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# Computers and Structures 87 (2009) 91100

## Computers and Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc

## Forced harmonic response of viscoelastic structures by an asymptotic

numerical method
F. Abdoun a, L. Azrar a,*, E.M. Daya b, M. Potier-Ferry b
a
b

Equipe de Modlisation Mathmatique et Contrle, UFR: SPI et MAM, Facult des Sciences et Techniques de Tanger, Universit Abdelmalek Essaadi, BP 416 Tanger, Morocco
Laboratoire de Physique et Mcanique des Matriaux, UMR CNRS 7554, Universit Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile de Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex, France

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Accepted 4 August 2008
Available online 7 October 2008
Keywords:
Vibration
Viscoelastic
Sandwich
FEM
Beam
Plate

a b s t r a c t
This work presents an asymptotic numerical method for forced harmonic vibration analyses of viscoelastic structures. A mathematical formulation that may account for various viscoelastic models is presented.
Power series expansions and Pad approximants of the displacement and frequency are developed and
the nite element method is used for numerical solution. Only some matrix inversions and a few iterations are needed for large frequency ranges. Iterations of the process lead to a powerful continuation
method for harmonic responses of viscoelastic structures with constant and frequency dependent coefcients. For numerical tests, undamped, viscoelastic and sandwich viscoelastic beams and plates are considered. Passive control, response curves and equivalent damping characteristics are obtained for various
frequency ranges, excitation amplitudes and viscoelastic models.

1. Introduction

## Kx  x2 MfUg fFg

The main objective of this paper is the development of an efcient continuation algorithm for response curves of viscoelastic
structures under harmonic excitations at large frequency ranges.
The proposed algorithm is based on the asymptotic numerical
method (ANM) which is a combination of a nite element method
and a perturbation method. The ANM permits to get a large part of
response curves either on the power series expansion [1,2] or on
the rational fraction forms called Pad approximants . The efciency of this method has been largely proved for various nonlinear
static problems . Based on harmonic balance method and on the
ANM, linear and nonlinear vibrations of thin elastic plates with
various shapes and harmonic excitation types are analysed [5,6].
The algorithm developed in this paper is the adaptation of the presented method in [5,6] to linear forced vibrations of viscoelastic
structures.
Based on linear viscoelastic models, the dependence of structure stiffness and dissipation on the vibration frequency is accounted for via the complex and frequency dependent material
coefcients. In the framework of small deformations, the governing
dynamic structures responses under harmonic excitations {F}eixt
can be modelled by the following matrix problem:

## in which [K(x)] and {U} are the complex-valued stiffness matrix

and displacement vector respectively. Numerical solution of Eq.
(1) for a large frequency range leads to response curves at any sensitive structure point. Let us note that when the response curves of
excited structures are available at a number of points over a range
of frequencies, a great deal of information about its vibratory
behavior can be extracted from them. Classical methods  can
be used in the vicinity of resonances for predicting natural frequencies and associated loss factors. The effects of the off-resonant
modes can be evaluated by the analysis of the in-plane and quadrature components of the displacement and of the total displacement
response. The interaction effects of higher modes and particularly
for closed resonances can also be analysed.
There are various nite element computer codes dealing with
the dynamic analysis of viscoelastic structures (Nastran, Ansys,
Abaqus, . . .). The advantages are that these programs can analyse
complex structures and have been well developed and managed.
The disadvantage is that the computation cost for response curves
is expensive. Indeed, the complex dynamic stiffness matrix has to
be formed and decomposed at many different frequencies in order
to obtain a complete solution for the frequency response . However, the use of viscoelastic structures is an effective way to
suppress vibrations and noise. The viscoelastic behavior permits
to control the amplitude of resonant vibration, to modify wave

* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: l.azrar@uae.ma, azrarlahcen@yahoo.fr (L. Azrar).
doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2008.08.006

92

## attenuation and sound transmission, to reduce fatigue and then to

increase the structure life. The structure can be either completely
viscoelastic or composed with constrained or unconstrained viscoelastic layers. The constrained layer damping, sandwiching two
outer elastic layers with a viscoelastic core, is more effective than
the free layer design since more energy is consumed and dissipated
into heat in the work done by the shearing mode within the viscoelastic layer. The symmetric conguration in which the two outer
elastic layers have the same thickness and stiffness is by far the
most effective design since it maximizes the shear deformation
in the core layer. Thanks to these passive control advantages, this
kind of sandwich structures is also considered in this work.
Many investigations have been devoted to vibration of viscoelastic structures and especially for damping properties [8,9]. Generally, these properties are measured by two modal parameters
that are the frequency and the loss factor. Based on semi-analytical
and on nite element methods, many works dealing with the linear
vibration analysis of thin structures with various viscoelastic approaches have been developed .
Frequency-domain, time-domain and time-frequency representations are used by different authors. In the time-domain, the dynamic behavior of linear viscoelastic structures can be analysed
by the generalized viscoelastic model based on the convolution
integrals . The Laguerre polynomials are used to derive timedomain responses of linear hysteretic systems and the emphasis
is on the Biot hysteretic model . Applications to foundationvibration and seismic protection are derived by various authors.
More recently, a state-space formulation for the dynamic response
of beams on viscoelsatically damped foundation and under moving
oscillators is presented in . Viscoelastic models based on fractional derivatives are also used by some authors for time-domain
analysis. Using this concept and anelastic displacement elds, the
weak frequency-dependence of damping characteristic is described .
In the frequency-domain, the frequency and the loss factor can
be directly determined by different ways. The usual methods are
the modal strain energy method , the direct frequency method
, the linear complex eigenvalue method based on the QR algorithm [15,16] and the nonlinear complex eigenvalue procedures
. The methods presented in  are based on the
ANM and can be applied to various models and for large scale
structures. Natural frequencies and loss factor of viscoelastically
damped sandwich structures can be computed with moderate
computational cost. However, the response vibration curves can
not be determined with these methods. Indeed, the forcing vibration problem (1) is required to be solved with moderate computational cost.
The aim of this paper is the development of a path following
algorithm for harmonic response curves of viscoelastic structures
with constant and frequency depend coefcients. As only some matrix inversions and a few iterations are needed for large frequency
ranges, the CPU time can be enormously reduced. Passive control
and response curves are investigated for undamped structures
and particularly for viscoelastic structures under various types of
excitations. The response curves can be obtained for any required
frequency range, excitation force and boundary conditions.

