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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc

numerical method

F. Abdoun a, L. Azrar a,*, E.M. Daya b, M. Potier-Ferry b

a

b

Equipe de Modlisation Mathmatique et Contrle, UFR: SPI et MAM, Facult des Sciences et Techniques de Tanger, Universit Abdelmalek Essaadi, BP 416 Tanger, Morocco

Laboratoire de Physique et Mcanique des Matriaux, UMR CNRS 7554, Universit Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile de Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex, France

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 27 July 2007

Accepted 4 August 2008

Available online 7 October 2008

Keywords:

Vibration

Viscoelastic

Sandwich

FEM

Beam

Plate

a b s t r a c t

This work presents an asymptotic numerical method for forced harmonic vibration analyses of viscoelastic structures. A mathematical formulation that may account for various viscoelastic models is presented.

Power series expansions and Pad approximants of the displacement and frequency are developed and

the nite element method is used for numerical solution. Only some matrix inversions and a few iterations are needed for large frequency ranges. Iterations of the process lead to a powerful continuation

method for harmonic responses of viscoelastic structures with constant and frequency dependent coefcients. For numerical tests, undamped, viscoelastic and sandwich viscoelastic beams and plates are considered. Passive control, response curves and equivalent damping characteristics are obtained for various

frequency ranges, excitation amplitudes and viscoelastic models.

2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The main objective of this paper is the development of an efcient continuation algorithm for response curves of viscoelastic

structures under harmonic excitations at large frequency ranges.

The proposed algorithm is based on the asymptotic numerical

method (ANM) which is a combination of a nite element method

and a perturbation method. The ANM permits to get a large part of

response curves either on the power series expansion [1,2] or on

the rational fraction forms called Pad approximants [3]. The efciency of this method has been largely proved for various nonlinear

static problems [4]. Based on harmonic balance method and on the

ANM, linear and nonlinear vibrations of thin elastic plates with

various shapes and harmonic excitation types are analysed [5,6].

The algorithm developed in this paper is the adaptation of the presented method in [5,6] to linear forced vibrations of viscoelastic

structures.

Based on linear viscoelastic models, the dependence of structure stiffness and dissipation on the vibration frequency is accounted for via the complex and frequency dependent material

coefcients. In the framework of small deformations, the governing

dynamic structures responses under harmonic excitations {F}eixt

can be modelled by the following matrix problem:

and displacement vector respectively. Numerical solution of Eq.

(1) for a large frequency range leads to response curves at any sensitive structure point. Let us note that when the response curves of

excited structures are available at a number of points over a range

of frequencies, a great deal of information about its vibratory

behavior can be extracted from them. Classical methods [7] can

be used in the vicinity of resonances for predicting natural frequencies and associated loss factors. The effects of the off-resonant

modes can be evaluated by the analysis of the in-plane and quadrature components of the displacement and of the total displacement

response. The interaction effects of higher modes and particularly

for closed resonances can also be analysed.

There are various nite element computer codes dealing with

the dynamic analysis of viscoelastic structures (Nastran, Ansys,

Abaqus, . . .). The advantages are that these programs can analyse

complex structures and have been well developed and managed.

The disadvantage is that the computation cost for response curves

is expensive. Indeed, the complex dynamic stiffness matrix has to

be formed and decomposed at many different frequencies in order

to obtain a complete solution for the frequency response [7]. However, the use of viscoelastic structures is an effective way to

suppress vibrations and noise. The viscoelastic behavior permits

to control the amplitude of resonant vibration, to modify wave

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: l.azrar@uae.ma, azrarlahcen@yahoo.fr (L. Azrar).

0045-7949/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2008.08.006

92

increase the structure life. The structure can be either completely

viscoelastic or composed with constrained or unconstrained viscoelastic layers. The constrained layer damping, sandwiching two

outer elastic layers with a viscoelastic core, is more effective than

the free layer design since more energy is consumed and dissipated

into heat in the work done by the shearing mode within the viscoelastic layer. The symmetric conguration in which the two outer

elastic layers have the same thickness and stiffness is by far the

most effective design since it maximizes the shear deformation

in the core layer. Thanks to these passive control advantages, this

kind of sandwich structures is also considered in this work.

Many investigations have been devoted to vibration of viscoelastic structures and especially for damping properties [8,9]. Generally, these properties are measured by two modal parameters

that are the frequency and the loss factor. Based on semi-analytical

and on nite element methods, many works dealing with the linear

vibration analysis of thin structures with various viscoelastic approaches have been developed [732].

Frequency-domain, time-domain and time-frequency representations are used by different authors. In the time-domain, the dynamic behavior of linear viscoelastic structures can be analysed

by the generalized viscoelastic model based on the convolution

integrals [10]. The Laguerre polynomials are used to derive timedomain responses of linear hysteretic systems and the emphasis

is on the Biot hysteretic model [11]. Applications to foundationvibration and seismic protection are derived by various authors.

More recently, a state-space formulation for the dynamic response

of beams on viscoelsatically damped foundation and under moving

oscillators is presented in [12]. Viscoelastic models based on fractional derivatives are also used by some authors for time-domain

analysis. Using this concept and anelastic displacement elds, the

weak frequency-dependence of damping characteristic is described [13].

