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Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

GENETICS What is heredity? Is the passing of traits from parents to children. Where exactly are our traits? Our genes encode the instructions that define our traits. Each of us has thousands of genes, which are made of DNA and reside in our chromosomes. The environment we grow up and live in also helps define our traits. For example, while a person’s genes may specify a certain hair color, exposure to chemicals or sunlight can change that color. How do we get traits from our parents? Humans have two complete sets of 23 chromosomes. (2x23=46 total). When parents conceive a child, they each contribute one complete set to the child. In this way, parents pass genes to the children. Every child receives half of its chromosomes from the mother and half from the father. This transfer takes place at conception, when the father’s sperm cell joins with the mother’s egg cell. While most cells in our bodies contain two sets of chromosomes ( 2 x 23 = 46 ), sperm and egg cells each have only one set ( 23 ). When they join, they create a single cell, called a “zygote”, which has two sets of chromosomes ( 46 ). This cell will divide, ultimately developing into a child. Each parent contributes one complete set of chromosomes to the child. This set can contain chromosomes from both of the parent’s two sets. The only rule is that the child must receive exactly one of each chromosome. Since the parents contribute chromosomes randomly to each new child, every child inherits a unique set of chromosomes. As a result, every child will have a unique combination of traits. Some will resemble the mother, and some will resemble the father. Still other will be unique, a product of the new combination of chromosomes.

What will happen when one of these babies grows up and starts a family? She will contribute a mixture of her own chromosomes to each new child. This is how some traits are passed through many generations. Traits:

A trait is a notable feature or quality in a person. Each of us has a different combination of traits that makes us unique. Traits are passed from generation to generation. We inherit traits from our parents, and we pass them on to our children.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

What types of traits exist? Physical traits: are characteristics of one’s physical makeup. These include hair color, eye color and height. Behavioral traits: are characteristics of the way one acts. A sheepdog’s herding instinct and a retriever’s desire to fetch are good examples of behavioral traits. Predisposition to a medical condition: an increased risk of getting a certain type of disease is also a type of trait that can be passed from parent to children. Some examples of such diseases include sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, cancer, and certain types of mental illness. What defines our traits? The instructions encoded in our genes play a role in defining traits. But the non genetic, or “environmental”, influences in our lives are just as important in shaping our traits. Sometimes these environmental factors can even change a trait. For example:

Physical traits:

Genetics: our genes determine our natural hair color. Environment: exposure to sun or hair dyes can easily change that color.

Behavioral traits:

Genetics: people breed retrievers to chase things and bring them back. Environment: you can trait a retriever to instead roll over and “play dead” when you toss a ball.

Predisposition to a medical condition:

Genetics: a person may be born with an increased risk of heart disease. Environment: eating healthy foods and exercising can reduce this risk. How are our traits determined? Scientists describe the set of genetic information for each form as an allele. Scientists use the word “homozygous” to describe having two of the same allele for a trait. When two different alleles are present, they interact, in this case is called “dominant” and the masked allele is “recessive”. Scientists use the word “heterozygous” to describe having two different alleles for a trait.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

What is DNA? DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. The DNA strand is made of letters that make words that make sentences. These sentences are called genes. Genes tell the cell to make other molecules called proteins. Proteins enable a cell to perform special functions, such as working with other groups of cells to make hearing possible. What is a gene? Genes are instruction manuals for our bodies. They are the directions for building all the proteins that make our bodies function. Genes are made of DNA. One strand of our DNA contains many genes. All of these genes are needed to give instructions for how to make and operate all parts of our bodies. For example: hemoglobin protein, enzymes that produce pigment in the eyes and keratin, responsible for growing hair and nails, are also produced by genes. What is a protein? Proteins are the machines that make all living things function, from viruses to daffodils, spiders to sea lions, and everything in between. How do proteins work in the body? Our bodies are made up of about 100 trillion cells. Each of these cells is responsible for a specific job. Every cell contains thousands of different proteins, which work together as tiny machines to run the cell. What is a chromosome? : Each cell in our body contains a lot of DNA. In fact, if you pulled the DNA from a single human cell and stretched it out, it would be three meters long, that’s about as long as a car. The DNA is packaged into compact units called “chromosomes”. The packaging of DNA into a chromosome is done in several steps, starting with the double helix of DNA. Then the DNA is wrapped around some proteins. These proteins are packed tightly together until they form a chromosome. Chromosomes are efficient storage units for DNA. Cell reproduction: Cells reproduce in two ways:

1) Mitosis which produces cells that are an exact copy with complete genetic information, and 2) Meiosis which produces cells that have ½ the genetic information of the original cells.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction which occurs in general body or somatic cells. Meiosis is the first step of sexual reproduction and occurs only in specific cells called gametes which in males are sperm cells and in females are egg cells or ovules. For example, in humans we have 46 chromosomes (diploid) in our body or somatic cells, but gamete cells only contain ½ or 23 chromosomes each (haploid). The fusion of gametes during sexual reproduction is called fertilization forming a fertilized ovule or zygote. This zygote contains genetic information, ½ from the mother and ½ from the father. We are not exactly like mom or dad but are a variation of them. Thusly, sexual reproduction leads to greater genetic variation. The zygote produced develops into an embryo, then a fetus, and ultimately an offspring representing the union of parental DNA. REAL NUMBERS

 The set formed by the rational numbers is

the set of real numbers, and is designated by . With real numbers all operations can be performed, except for the root of an even index and negative radicand, and division by zero.

The Real Line

For any real number there is a point on the straight line and for every point on the straight line, a real number.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

Representation of Real Numbers

The real numbers can be represented in the straight line with as much approximation as needed, but there are cases in which they can be represented in exact form.

Operations with Real Numbers Adding Real Numbers - Properties

1. Closure: The result of adding two real numbersis another real number. A + b

+

2. Associative: The way in which the summands are grouped does not change the result. (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

3. Commutative: The order of the addends does not change the sum. a + b = b + a

4. Additive identity: The 0 is the neutral element in the addition because every number added to it gives the same number.

a + 0 = a + 0 =

5.

Additive inverse: Two numbers are opposites if they are added together and the result is zero. a + (−a)= 0 e − e = 0

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

The opposite of the opposite of a number is equal to the same number.

−(−

) =

Subtracting Real Numbers The difference of two real numbers is defined as the sum of the minuend plus the opposite of the subtrahend.

a − b = a + (−b)

Multipying Real Numbers The rule of signs for the product of integers and rational numbers is still maintained with the real numbers.

Properties

1. Closure: The result of multiplying two real numbers is another real number.

a · b

2. Associative: The way in which the factors are grouped does not change the result. (a · b) · c = a · (b · c)

(e ·

) ·

= e · (

·
)

3. Commutative: The order of factors does not change the product.

a · b = b · a

4. Multiplicative Identity: The 1 is the neutral element of the multiplication because any number multiplied by it gives the same number.

a · 1 = a · 1 =

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

5. Multiplicative inverse: A number is the reciprocal of another if when multiplied by each other the product is the multiplicative identity.

6. Distributive: The product of a number for a sum is equal to the sum of the products of this number for each of the addends.

a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c

(e +

) =

· e +

·

Removing a common factor: It is the reverse of the distributive property.

a · b + a · c = a · (b + c)

e +

·
=

· (e +

)

Dividing Real Numbers The division of two real numbers is defined as the product of the dividend by the reciprocal of the divisor.

COLOMBIA: OUR IDENTITY

Officially the republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Grenadine Confederation(1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s, but since 2000 has decreased considerably. Colombia is ethnically diverse, its people descending from the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, all contributing to a diverse cultural heritage.

This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography, and the imposing landscape of the country has resulted in the development of very strong regional identities. The majority of the urban centers are located in the highlands of the Andes Mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and is considered the most biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power with the third largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Its principal industries include oil, mining, chemicals, health related products, food processing, agricultural products, textile and fabrics, garments, forest products, machinery, electronics, military products, metal products, home and office material, construction equipment and materials, banking, financial services, software, IT services and the automotive industry.

8 | P a g e

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

Patriotic symbols:

1. Flag: The yellow color symbolizes the great natural wealth of Colombia, the blue symbolizes the sky and seas, and red, the blood spilled by our heroes.

2. The coat of arms of the Republic of Colombia: it is divided into three horizontal bands: the upper band , on blue field , has in the center a gold Granada red open grained , with stem and leaves of gold. On each side of the Granada goes a cornucopia of gold inclined, pouring coins into the center of the right side, and proper fruits of the torrid zone of the left side. The name denotes the Granada wearing this republic, and cornucopias, the richness of its mines and the fertility of their land. The middle band in platinum field, has in the center a Phrygian cap horned into a spear as a symbol of freedom, (Platinum, precious metals, our own country). At the lower end is the Isthmus of Panama, with its two adjacent seas wavy silver and black ship with its deployed in each candle .The condor symbolizing freedom. From its peak hangs a green laurel wreath and a flowing ribbon, grabbed the shield and woven into the crown, the statement concerning gold with black letters: Freedom and Order.

