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STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL

GSM
MODEM

89S52

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Introduction
Methodology
Scope of Work
Aims of the GSM Electronic Notice Board
Objectives of the GSM Home Appliance Control Device
Block diagram
Circuit diagram
Component list

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW


Theoretical Background
GSM Architecture

Technical Details
Main Cellular Standards
GSM Frequencies
Network Structure
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Literature Review
GSM Security
HARDWAR DISCRIPTION
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
GSM Modem
Accessing GSM MODEM using Microsoft HyperTerminal
3

Testing of GSM Modem


List of Important AT Commands
Microcontroller MODEM Interfacing
DTE and DCE

TESTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION


Testing and Observations
Operational Flowchart
Initializations
Serial transfer using TI and RI flags
Validity Check
Display
Programmer
Simulator
Burner

RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION


Conclusion
Problems Encountered
Future Improvement
Recommendation

REFERENCES AND TROUBLESHOOTING

INTRODUCTION
GSM and GPRS based Designs have developed another
innovative and Public utility product for mass communication
[1]. This is a Stepper Motor Control Device which control the
Stepper Motor through messages received as SMS or GPRS
Packets and also send acknowledgement of task. Such Devices
can be used at different areas of the human being life. Such
offices, houses, factories etc. Sent command from Mobiles or
PCs to these devices for move the motor clockwise,
anticlockwise, stop. These devices are designed to remotely
control the Stepper Motor from anywhere and anytime. Wireless
communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the
world is going mobile [2]. We want to control everything and
without moving an inch. This remote control Stepper Motor
Control device is possible through Embedded Systems. The use
of Embedded System in Communication has given rise to
many interesting applications that ensures comfort and safety to
human life [3]. The main aim of the project will be to design a
SMS electronic Stepper Motor Control toolkit which can replace
the traditional Stepper Motor Control Devices. The toolkit
5

receives the SMS, validates the sending Mobile Identification


Number (MIN) and perform the

desired operation after

necessary code conversion. The system is made efficient by


SIMs so that the SMS can be received by number of devices
boards in a locality using techniques of time division multiple
access.
The main components of the toolkit include microcontroller,
GSM modem. These components are integrated with the device
board and thus incorporate the wireless features. The GSM
modem receives the SMS. The AT commands are serially
transferred to the modem. In return the modem transmits the
stored message through the wireless link. The microcontroller
validates the SMS and then perform specific task on the device.
The microcontroller used in this case is ATMEL AT89S52
.SIMCOM 300 is used as the GSM modem. In this prototype
model, LCD display is used for simulation purpose. The results
presented in the thesis support the proper functionalities and
working of the system. The timing diagram suggests the
response of the modem to various AT (attention) commands.

METHODOLOGY
The method used to carry out this project is the principle of
serial communication in collaboration with embedded systems.
This is a very good project for Industries. This project has a
Stepper Motor Control, which will be used as the electronic
device, and also a GSM modem, which is the latest technology
used for communication between the mobile and the embedded
devices.
System will work like when the user wants to on/off the
device; he has to send the message in his mobile defining the
messages and then the password of the system to the number of
the subscriber identity module (SIM) which is inserted in the
display system MODEM. Then, the MODEM connected to the
display system will receive the SMS, the microcontroller inside
the system is programmed in such a way that when the modem
receives any message the microcontroller will read the message
from serial headphone and verify for the password, if the
password is correct then it will start performing desire task.
7

SCOPE OF WORK
I will use liquid crystal display for displaying the message; I will
also use GSM modem (Motorola W220) as an interface between
mobile and microcontroller. I will send message from any phone
irrespective of the GSM network to the modem connected to the
programmable device using a password. The message will get
by the GSM Modem of the device and do specific task.

AIMS OF THE ELECTRONIC STEPPER MOTOR


CONTROL
Uses: This is great and innovative and useful project, you can
use this project to control stepper motor at your home, offices,
schools, colleges etc.

OBJECTIVES OF THE ELECTRONIC STEPPER


MOTOR CONTROL
Programming of the mobile phone with AT (Attention)
command sequence

Interfacing the programming chip with the personal


computer
Interfacing the programmable chip with the Stepper Motor.
Interfacing of the mobile phone with the programmable
chip
Sending messages from the remote phone to control device.

BLOCK DIAGRAM
REGULATED
POWER SUPPLY

BUZZER
LCD

GSM
MODEM

89S52

MOBILE PHONES

ULN2803

STEPPER
MOTOR
10

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

11

COMPONENT LIST
12

STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL


Name

Capacity

Quantity

Code

Regulator

7805

U1

Regulator

7812

U3

Capacitor

1000f

C1

Capacitor

10f

C2

Ceramic Capacitor

22pf

C3,C4

Diode

D1,D2,D3,D4

Push Button

Mobile Phone

STEPPER MOTOR

40 Pin Base

U2

16 Pin Base

U5

8051(AT89S52)

ULN2003

Oscillator

11.0592mhz

LED

X1

D5

Resistance

220

R1

Resistance

1k

R3

Resistance

10k

R2

LCD

16*2

13

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND


LITERATURE REVIEW
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally
from GROUPE Special Mobile) is the most popular standard for
mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association,
estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the
standard. GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than
212 countries and territories [4]. Its ubiquity makes international
roaming very common between mobile phone operators
enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the
world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling
and speech channels are digital, and thus is considered a second
generation (2G) mobile phone system [5]. This has also meant
that data communication was easy to build into the system.

GSM ARCHITECTURE
GSM is a complex system and difficult to understand. The
Mobile Station (MS) refers to the mobile equipment [6]. The
14

Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile
Station. The Network Subsystem performs main functions such
as switching of calls between mobile users, mobility
management operations, and proper operation and setup of a
network [7]. These functions are controlled by the Mobile
Services Switching Center (MSC).

Technical Details
GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones
connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity.