2. Mathematical modelling

(
)
o2 U
dV F
fdeg  frg qfdUg 
ot2
V

## where r, e, U and q are respectively the stress and strain tensors,

the generalized displacement at a point within the body V and q
is the mass density of the material. The excitation force F is assumed
to be a harmonic time function and then the analysis presented here
is limited to periodic responses. So, the stress and strain tensors and
the displacement U can be expressed as harmonic time functions:

## rx; y; z; t rx; y; zeixt

ex; y; z; t ex; y; zeixt

p
where i 1 and x is the vibration frequency. For small stresses
and strains, the linear viscoelastic properties, exhibited under dynamic loading, are described by a complex relaxation matrix
[C(x)] which is a function of the loading frequency x. The stress
strain law can be written in the form:

frg Cxfeg

where the real and imaginary part of [(C(x)] characterizes respectively energy storage and dissipative behavior of the viscoelastic
material. Hence, as established in many studies [7,1820], with
classical notations of computational mechanics, the nite element
discretisation of the variational formulation Eq. (2) (see Appendix
A), leads to the following matrix problem:

## where [K(x)] is the resulting frequency dependent stiffness matrix

that is complex, [M] is the mass matrix, {U} is the nodal displacement vector and {F} is the amplitude of imposed sinusoidal force,
usually taken as real.
For the sake of simplicity, the viscoelastic material considered
herein is linear, homogenous and isotropic. Hence, the stress
strain law can be expressed by

r 2l e k I3 e

where

8

< l E x
21t
: k tE x
12t1t
in which I3 is the identity matrix, E*(x) is the complex Young modulus and t is Poissons ratio. As in most analyses, the Poisson ratio is
assumed constant. Using the generalized Hooks law Eq. (4), one can
easily nd that the stiffness matrix [K(x)] can be written as

8
>
< Kx K0 ExK
K0 E 0K
>
:
Ex E x  E 0

## The modulus of delayed elasticity E*(0) is always real, so the elastic

matrix [K(0)] is real symmetric and positive denite. Remember
that the matrices [K(0)] corresponding to delayed elasticity and
[K] do not depend on x. The mathematical modelling of the forced
vibration problem is then given by

## K0 ExK  x2 MfUg fFg

The forced vibration of harmonically excited viscoelastic structures is mathematically formulated in a general way. The present
formulation is valid for various structures types and various viscoelastic models. For the space discretisation, the nite element
method will be used and the classical following virtual work principle will be adopted:

## This model is general and can account for various viscoelastic

models. The resulting Young modulus, loss factor and shear
frequency dependent can be easily inserted in the present formulation. The nite element matrices [M] and [K] may correspond to
beams, plates or shells and the mathematical modelling Eq. (8)

93

## may correspond to viscoelastic structures, sandwich viscoelastic

structures or laminated structures with viscoelastic layers. Only a
specied viscoelastic model is needed for the dynamic responses
of the considered structure. For the sake of clearness, the emphasis
is rst on the constant viscoelastic model and then on the frequency
dependent Young modulus. The Maxwells model is used for the last
case and the Young modulus is given by

Eix k0 g0 ix

N
max
X
j1

ix

ix
kj

g1

Introducing Eqs. (10) and (11) into Eq. (8) and equating like
powers of a, one obtains the following linear problems:

(
Order 0 :

## Order 1 : AfU 1 g c1 MfU 0 g  E1 KfU 0 g

Order j j P 2 : AfU j g

j
X

ci MfU ji g 

12a
12b

j
X

El KfU jl g

12c

l1

For a given initial frequency (p0 = x0), far from the resonant one, the
solution of the linear system Eq. (12a) allows to get the starting displacement U0 for a xed excitation force. Remember that the left
hand side of the problems Eqs. (12a)(12c) have the same matrix.
Then only one matrix inversion is needed for all vectors Uj. But,
the matrix [A] and then the vectors Uj are complex.
It should be mentioned that for viscoelastic structures, Youngs
modulus E and the nodal displacement vector U are complex
quantities and can be decomposed in its it real and imaginary parts
as

U U R iU I ;

3. Method of solution
In this section, an asymptotic numerical algorithm is developed
to solve the forced vibration problem (8) with a reasonable computational cost. This algorithm combining the perturbation techniques and the nite element method has been proposed to solve
other classes of nonlinear problems . The various stages of
the proposed algorithm can be presented as follows.

