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35 vizualizări12 paginielectrical circuits

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electrical circuits

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35 vizualizări12 paginielectrical circuits

© All Rights Reserved

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Circuits page 1 of 12

IN AC CIRCUITS

INTRODUCTION AND THEORY

Many electric circuits use batteries and involve direct current (dc). However, there are

considerably more circuits that operate with alternating current (ac), when the charge flow

reverses direction periodically. In an ac circuit, the most common generators serve the same

purpose as a battery serves in a dc circuit: they give energy to the moving electric charges

but they change the direction of magnetic forces periodically.

Since electrical outlets in a house provide alternating current, we all use ac circuits routinely.

If the voltage and the current alternate sinusoidally with time we can write:

v = v(t) = Vm sin(t + )

i = i(t) = Im sin(t)

Where

v andi represent the instantaneous voltage and current when we are considering

their variation with time explicitly.

Vm and Im are the amplitude or peak value of the voltage and current

V = Vm/21/2 and I = Im/21/2 without subscripts refer to the RMS values.

f is the ordinary frequency and represents the number of complete oscillations per

second

= 2f is the angular frequency.

is the phase difference between the voltage and current.

The schematic below is that of an ac circuit formed by plugging a toaster into a wall socket.

The heating element of the toaster is essentially a thin wire of resistance R and becomes red

hot when the electrical energy is dissipated in it

According to Ohms Law, the instantaneous voltage v across a resistor is proportional to the

instantaneous current i flowing through it.

V

i

AC Circuits page 2 of 12

The next two graphs show the voltage across the resistor and the current flowing through the

resistor as a function of time.

Instantaneous
voltage
V
(blue),

and
current
i
(red)

V(t),

i(t)

t

Im

Vm

From the graph in Figure 2 the peak value of voltage across a pure resistor is reached at the

same time with the peak value of the current. Therefore, the current and voltage are said to

be in phase, and mathematically this is expressed as

In the Figure 3, the radial vectors also called phasors rotate with angular velocity

representing the current and the voltage across the resistance. The lengths of these phasors

represent the peak current Im and voltage Vm. The y components of these phasors are

and they are equal to the y values from the graph in figure 2 at any time. The phasor

diagram shows that the voltage and the current are in phase.

The ratio of the voltage to the current in a resistor is called its resistance. As well, in a circuit

where the current is proportional to the voltage, the circuit is called a linear circuit. This is

happening when the circuit contains only resistors, capacitors and/or inductors. Resistance

does not depend on frequency, and in a resistor the voltage and the current are in phase.

However, circuits with only resistors, capacitors, and solenoids are not very useful in some

AC
Circuits
page
3
of
12

cases. If the circuit contains also, diodes or transistors, the circuit is no longer linear.

In most practical cases, the ratio of the voltage to the current depends on the frequency and

in general there is a phase difference between the voltage and the current. In this general

case, the ratio of the voltage to the current is called Impedance and it is denoted with the

symbol Z. Resistance is a special case of impedance. A very important case is that in which

the voltage and the current are out of phase by 90: this is an important case because when

this happens, no power is lost in the circuit and the ratio of the voltage to the current is called

the reactance, denoted with the symbol X. Reactance can be caused by capacitors or by

inductors.

Capacitors In AC Circuits

Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in timing circuits because it

takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge. They are also used to smooth varying DC

supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge. They are also used in filter circuits because

capacitors easily pass AC signals but they block DC signals. The voltage on a capacitor

depends on the amount of charge stored on its plates. If we denote the instantaneous value

of the current with i(t):

The current flowing off the positive plate is equal to the current flowing into the negative plate

and by definition is the rate at which the charge Q is being stored. From the definition of the

capacitance as a function of the charge Q and the potential across the capacitor,

it follows that

But the charge Q on the capacitor equals the integral of the current with respect to time.

In the indefinite integral above, the constant of integration was set to zero so that the average

charge on the capacitor would be zero (we are starting with an uncharged capacitor).

AC
Circuits
page
4
of
12

Therefore, the voltage across the capacitor:

The last equation shows that the current and the voltage are out of phase by 900.

The capacitive reactance XC is equal to:

and it can be defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the voltage to magnitude of the current

in a capacitor (and that is Ohms Law for the capacitor!)

Looking at the difference of phase, the voltage across the capacitor is 90, or one quarter of

period, behind the current. The same phase difference = 90 is reflected in the phasor

diagrams. Since the vertical component of any phasor arrow represents the instantaneous

value of its quantity and the phasors are rotating counter clockwise the phasor representing

VC is 90 behind the current.

Instantaneous
voltage
V
(blue),
and
current
i
(red)

As we have seen before, when the voltage and the current differ in phase by 900, the

resistance is called reactance. Another important difference between reactance and resistance

is that the reactance is frequency dependent and for a capacitor, it decreases with frequency.