MAIN CELLULAR STANDARDS


YEAR

STANDARD

MOBILE

TECHNO

PRIMARY

TELEPHONE

LOGY

MARKETS

SYSTEM
1981

NMT540

NORDIC

MOBILE ANALOG

TELEPHONY
1985

TACS

TOTAL

UE
ACCESS ANALOG

COMMUNUNICATION

UE

EUROPE,MIDDL
E EAST
EUROPE
CHINA

SYSTEM

1986

NMT900

NORDIC

MOBILE ANALOG

15

EUROPE,

AND

TELEPHONY
1991

GSM

UE

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL

MIDDLE EAST
WORLD-WIDE

MOBILE
COMMUNICATION
1991

TDMA

TIME

DIVISION DIGITAL

AMERICA

MULTIPLE ACCESS
1993

CDMA

CODE

DIVISION DIGITAL

MULTIPLE ACCESS

NORTH
AMERICA,
KOREA

1992

GSM 1800

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL

EUROPE

MOBILE
COMMUNICATION
1994

PDC

PERSONAL

DIGITAL DIGITAL

JAPAN

CELLULAR
1995

2001

PCS 1900

GSM 800

PERSONAL

DIGITAL

NORTH

COMPUTER SERVICES

AMERICA

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL

NORTH

MOBILE

AMERICA

COMMUNICATION
2006-TILL
DATE

GSM 450

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL

WORLD-WIDE

MOBILE
COMMUNICATION

GSM FREQUENCIES
GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency
ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS
16

frequency bands for 3G). Most 2G GSM networks operate in the


900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas
(including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and
1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency
bands were already allocated. Most 3G GSM networks in
Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band [9]

Network Structure

The network behind the GSM seen by the customer is large and
complicated in order to provide all of the services which are
required.

The Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their


controllers).

The Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the


network most similar to a fixed network). This is
sometimes also just called the core network.

The GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows


packet based Internet connections).
17

All of the elements in the system combine to produce many


GSM services such as voice calls and SMS.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)


One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity
Module, commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a
detachable smart card containing the user's subscription
information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or
her information after switching handsets [10]. Alternatively, the
user can also change operators while retaining the handset
simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by
allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM
issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and is
illegal in some countries [11].
Literature Review
This project is an implementation to the idea of the wireless
communication between a mobile phone and a microcontroller.
Currently the main work that has been done on this proposed
system is through serial port to the computer but not wireless. If
they want to control the Home Security System, they have to
18

hire a security guard to the watch the house for security. But in
this new design, the systems need not be reprogrammed to
control

HOME

SECURITY

SYSTEM

changing

the

programming of microcontroller. The device will send SMS to


the owner mobile number , if the security of the house in danger
.
GSM Security
GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The
system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a preshared key and challenge-response. Communications between
the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted.

19

Fig. 2.2 Block Diagram


As we see in the above figure, there are at least three interfacing
circuits, MAX-232 with Microcontroller, LCD display with
microcontroller, and MAX-232 with GSM MODEM.
HARDWARE DISCRIPTION
POWER SUPPLY:

Power supply is a reference to a source of electrical power. A


device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy
to an output load or group of loads is called a power supply
unit or PSU. The term is most commonly applied to electrical
energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones, and rarely to
others.
Here in our application we need a 5v DC power supply for all
electronics involved in the project. This requires step down
transformer, rectifier, voltage regulator, and filter circuit for
generation of 5v DC power. Here a brief description of all the
components is given as follows:

20

TRANSFORMER:
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from
one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors
the transformer's coils or "windings". Except for air-core
transformers, the conductors are commonly wound around a
single iron-rich core, or around separate but magneticallycoupled cores. A varying current in the first or "primary"
winding creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of
the transformer. This varying magnetic field induces a varying
electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the "secondary"
winding. This effect is called mutual induction.

If a load is connected to the secondary circuit, electric charge


will flow in the secondary winding of the transformer and

21

transfer energy from the primary circuit to the load connected in


the secondary circuit.
The secondary induced voltage VS, of an ideal transformer, is
scaled from the primary VP by a factor equal to the ratio of the
number of turns of wire in their respective windings:

By appropriate selection of the numbers of turns, a transformer


thus allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up by making
NS more than NP or stepped down, by making it
BASIC PARTS OF A TRANSFORMER
In its most basic form a transformer consists of:

A primary coil or winding.

A secondary coil or winding.

A core that supports the coils or windings.

Refer to the transformer circuit in figure as you read the


following explanation: The primary winding is connected to a
60-hertz ac voltage source. The magnetic field (flux) builds up
(expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding.
22

The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the


primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an
alternating voltage into the winding. This voltage causes
alternating current to flow through the load. The voltage may be
stepped up or down depending on the design of the primary and
secondary windings.

THE COMPONENTS OF A TRANSFORMER


Two coils of wire (called windings) are wound on some type of
core material. In some cases the coils of wire are wound on a
cylindrical or rectangular cardboard form. In effect, the core
23

material is air and the transformer is called an AIR-CORE


TRANSFORMER. Transformers used at low frequencies, such
as 60 hertz and 400 hertz, require a core of low-reluctance
magnetic material, usually iron. This type of transformer is
called

an

IRON-CORE

TRANSFORMER.

Most

power

transformers are of the iron-core type. The principle parts of a


transformer and their functions are:

The CORE, which provides a path for the magnetic lines of


flux.

The PRIMARY WINDING, which receives energy from


the ac source.

The SECONDARY WINDING, which receives energy


from the primary winding and delivers it to the load.

The ENCLOSURE, which protects the above components


from dirt, moisture, and mechanical damage.

BRIDGE RECTIFIER

A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge


arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. This is a widely
24

used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as shown


and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is
wired internally.

