CIRCULARLY POLARIZED RECTANGULAR
DIELECTRIC RESONATOR ANTENNAS FOR PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
Lieutenant Commander P.N.Dombowsky, CD
A thesis subrnitted to the Department of Electrical and Cornputer Engineering Royal Military CoUege of Canada Kingston, Ontario
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
_{M}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} Engineering
November 1996
O Copyright 5y P.N.Dombowsky,1996
This thesis may be freely used within the Department of National Defence, but the copyright for open publication remains the property of the author.
I*I
National Library
of Canada
Acquisitions and
Bibliographie Services senrices bibliographiques
Bibliothèquenationale
du Canada
Acquisitions et
395 Wellington Street
OttawaON K1A ON4
Canada
395. rue Wellington
Ottawa ON K1A ON4
Canada
Your iYe votre réf8rWce
Ofif fi& NOff8 r8f&~nCB
The author has granted a non
exclusive Licence allowing the
National Library of Canada to reproduce, loan, distribute or sell copies of this thesis in microfom, paper or electronic formats.
The author retains ownership of the copyright in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts fiom it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's permission.
L'auteur a accordé une licence non exclusive permettant à la
Bibliothèque nationale du Canada de
reproduire, prêter, disîribuer ou vendre des copies de cette thèse sous la forme de microfiche/f?Im, de reproduction sur papier ou sur format électronique.
L'auteur conserve la propriété du droit d'auteur qui protège cette thèse. Ni la thèse ni des extraits substantiels de celleci ne doivent être imprimés ou autrement reproduits sans son autorisation.
ABSTRACT
CIRCULARLY POLARIZED RECTANGULAR DIELECTRIC RESONATOR
ANTENNAS FOR PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
by Lieutenant Commander P.N.Dombowsky
Currently, a rapid growth of "persona1 communications" is underway which is spurring the development of many varied technologies, including antenna design. Some areas of "personal communications" include  Global Positioning Systerns (GPS),Cellular telephones (incl. Terrestrial and Satellite), indoor/outdoor wireless communications (e.g. cornputer networks) etc. _{} all of _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} operate maidy in the _{L} and S bands. The word "personal" implies mobile, tnerefore, antenna designs must be small. lightweight and inexpensive yet still posses properties of high efficiency, 'wide bandwidth', and the ability to optirnize directivity, gain and polarization (particularly circular) to meet specific requirements. Many different antenna technologies are king investigated such as Microsmp Patch and Ferrite Resonator Antemas.
Recently, a new single feed circularly polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) was reported that could offer some promise in this area of communications. The antenna elements use mutually orthogonal nearly degenerate modes _{t}_{o} generate circular polarization with low axial ratios over a wide fkequency band and beamwidth. In this thesis, the performance of these antennas _{i}_{n} the _{S} _{b}_{a}_{n}_{d} has _{k}_{e}_{n} investigated and characterized in terms of parameters such as: far field patterns, radiation efficiency, impedance bandwidth, axial ratio beamwidth and bandwidth. The effects of finite ground planes on radiation patterns was also investigated using Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD). Also, the effects of dieiectric covers was investigated. Finally, sorne analytical design relations and performance predictors are given and used in conjunction with the experimental data to evaluate the potential of these antennas for "personal communications".
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This thesis is the culmination of more than one persons efforts or one persons ideas. The scope of an engineering postgraduate thesis demands the marshaling of numerous resources and acceptance of al1 forrns of assistance.
In this context 1wish to My, thank my thesis advisor, Dr. Yahia M.M. Antar for his support, guidance, gentleness and patience. Without, his unwavering confidence and his genuine persona1 interest in me, 1am sure I would never have completed this thesis. 1wamily thank Dr. Fan for shanng his knowledge with me and in always making time for my often times repetitive questions. For RMC and particularly the Engineering Department 1acknowledge your generous support particularly fiom the administration and technical support staff. Without Martine Simard 1would of been totalIy out of touch while researching in Ottawa at CRC.
To Dr. Apisak Ittipiboon thanks for helping me focus on the topic of rny thesis and for your
guidance and help with the theoretical portions of this work. 1 also offer my appreciation to Dr. Aldo
Petosa, for always making time to assist me and to intently listen and offer insight into my problems.
For the technical staff that provided both material and technical support 1am most grateful especially
to Shaun Sarazin, who is a cheerfûl kindred spirit and a fiiend who helped me tremendously.
More personalIy, 1wish to thank my fiend Major Luc Lafieniere for prodding cajoling and
supporting me throughout this whole process. There were _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{s} when 1needed _{a} gentle _{(}_{f}_{i}_{r}_{m}_{)} push to
keep me going.
Finally, and most irnportanly, for Anne  two years with a new baby, long weeks and months alone in Ottawa, and a scared sometimes overwhelmed husband _{} your sacrifice which was far greater than mine made this work possible. thanks.
Dedicated to my wife and best friend, Anne You most of al, made this possible.
Graydon, Dad wiu no longer be in Kingston.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 
1 

