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UNIVERSITY OF CEBU - BANILAD

COLLEGE OF LAW
LEGAL AND JUDICIAL ETHICS
Second Semester AY 2014-2015

B. Duties and responsibilities of a lawyer


3. THE LAWYER AND THE CLIENT
Canon 16 - Hold in Trust Clients Moneys and Properties
Cf. Art 1491, Civil Code
(a) Rule
(b) Rule
(c) Rule
(d) Rule

16.01
16.02
16.03
16.04

Account for clients funds


- Keep Clients Fund Separate
- Delivery of Funds; Lawyers Lien
- No Borrowing, Lending

Cases:
96. Businos v. Ricafort, AC 4349, December 22, 1997
97. Espiritu v. Cabredo IV, AC 5831, January 23, 2003
98. Schultz v. Flores, AC 4219, December 8, 2003
99. Frias v. Lozada, AC 6656, December 13, 2005
100. Tarog v. Atty. Ricafort, AC 8253, March 15, 2011
Canon 17 Trust and Confidence
Cases:
101. Lorenzana Food Corporation v. Daria, AC 2736, May 27, 1991
Canon 18 Competence
(a) Rule
(b) Rule
(c) Rule
(d) Rule

18.01
18.02
18.03
18.04

Client Consent with Collaborating Counsel


Adequate Preparation
Not to Neglect Legal Matters
Inform Client on Status of Case

Cases:
102. Edquibal v. Ferrer, AC 5687, February 3, 2005
103. Ramos v. Imbang, AC 6788, August 23, 2007
104. Barbuco v. Atty. Beltran, AC 5092, August 11, 2004
105. Reontoy v. Ibadlit, AC CBD 190, January 28, 1998
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106. Somosot v. Atty. Lara, AC 7024, January 20, 2009


107. Avelino v. Palana, AM 405, May 31, 1971
Canon 19 - Representation with Zeal
(a) Rule 19.01 - Fair and Honest
Cf. Rule 138 sec 20 (d)
(b) Rule 19.02 - Rectify Clients Fraud
(c) Rule 19.03 - Control Proceedings
Case:
108. Maglasang v. People, GR 90083, October 4, 1990
109. Pena v. Atty. Aparicio, Ac 7298, June 25, 2007
110. Atty. Solidon v. Atty. Macalalad, AC 8158, February 24, 2010
111. Anderson v. Cardeno, AC 3523, January 17, 2005
112. People v. Pagaro, Minute Resolution, GR 93026-27, July 24, 1991
Canon 20 - Attorneys Fees
Cf. RA 5185 sec 6; Rule 138 sec 24; 32 ROC
(a) Rule 20.01 - Fee Guide
(b) Rule 20.02 - Clients Consent of Fees
(c) Rule 20.03 - Clients Consent of Acceptance of Fee
Cf. Rule 138 sec 20 (e)
(d) Rule 20.04 - Avoid Compensation Controversy with Client
Cf. Rule 138 sec 24, 32 ROC
Case:
113. Ramos v. Atty. Ngaseo, AC 6210, December 9, 2004
114. Licudan v. CA, GR 91958, January 24, 1991
Canon 21 - Preserve Clients Confidence
Cf. Rule 138 sec 20(e) ROC; Rule 130 sec 21 (b); Art 208, RPC
(a) Rule 21.01 - Revelations of Confidence and Secrets Allowed
(b) Rule 21.02 - Use of Information Received in Course of Employment
Allowed
(c) Rule 21.03 - Prohibition to Giving Information to Outside Agency
(d) Rules 21.04 to 21.05 - Protection from Disclosure
(e) Rule 21.06 - Prohibition of Indiscreet Conversation
(f) Rule 21.07 - Not to Reveal that Lawyer was Consulted

Cf. Rule 15.01, Rule 14.03


Cases:
115. Hilado v. David, 83 Phil 569 (1949)
116. Bun Siong Yao v. Atty. Aurelio, AC 7023, March 30, 2006
117. Uy v. Atty. Gonzales, AC 5280, March 30, 2004
Canon 22 - Withdrawal of Services for Good Cause
(a) Rule 22.01 - Good causes for Withdrawal of Services
(b) Rule 22.02 - Duties of Lawyer who withdraws
Cases:
118. Pioneer Insurance and Surety Corp. v. De Dios Transportation Co., Inc., et
al., GR 147010, July 18, 2003
119. Felicisimo v. Montano v. IBP and Atty. Dealca, AC 4215, May 21, 2001
120. Elisa v. Venterez et at vs. Atty. Cosme, AC 7421, October 10, 2007