In the frequency-domain, the frequency and the loss factor can

be directly determined by different ways. The usual methods are

the modal strain energy method [14], the direct frequency method

[7], the linear complex eigenvalue method based on the QR algorithm [15,16] and the nonlinear complex eigenvalue procedures

[1721]. The methods presented in [1820] are based on the

ANM and can be applied to various models and for large scale

structures. Natural frequencies and loss factor of viscoelastically

damped sandwich structures can be computed with moderate

computational cost. However, the response vibration curves can

not be determined with these methods. Indeed, the forcing vibration problem (1) is required to be solved with moderate computational cost.

The aim of this paper is the development of a path following

algorithm for harmonic response curves of viscoelastic structures

with constant and frequency depend coefcients. As only some matrix inversions and a few iterations are needed for large frequency

ranges, the CPU time can be enormously reduced. Passive control

and response curves are investigated for undamped structures

and particularly for viscoelastic structures under various types of

excitations. The response curves can be obtained for any required

frequency range, excitation force and boundary conditions.

2. Mathematical modelling

(

)

o2 U

dV F

fdeg frg qfdUg

ot2

V

the generalized displacement at a point within the body V and q

is the mass density of the material. The excitation force F is assumed

to be a harmonic time function and then the analysis presented here

is limited to periodic responses. So, the stress and strain tensors and

the displacement U can be expressed as harmonic time functions:

ex; y; z; t ex; y; zeixt

p

where i 1 and x is the vibration frequency. For small stresses

and strains, the linear viscoelastic properties, exhibited under dynamic loading, are described by a complex relaxation matrix

[C(x)] which is a function of the loading frequency x. The stress

strain law can be written in the form:

frg Cxfeg

where the real and imaginary part of [(C(x)] characterizes respectively energy storage and dissipative behavior of the viscoelastic

material. Hence, as established in many studies [7,1820], with

classical notations of computational mechanics, the nite element

discretisation of the variational formulation Eq. (2) (see Appendix

A), leads to the following matrix problem:

that is complex, [M] is the mass matrix, {U} is the nodal displacement vector and {F} is the amplitude of imposed sinusoidal force,

usually taken as real.

For the sake of simplicity, the viscoelastic material considered

herein is linear, homogenous and isotropic. Hence, the stress

strain law can be expressed by

r 2l e k I3 e

where

8

< l E x

21t

: k tE x

12t1t

in which I3 is the identity matrix, E*(x) is the complex Young modulus and t is Poissons ratio. As in most analyses, the Poisson ratio is

assumed constant. Using the generalized Hooks law Eq. (4), one can

easily nd that the stiffness matrix [K(x)] can be written as

8

>

< Kx K0 ExK

K0 E 0K

>

:

Ex E x E 0

matrix [K(0)] is real symmetric and positive denite. Remember

that the matrices [K(0)] corresponding to delayed elasticity and

[K] do not depend on x. The mathematical modelling of the forced

vibration problem is then given by

The forced vibration of harmonically excited viscoelastic structures is mathematically formulated in a general way. The present

formulation is valid for various structures types and various viscoelastic models. For the space discretisation, the nite element

method will be used and the classical following virtual work principle will be adopted:

models. The resulting Young modulus, loss factor and shear

frequency dependent can be easily inserted in the present formulation. The nite element matrices [M] and [K] may correspond to

beams, plates or shells and the mathematical modelling Eq. (8)

93

structures or laminated structures with viscoelastic layers. Only a

specied viscoelastic model is needed for the dynamic responses

of the considered structure. For the sake of clearness, the emphasis

is rst on the constant viscoelastic model and then on the frequency

dependent Young modulus. The Maxwells model is used for the last

case and the Young modulus is given by

Eix k0 g0 ix

N

max

X

j1

ix

ix

kj

g1

Introducing Eqs. (10) and (11) into Eq. (8) and equating like

powers of a, one obtains the following linear problems:

(

Order 0 :

Order j j P 2 : AfU j g

j

X

ci MfU ji g

12a

12b

j

X

El KfU jl g

12c

l1

For a given initial frequency (p0 = x0), far from the resonant one, the

solution of the linear system Eq. (12a) allows to get the starting displacement U0 for a xed excitation force. Remember that the left

hand side of the problems Eqs. (12a)(12c) have the same matrix.

Then only one matrix inversion is needed for all vectors Uj. But,

the matrix [A] and then the vectors Uj are complex.

It should be mentioned that for viscoelastic structures, Youngs

modulus E and the nodal displacement vector U are complex

quantities and can be decomposed in its it real and imaginary parts

as

U U R iU I ;

3. Method of solution

In this section, an asymptotic numerical algorithm is developed

to solve the forced vibration problem (8) with a reasonable computational cost. This algorithm combining the perturbation techniques and the nite element method has been proposed to solve

other classes of nonlinear problems [16]. The various stages of

the proposed algorithm can be presented as follows.