(
Order 0 : B

"

## In this stage, the displacement and the frequency are expanded

into power series around a starting solution (U0, x0) in the following form:

10a

13

U R0

U I0

 
F

14a

where

B

aj pj

Ex ER x iEI x

## Using these decompositions, one can transform the complex linear

problems Eq. (12) to real ones of double dimensions. The substitution of Eq. (13) into Eq. (12) leads to the following set of equations:

## 3.1. Asymptotic numerical method

xa p0

c0 x20 is given

A K0 E0 K  c0 M;

i1

## where the coefcients kj and gj of this model are obtained from

experimental tests on viscoelastic material. For the dynamic responses, Eq. (8) has to be solved for each xed excitation force. Usually, this problem is solved by inverting the resulting system for
each xed frequency x. The calculation of the response curves requires then a great number of matrix inversions which is very time
consuming.
Our aim here is to solve the matrix problem Eq. (8) by a continuation method based on a perturbation procedure and to develop
an efcient algorithm for response curves.

n
X

AfU 0 g fFg;

EI0 K

EI0 K

K
(

Order 1 : B

U R1

#
K K0 ER0 K  c0 M

U I1

F R1

)
14b

F I1

j1

x2 a c0

n
X

where

aj c j

10b

j1
n
X

aj U j

10c

1
fhU  U 0 ; U 1 i p  p0 p1 g
s2

10d

Ua U 0

F R1
F I1

(
p1

F R
1
F I
1

(
p1



## 2p0 MU I0  EI1 KU R0  ER1 KU I0

j1

in which Uj, pj and cj are the new unknowns which have to be computed p0 x0 ; c0 x20 . In this analysis, the Young modulus is assumed to be frequency dependent and is expanded into power
series with respect to the parameter a as

Ex E0

n
X

aj Ej pk ;

06k6j

11

## This problem is solved in the following steps [2,5]:

 R   R 
F1
U1

Step 1: solve B
U I
F I
1
1
s

Step 2: compute p1  p


 R 
 R  hU1 ;U 1 i1
U
U
1
1
, U1
U 1
U I
U I1
1

j1

## Explicit expressions of the coefcients Ej(pk) are given in the Appendix B.

)
R

Fq

F I
q

Order q q P 2 : B

9
8
q1
q1
P
P R R
>
>
R
R
R
R
I
I
I
I

>
>
MU

c
MU

E
KU

E
KU


E
KU

E
KU

p
>
i
0
qi
q
0
q
0
i
qi
i
qi >
=
< q
i1

i1

q1
q1
>
>
P
P R I
>
>
I
I
R
>
;
: pq MU I0
ci MU Iqi  ER
Ei KU qi EIi KU Rqi >
q KU 0 Eq KU 0 
i1

i1

U Rq
U Iq

(
pq

F R
1
F I
1

and

F R
q
F I
q

U 1 p1 U 1 ,

with

)
14c

94

## F. Abdoun et al. / Computers and Structures 87 (2009) 91100

(
) (
)
where
F R
U R
q
q

Step 1: solve B
U I
F I
q
q

hU ;U  i
Step 2: compute pq p1 1s2 q and
(
)
(
)
U R
U Rq
q
,
U
.

With U q
q
U I
U Iq
q

1
Pn Ua U 0 a DDn2
U 1 a2 DDn3
U 2    an1 Dn1
U n1
n1
n1
1
Pn x2 a x20 a DDn2
x21 a2 DDn3
x22    an1 Dn1
x2n1
n1
n1

Uq

pq
p1

U1

U q ,

18
where Dj(a) are polynomials of degree (j) with real coefcients
(dj)[j=1,n1]:

## The nite element discretisation is used for the considered

structures. The matrix [B] and the right hand side vectors are built
for each order q. The inversion of
matrix [B] is needed once for
( the)
U Rq
(q = 1 to n) and the coefall nodal displacement vectors
U Iq
cients pq are obtained by a simple algebraic equation. The polynomial solution Eq. (10) can be then obtained for any desired
truncated order n.

Dj a 1 ad1 a2 d2    aj dj

## 3.2. Continuation method based on the series

4. Numerical results

## Generally, the approximated solutions (Eq. (10)) have a zone of

validity [0, alimit] for which the limit can be computed automatically using a simple criterion based on the difference between
two constitutive order solutions remain small :

## Based on the ANM, numerical solutions were performed for

forced vibrations of square and rectangular sandwich plates and
beams. A rened mesh was used to ensure the convergence of
the nite element method. These structures have been discretized
using a triangular sandwich element with three nodes and eight
d.o.f per node (U1, U3, V1, V3, w, Rx, Ry, Rz) (Appendix A). Based on
the discrete Kirchhoff theory (DKT) , this element has been
developed and tested in reference . In the present paper, various numerical tests of forced vibration of viscoelastic and sandwich beams and plates with various viscoelastic models, shapes
and boundary conditions are performed. The results obtained by
the inversion matrix method are considered as reference results.
The resulting residue with series-continuation and with Pad-continuation results is of 106 order.


