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TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

Extent of
damage

Fault level
Duration of
fault

Winding failures
Voltage
regulating load
changers
Transformer
faults

Transformer
bushing failure
Transformer core
problem
Miscellaneous
failures

Insulation
breakdown
Time
Improve cooling
system of
possible

Ageing of
insulation
Temperature
Condition
leading to faults

Over heating
due to excitation
Oil
contamination%
& oil leakage
Reduced cooling

Reduced load

FAULT OF TRANSFORMER

Earth fault on H.V external connection


Phases to phase fault on H.V external connection
Internal earth fault on H.V windings
Internal phase to phase fault on H.V windings.
Short circuit between turns L.V windings.
Earth fault on L.V external winding
Phase to phase fault on L.V external connection.
Internal earth fault on L.V windings
Internal phase to phase fault on L.V winding
Short circuit b/w turn L.V windings
Earth fault on tertiary windings
Short circuit b/W turns tertiary windings
Sustained system phase to phase fault
Sustained system earth fault

Differential relay

L.V side three phase


over current and
earth fault relay
132KV/11KV
POWER
TRANSFORMER

H.V side three


phases over current
and earth fault relay

D.C trip circuit


supervision relay

Trip and lock out


relay

Percentage biased
Transformer
differential relay

High REF impedance


Circulating current
differential protection

HV side over current


and earth fault relay

LV side over current


and earth fault relay

Over excitation relay


220/132/11KV AUTO
TRANSFORMER
Thermal over load
relay

Overall percentage
biased differential
relay

L.H&H.V Connection
circulating protection

Tertiary over current


protection

D.C trip circuit


supervision relay

Percentage biased
Transformer
differential relay
High REF impedance
Circulating current
differential
protection
HV side over current
and earth fault
relay
LV side over current
and earth fault
relay

Over excitation
relay

500/220KV AUTO
TRANSFORMER

Thermal over load


relay

Overall percentage
biased differential
relay
L.H&H.V Connection
circulating
protection

Tertiary over
current protection

D.C trip circuit


supervision relay

Over voltage relay

Transformer
buchhloz relay
Tap changer
buchhloz relay
MECHANICAL
PROTECTION:

Winding
Temperature
0IL
temperature
Pressure
relieve valve

Factors:
The shape, magnitude and duration of the inrush
current depend on the factors:
Size of power transformer
Source Impendence
The magnetic properties of the core i.e.
saturation density
The remanence of core
Resistance in power system from source to
transformer.
The moment when transformer is switch on.

Effect of magnetising current


Appears on one side of transformer only
Seen as fault by differential relay
Normal steady state magnetising current is less than relay
setting
Transient magnetising inrush could cause relay to operate

The vector group shows the connection of


windings of transformer and numerical index
(hour numbers) for displacement of vector of
two star voltages.
Capital Letter
DY11
Small
letter ( clock dial reference)
The first capital letter donates the connection
of high voltage winding of transformer
The small letter represent the connection of
low voltage secondary winding of transformer

Yy0d5

The first capital letter Y is referred to H.V or


primary winding, the second letter y is
referred as secondary winding and third letter
is referred as tertiary winding.
Primary winding is taken as phase referred O
means that phase angle b/W H.V and M.V
winding is zero. Whereas 5 denotes that
phase angle b/W H.V and tertiary winding is
150 (5x30)

OVER CURRENT PROTECTION


As it names implies, relay will pick up when it
exceeds its present value
TYPES:
The types of over current relay are based on the
relay characteristics over can be classified into three
groups.
Definite current or instantaneous
Definite time
Inverse time

Over current Relay Applied to a


Transformer
51

51

51

HV2

HV1

LV

HV1

HV2

Time
LV

IF(LV)
IF(HV)
1.2IF(LV)

Current

Use of Instantaneous Over current Protection


Source

LV

50
51

Differential Protection
Overall differential protection may be justified for larger
transformers (generally > 5MVA).

Provides fast operation on any winding

Measuring principle:
Based on the same circulating current principle as the
restricted earth fault protection
However, it employs the biasing technique, to maintain stability
for heavy thro fault current
Biasing allows mismatch between CT outputs.
It is essential for transformers with tap changing facility.
Another important requirement of transformer differential
Protection is immunity to magnetizing inrush current.