BASIC OPERATION
According to the conventional model of current flow originally
established by Benjamin Franklin and still followed by most
engineers today, current is assumed to flow through electrical
conductors from the positive to the negative pole. In actuality,
free electrons in a conductor nearly always flow from the
negative to the positive pole. In the vast majority of
applications, however, the actual direction of current flow is
irrelevant. Therefore, in the discussion below the conventional
model is retained.
In the diagrams below, when the input connected to the left
corner of the diamond is positive, and the input connected to the
right corner is negative, current flows from the upper supply
terminal to the right along the red (positive) path to the output,
and returns to the lower supply terminal via the blue (negative)
path.
25

When the input connected to the left corner is negative, and the
input connected to the right corner is positive, current flows
from the lower supply terminal to the right along the red path to
the output, and returns to the upper supply terminal via the blue
path.

In each case, the upper right output remains positive and lower
right output negative. Since this is true whether the input is AC
or DC, this circuit not only produces a DC output from an AC
26

input, it can also provide what is sometimes called "reverse


polarity protection". That is, it permits normal functioning of
DC-powered equipment when batteries have been installed
backwards, or when the leads (wires) from a DC power source
have been reversed, and protects the equipment from potential
damage caused by reverse polarity.
Prior to availability of integrated electronics, such a bridge
rectifier was always constructed from discrete components.
Since about 1950, a single four-terminal component containing
the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a
standard commercial component and is now available with
various voltage and current ratings.

OUTPUT SMOOTHING
For many applications, especially with single phase AC where
the full-wave bridge serves to convert an AC input into a DC
output, the addition of a capacitor may be desired because the
bridge alone supplies an output of fixed polarity but
continuously varying or "pulsating" magnitude (see diagram
above).
27

The function of this capacitor, known as a reservoir capacitor (or


smoothing capacitor) is to lessen the variation in (or 'smooth')
the rectified AC output voltage waveform from the bridge. One
explanation of 'smoothing' is that the capacitor provides a low
impedance path to the AC component of the output, reducing the
AC voltage across, and AC current through, the resistive load. In
less technical terms, any drop in the output voltage and current
of the bridge tends to be canceled by loss of charge in the
capacitor. This charge flows out as additional current through
the load. Thus the change of load current and voltage is reduced
relative to what would occur without the capacitor. Increases of
voltage correspondingly store excess charge in the capacitor,
thus moderating the change in output voltage / current.

28

The simplified circuit shown has a well-deserved reputation for


being dangerous, because, in some applications, the capacitor
can retain a lethal charge after the AC power source is removed.
If supplying a dangerous voltage, a practical circuit should
include a reliable way to safely discharge the capacitor. If the
normal load cannot be guaranteed to perform this function,
perhaps because it can be disconnected, the circuit should
include a bleeder resistor connected as close as practical across
the capacitor. This resistor should consume a current large
enough to discharge the capacitor in a reasonable time, but small
enough to minimize unnecessary power waste.
Because a bleeder sets a minimum current drain, the regulation
of the circuit, defined as percentage voltage change from
minimum to maximum load, is improved. However in many
cases the improvement is of insignificant magnitude.
The capacitor and the load resistance have a typical time
constant = RC where C and R are the capacitance and load
resistance respectively. As long as the load resistor is large
enough so that this time constant is much longer than the time of

29

one ripple cycle, the above configuration will produce a


smoothed DC voltage across the load.
In some designs, a series resistor at the load side of the capacitor
is added. The smoothing can then be improved by adding
additional stages of capacitorresistor pairs, often done only for
sub-supplies to critical high-gain circuits that tend to be
sensitive to supply voltage noise.
The idealized waveforms shown above are seen for both voltage
and current when the load on the bridge is resistive. When the
load includes a smoothing capacitor, both the voltage and the
current waveforms will be greatly changed. While the voltage is
smoothed, as described above, current will flow through the
bridge only during the time when the input voltage is greater
than the capacitor voltage. For example, if the load draws an
average current of n Amps, and the diodes conduct for 10% of
the time, the average diode current during conduction must be
10n Amps. This non-sinusoidal current leads to harmonic
distortion and a poor power factor in the AC supply.
In a practical circuit, when a capacitor is directly connected to
the output of a bridge, the bridge diodes must be sized to
30

withstand the current surge that occurs when the power is turned
on at the peak of the AC voltage and the capacitor is fully
discharged. Sometimes a small series resistor is included before
the capacitor to limit this current, though in most applications
the power supply transformer's resistance is already sufficient.
Output can also be smoothed using a choke and second
capacitor. The choke tends to keep the current (rather than the
voltage) more constant. Due to the relatively high cost of an
effective choke compared to a resistor and capacitor this is not
employed in modern equipment.
Some early console radios created the speaker's constant field
with the current from the high voltage ("B +") power supply,
which was then routed to the consuming circuits, (permanent
magnets were then too weak for good performance) to create the
speaker's constant magnetic field. The speaker field coil thus
performed 2 jobs in one: it acted as a choke, filtering the power
supply, and it produced the magnetic field to operate the
speaker.

31

REGULATOR IC (78XX)

It is a three pin IC used as a voltage regulator. It converts


unregulated DC current into regulated DC current.

Normally we get fixed output by connecting the voltage


regulator at the output of the filtered DC (see in above diagram).
It can also be used in circuits to get a low DC voltage from a
high DC voltage (for example we use 7805 to get 5V from 12V).
There are two types of voltage regulators 1. fixed voltage
regulators (78xx, 79xx) 2. variable voltage regulators (LM317)
In fixed voltage regulators there is another classification 1. +ve
32

voltage regulators 2. -ve voltage regulators POSITIVE


VOLTAGE

REGULATORS

This include 78xx voltage

regulators. The most commonly used ones are 7805 and 7812.
7805 gives fixed 5V DC voltage if input voltage is in (7.5V,
20V).

The CAPACITOR FILTER


The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power
supply filter. The application of the simple capacitor filter is
very limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage,
low-current power supplies for cathode ray and similar electron
tubes, which require very little load current from the supply. The
capacitor filter is also used where the power-supply ripple
frequency is not critical; this frequency can be relatively high.
The capacitor (C1) shown in figure 4-15 is a simple filter
connected across the output of the rectifier in parallel with the
load.

33

Full-wave rectifier with a capacitor filter.