1=n1
kU 1 k
alimit d
kU n k

15

## where d is a sufciently small accuracy parameter. Note that this

simple criterion gives a good order of magnitude of the validity of
the solution, whereas it requires almost no computing time. However, a more secure way of controlling the quantity of the asymptotic solution consists of computing residual vectors. Anyway; the
simple criterion given above is helpful in dening the range of interest of the parameter d and it was successfully tested in various
studies .
Taking a starting point in the zone of validity of the solution,
one can reapply the ANM and goes far into the solution path.
Although, the continued solution has a radius of convergence, the
application of the ANM iteratively allows one to determine a complex branch by a succession of local asymptotic expansions.
3.3. Continuation method based on Pad approximants
In order to improve the continuation procedure presented
above, a continuation method based on Pad approximants by
replacing the polynomial approximation Eq. (10) by a rational
one is also used [3,4]. An ortho-normal basis U i obtained from
the vectors Ui by the classical GramSchmidt orthogonalization
procedure is introduced:

Uj

j
X

ajk U k ; j 1; n

16

k1

## Introducing Eq. (16) in the polynomial representation Eq. (10), one

obtains n polynomials with decreasing degrees as factors of the vector elds U k

U  U0

n
X
j1

U j

j
X

ajk a

kj

17

k1

## This rational approximants sometimes present the disadvantage to

have a number of poles close to the radius of convergence. To avoid
this drawback, we replace the polynomials by rational fractions
with a single denominator . These fractions are called simultaneous Pad approximants or vector Pad approximants. A new representation by rational fractions of the solution path U(x2) is
obtained :

19

## These rational fractions have been successfully tested in some of

our previous works on the nonlinear static analysis of thin structures. By this way, the response curve U(x) is determined and presented in rational fractions forms. To get the whole solution
branches, one can use the continuation procedure based on the
resulting solutions.

## 4.1. First test: Undamped structures

In order to test the efciency of this method, singular resonance
curves of undamped elastic plates are rstly considered. The physical and geometrical properties of the elastic square plate (gc = 0)
are listed in the Table 1. The three rst resonance curves corresponding to a simply supported square plate submitted to a concentrated harmonic excitation F = 1000 N at (L/4, L/4) are
presented in Fig. 2a and b. Results obtained by the series-continuation method Eq. (9) are presented in Fig. 2a and () indicate the
starting points. Let us recall that each solution step necessitates
only one matrix inversion and the solution is obtained in a polynomial form. It is clearly shown that, far from resonances, the obtained range of the solution is large and some accumulations of
the starting points around the singular points are observed.
Remember that the classical way to obtain these results is the solution of the resulting linear system for each xed frequency. This is
very time consuming in comparison to the presented method.
This result is spectacularly improved by the use of continuation
method based on Pad approximants Eq. (18) as clearly shown in
Fig. 2b. Only one step of Pad continuation method is needed for
each singular resonance curve. Recall that for Pad approximants,
only the vectors orthogonalization and a very few symbolic manipulations are needed.
For closed resonances, an almost square plate with length
L = 177.8 mm and width l = 170 mm is considered. This plate is
simply supported and harmonically excited by F(L/4, l/4) =
1000 N. The rst singularities resonance curves are presented in
Fig. 3a and b obtained respectively by the series-continuation
and pad-continuation. Again, accumulation points are observed
in the vicinity of singular points in Fig. 3a, but response curves
are automatically obtained for a large frequency range. Using
Pad-approximants, this drawback is overcame. Fig. 3-b shows that

95

## F. Abdoun et al. / Computers and Structures 87 (2009) 91100

Table 1
Material and geometrical properties of the used sandwich structures
Youngs modulus: Ef = 6.9  1010 N m2
Poisson ratio: mf = 0.3
Density: qf = 2766 kg m3
Thickness: H = 1.524 mm

Elastic layer

2

Viscoelastic layer

## Youngs modulus: Ec = 1794  10 N m

Poisson ratio: mc = 0.3
Density: qc = 968.1 kg m3
Thickness: h = 0.127 mm

Beam

Length: L = 177.8 mm
Width: l = 12.7 mm
Length: L = 177.8 mm

Square plate
Rectangular plate

Length: L = 177.8 mm
Width: l = 88.9 mm

## Nearly square plate

Length: L = 177.8 mm
Width: l = 170 mm

Table 2
Frequencies and loss factors of the six rst modes for cantilever sandwich beam with
different core loss factors

gc

y
z
Elastic layer
Viscoelastic layer
Elastic layer
Fig. 1. Sandwich plate.

H
h
H

Ref. 

Ref. 

gm/gc

f (Hz)

gm/gc

f (Hz)

gm/gc

f (Hz)

g m / gc

0.1

64.5
298.9
746.5
1407.7
2286.2
3385.7

0.281
0.242
0.154
0.089
0.057
0.039

64.2
296.9
745.5
1398.5
2271.2
3363.4

0.281
0.242
0.153
0.088
0.056
0.038

64.1
296.4
743.7
1393.9
2261.1
3343.6

0.282
0.242
0.154
0.089
0.057
0.039

64.2
297.
747.2
1408.3
2304.0
3446.1

0.285
0.242
0.154
0.090
0.057
0.038

0.3

64.9
299.9
747.9
1408.9
2287.2
3386.6

0.272
0.237
0.153
0.088
0.057
0.039

64.5
297.5
745.9
1398.7
2271.3
3363.5

0.272
0.239
0.153
0.088
0.056
0.038

64.4
297
744.1
1394.0
2261.2
3343.7

0.272
0.240
0.154
0.089
0.057
0.039

64.7
298
748.2
1409.5
2305.0
3447.

0.275
0.238
0.153
0.088
0.056
0.038

0.6

65.9
303.1
752.3
1412.7
2290.6
3389.5

0.247
0.224
0.150
0.088
0.057
0.039

65.6
299.5
747.3
1399.5
2271.8
3363.8

0.246
0.232
0.152
0.088
0.056
0.038

65.5
298.9
745.5
1394.9
2261.7
3344.0

0.246
0.232
0.153
0.089
0.057
0.039

65.5
301.
753.
1414.
2310.
3450.