AC
Circuits
page
5
of
12

Inductors In AC Circuits

An inductor is usually a coil of wire. The resistance of an ideal inductor is negligible, as is its

capacitance. However, the voltage across an inductor is influenced by changes of its own

magnetic field. Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that the current i(t) in the coil

sets up a magnetic field, whose magnetic flux B is proportional to the field strength B, which

in turn is proportional to the current.

Therefore, the self inductance of the coil, denoted L is defined as:

However, Faraday's law gives the emf induced in a coil due to a change in the magnetic flux

According to Kirchhoffs First Law the emf is a voltage rise; therefore, the voltage drop vL

across the inductor should be:

vL (t) = eL =

d B

dt

d

[ L i(t)]

dt

d

= L [ I m sin( t)]

dt

= L I m cos( t)

=

= Vm sin( t + )

2

As in the case of the capacitor, we define the inductive reactance XL as the ratio of the

magnitudes of the voltage and the current, and from the equation above we see that

XL = L.

It is worth noting the analogy to Ohm's law: the voltage is proportional to the current, and the

peak voltage and currents are related by

Vm = XL.Im

AC Circuits page 6 of 12

V(t),

i(t)

t

From figures 6 and 7 it follows that the voltage and the current through the solenoid are in

phase: the voltage across the inductor has its maximum when the current is changing most

rapidly, which is when the current is passing through zero. Therefore, the voltage across the

ideal inductor is 90 (or

) ahead of the current, (i.e. it reaches its maximum one quarter of

the cycle before the current does). The same conclusion is drawn from the phasor diagram.

We should also note that for a coil the reactance is frequency dependent in the sense that it

increases with frequency.

Summary:

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

The following is a summary of the relationship between voltage and current in linear circuits:

The impedance is the general term for the ratio of the voltage to the current.

Resistance is the special case of impedance when = 0,

Reactance the special case when = 90.

Component

Difference of

Phase between

Voltage and

Current

Ohms Law

Resistor

Voltage and

Current are in

phase

R=

VR

I

Capacitor

Inductor

Voltage lags

Current lags

behind Current by behind Voltage

/2

by /2

Xc =

VC

1

=

I C

XL =

VL

=L

I

AC
Circuits
page
7
of
12

Resistor and Capacitor connected in Series

When we connect components together, Kirchhoff's laws apply at any instant. So the voltage

vs(t) across a resistor and capacitor in series is just

vs(t) = vR(t) + vC(t)

However, the addition is more complicated because the two are not in phase: they add to give

a new sinusoidal voltage, but the amplitude VS is less than VR + VC as it can be seen from

figure 11.

VC

VR

R

VS

VR

vseri

es =

s

vR

er

+

ie

vCSeries

Figure 10: Resistor and Capacitor in

v

VC

VRCS

=

vseri vtheorem in figure 11 we have:

However, using Pythagoras'

but

es =

R

2

2

seri2

vR V+ = V V+V

S

R

C

es >

+

v

VR

vC

C

Using Ohms Law and expressing

the

+ three voltages and substituting in the equation above,

we obtain the impedance ZRCS andVthe

phase difference between voltage VRCS and the

C.

current I:

but

Vseri

2

2

2

es > (b

I Z RCS ) = ( I R) + ( I XC )

VR u

+

t

2

VC. V

! 1 $

2

Z RCS = R + #

&

"C %

s

er

ie

and

The

V

X

1

s = C = C =

tan

am

V

R

RC

>

plitR

V

ude

R

s

+

and

V

the

The

C

RM

am .

S

plit

volt

AC
Circuits
page
8
of
12

Resistor and Inductor connected in Series

Similarly, when we connect a solenoid in series with a resistor, the instantaneous voltage vs(t)

across the resistor and inductor in series will be:

vs(t) = vR(t) + vL(t)

And again, the amplitude VRLS will be always less than VR + VL as it can be seen from figure

13.

L

VL

VL

VRLS

R

VR

i

vs

eri

es

VS

VR

vseri

es =

vR

+

vC

=

vR

Figure 12: Resistor and Inductor in Series

Figure 13: R-L Series Phasor Diagram

+

vseri

vC

es =

but

vR Pythagoras' theorem, from figure 13 we have:

Applying again

Vseri

+

es >

2

2

2

vC

V

b

V=R VR +VL

RLS

ut

+

Vsexpress V

Using Ohms Law to

the

C. three voltages in the equation above, we obtain the

but

impedanceVZRLS and

eri the phase difference between voltage VRLS and the current I:

seri

es

>

VR

+

VC.

es

>

V

= ( I R) + ( I X L )

+

V

C.

and

The

am

plit

ude

s

and

( I Z RCS )

T

h

e

a

Z RCS = R 2 + ( L )

V

X

L

tanThe

= L = L =

R

am VR R

plit

ude

s

and

the

RM

S

volt

age

sV

AC
Circuits
page
9
of
12

Resistor, Capacitor and Inductor connected in Series

Now we connect a capacitor, and solenoid in series with a resistor, the instantaneous voltage

vs(t) across the resistor, capacitor and inductor in series will be:

VRCLS(t) = vR(t) + vC(t) + vL(t)

But, the amplitude VRCLS will be always less than VR + VC + VL because of the same reason

explained before.