When this filter is used, the RC charge time of the filter
capacitor (C1) must be short and the RC discharge time must be
long to eliminate ripple action. In other words, the capacitor
must charge up fast, preferably with no discharge at all. Better
filtering also results when the input frequency is high; therefore,
the full-wave rectifier output is easier to filter than that of the
half-wave rectifier because of its higher frequency.
For you to have a better understanding of the effect that filtering
has on Eavg, a comparison of a rectifier circuit with a filter and
one without a filter is illustrated in views A and B of figure 416. The output waveforms in figure 4-16 represent the unfiltered
and filtered outputs of the half-wave rectifier circuit. Current
pulses flow through the load resistance (RL) each time a diode
conducts. The dashed line indicates the average value of output
voltage. For the half-wave rectifier, Eavg is less than half (or
34

approximately 0.318) of the peak output voltage. This value is


still much less than that of the applied voltage. With no
capacitor connected across the output of the rectifier circuit, the
waveform in view A has a large pulsating component (ripple)
compared with the average or dc component. When a capacitor
is connected across the output (view B), the average value of
output voltage (Eavg) is increased due to the filtering action of
capacitor C1.
UNFILTERED

Half-wave rectifier with and without


filtering.

35

FILTERE

The value of the capacitor is fairly large (several microfarads),


thus it presents a relatively low reactance to the pulsating current
and it stores a substantial charge.
The rate of charge for the capacitor is limited only by the
resistance of the conducting diode, which is relatively low.
Therefore, the RC charge time of the circuit is relatively short.
As a result, when the pulsating voltage is first applied to the
circuit, the capacitor charges rapidly and almost reaches the
peak value of the rectified voltage within the first few cycles.
The capacitor attempts to charge to the peak value of the
36

rectified voltage anytime a diode is conducting, and tends to


retain its charge when the rectifier output falls to zero. (The
capacitor cannot discharge immediately.) The capacitor slowly
discharges through the load resistance (RL) during the time the
rectifier is non-conducting.
The rate of discharge of the capacitor is determined by the value
of capacitance and the value of the load resistance. If the
capacitance and load-resistance values are large, the RC
discharge time for the circuit is relatively long.
A comparison of the waveforms shown in figure 4-16 (view A
and view B) illustrates that the addition of C1 to the circuit
results in an increase in the average of the output voltage (Eavg)
and a reduction in the amplitude of the ripple component (Er)
which is normally present across the load resistance.
Now, let's consider a complete cycle of operation using a halfwave rectifier, a capacitive filter (C1), and a load resistor (RL).
As shown in view A of figure 4-17, the capacitive filter (C1) is
assumed to be large enough to ensure a small reactance to the
pulsating rectified current. The resistance of RL is assumed to be
much greater than the reactance of C1 at the input frequency.
37

When the circuit is energized, the diode conducts on the positive


half cycle and current flows through the circuit, allowing C1 to
charge. C1 will charge to approximately the peak value of the
input voltage. (The charge is less than the peak value because of
the voltage drop across the diode (D1)). In view A of the figure,
the heavy solid line on the waveform indicates the charge on C1.
As illustrated in view B, the diode cannot conduct on the
negative half cycle because the anode of D1 is negative with
respect to the cathode. During this interval, C1 discharges
through the load resistor (RL). The discharge of C1 produces the
downward slope as indicated by the solid line on the waveform
in view B. In contrast to the abrupt fall of the applied ac voltage
from peak value to zero, the voltage across C1 (and thus across
RL) during the discharge period gradually decreases until the
time of the next half cycle of rectifier operation. Keep in mind
that for good filtering, the filter capacitor should charge up as
fast as possible and discharge as little as possible.
Figure 4-17A. - Capacitor filter circuit (positive and negative
half cycles). POSITIVE HALF-CYCLE

38

Figure 4-17B. - Capacitor filter circuit (positive and negative


half cycles). NEGATIVE HALF-CYCLE

Since practical values of C1 and RL ensure a more or less


gradual decrease of the discharge voltage, a substantial charge
remains on the capacitor at the time of the next half cycle of
operation. As a result, no current can flow through the diode
until the rising ac input voltage at the anode of the diode exceeds
39

the voltage on the charge remaining on C1. The charge on C1 is


the cathode potential of the diode. When the potential on the
anode exceeds the potential on the cathode (the charge on C1),
the diode again conducts, and C1 begins to charge to
approximately the peak value of the applied voltage.
After the capacitor has charged to its peak value, the diode will
cut off and the capacitor will start to discharge. Since the fall of
the ac input voltage on the anode is considerably more rapid
than the decrease on the capacitor voltage, the cathode quickly
become more positive than the anode, and the diode ceases to
conduct.
Operation of the simple capacitor filter using a full-wave
rectifier is basically the same as that discussed for the half-wave
rectifier. Referring to figure 4-18, you should notice that
because one of the diodes is always conducting on. either
alternation, the filter capacitor charges and discharges during
each half cycle. (Note that each diode conducts only for that
portion of time when the peak secondary voltage is greater than
the charge across the capacitor.)
Figure 4-18. - Full-wave rectifier (with capacitor filter).
40

Another thing to keep in mind is that the ripple component (E r)


of the output voltage is an ac voltage and the average output
voltage (Eavg) is the dc component of the output. Since the filter
capacitor offers relatively low impedance to ac, the majority of
the ac component flows through the filter capacitor. The ac
component is therefore bypassed (shunted) around the load
resistance, and the entire dc component (or Eavg) flows through
the load resistance. This statement can be clarified by using the
formula for XC in a half-wave and full-wave rectifier. First, you
must establish some values for the circuit
41

42

As you can see from the calculations, by doubling the frequency


of the rectifier, you reduce the impedance of the capacitor by
one-half. This allows the ac component to pass through the
capacitor more easily. As a result, a full-wave rectifier output is
much easier to filter than that of a half-wave rectifier.
Remember, the smaller the XC of the filter capacitor with respect
to the load resistance, the better the filtering action. Since

the largest possible capacitor will provide the best filtering.