0.249
0.227
0.149
0.087
0.056
0.038

67.8
309.1
761.1
1420.6
2297.9
3395.9

0.204
0.201
0.142
0.086
0.057
0.037

67.5
303.3
750.4
1404.2
2273.0
3364.5

0.202
0.217
0.150
0.087
0.056
0.038

67.4
302.8
748.6
1396.6
2262.9
3345.0

0.202
0.218
0.150
0.088
0.057
0.039

67.4
307.
762.
1422.
2316.
3455.0

0.196
0.203
0.141
0.086
0.056
0.038

1.5

70.3
317.4
777.2
1432.8
2310.1
3407.0

0.155
0.176
0.131
0.083
0.056
0.039

70.0
309.4
756.2
1404.3
2275.1
3365.9

0.153
0.197
0.145
0.086
0.056
0.038

69.9
308.9
754.0
1399.7
2265.0
3346.0

0.153
0.198
0.146
0.087
0.057
0.039

70.
315.
774.0
1433.
2328.0
3468.5

0.155
0.177
0.132
0.083
0.055
0.038

## 4.2.1. Constant viscoelastic model

Consider that the Young modulus of the viscoelastic core is
E = Ec(1 + igc), where Ec and gc are constant. This is the simplest
way to take account of the viscoelastic behavior. Sandwich viscoelastic beam is rst considered and the used material and geometrical properties are given in Table 1. The used FE mesh involves two
elements through the width and 100 elements along the length.
The response curve of a cantilever sandwich beam under a concentrated harmonic excitation at (L/3, l/2) (F(L/3, l/2) = 100 N) is presented in Fig. 4. The excitation point (L/3, l/2) is selected in order to
excite the rst three modes. These results are obtained by the series continuation and the Pad-continuation methods. The radius of
convergence of the series is indicated by (j) and of the Pad
approximants by (). These limits are used as starting points for
the next iteration. Again, only one Pad continuation step is needed
for each resonance while some series continuation increments are
necessary. Theses results demonstrate clearly the efciency of the
asymptotic numerical method based on Pad approximants.
Based on the half power bandwidth, the obtained resonance
curves are used to measure the natural frequencies and equivalent
loss factors. Different loss factors for the same Young modulus of
the core layer are tested. The obtained results associated to the rst

Ref. 

f (Hz)

only two steps of the Pad continuation are needed for three resonance curves. These results show clearly the efciency of this
method to investigate the undamped forced linear vibration response curves.

## Three layers symmetric sandwich plates with a viscoelastic core

as presented in Fig. 1 are considered. Like in many works [7,22
25,28], the complex constant modulus and the generalized Maxwell model are adopted for the viscoelastic behavior. Natural frequencies and equivalent loss factors for different core
characteristics as well as the response curves are investigated
and compared with available results.

Proposed method

## six modes are given in Table 2. These results are favourably

compared with those of references [7,18]. The numerical results
of reference  are obtained using the eight-node shellsolidshell

Table 3
Frequencies and loss factors of the ve rst modes for sandwich square plate for
g = 0.1, for different boundary conditions (C: Clamped, S: Simply supported)
Excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 10,000 N and at (3L/4,3L/4) is F = 3000 N
Proposed method

gm / gc

Ref. 
f (Hz)

gm / gc

f (Hz)

(a) CCCC
0.315
0.229
0.192
0.167
0.148

136.572
260.397
374.360
454.354
553.700

0.288
0.227
0.192
0.169
0.148

136.971
260.539
374.509
454.566
553.653

(b) SSSS
0.548
0.358
0.279
0.237
0.206

96.821
195.751
292.709
358.439
449.635

0.508
0.355
0.282
0.246
0.207

97.261
195.825
292.736
358.254
449.496

(c) CSCS
0.396
0.337
0.239
0.225
0.246

118.374
209.937
250.186
335.713
369.064

0.366
0.323
0.242
0.227
0.236

118.782
210.468
250.258
335.817
367.858

96

## F. Abdoun et al. / Computers and Structures 87 (2009) 91100

Table 4
Frequencies and loss factors of the ve rst modes for sandwich rectangular plate for
different boundary conditions (C: Clamped, S: Simply supported), with g = 0.3 and a/
b=2
Proposed method

gm / gc

Ref. 
f (Hz)

gm / g c

f (Hz)

(a) CCCC
0.230
0.159
0.132
0.107
0.086

328.355
426.243
593.745
836.339
931.059

0.170
0.159
0.135
0.106
0.090

331.527
426.943
594.726
835.872
931.099

(b) SSSS
0.545
0.294
0.200
0.169
0.145

195.265
291.886
447.559
576.177
672.825

0.405
0.297
0.212
0.173
0.154

199.526
292.564
449.270
578.142
672.210

(c) CSCS
0.500
0.239
0.168
0.152
0.116

208.766
334.397
522.983
585.317
699.375

0.360
0.237
0.165
0.169
0.144

213.0002
335.309
525.4213
585.367
698.9456

## Excitation amplitudes at (L/4, L/4) is F = 5000 N and at (3L/4, 3L/4) is F = 1000 N.

For sandwich viscoelastic plates, the used material and geometrical characteristics are given in Table 1. The response curves
obtained by the proposed method for a simply support sandwich
viscoelastic square plate under harmonic excitation at F(L/4,
L/4) = 2000 N are presented in Fig. 5. Two core damping coefcients are considered (gc = 0.1, gc = 0.3). A large frequency range
is covered with only three steps of the ANM. Various boundary
conditions and viscoelastic core characteristics can be easily considered. The resonance curves of CCCC, SSSS and CSCS viscoelastic
sandwich square plate (gc = 0.1) excited mutually by F(L/4,
L/4) = 10000 N and by F(3L/4, 3L/4) = 3000 N (L = l = 348 mm)
are presented in Fig. 6. The rst fth resonances are obtained
by only some steps of the ANM. The double excitation is used
in order to amplify the rst resonances. The corresponding natural frequencies and equivalent loss factors are given in Table 3a
c. These are extracted from the resonance curves presented in
Fig. 6 by the use the half power bandwidth method. For comparison, the ANM nonlinear eigenvalue algorithm developed in 
is also used to determine the frequencies and loss factors by solving directly the free vibration problem. A good agreement is
obtained.
For rectangular plates with characteristics in Table 1, the obtained frequencies and equivalent loss factors are given in Table
4ac for CCCC, SSSS and CSCS. These results are well compared
with those obtained using the ANM nonlinear eigenvalue algo-

