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Biology 30

Module 1

Assignment 4

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Assignment 4

Copyright: Ministry of Education, Saskatchewan


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Assignment 4

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Assignment 4

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Assignment 4

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Assignment 4
Values

(40)

A.

Multiple Choice: Select the word or phrase which best completes each
of the following statements and place a check () beside it.
1. Bubbles of gas escaping from a water plant in a
darkened aquarium are likely bubbles of ***.
____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

carbon-dioxide
nitrogen
oxygen
hydrogen

2. Dehydration synthesis is the major process in


organizing other organic compounds from PGAL and glucose. The
opposite process which occurs in respiration is ***.
____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

anabolism
dehydration
hydrolysis
assimilation

3. The type of respiration yielding the greatest amount of


energy occurs when the final hydrogen acceptor is ***.
____
____
____
____

4.

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a.
b.
c.
d.

water
oxygen
pyruvic acid
NAD

Glycolysis takes place mainly in the ***.

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____
____
____
____

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a.
b.
c.
d.

ribosome
mitochondrion
cytosol
plasma membrane

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5.

respiration
produced

Glycolysis, which means "glucose splitting", occurs ***.


____
____
____

a.
b.
c.

during the light phase of photosynthesis


in the dark reaction of photosynthesis
at the beginning of the various types of

____

d.

at the end of fermentation, when alcohol is

6. The capture or absorption of light energy during


photosynthesis occurs first by the ***.
____
____
____
____

***.

7.

hydrogen atoms of NADP


hydrogen atoms of water
electrons in chlorophyll atoms
carbon atoms of chlorophyll

Carbon-dioxide, in photosynthesis, is used during the

____
____
____
____

8.

a.
b.
c.
d.

a.
b.
c.
d.

light reactions
photolysis stage
dark reactions
synthesis of proteins

Over 90% of plant matter comes from ***.


____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

light energy
soil
water
water and carbon-dioxide

9. The greatest negative effect on heterotrophs if this


planet were to suffer a great reduction in some of its forests (such
as the tropical rainforest) would likely be ***.
____
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a.

a decrease in atmospheric oxygen


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____
____
____

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b.
c.
d.

a decrease in atmospheric carbon-dioxide


falling temperatures
lower supplies of fresh water

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10.

Many plant parts appear green because ***.


____ a.
energized chlorophylls give off
a green glow when exposed to light
____ b.
plant tissues cause white light
to change into wavelengths which produce green
____ c.
wavelengths producing green
are absorbed by plants while others are reflected or
transmitted
____ d.
wavelengths producing green
are reflected or transmitted more than others by plants

11. Muscle fatigue and soreness is largely caused by an


accumulation of ***.
____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

alcohol
carbon-dioxide
pyruvic acid
lactic acid

12. Most of the light-dependent reactions of


photosynthesis occur in the ***.
____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

thylakoids
stroma
guard cells
cytoplasm

13. The electrons that combine with the NADPH during


the non-cyclic part of the light reaction of photosynthesis can come
from chlorophyll and from ***.
____
____
____
____

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a.
b.
c.
d.

sunlight
water
carbon-dioxide
oxygen

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14. The energy which is most directly available to the


greatest number of cells is that of ***.
____
____
____
____

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a.
b.
c.
d.

PGAL
ATP
glucose C 6 H12 O 6
starch

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15. If you were to raise algae in a laboratory, you should be


sure that they are ***.
____
____
____
____

16.

a.
b.
c.
d.

in a sugar solution
in warm water
exposed to light
immersed in well-oxygenated water

Heterotrophs depend upon photosynthesis for ***.


____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

organic matter and water


organic matter and oxygen
oxygen and water
water and carbon-dioxide

17. Starch content in a green leaf would likely be at its


highest level ***.
____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

at dawn
shortly before noon
in the early afternoon
in the early evening

18. In a eukaryotic cell, the two most prominent organelles


associated with energy conversion and energy release are ***.
____
____
____
____

19.

mitochondria and chloroplasts


nuclei and chloroplasts
ribosomes and lysosomes
grana and cristae

Plants and animals both ***.


____

a.

can use light energy to produce organic

____
energy of bonds

b.

change light energy into the chemical

compounds

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a.
b.
c.
d.

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____ c.
require carbon-dioxide to form
the organic compounds making up their own bodies
____ d.
require oxygen to release the
chemical energy of bonds of their organic compounds

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20. Some bacteria which can form organic compounds


from inorganic matter without the use of chlorophyll or sunlight
obtain their energy from ***.

organisms

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____
____
____
____

a.
b.
c.
d.

carbon-dioxide and water


inorganic chemical compounds
fossil fuels (oils, gases)
the heat from the bodies of living

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(10)

Matching: In the space provided in front of each item in


Column A, write the letter of the correct answer from Column B.
B.

Column A
____

____

____

2. process where the water


molecule is split to release
electrons
3. organic compounds are
broken down to release stored
energy

____

4. part of photosynthesis
that does not require light

____

5. is a coenzyme that carries


electrons

____

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1. thylakoid membranes are


arranged in stacks of disks

6.

a small unit of energy

____

7. oxygen is present so
cellular respiration proceeds
through the electron transport

____

8. occurs if oxygen is in
short supply

____

9. is formed in muscles
when there is a lack of oxygen

____

10.
source of fuel for cellular
respiration

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Column B
a.

C 6 H12 O 6

b.

catabolism

c.