Remember, also, that the load resistance is an important


consideration. If load resistance is made small, the load current
increases, and the average value of output voltage (Eavg)
decreases. The RC discharge time constant is a direct function of
the value of the load resistance; therefore, the rate of capacitor
voltage discharge is a direct function of the current through the
load. The greater the load current, the more rapid the discharge
of the

43

capacitor, and the lower the average value of output voltage. For
this reason, the simple capacitive filter is seldom used with
rectifier circuits that must supply a relatively large load current.
Using the simple capacitive filter in conjunction with a fullwave or bridge rectifier provides improved filtering because the
increased ripple frequency decreases the capacitive reactance of
the filter capacitor.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY

44

DIODE
The diode is a p-n junction device. Diode is the component
used to control the flow of the current in any one direction. The
diode widely works in forward bias.

Diode When the current flows from the P to N direction. Then it


is in forward bias. The Zener diode is used in reverse bias
function i.e. N to P direction. Visually the identification of the
diode`s terminal can be done by identifying he silver/black line.
The silver/black line is the negative terminal (cathode) and the
other terminal is the positive terminal (cathode).
APPLICATION
Diodes: Rectification, free-wheeling, etc
Zener diode: Voltage control, regulator etc.
45

Tunnel diode: Control the current flow, snobbier circuit, etc


RESISTORS
The flow of charge through any material encounters an
opposing force similar in many respects to mechanical friction
.this opposing force is called resistance of the material .in some
electric circuit resistance is deliberately introduced in form of
resistor. Resistor used fall in three categories , only two of
which are color coded which are metal film and carbon film
resistor .the third category is the wire wound type ,where value
are generally printed on the vitreous paint finish of the
component. Resistors are in ohms and are represented in Greek
letter omega, looks as an upturned horseshoe. Most electronic
circuit require resistors to make them work properly and it is
obliviously important to find out something about the different
types of resistors available. Resistance is measured in ohms, the
symbol for ohm is an omega ohm. 1 ohm is quite small for
electronics so resistances are often given in kohm and Mohm.
Resistors used in electronics can have resistances as low as 0.1
ohm or as high as 10 Mohm.

46

FUNCTION
Resistor restrict the flow of electric current, for example a
resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode(LED) to
limit the current passing through the LED.
TYPES OF RESISTORS
FIXED VALUE RESISTORS
It includes two types of resistors as carbon film and metal film
.These two types are explained under
CARBON FILM RESISTORS
During manufacture, at in film of carbon is deposited onto a
small ceramic rod. The resistive coating is spiraled away in an
automatic machine until the resistance between there two ends
of the rods is as close as possible to the correct value. Metal
leads and end caps are added, the resistors is covered with an

47

insulating coating and finally painted with colored bands to


indicate the resistor value

Carbon Film Resistors


Another example for a Carbon 22000 Ohms or 22 Kilo-Ohms
also known as 22K at 5% tolerance: Band 1 = Red, 1st digit
Band 2 = Red, 2nd digit Band 3 = Orange, 3rd digit, multiply
with zeros, in this case 3 zero's Band 4 = Gold, Tolerance, 5%

METAL FILM RESISTORS


Metal film and metal oxides resistors are made in a similar way,
but can be made more accurately to within 2% or 1% of their
nominal vale there are some difference in performance between
these resistor types, but none which affects their use in simple
circuit.

48

WIRE WOUND RESISTOR


A wire wound resistor is made of metal resistance wire, and
because of this, they can be manufactured to precise values.
Also, high wattage resistors can be made by using a thick wire
material. Wire wound resistors cannot be used for high
frequency circuits. Coils are used in high frequency circuit. Wire
wound resistors in a ceramic case, strengthened with special
cement. They have very high power rating, from 1 or 2 watts to
dozens of watts. These resistors can become extremely hot when
used for high power application, and this must be taken into
account when designing the circuit.

TESTING
Resistors are checked with an ohm meter/millimeter. For a
defective resistor the ohm-meter shows infinite high reading.
CAPACITORS
In a way, a capacitor is a little like a battery. Although they
work in completely different ways, capacitors and batteries both
store electrical energy. If you have read How Batteries Work ,
49

then you know that a battery has two terminals. Inside the
battery, chemical reactions produce electrons on one terminal
and absorb electrons at the other terminal.
BASIC
Like a battery, a capacitor has two terminals. Inside the
capacitor, the terminals connect to two metal plates separated by
a dielectric. The dielectric can be air, paper, plastic or anything
else that does not conduct electricity and keeps the plates from
touching each other. You can easily make a capacitor from two
pieces of aluminum foil and a piece of paper. It won't be a
particularly good capacitor in terms of its storage capacity, but it
will work.
In an electronic circuit, a capacitor is shown like this:

50

When you connect a capacitor to a battery, heres what happens:


The plate on the capacitor that attaches to the negative terminal
of the battery accepts electrons that the battery is producing.
The plate on the capacitor that attaches to the positive terminal
of the battery loses electrons to the battery.

TESTING
To test the capacitors, either analog meters or specia
l digital meters with the specified function are used. The nonelectrolyte capacitor can be tested by using the digital meter.
Multi meter mode : Continuity Positive probe : One end
Negative probe :

Second end Display

occur) `OL` Result

Faulty OK

51

`0`(beep sound

LED
LED falls within the family of P-N junction devices. The light
emitting diode (LED) is a diode that will give off visible light
when it is energized. In any forward biased P-N junction there
is, with in the structure and primarily close to the junction, a
recombination of hole and electrons. This recombination
requires that the energy possessed by the unbound free electron
be transferred to another state. The process of giving off light by
applying an electrical source is called electroluminescence.

LED is a component used for indication. All the functions being


carried out are displayed by led .The LED is diode which glows
when the current is being flown through it in forward bias
52

condition. The LEDs are available in the round shell and also in
the flat shells. The positive leg is longer than negative leg.