(

Order 0 : B

"

into power series around a starting solution (U0, x0) in the following form:

10a

13

U R0

U I0

F

14a

where

B

aj pj

Ex ER x iEI x

problems Eq. (12) to real ones of double dimensions. The substitution of Eq. (13) into Eq. (12) leads to the following set of equations:

xa p0

c0 x20 is given

A K0 E0 K c0 M;

i1

experimental tests on viscoelastic material. For the dynamic responses, Eq. (8) has to be solved for each xed excitation force. Usually, this problem is solved by inverting the resulting system for

each xed frequency x. The calculation of the response curves requires then a great number of matrix inversions which is very time

consuming.

Our aim here is to solve the matrix problem Eq. (8) by a continuation method based on a perturbation procedure and to develop

an efcient algorithm for response curves.

n

X

AfU 0 g fFg;

EI0 K

EI0 K

K

(

Order 1 : B

U R1

#

K K0 ER0 K c0 M

U I1

F R1

)

14b

F I1

j1

x2 a c0

n

X

where

aj c j

10b

j1

n

X

aj U j

10c

1

fhU U 0 ; U 1 i p p0 p1 g

s2

10d

Ua U 0

F R1

F I1

(

p1

F R

1

F I

1

(

p1

j1

in which Uj, pj and cj are the new unknowns which have to be computed p0 x0 ; c0 x20 . In this analysis, the Young modulus is assumed to be frequency dependent and is expanded into power

series with respect to the parameter a as

Ex E0

n

X

aj Ej pk ;

06k6j

11

R R

F1

U1

Step 1: solve B

U I

F I

1

1

s

Step 2: compute p1 p

R

R hU1 ;U 1 i1

U

U

1

1

, U1

U 1

U I

U I1

1

j1

)

R

Fq

F I

q

Order q q P 2 : B

9

8

q1

q1

P

P R R

>

>

R

R

R

R

I

I

I

I

>

>

MU

c

MU

E

KU

E

KU

E

KU

E

KU

p

>

i

0

qi

q

0

q

0

i

qi

i

qi >

=

< q

i1

i1

q1

q1

>

>

P

P R I

>

>

I

I

R

>

;

: pq MU I0

ci MU Iqi ER

Ei KU qi EIi KU Rqi >

q KU 0 Eq KU 0

i1

i1

U Rq

U Iq

(

pq

F R

1

F I

1

and

F R

q

F I

q

U 1 p1 U 1 ,

with

)

14c

94

(

) (

)

where

F R

U R

q

q

Step 1: solve B

U I

F I

q

q

hU ;U i

Step 2: compute pq p1 1s2 q and

(

)

(

)

U R

U Rq

q

,

U

.

With U q

q

U I

U Iq

q

1

Pn Ua U 0 a DDn2

U 1 a2 DDn3

U 2 an1 Dn1

U n1

n1

n1

1

Pn x2 a x20 a DDn2

x21 a2 DDn3

x22 an1 Dn1

x2n1

n1

n1

Uq

pq

p1

U1

U q ,

18

where Dj(a) are polynomials of degree (j) with real coefcients

(dj)[j=1,n1]:

structures. The matrix [B] and the right hand side vectors are built

for each order q. The inversion of

matrix [B] is needed once for

( the)

U Rq

(q = 1 to n) and the coefall nodal displacement vectors

U Iq

cients pq are obtained by a simple algebraic equation. The polynomial solution Eq. (10) can be then obtained for any desired

truncated order n.

Dj a 1 ad1 a2 d2 aj dj

4. Numerical results

validity [0, alimit] for which the limit can be computed automatically using a simple criterion based on the difference between

two constitutive order solutions remain small [2]:

forced vibrations of square and rectangular sandwich plates and

beams. A rened mesh was used to ensure the convergence of

the nite element method. These structures have been discretized

using a triangular sandwich element with three nodes and eight

d.o.f per node (U1, U3, V1, V3, w, Rx, Ry, Rz) (Appendix A). Based on

the discrete Kirchhoff theory (DKT) [33], this element has been

developed and tested in reference [24]. In the present paper, various numerical tests of forced vibration of viscoelastic and sandwich beams and plates with various viscoelastic models, shapes

and boundary conditions are performed. The results obtained by

the inversion matrix method are considered as reference results.

The resulting residue with series-continuation and with Pad-continuation results is of 106 order.

1=n1

kU 1 k

alimit d

kU n k

15

simple criterion gives a good order of magnitude of the validity of

the solution, whereas it requires almost no computing time. However, a more secure way of controlling the quantity of the asymptotic solution consists of computing residual vectors. Anyway; the

simple criterion given above is helpful in dening the range of interest of the parameter d and it was successfully tested in various

studies [4].

Taking a starting point in the zone of validity of the solution,

one can reapply the ANM and goes far into the solution path.

Although, the continued solution has a radius of convergence, the

application of the ANM iteratively allows one to determine a complex branch by a succession of local asymptotic expansions.