Introduction 
1 

1.1 
Overview 
I 

1.2 
Objective 
2 

1.3 
Goal and Scope of Research 
3 

1.4 
Organization 
. 
. 
. 
5 

Chapter 2 
7 

Microstrip Patch Antennas for Personal Communications 
7 

2.1 Overview 
 
7 

2.2 Polarkation 
7 

2.2.1 
Polarkation States 
8 

2.2.2 
Circular Polarized Antemas 
11 

_{2}_{.}_{3} 
_{M}_{i}_{c}_{r}_{o}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{p} _{P}_{a}_{t}_{c}_{h} _{A}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{a}_{s} 
_{1}_{1} 

_{2}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{1} 
_{C}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{P}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{z}_{e}_{d} _{M}_{P}_{A}_{s} 
_{1}_{3} 

2.4 
Summary of MPA's for Persona1 Communications 
15 

Chapter 3 
16 
Dielectric Resonators
16
3.1 Overview 
16 
_{3}_{.}_{2} _{I}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{o} _{D}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c} _{R}_{e}_{s}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s} 
_{1}_{6} 
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{1} _{D}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c} _{R}_{e}_{s}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s} _{a}_{s} _{C}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{i}_{t} _{E}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} 
17 
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2} _{D}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c} _{R}_{e}_{s}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s} _{a}_{s} _{A}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{n}_{a}_{s} 
18 
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{3} _{L}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{P}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{z}_{e}_{d} _{A}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{n}_{a}_{s} 
_{1}_{9} 

3.2.4 Circular Polarized Antemas 
21 

_{3}_{.}_{3} 
_{C}_{P} _{D}_{R}_{A} _{M}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{1} _{D}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} 
26 
3.3.1 Method 
26 
3.3.2
Microwave Dielectric Resonators  General
26
3.3.3 Simple DR Mode1
32
_{3}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{4} 
_{M}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{C}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{n}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{D}_{R}_{'}_{S} 
36 
3.3.5 Models for Rectangular DRs 
37 

3.3.6 Modined Dielectric Waveguide Mode1 with Mked Magnetic Wab 
39 
3.3.7 CP Design Relations
_{3}_{.}_{4} _{F}_{z}_{e}_{d} _{S}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{F}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d}_{s}
48
_{5}_{1}
_{3}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{1} 
_{S}_{t}_{r}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} 
_{5}_{1} 
3.4.2 
Microstrip Line 
52 
_{3}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{3} 
_{A}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{F}_{e}_{e}_{d} 
_{5}_{3} 
_{3}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{4} _{A}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{D}_{R}_{A} _{M}_{a}_{t}_{c}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g}
3.5 Radiation Models
_{3}_{.}_{5}_{.}_{1} _{F}_{a}_{r} _{F}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d}_{s} _{f}_{t}_{o}_{m} _{C}_{r}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{M}_{a}_{g}_{n}_{e}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{D}_{i}_{p}_{o}_{l}_{e}_{s}
Chapter 4
_{M}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{F}_{a}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
55
56
57
65
_{6}_{5}
4.1 
Overview 
65 
4.2 
Elernent Design 
65 
4.3 
Aperture Feed 
69 
Chapter 5
72
Experimental and Theoretical Results 
~ 
72 
5.1 Overview 
72 
_{5}_{.}_{2} _{M}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{T}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{s}
5.2.1 Radiation Pattern and Polarization
5.2.2 Measurement Equipment and Measurement Error
_{}_{7}_{3}
73
75
5.3 Antenna Performance 
77 