PROTECTED ZONE
HV

LV

Correct application of differential


protection requires CT ratio and winding
connections to match those of transformer.
CT secondary circuit should be areplica of primary
system.
Consider :
(1) Difference in current magnitude
(2) Phase shift
(3) Zero sequence currents

Biased Differential Scheme


Differential
Current
I1 BIAS
OPERATE

BIAS I2

I1 - I2

OPERATE
RESTRAIN

I 1 - I2

I1 + I2
2

Bias =

Differential (or Spill)Current


Mean Through Current

Mean Thro
Current

Restricted E/F Protection


Low Voltage Windings (1)
ABCN

LV restricted E/F
protection trips
both HV and LV breaker
Recommended setting : 10% rated

Restricted E/F Protection


Low Voltage Windings (2)
ABCN

LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker


Recommended setting : 10% rated

Delta Winding Restricted Earth Fault Relay


Source

Protected zone
REF

Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current to system

Stability: Consider max LV fault level


Recommended setting: less than 30% minimum
earth fault level

Combined Differential and Restricted


Earthfault Protection

A2

A1

P1
P2

a1

S1
S2

a2

REF

P1
S1

P2
S2

P2
P1
S1
S2

To differential relay

Integral Vectorial and Ratio


Compensation
Power transformer

Ratio
correction

Vectorial
correction
Virtual interposing CT

Differential
element

Virtual interposing CT

In Zone Earthing Transformer


P1

P2

a2

a1
A1

A2

S2

S1 T2

T1

P1

P2

P2

P1

S2

S1

Three Winding Transformer


63MVA
132KV

300/5

25MVA
11KV

1600/5

50MVA
33KV

1000/5
4.59

5.51

10.33

2.88

2.88

All interposing C.T. ratios refer to


common MVA base (63MVA

Transformer Magnetising
Characteristic
Twice
Normal
Flux

Normal
Flux

Normal
No
Load
Current

No Load
Current at
Twice Normal
Flux

Parallel Transformers
T1

T2

NABC

Inter-Turn Fault
E

CT
Load
Shorted
turn
Nominal turns ratio
Fault turns ratio
Current ratio

- 11,000 / 240
- 11,000 / 1
- 1 / 11,000

Requires Buchholz relay

Buchholz Relay Installation


3 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Conservator

5 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Oil conservator
3 minimum
Transformer

Buchholz Relay
Petcock
Counter balance
weight

Alarm bucket
Mercury switch

Oil level

To oil
conservator
Trip bucket

From transformer
Aperture adjuster

Drain plug

Deflector plate

Overfluxing Basic Theory


V = kf
Causes

2m

Low frequency
High voltage
Geomagnetic disturbances

Ie

Effects
Tripping of differential element (Transient overfluxing)
Damage to transformers (Prolonged overfluxing)

EFFECTS OF OVER FLUXING:

Increase in magnetizing current


Increase in winding temperature
Increase in noise and vibration
Overheating of laminations and metal parts
(cause by stray flux)

V/Hz Overfluxing Protection


V f K
Trip and alarm outputs for clearing prolonged overfluxing
Alarm : Definite time characteristic to initiate corrective action
Trip : IDMT or DT characteristic to clear overfluxing condition
Settings
Pick-up 1.5 to 3.0

i.e. 110V x 1.05 = 2.31


50Hz

DT setting range 0.1 to 60 seconds

V/H CHARACTERISTIC:

Over-fluxing Relay
Ex

VT

AVR

RL

THERMAL OVERLOAD:
EFFECT OF OVER LOAD ON TRANSFORMER
INSULATION LIFE:

Overheating Protection
Trip

I load
TD
setting
Top oil of
power
transformer

Alarm

On

Fan
control

I load
Off
On

Pump
control
Off

Temp. indication

Heater
Local
Thermal
replica

Temperature
sensing resistor

Remote

Overload Protection
Overcurrent protection designed for fault
condition
Thermal replica provides better protection
for overload

Time

Current based
Flexible characteristics
Single or dual time constant
Reset facility
Non-volatile

Current

Thermal Overload Oil Filled Transformers


Trip time (s)
10000

Single
characteristic:
= 120 mins

1000

Dual characteristic
100

10
1
ZA

2
3
4
5
6
Current (multiple of thermal setting)

Single
characteristic:
= 5 mins

DIGITAL RELAYS FOR TRANSFORMER


THERMAL WINDING PROTECTION