3.3. Continuation method based on Pad approximants

In order to improve the continuation procedure presented

above, a continuation method based on Pad approximants by

replacing the polynomial approximation Eq. (10) by a rational

one is also used [3,4]. An ortho-normal basis U i obtained from

the vectors Ui by the classical GramSchmidt orthogonalization

procedure is introduced:

Uj

j

X

ajk U k ; j 1; n

16

k1

obtains n polynomials with decreasing degrees as factors of the vector elds U k

U U0

n

X

j1

U j

j

X

ajk a

kj

17

k1

have a number of poles close to the radius of convergence. To avoid

this drawback, we replace the polynomials by rational fractions

with a single denominator [3]. These fractions are called simultaneous Pad approximants or vector Pad approximants. A new representation by rational fractions of the solution path U(x2) is

obtained [3]:

19

our previous works on the nonlinear static analysis of thin structures. By this way, the response curve U(x) is determined and presented in rational fractions forms. To get the whole solution

branches, one can use the continuation procedure based on the

resulting solutions.

In order to test the efciency of this method, singular resonance

curves of undamped elastic plates are rstly considered. The physical and geometrical properties of the elastic square plate (gc = 0)

are listed in the Table 1. The three rst resonance curves corresponding to a simply supported square plate submitted to a concentrated harmonic excitation F = 1000 N at (L/4, L/4) are

presented in Fig. 2a and b. Results obtained by the series-continuation method Eq. (9) are presented in Fig. 2a and () indicate the

starting points. Let us recall that each solution step necessitates

only one matrix inversion and the solution is obtained in a polynomial form. It is clearly shown that, far from resonances, the obtained range of the solution is large and some accumulations of

the starting points around the singular points are observed.

Remember that the classical way to obtain these results is the solution of the resulting linear system for each xed frequency. This is

very time consuming in comparison to the presented method.

This result is spectacularly improved by the use of continuation

method based on Pad approximants Eq. (18) as clearly shown in

Fig. 2b. Only one step of Pad continuation method is needed for

each singular resonance curve. Recall that for Pad approximants,

only the vectors orthogonalization and a very few symbolic manipulations are needed.

For closed resonances, an almost square plate with length

L = 177.8 mm and width l = 170 mm is considered. This plate is

simply supported and harmonically excited by F(L/4, l/4) =

1000 N. The rst singularities resonance curves are presented in

Fig. 3a and b obtained respectively by the series-continuation

and pad-continuation. Again, accumulation points are observed

in the vicinity of singular points in Fig. 3a, but response curves

are automatically obtained for a large frequency range. Using

Pad-approximants, this drawback is overcame. Fig. 3-b shows that

95

Table 1

Material and geometrical properties of the used sandwich structures

Youngs modulus: Ef = 6.9 1010 N m2

Poisson ratio: mf = 0.3

Density: qf = 2766 kg m3

Thickness: H = 1.524 mm

Elastic layer

2

Viscoelastic layer

Poisson ratio: mc = 0.3

Density: qc = 968.1 kg m3

Thickness: h = 0.127 mm

Beam

Length: L = 177.8 mm

Width: l = 12.7 mm

Length: L = 177.8 mm

Square plate

Rectangular plate

Length: L = 177.8 mm

Width: l = 88.9 mm

Length: L = 177.8 mm

Width: l = 170 mm

Table 2

Frequencies and loss factors of the six rst modes for cantilever sandwich beam with

different core loss factors

gc

y

z

Elastic layer

Viscoelastic layer

Elastic layer

Fig. 1. Sandwich plate.

H

h

H

Ref. [30]

Ref. [7]

gm/gc

f (Hz)

gm/gc

f (Hz)

gm/gc

f (Hz)

g m / gc

0.1

64.5

298.9

746.5

1407.7

2286.2

3385.7

0.281

0.242

0.154

0.089

0.057

0.039

64.2

296.9

745.5

1398.5

2271.2

3363.4

0.281

0.242

0.153

0.088

0.056

0.038

64.1

296.4

743.7

1393.9

2261.1

3343.6

0.282

0.242

0.154

0.089

0.057

0.039

64.2

297.

747.2

1408.3

2304.0

3446.1

0.285

0.242

0.154

0.090

0.057

0.038

0.3

64.9

299.9

747.9

1408.9

2287.2

3386.6

0.272

0.237

0.153

0.088

0.057

0.039

64.5

297.5

745.9

1398.7

2271.3

3363.5

0.272

0.239

0.153

0.088

0.056

0.038

64.4

297

744.1

1394.0

2261.2

3343.7

0.272

0.240

0.154

0.089

0.057

0.039

64.7

298

748.2

1409.5

2305.0

3447.

0.275

0.238

0.153

0.088

0.056

0.038

0.6

65.9

303.1

752.3

1412.7

2290.6

3389.5

0.247

0.224

0.150

0.088

0.057

0.039

65.6

299.5

747.3

1399.5

2271.8

3363.8

0.246

0.232

0.152

0.088

0.056

0.038

65.5

298.9

745.5

1394.9

2261.7

3344.0

0.246

0.232

0.153

0.089

0.057

0.039

65.5

301.

753.

1414.

2310.

3450.

0.249

0.227

0.149

0.087

0.056

0.038

67.8

309.1

761.1

1420.6

2297.9

3395.9

0.204

0.201

0.142

0.086

0.057

0.037

67.5

303.3

750.4

1404.2

2273.0

3364.5

0.202

0.217

0.150

0.087

0.056

0.038

67.4

302.8

748.6

1396.6

2262.9

3345.0

0.202

0.218

0.150

0.088

0.057

0.039

67.4

307.