STEPPER MOTOR

A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless, synchronous


electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number
of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely,
without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller).
Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which
are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and
generally are closed-loop commutated.)

53

FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATION

Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors,


which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper
motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed"
electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of
iron. An external control circuit, such as a microcontroller,
energizes the electromagnets. To make the motor shaft turn, first
one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's teeth
magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the
gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet, they are
slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next
electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear
rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the
process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a
"step," with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In
that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.

54

1. Stepper motors are constant power devices.


2. As motor speed increases, torque decreases.
3. The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting
drivers and increasing the driving voltage.
4. Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types, as the
discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another.
5. This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can
cause the motor to lose torque.
6. The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through
the problem speeds range, physically damping the system, or
using a micro-stepping driver.
7. Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother
operation than those with fewer phases.

55

GSM Modem
A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM
wireless network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up
modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up
modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line
while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio
waves. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a
SIM card from a wireless carrier in order to operate [11].

Accessing GSM MODEM using Microsoft HyperTerminal


Microsoft HyperTerminal is a small program that comes with
Microsoft Windows. We use it to send AT commands to the
GSM modem. It can be found at Start -> Programs ->
Accessories -> Communications -> HyperTerminal. Before
programming our SMS application, it is required to check if the
GSM modem and SIM card are working properly first [12]. The
MS HyperTerminal is a handy tool when it comes to testing the
GSM device. It is a good idea to test the GSM devices
beforehand. When a problem occurs, sometimes it is difficult to
tell what causes the problem. The cause can be the program, the
GSM device or the SIM card. If GSM device and SIM card with
56

MS HyperTerminal are operating properly, then it is very likely


that the problem is caused by the program or other hardware
[12]. For Linux users, Mincom can be used instead of
HyperTerminal.

Testing of GSM Modem


To use MS HyperTerminal to send AT commands to the GSM
modem, the following procedure is followed
1. I put a valid SIM (MTN) card into the GSM modem. I obtain
a SIM card by subscribing to the GSM service of a wireless
network operator.
2. No need to install any driver for the GSM modem
3. Then I set up MS HyperTerminal by selecting Start ->
Programs

->

Accessories

->

Communications

->

HyperTerminal.
4. In the Connection Description dialog box (as shown in the
screenshot given below), I enter any file name and choose an
icon I like for the connection. Then I click the OK button.
. In the Connect To dialog box, choose the COM port that your
mobile phone or GSM modem is connecting to in the Connect
using combo box. I choose COM1 because my mobile phone is
57

connected to the COM1 port. Then click the OK button. Type


"AT" in the main window. A response "OK" will be returned
from the mobile phone or GSM modem. Type "AT+CPIN?" in
the main window. The AT command "AT+CPIN?" is used to
query whether the mobile phone or GSM modem is waiting for a
PIN (personal identification number, i.e. password). If the
response is "+CPIN: READY", it means the SIM card does not
require a PIN and it is ready for use. If my SIM card requires a
PIN, you need to set the PIN with the AT command
"AT+CPIN=<PIN>".
[
List of Important AT Commands
After successfully testing the MODEM for its correct
operational state, I then set the MODEM parameters like Baud
rate, Echo off etc to enable easier access via a microcontroller
which I used in this project. The following are the
ATCOMMAND used for programming the gsm modem
Example: Changing and saving parameters
AT+IPR=9600[Enter] Transfer rate to 9600bps
AT&W [Enter] save parameters
58

AT+CMGF means convert the message to machine instruction


format
AT+CPMS means selection of SMS memory
AT+CMGR means read message from a given memory location
AT+CMGD means delete message from a given memory
location.
Microcontroller Modem Interfacing

DTE and DCE


The terms DTE and DCE are very common in the data
communications market. DTE is short for Data Terminal
Equipment and DCE stands for Data Communications
Equipment. As the full DTE name indicates this is a piece of
device that ends a communication line, whereas the DCE
provides a path for communication. Let's say I have a computer
on which wants to communicate with the Internet through a
modem and a dial-up connection. To get to the Internet I tell my
modem to dial the number of my provider. After my modem has
dialed the number, the modem of the provider will answer my
59

call and I will hear a lot of noise. Then it becomes quiet and I
see my login prompt or my dialing program tells me the
connection is established. Now I have a connection with the
server from my provider and I can surf the Internet [13].

Microcontroller LCD Interfacing

Above is the quite simple schematic. The LCD panels Enable


and Register Select is connected to the Control Port. The
Control Port is an open collector / open drain output. Therefore
by incorporating the two 10K external pull up resistors, the
circuit is more portable for a wider range of computers, some of
which may have no internal pull up resistors. I make no effort to
place the Data bus into reverse direction. Therefore I had wire
the R/W line of the LCD panel, into write mode. This will cause
no bus conflicts on the data lines. As a result I cannot read back
60

the LCDs internal Busy Flag which tells us if the LCD has
accepted and finished processing the last instruction [20]. This
problem is overcome by inserting known delays into my
program. The 10k Potentiometer controls the contrast of the
LCD panel. Nothing fancy here.
I used a power supply of 5volt. The user may select whether the
LCD is to operate with a 4-bit data bus or an 8- bit data bus. If a
4-bit data bus is used, the LCD will require a total of 7 data
lines. If an 8-bit data bus is used, the LCD will require a total of
11 data lines [20]. LCD with 8-bit data bus is used for this
design. The three control lines are EN, RS, and RW. EN line
must be raised/lowered before/after each instruction sent to the
LCD regardless of whether that instruction is read or write text
or instruction. In short, I manipulate EN when communicating
with the LCD.