NADP

d.

fermentation

e.

photolysis

f.

dark reaction

g.

aerobic
respiration

h.

grana

i.

lactic acid

j.

ATP

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C.

Short Answer
1.

a.

The preceding illustration represents particular stages of a


photosynthetic process.

(1)

i.

If box B represents activities related to the Dark


Reactions, what general name includes the
activities in box A?

(2)

ii.

In what part of an organelle are the activities of


box A most likely to be found?

of box B?

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(3)

iii.

iv.

Identify the substance at 1.

_________________

Identify the substance at 2.

_________________

Identify the substance at 3.

_________________

What general role or function is carried out by


each of the following during photosynthesis:

(2)

chlorophyll?

(2)

the intermediate products (#2 and NADPH


shown in the illustration)?

(2)

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b.

In one or two sentences, indicate how the energy of sunlight


is converted to chemical energy.

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(2)

(2)

(2)

2.

a.

b.

c.

What are the two nutrients (organic compounds) which are


produced during, or right at the end of, the actual process of
photosynthesis?
1.

____________________

2.

____________________

List four other nutrients (organic compounds) which can


then be formed from the first two.
1.

____________________

3.

____________________

2.

____________________

4.

____________________

Photosynthesis is a very important process. Organisms that


can photosynthesize, that is can form organic compounds
from inorganic substances, form the basis of food chains.
Mention four other ways in which photosynthesis can be
important to humans or other organisms.
1.

2.

3.

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4.

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3.

Questions a to e are based on the following graphic that illustrates


the process of respiration.

(2)

a.

The first part of respiration, shown by the line A, is common


to almost all organisms. What is this part of respiration
called?

(2)

b.

Why is the first part of respiration considered to be


inefficient?

(2)

c.

Why is oxygen so necessary at the end of respiration - that is


at the end of electron transport?

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(2)

d.

If oxygen is absent or in short supply at the end of electron


transport, how may a particular cell or organism manage to
still release a little energy?

(2)

e.

Aerobic respiration releases about 40 to 60% (which is


considered good) of the glucose molecule's energy. What
happens to the rest of the energy?

a.

Although not shown anywhere in the preceding illustration


on respiration, ATP is an important part of this process as
well as the process of photosynthesis. Why is ATP so
important?

b.

List four ways in which energy released from respiration is,


or can be, utilized by cells or organisms.

(2)

(4)

4.

1)

2)

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3)

4)

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D.

Applying Your Knowledge:


Photosynthesis and Respiration Experiments
Experiment 1: Light Requirements and Photosynthesis
Read the following procedure and observations, then answer the
questions.
In one investigation to determine what effects different light levels had on
photosynthesis, three potted geraniums were placed in different light
conditions for 12 hours. Plant a was kept in complete darkness; plant b
was in dim light; and, plant c was exposed to very bright light.
The amount or degree of photosynthesis occurring in each plant was
determined by testing one of its leaves for starch, since starch is formed
relatively quickly from glucose.
The following procedure was applied to one leaf from each of the plants in
turn:
a.

After removal, a leaf was boiled in water for about 5 to 10 minutes.


(Boiling kills cells and breaks down cell walls, while stopping
enzyme actions.)

b.

The leaf was then soaked in boiling alcohol, which dissolved and
removed the chlorophyll.

c.

When the leaf had most of the chlorophyll removed and was
bleached to a yellowish-white color, it was rinsed quickly in water
and placed in a shallow dish.

d.

An iodine solution was spread over the leaf.

The following sketches illustrate the results which occurred on the


different plant leaves after iodine was applied.

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Experiment 2: Carbon-dioxide and Photosynthesis


In another investigation, two potted geraniums were kept in enclosed
containers under the same light conditions. The only difference was
that one container (d) also had a small beaker containing sodium
hydroxide. (Sodium hydroxide has the capability of removing carbondioxide from the atmosphere.) In the space below draw a diagram
representing the two containers. This will aid you in understanding the
experiment and results.

One leaf from each plant then went through the same preparation
procedure as was conducted for the light investigation. Final testing with
iodine solution resulted in the following appearances:

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1.
Leaf a, in experiment #1 remained a yellowish color after
iodine was applied, while small amounts of black areas appeared in
b and large amounts of black were evident in c.
(3)

(2)

(2)

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a.

What did these colors mean for the different leaves?

b.
What general statement can be made, from these
results, about light levels and photosynthesis?

2.
Of plants d and e, in experiment #2, which one experienced
the greatest amount of photosynthesis? Why?

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(2)

(3)

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3.

Why should carbon-dioxide levels affect rates of photosynthesis?

4.
Besides light intensity and carbon-dioxide, what three other
factors could affect the amount of photosynthesis occurring in
plant tissues?

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Experiment 3: Gas Production by Plants


This experiment looks at both photosynthesis
and cellular respiration occurring in a plant.

The type of apparatus (shown on the right) was


used to collect gases released by the freshwater
plant, Anacharis (or Elodea).

(2)

5.

a.
Under light conditions, what gas would you expect to
collect in the test tube inverted over the funnel?

b.
In darkness, a gas is still collected in the test
tube. Indicate: Whether this would be the same gas or a
different gas. If different, what is the gas?

6.
Conclusion: Reflect back on all three experiments and
review your answers for questions 1-6. Then, answer the following
question:
(2)

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If there is any difference between the amount or kind of gas


produced during the light and dark conditions, what would it be?
Why?

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_____
(100)

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