VC

VL

VRLS

VS

VR

vseri

VL

es =

vR

+

vC

VC

but

Vseri

seri

Applying again Pythagoras'> theorem, from figure 15 wevhave:

es

es =

VRvseri

2

vR

2

= VR2 + (VL VC )

+ esV=RCLS

+

VCv.R

vC

+

Using Ohms Law to express the four voltages in the equation above, we obtain the

vC

impedance ZRCLS and the phase difference between voltage VRCLS and the current I:

but

2

2

2

but

seri

XC )

( I Z RCLS ) = ( I R) + ( I X L IV

es >

Vseri

VR

es >

+

2

VR

"

1 %

2

VC.

'

+ Z RCS = R + $ L

#

C &

VC.

The

am

1

plit

L

V

V

X

X

C

C

udetan = L C = L

and

=

VR

R

R

s

and

the

Since the inductive and capacitive phasors are 180 out of phase, their reactances tend to

RM

cancel each other. This happens

at resonance when XL = XC. At resonance = 0, the

S

Thethe circuit can reach very large

impedance Z = R has a minimum and the current through

volt

am

The

age

plit

am

AC
Circuits
page
10
of
12

values that could be damaging to the circuit.

APPARATUS

o Resistors: 100 , 1 W; 33 , 5 W; 10 , 10 W

o Capacitors: 100 F, 16 V and 330 F, 16 V (capacitance

values may vary by 20 %)

o Inductor: 8.2 mH @ 1 kHz, 6.5 maximum DC resistance,

0.8 A current rating RMS, 3/4 I.D. x 1-3/4 O.D.

BNC cables.

Banana plug patch cords.

PROCEDURE

In this experiment you will be applying a sinusoidal signal to different circuits and will analyze

the effect of the resistors, capacitors and inductors on the current and the relative phase

between the voltage applied and the current.

Familiarize yourself with the apparatus to be used. The function generator and the

oscilloscope are a single unit. There should be a TEE connected to the output of the

function generator portion of the unit, with one end of the TEE connected directly to CH1 of

the oscilloscope (to give you the input signal) and the other end going to the points of the

circuit where the source is going to be connected. The voltage collected across different

components of the circuit will be going to CH2 of the oscilloscope.

1. Select the mode of the function generator to sinusoidal and then select a signal in the

range of 100KHz.

AC Circuits page 11 of 12

2. Using the T splitter to apply this signal to Chanel 1 of the oscilloscope and to the

source in the circuit in figure 10.

3. Adjust the amplitude of the sinusoidal signal, and make sure that the OFFSET knob is

pushed in. Setup the time/div so that only one cycle appears on the oscilloscope.

4. Collect the voltage across the resistor and the capacitor and apply it on Chanel 2 of

the oscilloscope. Compare with what you see on CH1. Are CH1 and CH2 in phase for

both the resistor and the capacitor? Explain.

5. Read the relative phase for each component from the oscilloscope by comparing the

position of the signal on CH1 relative to CH2.

6. Measure the resistance of the resistor R with an ohm-meter and calculate the capacitive

reactance XC and the capacitance of the capacitor C.

Table # 1: Data for Resistor and Capacitor in Series

Component

(s)

(rad)

tan

R

()

f

(Khz)

=

2f

(S-1)

C

(F)

Capacitive

Reactance

XC

()

Resistor

Capacitor

7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for the circuits in figure 12 and determine the relative phase,

the inductive reactance and the induction of the solenoid.

Table # 2: Data for Resistor and Inductor in Series

Component

(s)

Resistor

Inductor

(rad)

tan

R

()

Inductive

Reactance

XL

()

f

(Khz)

=

2f

(S-1)

L

(H)

AC
Circuits
page
12
of
12

8. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for the circuit in figure 14 and determine the relative phase,

the overall reactance XL - XC and the impedance Z of the circuit.

Table # 3: Data for Resistor, Capacitor and Inductor in Series

Component

(s)

Resistor

Capacitor &

Inductor

(rad)

tan

R

()

Overall

Reactance

XL - XC

()

f

(Khz)

=

2f

(S-1)

Z

()

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