762.

1422.

2316.

3455.0

0.196

0.203

0.141

0.086

0.056

0.038

1.5

70.3

317.4

777.2

1432.8

2310.1

3407.0

0.155

0.176

0.131

0.083

0.056

0.039

70.0

309.4

756.2

1404.3

2275.1

3365.9

0.153

0.197

0.145

0.086

0.056

0.038

69.9

308.9

754.0

1399.7

2265.0

3346.0

0.153

0.198

0.146

0.087

0.057

0.039

70.

315.

774.0

1433.

2328.0

3468.5

0.155

0.177

0.132

0.083

0.055

0.038

Consider that the Young modulus of the viscoelastic core is

E = Ec(1 + igc), where Ec and gc are constant. This is the simplest

way to take account of the viscoelastic behavior. Sandwich viscoelastic beam is rst considered and the used material and geometrical properties are given in Table 1. The used FE mesh involves two

elements through the width and 100 elements along the length.

The response curve of a cantilever sandwich beam under a concentrated harmonic excitation at (L/3, l/2) (F(L/3, l/2) = 100 N) is presented in Fig. 4. The excitation point (L/3, l/2) is selected in order to

excite the rst three modes. These results are obtained by the series continuation and the Pad-continuation methods. The radius of

convergence of the series is indicated by (j) and of the Pad

approximants by (). These limits are used as starting points for

the next iteration. Again, only one Pad continuation step is needed

for each resonance while some series continuation increments are

necessary. Theses results demonstrate clearly the efciency of the

asymptotic numerical method based on Pad approximants.

Based on the half power bandwidth, the obtained resonance

curves are used to measure the natural frequencies and equivalent

loss factors. Different loss factors for the same Young modulus of

the core layer are tested. The obtained results associated to the rst

Ref. [18]

f (Hz)

only two steps of the Pad continuation are needed for three resonance curves. These results show clearly the efciency of this

method to investigate the undamped forced linear vibration response curves.

as presented in Fig. 1 are considered. Like in many works [7,22

25,28], the complex constant modulus and the generalized Maxwell model are adopted for the viscoelastic behavior. Natural frequencies and equivalent loss factors for different core

characteristics as well as the response curves are investigated

and compared with available results.

Proposed method

compared with those of references [7,18]. The numerical results

of reference [7] are obtained using the eight-node shellsolidshell

Table 3

Frequencies and loss factors of the ve rst modes for sandwich square plate for

g = 0.1, for different boundary conditions (C: Clamped, S: Simply supported)

Excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 10,000 N and at (3L/4,3L/4) is F = 3000 N

Proposed method

gm / gc

Ref. [18]

f (Hz)

gm / gc

f (Hz)

(a) CCCC

0.315

0.229

0.192

0.167

0.148

136.572

260.397

374.360

454.354

553.700

0.288

0.227

0.192

0.169

0.148

136.971

260.539

374.509

454.566

553.653

(b) SSSS

0.548

0.358

0.279

0.237

0.206

96.821

195.751

292.709

358.439

449.635

0.508

0.355

0.282

0.246

0.207

97.261

195.825

292.736

358.254

449.496

(c) CSCS

0.396

0.337

0.239

0.225

0.246

118.374

209.937

250.186

335.713

369.064

0.366

0.323

0.242

0.227

0.236

118.782

210.468

250.258

335.817

367.858

96

Table 4

Frequencies and loss factors of the ve rst modes for sandwich rectangular plate for

different boundary conditions (C: Clamped, S: Simply supported), with g = 0.3 and a/

b=2

Proposed method

gm / gc

Ref. [18]

f (Hz)

gm / g c

f (Hz)

(a) CCCC

0.230

0.159

0.132

0.107

0.086

328.355

426.243

593.745

836.339

931.059

0.170

0.159

0.135

0.106

0.090

331.527

426.943

594.726

835.872

931.099

(b) SSSS

0.545

0.294

0.200

0.169

0.145

195.265

291.886

447.559

576.177

672.825

0.405

0.297

0.212

0.173

0.154

199.526

292.564

449.270

578.142

672.210

(c) CSCS

0.500

0.239

0.168

0.152

0.116

208.766

334.397

522.983

585.317

699.375

0.360

0.237

0.165

0.169

0.144

213.0002

335.309

525.4213

585.367

698.9456

For sandwich viscoelastic plates, the used material and geometrical characteristics are given in Table 1. The response curves

obtained by the proposed method for a simply support sandwich

viscoelastic square plate under harmonic excitation at F(L/4,

L/4) = 2000 N are presented in Fig. 5. Two core damping coefcients are considered (gc = 0.1, gc = 0.3). A large frequency range

is covered with only three steps of the ANM. Various boundary

conditions and viscoelastic core characteristics can be easily considered. The resonance curves of CCCC, SSSS and CSCS viscoelastic

sandwich square plate (gc = 0.1) excited mutually by F(L/4,

L/4) = 10000 N and by F(3L/4, 3L/4) = 3000 N (L = l = 348 mm)

are presented in Fig. 6. The rst fth resonances are obtained

by only some steps of the ANM. The double excitation is used

in order to amplify the rst resonances. The corresponding natural frequencies and equivalent loss factors are given in Table 3a

c. These are extracted from the resonance curves presented in

Fig. 6 by the use the half power bandwidth method. For comparison, the ANM nonlinear eigenvalue algorithm developed in [18]

is also used to determine the frequencies and loss factors by solving directly the free vibration problem. A good agreement is

obtained.

