 4 puta bolje i
detaljnije od ovjeka to im omoguuje da plijen uoe s velike
udaljenosti. Npr. amerika vjetrua na udaljenosti od 275 m raspoznaje
miaduljine5cmilikukcaduljine0,6cmnaudaljenostiod34m.

Senses
Precisely because they hunt by observation, birds of prey have
very sharp vision. Some species have vision that is at a minimum four
timesstrongerandmoredetailedthanthatofhumans,sothattheycan
spot their prey from great distances. For example, the American kestrel
can recognize a 5 cm long mouse from a distance of 275 m, or 0.6 cm
insectfromadistanceof34m.

Ishrana
Veina ptica grabljivica hrani se velikim brojem ivih ivotinja, od
liinki i pueva, do vodozemaca, sisavaca i drugih ptica. No, povremeno
se hrane i strvinama. Samo manji broj vrsta, poput bjeloglavog supa,
hrani se iskljuivo strvinama. Neke vrste specijalizirane su u ishrani,
tako npr. kanjac osa se hrani osama i njihovim liinkama dok orao
tekavacibukoloveribu.

Diet
Most birds of prey feed on a wide variety of live animals, from
caterpillars and snails, to amphibians, mammals and other birds. Even
so, sometimes they feed on carrion. Only a small number of species,
such as the Griffon Vulture, feed exclusively on carrion. Some species
have very specialized diets. The Honey Buzzard, for example, feeds on
wasps and their larvae, while the White-tailed Eagle and Osprey feed
onfish.

Graa tijela
Sove su prepoznatljive prema okruglastom izgledu, uspravnom
dranju, velikoj glavi i oima koje su smjetane naprijed te kratkom
repu. Kljun je kratak i kukast i slabo vidljiv izmeu perja. Noge su im
snane i esto prekrivene perjem, a za hvatanje plijena slue im snane
duge i zakrivljene pande. Sve sove imaju meko i gusto perje koje ini
njihovletneujnim.

Build
Owls are recognizable by their rounded contours, upright posture,
large heads and eyes positioned on the front of their heads, and short
tails. Their beaks are short and hooked and difficult to see in their
plumage. Their legs are strong and often covered with feathers, while
they use their long, powerful bent talons to catch prey. All owls have
softandthickfeatherswhichmakestheirflightvirtuallysilent.

Osjetila
Sove imaju izuzetno razvijeno
osjetilo vida i sluha. Velike i vrlo osjetljive oi, koje koriste i najmanje
koliine svjetla, omoguuju im da
u potpunom mraku mogu
pronai i uhvatiti plijen. Oi sove
gotovo posve su usmjerene
prema naprijed, to im
omoguuje da vide slino
ovjeku, te da precizno odrede
udaljenost plijena. Iako nemaju
vanjskih uiju, sove imaju najbolji sluh od svih ptica. Razlog
tomu je veliko unutarnje uho te
velikibrojivanihstanicazasluh.
uk
(Scops Owl )

Ishrana
Najee se hrane sitnim sisavcima, uglavnom glodavcima, ali
love i ptice, vodozemce, gmazove i kukce. Manje vrste sova kao npr. uk
(Otus scops) i sivi uk (Athene noctua) hrane se kukcima, dok vee vrste
kao uara (Bubo bubo), hvataju vee ivotinje, jeeve, takore, puhove,
zeeve. Kao ni ostale ptice, sove nemaju zube i ne mogu savakati
hranu. Stoga manje ivotinje gutaju, a vee dijelove plijena kljunom
trgaju na manje komade. Neprobavljive dijelove perja i kostiju izbacuju
uoblikuispljuvakailigvalica.

d)

d)

Oblici kljunova:

Beak forms:

a) orao tekavac
b) sivi sokol
c) kanjac osa
d) crkavica

a) White-tailed Eagle
b) Peregrine Falcon
c) Honey Buzzard
d) Egyptian Vulture

Izgled nogu:

Appearance of talons:

a) kobac
b) kanjac osa
c) buko
d) kostoberina

a) Sparrowhawk
b) Honey Buzzard
c) Osprey
d) Lammergeier

c)

Izgled nekih
vrsta u letu:

Appearance of some
species in flight:

a) suri orao
b) jastreb
c) eja
d) mrki sokol

a) Golden Eagle
b) Goshawk
c) Harrier
d) Eleonora's Falcon

a)
b)

c)
(preuzeto iz T. Mebs & D. Schmidt (2006) Die Greifvgel
Europas, Afrikas und Vordreasiens. Kosmos Naturfhrer).
(from: T. Mebs & D. Schmidt (2006) Die Greifvgel
Europas, Afrikas und Vordreasiens. Kosmos Naturfhrer)

Senses
Owls have exceptionally sharp sight and
hearing. Their large and very sensitive
eyes, which can make use of even the
tiniest amounts of light, allow
them to detect and catch prey in
complete darkness. The owl's
eyes are almost entirely on the
frontofitshead,sotheycansee
in a manner similar to humans
and precisely gauge the
distanceoftheirprey.
Although they have no external
ears,owlshavethebesthearingof
all birds.The reason for this is a large
internal ear and a high number of
auditorynervecells.
Diet
Most often they feed on tiny mammals, mainly rodents, but they
also hunt birds, amphibians, reptiles and insects. Smaller species, such
as the Scops Owl (Otus scops) and Little Owl (Athene noctua), feed on
insects, while larger species, such as the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo), catch
larger animals, like hedgehogs, rats, dormice and hares. Like other
birds, owls have no teeth so they cannot chew their food. They thus
swallowsmalleranimalswhole,andusetheirbeakstotearapartlarger
prey. Indigestible parts such as bones and feathers are regurgitated as
pellets.

b)

Mlada umska sova


(Young Tawny Owl)

d)