SUSPENSION, DISBARMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF LAWYERS (RULE 139-B, RULES OF


COURT)
A. Nature and Characteristics of disciplinary actions against lawyers
a. Sui generis
b. Prescription
B. Objectives of suspension and disbarment
C. Grounds for disbarment (Rule 138, Sec 27, Rules of Court)
D. Officers authorized to investigate disbarment cases
a. Supreme Court
b. IBP thru Commission on Bar Discipline or authorized officers
c. Office of the Solicitor General
E. Liabilities of Lawyer
a. Civil liability
b. Criminal liability
c. Contempt of Court
d. Forms of disciplinary measures
e. Modifying circumstances (Mitigating and Aggravating)
F. Readmission to the Bar
a. Reinstatement
b. Lifting of order of suspension
c. Judicial clemency

JUDICIAL ETHICS
A. Sources of judicial ethics
a. New Code of Judicial Conduct (2004)
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b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.

Code of Judicial Conduct (1989)


Provisions of 1987 Constitution (Art VIII, Art XI, Art III)
New Civil Code (Arts. 9, 27, 739, 1491. 2029, 2032)
Rules of Court (Rules 71, 135, 137, 139-B, 140)
Revised Penal Code (Arts. 204, 205, 206, 207)
Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act (RA 3019)
Canons of Judicial Ethics (DOJ AO 162, Aug 1, 1946)
Code of Professional Responsibility
Judiciary Act of 1948 (RA 296)
Supreme Court decisions
Foreign decisions which are relevant and persuasive
Opinions of authorities
Special Laws (RA 910, June 20, 1953)
Administrative Orders and Supreme Court Circulars

B. New Code of Judicial Conduct (A.M. No. 03-05-01-SC, June 1, 2004)


This is based on the 2002 Bangalore Draft, as amended, which was intended
to be the Universal Declaration of Judicial Standards applicable in all
judiciaries.
This New Code of Judicial conduct supersedes the Canons of Judicial Ethics
and the Code of Judicial Conduct, but the latter may still apply in a suppletory
character in case of deficiency or absence of provisions in the New Code.
Case:
121. Joaquin vs. Javellana, AM RTJ-00-1601, November 13, 2001
"..a judge's official conduct and his behavior in the performance of
judicial duties should be free from the appearance of impropriety and must
be beyond reproach. One who occupies an exalted position in the
administration of justice must pay a high price for the honor bestowed upon
him, for his private as well as his official conduct must at all times be free
from the appearance of impropriety. Because appearance is as important as
reality in the performance of judicial functions, like Caesar's wife, a judge
must not only be pure but also beyond suspicion. x x x"
1. DEFINITIONS
In this Code, unless the context otherwise permits or requires, the following
meanings shall be attributed to the words used:
Court staff includes the personal staff of the judge including law clerks.
Judge means any person exercising judicial power, however designated.
Judges family includes a judges spouse, son, daughter, son-in-law,
daughter-inlaw, and any other relative by consanguinity or affinity within the
sixth civil degree, or person who is a companion or employee of the judge
and who lives in the judges household.
2. Canons
a. Canon 1 Independence

Judicial independence is a pre-requisite to the rule of law and a


fundamental guarantee of a fair trial. A judge shall therefore uphold
and exemplify judicial independence in both its individual and
institutional aspects.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

Sec 1 Independent judicial function


Sec 2 outside pressure
Sec 3 influencing outcome of litigation
Sec 4 influence on judicial conduct
Sec 5 independence from executive and legislative
Sec 6 independence from society and particular parties
Sec 7 safeguards for judicial independence
Sec 8 promote public confidence
Cases:
122. Ramirez v.Corpuz-Macandong, AM R-351-RTJ, September
26, 1986
123. Libarios v. Dabalos, AM RTJ-89-286, July 11, 1991
124. Sabitsana Jr. v. Villamor, AM 90-474, October 4, 1991
125. Rivera v. Barro, AM 2003-CTJ, February 28, 1980
126. Tan v. Rosete, AM MTJ-04-1563, September 8, 2004
127. Salud v. Alumbres, AM RTJ-00-159, June 23, 2003

b. Canon 2 Integrity
Integrity is essential not only to the proper discharge of the judicial
office but also to the personal demeanor of judges.
i. Sec 1 Conduct above reproach
ii. Sec 2 Reaffirm peoples faith
iii. Sec 3 Disciplinary action
Cases:
128. Anonymous v. Judge Rio C. Achas, MTCC Branch 2, Ozamiz
City, Mis Occ, AM MTJ-11-1801, February 27, 2013
129. Rallos v. Gako, AM RTJ-98-1484, March 17, 2000
130. Manzon v. Judge Perello, AM RTJ-02-1686, May 7, 2004
c. Canon 3 Impartiality
Impartiality is essential to the proper discharge of the judicial office. It
applies not only to the decision itself but also to the process by which
the decision is made.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Sec 1 Judicial duties free from bias