5.3.1 Multiple Coupling Positions 
78 

5.3.2 
Resonant Frequency 
78 
_{5}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{3}
_{Q}_{}_{F}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} _{(}_{I}_{r}_{n}_{p}_{e}_{d}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{B}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{w}_{i}_{d}_{t}_{h}_{)}
81
_{5}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{4} _{R}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{P}_{a}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{n}_{s}
*
*
5.3.5 Directivity
82
87
5.3.6 Gain 
88 

_{5}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{5} _{R}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{E}_{f}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{y} 
_{}_{9}_{0} 

_{5}_{.}_{4} _{F}_{'}_{i}_{t}_{e} _{G}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d} _{P}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{E}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} 
_{9}_{2} 

5.4.1 Overview 
92 

5.4.2 
DRAs on Finite Ground Planes 
94 
_{5}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{3} 
_{U}_{n}_{i}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{D}_{f}_{i}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
100 
5.5 Dielectric Covers 
104 
Chapter 6 
109 

Conclusion and Recommendations 
109 

6.1 
Introduction 
109 

_{6}_{.}_{3} _{D}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{P}_{r}_{o}_{c}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{r}_{e} 
111 

6.4 CP DRA Performance versus Printed Technology 
112 

6.5 
Conclusions of Results 
 
114 
6.6 
Future Work 
116 

Annex A 
118 

Loss Tangent 
118 
Annex B
Resonant Frequency and QFactor Prediction Program
Annex C
DRA Return Loss (SII)and Smith Chart Plots
_{A}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{x} _{D}
*
119
119
121
121
J47
Radiation Patterns .Spinning Linear
147
Crossed Dipote Radiation Pattern Prediction Program
Annex F
Linear Radiation Plots of Orthogonal Fields
Annex G
Large and Smatl Ground Plane Axial Ratio Cornparison
_{A}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{x} _{H}
_{U}_{T}_{D} _{D}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{C}_{o}_{e}_{f}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}
Annex I
O
160
161
161
173
173
180
180
182
UTD Program 
182 
1.1 Matlab UTD Program for Rectangular Finite Ground Planes 
182 
_{1}_{.}_{2} _{M}_{a}_{t}_{l}_{a}_{b} _{U}_{T}_{D} _{W}_{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{D}_{f}_{i}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{S}_{u}_{b}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{h}_{e} 
_{1}_{9}_{0} 
1.3 MatIab UTD Transition Function
_{A}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{x} _{J}
Measured and Predicted (Normalized) UTD Plots
REFERENCES
192
193
193
199
LIST OF FIGURES
Nurnber 
Page 

Figure 21 
Polarkation Examples 
8 

Figure 22 
Basic Microstrip Patch Antenna Configuration 
12 
Figure 23 MPA's for Circular Polarization
_{1}_{4}
Figure 23 
MPA's for Circular Polarization 
14 

Figure 31 Sub Array of Chopped Corner DRA 
22 

Figure 32 
Active QuarterWavelength Array 
_{2}_{3} 

Figure 33 SlotFed Cruciforrn Antenna 
23 

Figure 34 Cylindrical Ring DRA with Dual Probes 
24 

Figure 35 Rectangular CP DRA with Single 
Slot Feed 
25 

Figure 36 Parallel Resonant Circuit and Normalized Response 
27 
Figure 37 Dissimilar Media Interface with Incident Plane Wave 28
Figure 38 Infinite Rectangular Dielectric Waveguide 
39 