nite elements, the dynamics matrix inversions and the strain energy method. Results of reference  are investigated with the 2D
eight node quadrilateral elements and the numerical solution of
the resulting nonlinear eigenvalue problem is obtained by an
asymptotic numerical method.

## Fig. 2. Response curves of an elastic square plate using: (a) series-continuation

Fig. 3. Response curves of an elastic nearly square plate (L = 177.8 mm, l = 170 mm)
excited by F(L/4, l/4) = 1000 N using: (a) series-continuation method, (b) Padcontinuation method.

97

## rithm . However, some differences between the obtained loss

factors of the rst mode are observed. This is probably due to the
half power bandwidth method extraction of the loss factor. The
resonance curve of an almost square viscoelastic sandwich SSSS

Fig. 7. Response curve of a nearly sandwich viscoelastic square plate: L = 177.8 mm,
l = 170 mm, h + 2H = 3.175 mm, excitation amplitude at (L/4, l/4) is F = 1000 N,
gc = 0.3.

Table 5
Forced vibration of a simply supported plate

## Fig. 4. Response curve of a cantilever sandwich viscoelastic beam: Excitation

amplitude is F = 100 N at (L/3, l/2), gc = 0.3.

DOF

## 3528 (mesh 20  20)

Method

Direct method

Direct method

number of steps
Total time (s)
Saved time (%)

4
9
92

400
112

4
67
95

400
1377

Computing time: Comparison between ANM and direct method (Computer used:
Toshiba core duo T2050, 1.6 GHz).

Fig. 5. Response curves of SSSS square plate: L = 177.8 mm, h + 2H = 3.175 mm,
excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 2000 N.

## Fig. 6. Response curves of a square plate corresponding to different boundary

conditions, excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 10000 N and at (3L/4, 3L/4) is
F = 3000 N.

plate excited at (L/4, l/4) is presented in Fig. 7. The points () represent the starting points and again a very few iterations of the ANM
are needed. It is clearly shown that the isolated as well as the very
close resonances are obtained. Many others numerical tests to assess the efciency of this method for dynamic response curves are
investigated.
Remember that the solution is obtained in a polynomial form in
the validity zone from a starting point. Only one matrix inversion is
needed for all vectors Uj (j = 1,n) and some algebraic manipulations. Iterating this approach leads to the series-continuation and
Pad-continuation methods. The zone of validity of the obtained
solution at each step can be large as clearly presented in Figs. 2
7. These presented results are also obtained by the direct method
which necessitates a matrix inversion at each frequency point.
For the sake of clarity about the used CPU time, let us consider
the plate response curve in the frequency range [0:1400] as presented in Fig. 5. Two cases with 968 and 3528 degree of freedom
numbers are tested and only three and four Pad continuation
steps are respectively needed. These steps can be clearly shown
in Fig. 5 for 968 d.o.f and gc = 0.3. This curve is presented with
100 frequency points at each Pad step. In order to get the same
results with the direct method 400 frequency points are necessary
for the considered d.o.f. The total time needed by the direct method is more than 12 times, the needed one for the Pad continuation
for 968 d.o.f and more than 20 times for 3528 d.o.f. The percentage
of the saved time is given in Table 5 for the considered plate FE discretisation. The saved time is increasing by increasing the degrees
of freedom.
4.2.2. Frequency dependent Young modulus
Based on the Maxwell model equation (8), the mathematical
formulation of the power series development of the frequency
dependent Young modulus is elaborated. Various models can be
considered and only some ones are selected in order to test the
efciency of the proposed method. The used material coefcients
of viscoelastic core materials are given in Table 5. The vibration

98

## F. Abdoun et al. / Computers and Structures 87 (2009) 91100

Table 6
Maxwell series terms and material properties of the used viscoelastic core
Viscoelastic material
3M ISD112 at 27 C
3 Maxwell series terms

Viscoelastic material
3M ISD112 at 20 C
3 Maxwell series terms

## Poisson ratio: mc = 0.5

Density: qc = 1600 kg m3
Ec (N m2)
1.44E+6

147.168E+3

kj

gj

kj

gj

1
2
3

373,000
1,632,500
21,642,000

795.818
344.235
302.548

143918.04
670237.82
2323287.1

4624.972
1501.247
422.221

## and the Pad-continuation methods coincide perfectly for all the

studied cases. Many numerical tests of sandwich plates with a frequency depend viscoelastic core are also performed. Using the viscoelastic core model (3M ISD112 at 20 C and at 27 C), the
obtained response curves of SSSS sandwich plate simultaneously
excited by F(L/4, L/4) = 1000 N is presented in Fig. 9. The starting
points of the series and Pad continuation methods are intentionally plotted in order to evaluate the steps accumulations. These
steps reductions are introduced by the E(x)-radius of convergence.
A deep analysis of the improvement of the radius of convergence
and the applicability to more complex viscoelastic models is in
progress. These gures show on one hand the applicability of the
proposed method to viscoelastic structures with hard and soft viscoelastic materials and on the other hand the temperature effect
on the response curves.
5. Conclusions

## Fig. 8. Response curves of a cantilever sandwich beam with viscoelastic core

material 3M ISD112 at 27 C and at 20 C, excitation amplitude at (L, l/2) is
F = 100 N and at (L/2, l/2) is F = 400 N.