61

PROGRAMMER
When we have to learn about a new computer we have to
familiarize about the machine capability we are using, and we
can do it by studying the internal hardware design (devices
architecture), and also to know about the size, number and the
size of the registers.
A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor
(the CPU), non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or
flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and
an I/O control unit. Also called a "computer on a chip," billions
of microcontroller units (MCUs) are embedded each year in a
myriad of products from toys to appliances to automobiles. For
example, a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers.
The following picture describes a general block diagram of
microcontroller.
89S52:

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance

CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system


programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using
Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is
62

compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and


pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile
memory pro-grammar. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with
in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller, which provides a highly
flexible and cost-effective solution to many, embedded control
applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard
features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines,
Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a
six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial
port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the
AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to
zero frequency and supports two software selectable power
saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the
RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to
continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM
con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip
functions until the next interrupt

63

The hardware is driven by a set of program instructions, or


software. Once familiar with hardware and software, the user
can then apply the microcontroller to the problems easily.
64

The pin diagram of the 8051 shows all of the input/output pins
unique to microcontrollers:

The following are some of the capabilities of 8051


microcontroller.
Internal ROM and RAM
I/O ports with programmable pins
Timers and counters
Serial data communication
65

The 8051 architecture consists of these specific features:

16 bit PC &data pointer (DPTR)

8 bit program status word (PSW)

8 bit stack pointer (SP)

Internal ROM 4k

Internal RAM of 128 bytes.

4 register banks, each containing 8 registers

80 bits of general purpose data memory

32 input/output pins arranged as four 8 bit


ports: P0-P3

Two 16 bit timer/counters: T0-T1

Two external and three internal interrupt


sources Oscillator and

clock circuits.

SIMULATOR
KEIL Micro Vision is an integrated development environment
used to create software to be run on embedded systems (like a
microcontroller). It allows for such software to be written either
66

in assembly or C programming languages and for that software


to be simulated on a computer before being loaded onto the
microcontroller. The software used is c programming

Keil Vision3 is an IDE (Integrated Development


Environment) that helps write, compile, and debug embedded
programs. It encapsulates the following components:
A project manager.
A make facility.
67

Tool configuration.
Editor.
A powerful debugger.
To create a GSM HOME SECURITY SYSTEM project in
uVision3:
1. Select Project - New Project.
2. Select a directory and enter the name of the project file.
3. Select Project Select Device and select a device from
Device Database.
4. Create source files to add to the project
5. Select Project - Targets, Groups, and Files. Add/Files,
select Source Group1, and add the
Source files to the project.
6. Select Project - Options and set the tool options. Note that
when the target device is selected from the Device
Database all-special options are set automatically. Default
memory model settings are optimal for most applications.
7. Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target.

68

To create a new project, simply start micro vision and


select Project=>New Project from the pulldown menus.
In the file dialog that appears, a filename and directory was
chosen for the project. It is recommended that a new directory
be created for each project, as several files will be generated.
Once the project has been named, the dialog shown in the
figure below will appear, prompting the user to select a target
device. The chip being used is the AT89S52, which is listed
under the heading Atmel.

Next, Micro Vision was instructed to generate a HEX file


upon program compilation. A HEX file is a standard file format
for storing executable code that is to be loaded onto the
microcontroller. In the Project Workspace pane at the left,
rightclick on Target 1 and select Options for Target 1
.Under the Output tab of the resulting options dialog, ensure
that both the Create Executable and Create HEX File
options are checked. Then click OK.

Next, a file must be added to the project that will contain


the project code. To do this, expand the Target 1 heading,
69

rightclick on the Source Group 1 folder, and select Add


files Create a new blank file (the file name should end in
.c), select it, and click Add. The new file should now appear
in the Project Workspace pane under the Source Group 1
folder. Double-click on the newly created file to open it in the
editor. To compile the program, first save all source files by
clicking on the Save All button, and then click on the
Rebuild All Target Files to compile the program as shown in
the figure below. If any errors or warnings occur during
compilation, they will be displayed in the output window at the
bottom of the screen. All errors and warnings will reference the
line and column number in which they occur along with a
description of the problem so that they can be easily located
[23].

When the program has been successfully compiled, it can


be simulated using the integrated debugger in Keil Micro
Vision. To start the debugger, select Debug=>Start/Stop
Debug Session from the pulldown menus.
At the left side of the debugger window, a table is
displayed containing several key parameters about the simulated
70

microcontroller, most notably the elapsed time (circled in the


figure below). Just above that, there are several buttons that
control code execution. The Run button will cause the
program to run continuously until a breakpoint is reached,
whereas the Step Into button will execute the next line of code
and then pause (the current position in the program is indicated
by a yellow arrow to the left of the code).

PRO51 BURNER SOFTWARE


PRO51 BURNER provides you with software burning tools for
8051 based Microcontrollers in their Flash memory. The 51
BURNER tools, you can burn AT89C/SXXXX series of
ATMEL

71

microcontrollers.

A view of PRO51

72

CONCLUSION
GSM and GPRS based Designs have developed another
innovative and Public utility product for mass communication
[1]. The project is aimed at developing the security of Home
against Intruders, Gas Leak and Fire. In any of the above three
cases any one met while you are out of your home than the
device sends SMS to the emergency no provided to it.
The report consists of a background into the area of 8051
microcontroller and mobile communication, how they are
interfaced to each other and AT (Attention) commands set used
in communication. The Microcontroller based system
continuously watching the security issues of your house, if any
mishap condition from above three is occur it will sense and
send a message to your mobile.
The main aim of the project will be to design a SMS electronic
HOME SECURITY SYSTEM toolkit which can replace the
traditional HOME SECURITY SYSTEM.

The toolkit send

SMS to house owner number, the system is made efficient by


SIMs so that the SMS can be received by number of devices

73

boards in a locality using techniques of time division multiple


access.
5.2 Problem Encountered
During soldering, many of the connection become short
cktd. So we

desolder the connection and did soldering

again.
A leg of the crystal oscillator was broken during mounting.
So it has to be replaced.
LED`s get damaged when we switched ON the supply so
we replace it by the new one.
TROUBLESHOOT
Care should be taken while soldering. There should be no
shorting of joints.
Proper power supply should maintain.