For rectangular plates with characteristics in Table 1, the obtained frequencies and equivalent loss factors are given in Table

4ac for CCCC, SSSS and CSCS. These results are well compared

with those obtained using the ANM nonlinear eigenvalue algo-

nite elements, the dynamics matrix inversions and the strain energy method. Results of reference [18] are investigated with the 2D

eight node quadrilateral elements and the numerical solution of

the resulting nonlinear eigenvalue problem is obtained by an

asymptotic numerical method.

method, (b) Pad-continuation method.

Fig. 3. Response curves of an elastic nearly square plate (L = 177.8 mm, l = 170 mm)

excited by F(L/4, l/4) = 1000 N using: (a) series-continuation method, (b) Padcontinuation method.

97

factors of the rst mode are observed. This is probably due to the

half power bandwidth method extraction of the loss factor. The

resonance curve of an almost square viscoelastic sandwich SSSS

Fig. 7. Response curve of a nearly sandwich viscoelastic square plate: L = 177.8 mm,

l = 170 mm, h + 2H = 3.175 mm, excitation amplitude at (L/4, l/4) is F = 1000 N,

gc = 0.3.

Table 5

Forced vibration of a simply supported plate

amplitude is F = 100 N at (L/3, l/2), gc = 0.3.

DOF

Method

ANM + Pad

Direct method

ANM + Pad

Direct method

number of steps

Total time (s)

Saved time (%)

4

9

92

400

112

4

67

95

400

1377

Computing time: Comparison between ANM and direct method (Computer used:

Toshiba core duo T2050, 1.6 GHz).

Fig. 5. Response curves of SSSS square plate: L = 177.8 mm, h + 2H = 3.175 mm,

excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 2000 N.

conditions, excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 10000 N and at (3L/4, 3L/4) is

F = 3000 N.

plate excited at (L/4, l/4) is presented in Fig. 7. The points () represent the starting points and again a very few iterations of the ANM

are needed. It is clearly shown that the isolated as well as the very

close resonances are obtained. Many others numerical tests to assess the efciency of this method for dynamic response curves are

investigated.

Remember that the solution is obtained in a polynomial form in

the validity zone from a starting point. Only one matrix inversion is

needed for all vectors Uj (j = 1,n) and some algebraic manipulations. Iterating this approach leads to the series-continuation and

Pad-continuation methods. The zone of validity of the obtained

solution at each step can be large as clearly presented in Figs. 2

7. These presented results are also obtained by the direct method

which necessitates a matrix inversion at each frequency point.

For the sake of clarity about the used CPU time, let us consider

the plate response curve in the frequency range [0:1400] as presented in Fig. 5. Two cases with 968 and 3528 degree of freedom

numbers are tested and only three and four Pad continuation

steps are respectively needed. These steps can be clearly shown

in Fig. 5 for 968 d.o.f and gc = 0.3. This curve is presented with

100 frequency points at each Pad step. In order to get the same

results with the direct method 400 frequency points are necessary

for the considered d.o.f. The total time needed by the direct method is more than 12 times, the needed one for the Pad continuation

for 968 d.o.f and more than 20 times for 3528 d.o.f. The percentage

of the saved time is given in Table 5 for the considered plate FE discretisation. The saved time is increasing by increasing the degrees

of freedom.

4.2.2. Frequency dependent Young modulus

Based on the Maxwell model equation (8), the mathematical

formulation of the power series development of the frequency

dependent Young modulus is elaborated. Various models can be

considered and only some ones are selected in order to test the

efciency of the proposed method. The used material coefcients

of viscoelastic core materials are given in Table 5. The vibration

98

Table 6

Maxwell series terms and material properties of the used viscoelastic core

Viscoelastic material

3M ISD112 at 27 C

3 Maxwell series terms

Viscoelastic material

3M ISD112 at 20 C

3 Maxwell series terms

Density: qc = 1600 kg m3

Ec (N m2)

1.44E+6

147.168E+3

kj

gj

kj

gj

1

2

3

373,000

1,632,500

21,642,000

795.818

344.235

302.548

143918.04

670237.82

2323287.1

4624.972

1501.247

422.221

studied cases. Many numerical tests of sandwich plates with a frequency depend viscoelastic core are also performed. Using the viscoelastic core model (3M ISD112 at 20 C and at 27 C), the

obtained response curves of SSSS sandwich plate simultaneously

excited by F(L/4, L/4) = 1000 N is presented in Fig. 9. The starting

points of the series and Pad continuation methods are intentionally plotted in order to evaluate the steps accumulations. These

steps reductions are introduced by the E(x)-radius of convergence.

A deep analysis of the improvement of the radius of convergence

and the applicability to more complex viscoelastic models is in

progress. These gures show on one hand the applicability of the

proposed method to viscoelastic structures with hard and soft viscoelastic materials and on the other hand the temperature effect

on the response curves.