3. The national anthem of Colombia: was formalized by Law 33 of 1920. The anthem was written by Rafael Núñez and music by the Italian composer Oreste Sindici. Patriotic icons:

1. Orchid: is the national flower of Colombia, named as such in 1936 by the Colombian Academy of History. Its structure and colors are extraordinarily beautiful.

2. The majestic Andean condor: symbolizes the sovereignty and freedom of Colombians. It has been called "the eternal bird."

3. Wax palm: It is a palm of stunning beauty, extraordinary strength and legendary longevity. The slenderness of the wax palm, is its height and its unique size.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

4. Colombian emeralds: are the most beautiful and valued the world. The purity, brilliance and transparency of these precious stones are the most important features for evaluation. 5. Coffee: is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and although Colombia is considered one of the best producers. Colombian coffee is recognized as the best coffee in the world and in several countries as a gastronomic excellence. Natural regions of Colombia Because of its natural structure, Colombia can be divided into six very distinct natural regions. These consist of the Andean Region, covering the three branches of the Andes Mountains found in Colombia; the Caribbean Region, covering the area adjacent to the Caribbean Sea; the Pacific Region adjacent to the Pacific Ocean; the Orinoquia Region, mainly in the Orinoco river basin along the border with Venezuela; the Amazon Region, part of the Amazon rainforest; and finally the Insular Region, comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Andean Region: The Andes mountains form the most populous region of Colombia and contain the majority of the country's urban centers. They were also the location of the most significant pre- Columbian indigenous settlement. Caribbean Region: Is traversed by a number of rivers heading from the Andean highlands to the sea, including Colombia's principal river, the Magdalena, which disgorges at the main port of Barranquilla. Pacific Region: Is distinguished by its high humidity. Precipitation is among the highest in the world, with an average of 4,000 mm per year, some areas that receive as much as 12,000 mm per year. Orinoquia Region: Is rich in oil and suitable for extensive ranching but sparsely populated. Amazon Region: Is a region in southern Colombia over the Amazon Basin.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

Insular Region: Is considered by some as a sixth region, comprising those areas outside continental Colombia.

People About 60% of Colombia's population are mestizos, and some one fifth are of European descent. Indigenous peoples, who account for only about 1% of today's population, live on the edge of some of the major cities and in remote areas. About 15% of the people are of mixed African and European descent. The small (less than 5%) black population is concentrated along the coasts and in the Magdalena and Cauca valleys. Spanish is the official language. The population is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic. There are universities in all the major cities.

Food Colombian Cuisine is very diverse and varies depending on the different regions of Colombia. In some areas you will find specialties like roasted ants or guinea pigs while in other areas Colombians wouldn't even touch those dishes. Colombia is not a paradise for vegetarians as the Colombian diet includes a lot of meat. In the coastal areas you will find a good variety of fish, lobster and seafood often prepared with a sauce made out of coconut milk. The offer of fresh fruit is overwhelming and many of the varieties you have probably never heard of before. In general breakfast is quite important in Colombia and consists of fruit juice, coffee or hot chocolate, fruit, eggs and bread. Lunch which is served between 12 and 14pm is the main meal of the day at least in the countryside. A traditional main meal consists of a soup, a main dish, a drink and sometimes a dessert which is generally very sweet. The dinner is more like a snack. In the big cities the main meal often will be served around 7pm or 8pm.

Science Social Studies & Math First Period

2015

Folklore Colombian folklore seems to permeate culture here on a deep and perhaps, difficult level to grasp. It's function is embedded in the search for meaning and significance in daily life that is often portrayed through stories, music, carnivals and festivals, folk legends and proverbs. Although I find it difficult, if not impossible, to fully understand Colombian culture, it seems that by paying attention to their stories, told through music or oral tradition for example, that you get a glimpse into the deeper meaning of the country. I recently met a man at a film festival who seemed to be at the heart of Colombian folklore who told stories through the oral tradition. He told them with great zeal and drama. I was surprised, expecting him to be calm but on the contrary, it's as though he was acting the characters of his stories.

Touristic places Tourism in Colombia is an important sector in the country's economy. Colombia has major attractions as a tourist destination, such as Cartagena and its historic surroundings, which are on the UNESCO World Heritage List; the insular department of San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina; and Santa Marta and the surrounding area. Fairly recently, Bogotá, the nation's capital, has become Colombia's major tourist destination because of its improved museums and entertainment facilities and its major urban renovations, including the rehabilitation of public areas, the development of parks, and the creation of an extensive network of cycling routes. With its very rich and varied geography, which includes the Amazon and Andean regions, the llanos, the Caribbean and Pacific coasts, and the deserts of La Guajira, and its unique biodiversity, Colombia also has major potential for ecotourism.