In this paper, an asymptotic numerical method has been developed for response curve corresponding to forced harmonic vibrations of viscoelastic structures. The mathematical modelling has
been developed in a general way in order to take into account various viscoelastic models undamped sandwich and viscoelastic
structures. The constant and frequency dependent viscoelastic
models of Maxwell type are considered. The power series development and the resulting linear problems are explicitly presented.
The series-continuation and Pad continuation methods are elaborated for numerical solutions. The response curves are numerically
computed for various frequency ranges, excitations types and viscoelastic models. The continuation method based on the series and
on the Pad approximants are rstly tested for singular resonances
curves of the elastic beams and plates. The efciency of both methods is demonstrated in comparison to the classical matrix inversion method. The asymptotic method based on Pad approximant
is shown to be powerful and necessitate very few iterations for
large frequency ranges. Numerical results for linear frequencies
and equivalent loss factor obtained from half power bandwidth
of the obtained response curves are well compared to the available
ones. The frequency dependent viscoelastic model based on Maxwell models with various coefcients is considered. The resonance
curves of sandwich beams and plates with the associated viscoelastic cores are investigated. The efciency and applicability of
this method are illustrated here for forced vibration of undamped
elastic, sandwich and viscoelastic beams and plates with different
shapes, boundary conditions and viscoelastic models.
Acknowledgement
The authors gratefully acknowledge the nancial support from:
Action Intgre Franco-Marocaine PAI MA/05/117, the Moroccan
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientic Research and CNRST
Project PROTARS III D11/22 and the European FP6 STREP project
CASSEM.

Fig. 9. Response curves of SSSS sandwich plate with viscoelastic core material 3M
ISD112 at 27 C and at 20 C, excitation amplitude at (L/4, L/4) is F = 1000 N.

of sandwich viscoelastic beams and plates modelled by two viscoelastic Maxwell models with three coefcients, taken from ,
are analysed. The response curves corresponding to the viscoelastic
core materials at 27 C and at 20 C (Table 6) are depicted in Fig. 8.
Starting points of the series () and Pad continuation (j) methods
are presented. Again, the Pad approximants method is better than
the series one even if the radius of convergence is reduced. The
matrix inversion solution is used as a reference solution and the
obtained results with the matrix inversion, the series-continuation

## Appendix A. Finite element formulation

The model of Love Kirchoff is adopted for the elastic layers and
the Mindlins for the viscoelastic core in order to incorporate the
effects of the transverse shear deformation. A three-layer symmetric sandwich plate is considered with the coordinate x along the
length, y along the width and z along the thickness directions as
shown is Fig. 1. Let zi be the co-ordinate of the layer i. Because of
symmetry, z1 = (H + h)/2 = z3, z2 = 0. H, h are respectively the
thickness of the elastic layer and of the core. The displacement
elds for the upper and lower layers are given by

99

## F. Abdoun et al. / Computers and Structures 87 (2009) 91100

8
ow
>
< U i x; y; z; t ui x; y; t  z  zi ox
ow
V i x; y; z; t vi x; y; t  z  zi oy
>
:
W i x; y; z; t wi x; y; t

i 1; 3;

A:1

where ui, vi are the in-plane displacements at each mid plane layer
and w the transverse displacement. The displacement eld for the
middle layer is given by

8
>
< U 2 x; y; z; t u2 x; y; t zbx x; y; t
V 2 x; y; z; t v2 x; y; t zby x; y; t
>
:
W 2 x; y; z; t wx; y; t

A:2

## in which bx and by are the rotations of the transverse normal to the

reference surface about the y and x axes. Based on the interface continuity conditions, it is possible to eliminate all the core variables
from the potential and kinetic energy expressions . So, the layers displacements may be returned to the displacements of the elastic layers allowing a reduction of the number of independent
generalized displacements :

8
u1 x;y;tu3 x;y;t
3 x;y;t
zu1 x;y;tu
 Hh Rx x; y; t
>
2
2
< U 2 x; y; z; t
v1 x;y;tv3 x;y;t
v1 x;y;tv3 x;y;t
z
 Hh Ry x; y; t
V 2 x; y; z; t
2
2
>
:
W 2 x; y; z; t wx; y; t
 ow
oy

where Rx

are the rotations of the normal of midplanes of the elastic layers. The number of independent generalized
displacements is then reduced to seven unknowns {U1(x, y, t), U3(x, y, t), V1(x, y, t), V3(x, y, t), w(x, y, t), Rx(x, y, t), Ry(x, y, t)}.
Using these displacements expressions, the strains elds in each
layer can be stated on:

8 i 9
>
=
< exx >

0 0 0

z  zi oxo

e
>
;
eixy

6
40

o
oy

0 0 0

o
oy

o
ox

0 0 0 z  zi oyo

9
8
e2xx >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
e2 >
>
=
< yy >

2 1

>
:

i
yy

o
ox

8 9
u1 >
>
>
>
>
>
>v >
>
>
>
1>
>
>
3>
>
> >
>
>
0
>
=
< u3 >
z  zi oyo 7
5 v3 ;
>
>
> >
>
>
z  zi oxo >
>
>w>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> Rx >
>
;
: >
Ry

h oxo
0
 h oxo
0
2
2
1 z o
6
1

0
 z o
0
6
6 1 z o 21 hz oxo 1 z o 21 hz oxo
2
6
exy 6 2 h ox 2 h ox 2  h ox 2  h ox
>
>
> 6
>
1
>
0
 1h
0
>
>
e2xz >
> 4
>
h
>
>
>
1
1
;
: e2 >
0

0
h
h
yz

fue gt

u1j

v 1j

fei g Bi fu g;
u3j

v3j

wj

Rxj

Rzj ;

A:7

i1

where Vi are the volume of each layer, q2 and q1 (q1 = q3) are,
respectively, the mass density of the core and faces and [Ci] are
the matrices obtained from the strain stress laws:

mf

Ef
6
7
0 5
4 mf 1
1  m2f
0 0 1  mf
2
0
0
1 mc
6
0
0
6 mc 1
E c x 6
6 0 0 1  mc
C 2 x
0
6
1  m2c 6
0
1  mc
40 0

C 1  C 3 

z Hh

o
ox

0 z Hh oxo
0 1  Hh
0

0
0
0
0
1  mc

3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5

A:8

## Appendix B. Explicit formulations of the coefcients Ek

The power series expansion of E(x) depends on the viscoelastic
law considered. In this paper, constant and Maxwell models are
adopted. The explicit relationships of Ek are hardly dependent on
the considered number of Maxwell terms Nmax. For the clearness
of the presentation, only a few cases are presented.

A:4

8 9
> u1 >
>
> >
3>
>
>
>
v1 >
0
>
>
>
>
>
>
> >
H o 7>
u3 >
z h ox 7>
>
=
<
7
H o 7
z h ox 7 v3
>
> >
7>
w>
0 5>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> >
H >
>
>
R
1  h >
x
>
>
>
;
: >
Ry

A:5

## (a) Constant case:

For this classical case, the modulus is considered constant
and expressed as

i 1; 2; 3
Rxj

i1

3 R
>
P
>
>
q Ni t Ni  dV i
: Me 
Vi i

i 1; 3

## The generalized displacement {U} and the strain deformation can

expressed by the classical formulations:

8 _
< fU g N i fue g;

8
3 R
P
>
>
B t C i Bi  dV i
>
< K e 
Vi i

0
A:3

 ow
; Ry
ox

## The elementary mass and stiffness matrices can be written as

follows:

E E0 1 ig

j 1; n
A:6

where [Ni] are matrices that depend only on the shape functions of
the considered nite element discretisation in the elastic layer, n is
the number of nodes of the considered element and [Bi] is the product of the differential operating matrix relating {ei} to the shape
functions matrix [Ni] in the each layer [19,33].

B:1

## where E0 is the real elastic modulus and g is the material loss

factor. In this case, there is no need for additional asymptotic
development.
(b) Frequency dependent Young modulus
Introducing Eq. (10a) into Eq. (9) and equating like powers of
a, one obtains the following relationships of Ek:

100

## (b-i) Maxwell model with Nmax = 1:

Explicit expressions of Ek are given by

Order 0 : E0

ik1 p0
k1

g1

Order 1 :

B:2

ip0

8

< E1 p1 E1

B:3


k1 E0
: E1 i k1 ip
0
g1
8


>
< Ek pk E1 Ek
k1
Order k P 2 :
P

i
>
Em pkm
: Ek k1 ip
0

g1

B:4

m1

## (b-ii) Maxwell model with Nmax = 3:

The Ek can be written as

c0 R2 ip0 R3  f0 R1
Order 0 : E0
B:5
R6  c0 R4 ip0 R5  f0
(

E1 p1 E1
B:6
Order 1 :
2p E R R i3p20 E0 R1 R3 E0 R5
E1 0 0 4 R62c0 R4 ip
0 R5 f0
8


< Ek pk E1 Ek
P
Pk1
Pk1
k1
Order k P 2 :
: E Dk R11 R4 j1 Ej cij i Ak R12 j1 Ej fij R5 j1 Ej pij
k
R6 c0 R4 ip R5 f0
R6 c0 R4 ip R5 f0
0

B:7
in which

8
c0 p20
>
>
>
< c 2p p
1
0 1
kP
1
>
>
>
pj pkj 2p0 pk Dk
: ck 2p0 pk

;
for k P 2

j1

where Dk

Pk1
j1

pj pkj

8
f0 p30
>
>
>
< f 3p2 p
1
0 1
k1
>
P
>
2
>
cj pkj 3p20 pk Ak
: fk 3p0 pk Dk p0

B:8
for k P 2

j1

where Ak Dk p0

Pk1
j1

cj pkj

8
>
T i gki ; i 1; 2; 3
>
>
i
>
>
>
3
>
P
>
> R1 kj ; R2 k1 T 2 T 3 k2 T 1 T 3 k3 T 1 T 2
>
>
>
j1
<
3
P
>
>
R3 k1 T 2 T 3 k2 T 1 T 3 k3 T 1 T 2 ; R4 T j
>
>
>
j1
>
>
>
>
3
>
Q
>
>
: R5 T 2 T 3 T 1 T 3 T 1 T 2 ; R6 T i
8
R7 2p0 E0 R4  R2 2p0 R11
>
>
>
<
R8 3p20 E0  R1 R3  E0 R5
>
R9 R6  c0 R4
>
>
:
R10 p0 R5  f0

B:9

i1

B:10

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