5. Conclusions

material 3M ISD112 at 27 C and at 20 C, excitation amplitude at (L, l/2) is

F = 100 N and at (L/2, l/2) is F = 400 N.

In this paper, an asymptotic numerical method has been developed for response curve corresponding to forced harmonic vibrations of viscoelastic structures. The mathematical modelling has

been developed in a general way in order to take into account various viscoelastic models undamped sandwich and viscoelastic

structures. The constant and frequency dependent viscoelastic

models of Maxwell type are considered. The power series development and the resulting linear problems are explicitly presented.

The series-continuation and Pad continuation methods are elaborated for numerical solutions. The response curves are numerically

computed for various frequency ranges, excitations types and viscoelastic models. The continuation method based on the series and

on the Pad approximants are rstly tested for singular resonances

curves of the elastic beams and plates. The efciency of both methods is demonstrated in comparison to the classical matrix inversion method. The asymptotic method based on Pad approximant

is shown to be powerful and necessitate very few iterations for

large frequency ranges. Numerical results for linear frequencies

and equivalent loss factor obtained from half power bandwidth

of the obtained response curves are well compared to the available

ones. The frequency dependent viscoelastic model based on Maxwell models with various coefcients is considered. The resonance

curves of sandwich beams and plates with the associated viscoelastic cores are investigated. The efciency and applicability of

this method are illustrated here for forced vibration of undamped

elastic, sandwich and viscoelastic beams and plates with different

shapes, boundary conditions and viscoelastic models.

Acknowledgement

The authors gratefully acknowledge the nancial support from:

Action Intgre Franco-Marocaine PAI MA/05/117, the Moroccan

Ministry of Higher Education and Scientic Research and CNRST

Project PROTARS III D11/22 and the European FP6 STREP project

CASSEM.

Fig. 9. Response curves of SSSS sandwich plate with viscoelastic core material 3M

ISD112 at 27 C and at 20 C, excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 1000 N.

of sandwich viscoelastic beams and plates modelled by two viscoelastic Maxwell models with three coefcients, taken from [31],

are analysed. The response curves corresponding to the viscoelastic

core materials at 27 C and at 20 C (Table 6) are depicted in Fig. 8.

Starting points of the series () and Pad continuation (j) methods

are presented. Again, the Pad approximants method is better than

the series one even if the radius of convergence is reduced. The

matrix inversion solution is used as a reference solution and the

obtained results with the matrix inversion, the series-continuation

The model of Love Kirchoff is adopted for the elastic layers and

the Mindlins for the viscoelastic core in order to incorporate the

effects of the transverse shear deformation. A three-layer symmetric sandwich plate is considered with the coordinate x along the

length, y along the width and z along the thickness directions as

shown is Fig. 1. Let zi be the co-ordinate of the layer i. Because of

symmetry, z1 = (H + h)/2 = z3, z2 = 0. H, h are respectively the

thickness of the elastic layer and of the core. The displacement

elds for the upper and lower layers are given by

99

8

ow

>

< U i x; y; z; t ui x; y; t z zi ox

ow

V i x; y; z; t vi x; y; t z zi oy

>

:

W i x; y; z; t wi x; y; t

i 1; 3;

A:1

where ui, vi are the in-plane displacements at each mid plane layer

and w the transverse displacement. The displacement eld for the

middle layer is given by

8

>

< U 2 x; y; z; t u2 x; y; t zbx x; y; t

V 2 x; y; z; t v2 x; y; t zby x; y; t

>

:

W 2 x; y; z; t wx; y; t

A:2

reference surface about the y and x axes. Based on the interface continuity conditions, it is possible to eliminate all the core variables

from the potential and kinetic energy expressions [27]. So, the layers displacements may be returned to the displacements of the elastic layers allowing a reduction of the number of independent

generalized displacements [27]:

8

u1 x;y;tu3 x;y;t

3 x;y;t

zu1 x;y;tu

Hh Rx x; y; t

>

2

2

< U 2 x; y; z; t

v1 x;y;tv3 x;y;t

v1 x;y;tv3 x;y;t

z

Hh Ry x; y; t

V 2 x; y; z; t

2

2

>

:

W 2 x; y; z; t wx; y; t

ow

oy

where Rx

are the rotations of the normal of midplanes of the elastic layers. The number of independent generalized

displacements is then reduced to seven unknowns {U1(x, y, t), U3(x, y, t), V1(x, y, t), V3(x, y, t), w(x, y, t), Rx(x, y, t), Ry(x, y, t)}.