Sec 2 promote confidence, impartiality
Sec 3 minimize instances of disqualification
Sec 4 public comments, pending and impending case
Sec 5 disqualifications
Sec 6 Remittal of disqualifications
Cases:
131. Atty. Melvin D.C. Mane v. Judge Belen, AM No. RTJ-0802119,
June 30, 2008
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132. SB of Taguig, MM v. Judge Santiago Estrella, AM 01-1608RTJ, January 16, 2001


133. Parayno v. Menese, GR 112684, April 26, 1994
134. Martinez v. Giorenella, GR L-37635, July 22, 1975
135. Chavez v. Public Estates Authority, GR 133250, May 6, 2003
d. Canon 4 Propriety
Propriety and the appearance of propriety are essential to the
performance of all the activities of a judge.
i. Sec 1 - Avoid impropriety and the appearance of impropriety
ii. Sec 2 - Accept personal restrictions; conduct consistent with the
dignity of judicial office.
iii. Sec 3 - Avoid suspicion or appearance of favoritism or partiality.
iv. Sec 4 - Not participate in a case where any family member
represents a litigant
v. Sec 5 - Not allow lawyers to use residence to receive clients or
lawyers
vi. Sec 6 - Always conduct themselves to preserve the dignity of the
judicial office
vii. Sec 7 Be informed personal fiduciary and financial interests
viii. Sec 8 - Not to use or lend the prestige of judicial office to
advance their private interests
ix. Sec 9 Not to use or disclose confidential information
x. Sec 10 - Judges may (a) Write, lecture, teach and participate in
activities, (b) Appear at a public hearing before an official body
concerned with legal matters, (c) Engage in other allowed
activities
xi. Sec 11 Not to practice law concurrent with judicial office.
xii. Sec 12 - Form or join associations of judges
xiii. Sec 13 - Neither ask for, nor accept, any gift, bequest, loan or
favor
xiv. Sec 14 Not to knowingly permit court staff or others to ask for,
or accept, any gift, bequest, loan or favor
xv. Sec 15 May receive token gifts subject to law
Cases:
136. OCA v. Paderanga, AM RTJ-01-1660, August 25, 2005
137. J. King and Sons v. Hontanosas, 438 SCRA 264
138. Re: Judge Edmundo Acuna, 464 SCRA 250
139. Manansala III v. Asdala, AM RTJ-05-1916, May 10, 2005
140. In re: Designation of Judge Rodolfo Manzano, AM 88-71861-RTC, October 5, 1988
141. Decena ,et al. v. Judge Malanyaon, AM RTJ-10-2217, April 8,
2013
142. Dulay v. Lelina, AM RTJ-99-1516, July 14, 2005
e. Canon 5 Equality
Ensuring equality of treatment to all before the courts is essential to
the due performance of the judicial office.
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i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

f.

Sec 1 Understand the diversity in society


Sec 2 Not to manifest bias or prejudice
Sec 3 Not to differentiate
Sec 4 Not to influence staff
Sec 5 Attitude to parties appearing in court
Cases:
143. Judge Dojillo, Jr. v. Ching, AM P-06-2245, July 31, 2009
144. Panes, Jr. v. Judge Dinopol, RTC, Br 24, Koronadal City, AM
OCA-IPI 07-2618-RTJ, February 12, 2013
145. Atty. Gloria Lastimosa-Dalawampu v. Judge Yrastorza, AM
RTJ-03-1793, 5 February 2004
146. Navarro v. Tormis, AM MTJ-00-1937, April 27, 2004
147. Mataga v. Rosete, AM MTJ-03-1488, October 13, 2004

Canon 6 Competence and Diligence


Competence and diligence are prerequisites to the due performance of
judicial office.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Sec 1 Duties take precedence


Sec 2 Perform administrative duties
Sec 3 Maintain professional competence
Sec 4 Be informed about the law
Sec 5 Prompt decision making
Sec 6 Maintain order in proceedings
Sec 7 Not to engage in conduct contrary to duties
Cases:
148. The Officers and Members of the IBP Baguio-Benguet
Chapter, et al v. Pamintuan, AM RTJ-02-1691, January 16, 2004
149. OCA v. Judge Villegas, AM RTJ-00-1526, June 3, 2004
150. Beso v. Daguman, 323 SCRA 566