FUTURE IMPROVEMENT

In my project I am sending messages through GSM network


and Control the home devices

by utilizing AT

(ATTENTION) commands. The same principle can be


74

applied to display the message on electronics display board


appliances at a distant location.
Robots can be controlled in a similar fashion by sending the
commands to the robots. These commands are read by using
AT commands and appropriate action is taken. This can be
used for spy robots at distant locations, utilized by the
military to monitor movement of enemy troops.
Currently farmers have to manually put on or off pumps,
drippers etc by using electric switches. Using the principle of
AT commands we can put on or off these appliances
remotely.
RECOMMENDATION
It is highly recommended that electronic board should be
constructed for this new system (GSM electronic notice board)

75

REFERENCES
1. The 8051Microcontroller by Kenneth J. Ayala
2. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems by
Muhammad Ali Mazidi.
3. Principles and Applications of GSM by Vijay Garg.
4. Artificial Intelligence Elain Rich & Kevin Knight, Tata Mc
Graw Hill, 2nd Edition.
5. Artificial Intelligence A Modern approach Slaurt Russel
and Peter Norving, Pearson Education, 2nd Edition.
6. Introduction to Robotics P.J.Mc Kerrow, Addisson Wesley,
USA, 1991 Bernard Sklar, Digital Communications:
Fundamentals and Applications, Prentice Hall, 2001.
7. A. Clark and R. Harun, Assessment of kalman-_lter channel
estimators for an HF radio link," IEE Proceedings, vol. 133,
pp. 513{521, Oct 1986.
8. ETS 300 502. European Digital Cellular Telecommunication
System (Phase 2); Teleservices Supported by a GSM Public
Land Mobile Network (PLMN). European
Telecommunications Standards Institute. September 1994.
9. Matthew C. Valenti and Jian Sun, Chapter 12: Turbo Codes,
Handbook of RF and Wireless
76

10. GSM Multiple Access Scheme,


http://www.eecg.toronto.edu/~nazizi/gsm/ma/ William
Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition:
Chapter 9 Spread Spectrum, http://juliet.stfx.ca/~lyang/csci465/lectures/09-SpreadSpectrum-new.ppt
11. ETS 300 608. Digital Cellular Telecommunication System
(Phase 2); Specification of the Subscriber Identity ModuleMobile Equipment (SIM-ME) Interface. European
Telecommunications Standards Institute. May 1998.
12. ETR 100. European Digital Cellular Telecommunication
System (Phase 2); Abbreviations and Acronyms. European
Telecommunications Standards Institute. April 1995.
13. Jrg Eberspcher and Hans-Jrg Vgel. GSM switching,
services and Protocols. John Wiley and Sons, 1999.
14. Klaus Vedder GSM: Security, Services, and SIM. State of
the art in Applied Cryptography. Course on Computer
Security and Industrial Cryptography. Leuven, Belgium, June
3-6, 1997.
15. J. Wu and A. H. Aghvami, \A new adaptive equalizer with
channel estimator for mobile radio communications," IEEE
Transactions on Vehicular Technology,
77

16. L. J. Cimini, Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile


channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,"
IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 33, pp. 665{675,
July 1985.
17. B. Saltzberg, Performance of an ancient parallel data
transmission system," IEEE Trans. Commun. Techno., pp.
805{813, December 1967}
18. M. Zimmermann and A. Kirsch, The AN/GSC10/KATHRYN variable rate data modem for HF radio," IEEE
Trans. Commun.Techn., vol. CCM{15,16}
19. Hardware and user manuals of the modem from
MOTOROLA C168
http://developer.motorola.com/getDocument.do?docId=65054
20. http://www.mobilegpsonline.com/downloads/GM2829%20Datasheet%20R1G.pdf
21. http://www.mobilegpsonline.com/GSMJC01Spec.pdf
22. http://www.visualgsm.com/wire_sms_index.htm
23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gsm

78

TROUBLESHOOTING MANUAL FOR THE GSM HOME


SECURITY SYSTEM
1. SYSTEM NOT POWER : check If the GREEN led IS
POWER on and also check if the output voltage from the
power supply is 5V or approximately
2. SYSTEM POWER BUT NO DISPLAY ON THE LCD:
press the reset button on the system. The reset button is
indicated with red color
3. NO MESSAGES ON THE LCD: check if the headphone
is connected to the phone and also check if the phone is
power
4. SYSTEM HANGED: press the rest button to re-initialize
the memory of the embedded system
5. SYSTEM SHOWS SPECIAL CHARACTER: changed
the max232 driver inside the system. Max232 is a receiver
transmitter driver that is having 16pins
6. LCD CONTRAST IS FADED: rotate the potentiometer in
the front panel of the LCD to see the text clearly.
7. BLANK OUTPUT DISPLAY: open the entire system and
locate crystal oscillator. Crystal oscillator is harsh in
colour. Replace the crystal oscillator with exactly 11.0592
MHz.
8. FAILS TO CONTROL DEVICE: Ensure that there is
no messages on the phone memory and then reset the LCD
also make sure the character send does not exceed 16
characters. Also make sure you put security code before the
79

messages and you are sending the messages to the


appropriate number. The format of the messages is 12345
fanon.
9. NO WELCOME MESSAGE AS YOU POWER ON:
The system should display a scrolling welcome message as
you power on the system. The welcome message to be
display is WELCOME TO PROJECTS. If no welcome
message, ensure to connect the headphone to the mobile
phone or you can use your hand to touch the headphone
10.
NO RESPONSE FROM THE HEADPHONE: You
can change the headphone and locate the RX, TX, and
GND from the headphone before connecting it to the entire
system.
11.
IF THE MODEM WAS STOLEN: Get another
phone from a GSM shop and replace it, ensure you
program the phone and make sure the communication rate
is set to 9600bps

80

For further details regarding to software and hardware and any


further queries contact to the given address.
HBeonLabs

Off. No. 46, 1st Floor, Kadamba Complex


Gamma-I, Greater Noida (India) - 201308

Contact us:

+91-120-4298000
+91-9212314779

info@hbeonlabs.com
training@hbeonlabs.com
www. hbeonlabs.com

16th USENIX Security Symposium,


81