Using these displacements expressions, the strains elds in each

layer can be stated on:

8 i 9

>

=

< exx >

0 0 0

z zi oxo

e

>

;

eixy

6

40

o

oy

0 0 0

o

oy

o

ox

0 0 0 z zi oyo

9

8

e2xx >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

e2 >

>

=

< yy >

2 1

>

:

i

yy

o

ox

8 9

u1 >

>

>

>

>

>

>v >

>

>

>

1>

>

>

3>

>

> >

>

>

0

>

=

< u3 >

z zi oyo 7

5 v3 ;

>

>

> >

>

>

z zi oxo >

>

>w>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

> Rx >

>

;

: >

Ry

h oxo

0

h oxo

0

2

2

1 z o

6

1

0

z o

0

6

6 1 z o 21 hz oxo 1 z o 21 hz oxo

2

6

exy 6 2 h ox 2 h ox 2 h ox 2 h ox

>

>

> 6

>

1

>

0

1h

0

>

>

e2xz >

> 4

>

h

>

>

>

1

1

;

: e2 >

0

0

h

h

yz

fue gt

u1j

v 1j

fei g Bi fu g;

u3j

v3j

wj

Rxj

Rzj ;

A:7

i1

where Vi are the volume of each layer, q2 and q1 (q1 = q3) are,

respectively, the mass density of the core and faces and [Ci] are

the matrices obtained from the strain stress laws:

mf

Ef

6

7

0 5

4 mf 1

1 m2f

0 0 1 mf

2

0

0

1 mc

6

0

0

6 mc 1

E c x 6

6 0 0 1 mc

C 2 x

0

6

1 m2c 6

0

1 mc

40 0

C 1 C 3

z Hh

o

ox

0 z Hh oxo

0 1 Hh

0

0

0

0

0

1 mc

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

A:8

The power series expansion of E(x) depends on the viscoelastic

law considered. In this paper, constant and Maxwell models are

adopted. The explicit relationships of Ek are hardly dependent on

the considered number of Maxwell terms Nmax. For the clearness

of the presentation, only a few cases are presented.

A:4

8 9

> u1 >

>

> >

3>

>

>

>

v1 >

0

>

>

>

>

>

>

> >

H o 7>

u3 >

z h ox 7>

>

=

<

7

H o 7

z h ox 7 v3

>

> >

7>

w>

0 5>

>

>

>

>

>

>

> >

H >

>

>

R

1 h >

x

>

>

>

;

: >

Ry

A:5

For this classical case, the modulus is considered constant

and expressed as

i 1; 2; 3

Rxj

i1

3 R

>

P

>

>

q Ni t Ni dV i

: Me

Vi i

i 1; 3

expressed by the classical formulations:

8 _

< fU g N i fue g;

8

3 R

P

>

>

B t C i Bi dV i

>

< K e

Vi i

0

A:3

ow

; Ry

ox

follows:

E E0 1 ig

j 1; n

A:6

where [Ni] are matrices that depend only on the shape functions of

the considered nite element discretisation in the elastic layer, n is

the number of nodes of the considered element and [Bi] is the product of the differential operating matrix relating {ei} to the shape

functions matrix [Ni] in the each layer [19,33].

B:1

factor. In this case, there is no need for additional asymptotic

development.

(b) Frequency dependent Young modulus

Introducing Eq. (10a) into Eq. (9) and equating like powers of

a, one obtains the following relationships of Ek:

100

Explicit expressions of Ek are given by

Order 0 : E0

ik1 p0

k1

g1

Order 1 :

B:2

ip0

8

< E1 p1 E1

B:3

k1 E0

: E1 i k1 ip

0

g1

8

>

< Ek pk E1 Ek

k1

Order k P 2 :

P

i

>

Em pkm

: Ek k1 ip

0

g1

B:4

m1

The Ek can be written as

c0 R2 ip0 R3 f0 R1

Order 0 : E0

B:5

R6 c0 R4 ip0 R5 f0

(

E1 p1 E1

B:6

Order 1 :

2p E R R i3p20 E0 R1 R3 E0 R5

E1 0 0 4 R62c0 R4 ip

0 R5 f0

8

< Ek pk E1 Ek

P

Pk1

Pk1

k1

Order k P 2 :

: E Dk R11 R4 j1 Ej cij i Ak R12 j1 Ej fij R5 j1 Ej pij

k

R6 c0 R4 ip R5 f0

R6 c0 R4 ip R5 f0

0

B:7

in which

8

c0 p20

>

>

>

< c 2p p

1

0 1

kP

1

>

>

>

pj pkj 2p0 pk Dk

: ck 2p0 pk

;

for k P 2

j1

where Dk

Pk1

j1

pj pkj

8

f0 p30

>

>

>

< f 3p2 p

1

0 1

k1

>

P

>

2

>

cj pkj 3p20 pk Ak

: fk 3p0 pk Dk p0

B:8

for k P 2

j1

where Ak Dk p0

Pk1

j1

cj pkj

8

>

T i gki ; i 1; 2; 3

>

>

i

>

>

>

3

>

P

>

> R1 kj ; R2 k1 T 2 T 3 k2 T 1 T 3 k3 T 1 T 2

>

>

>

j1

<

3

P

>

>

R3 k1 T 2 T 3 k2 T 1 T 3 k3 T 1 T 2 ; R4 T j

>

>

>

j1

>

>

>

>

3

>

Q

>

>

: R5 T 2 T 3 T 1 T 3 T 1 T 2 ; R6 T i

8

R7 2p0 E0 R4 R2 2p0 R11

>

>

>

<

R8 3p20 E0 R1 R3 E0 R5

>

R9 R6 c0 R4

>

>

:

R10 p0 R5 f0

B:9

i1

B:10

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