Figure 39 
Transverse E & H Fields in a Rectangular DR 
40 
Figure 310 
Truncated Dual Mode DR with End Wall Approximations 
45 
Figure 311 Ideal SI1 Response of Dual Mode CP DRA
Figure 312 Crosssection of a Microstrip Line (Quasi TEM mode)
49
52
Figure 313 
Equivalent Magnetic Dipole 
_{5}_{4} 
Figure 314 Crossed Magnetic Dipoles 
58 

Figure 315 Crossed Magnetic Dipoles and Image 
62 

Figure 41 Aperture Feed Configuration 
70 

Figure 51 Theoretical Field Patterns at Phi = 0 
83 

Figure 52 Measured Orthogonal Polarized Fields from DR4 (mid coupling) 
84 

Figure 53 DRA Axial Ratio with Frequency on a Large Ground Plane 
85 

Figure 54 Wheeler Cap Antenna Measurement Setup 
90 

Figure 55 DRA Axial Ratio with Frequency on Finite Ground Planes 
95 
Figure 56 DRA on Finite Ground Plane Geometry for Calculating UTD Rays101
Figure C1 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode 
121 
Figure C2 Smith Cjart Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode 
121 
Figure C3 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) 
122 
Figure C4 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) 
122 
Figure 
C5 
Return Loss Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode 
_{1}_{2}_{3} 
Figure C6 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode 
_{1}_{2}_{3} 

Figure C7 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Lower & Upper Linear Modes 
_{1}_{2}_{4} 

Figure C8 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Lower & Upper Linear Modes 
_{1}_{2}_{4} 

Figure C9 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex) 
_{1}_{2}_{5} 

Figure C10 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex) 
125 

Figure C11 Return Loss Plot of DR1 CP Mode 
126 

Figure C12 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 CP Mode 
126 
Figure C13 
Return Loss Plot of DR1 CP Mode (Kydex) 
127 
Figure C14 
Smith Chart Plot of DR1 CP Mode (Kydex) 
127 
Figure C15 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode 
128 

Figure C16 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode 
128 

Figure C17 Retum Loss Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode 
_{1}_{2}_{9} 

Figure C18 
Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode 
129 
Figure C19 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes 
130 

Figure C20 
Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes 
130 
Figure C21 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) Figure C22 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) Figure C23 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex) Figure C24 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex)
Figure C25 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes (Kydex) 133
Figure C26 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes (Kydex) 133
131
_{1}_{3}_{1}
_{1}_{3}_{2}
132
Figure C27 Return Loss Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode 
134 
Figure C28 Smith Chart Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode 
134 
Figure C29 Return Loss Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode (Kydex) 
135 
Figure C30 Smith Chart Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode (Kydex) 
135 
Figure C31 Return Loss Plot of DR4 (U) CP Mode
136
Figure C30 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (U)CP Mode 
136 
Figure C33 Return Loss Plot of DR4 (U) CP Mode (Kydex) 
137 
Figure C34 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (U) CP Mode (Kydex) 
137 
Figure C35 Retum Loss Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode 
138 
Figure C36
Figure C37 Return Loss Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode (Kydex)
Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode 138
139
Figure C38 
Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode (Kydex) 139 

Figure C39 
Retun Loss Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode 
140 
Figure C40 
Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode 140 
Figure C41 Return Los Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode
Figure C42
Figure C43 Return Loss Plot of DR5 Upper & Lower Linear Modes 142
141
Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode 141
Figure C44 
Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Upper & Lower Linear Modes 
142 
Figure C45 
Return Loss Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex) 
143 
Figure C46 Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex) 143
Figure C47 Return Loss Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex)
Figure C48 Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) 144
144
Figure C49 
Return Loss Plot of DR5 CP Mode 
145 
Figure C50 
Smith Chart Plot of DR5 CP Mode 
145 
Figure C51 Return Loss Plot of DR5 CP Mode (Kydex) 
146 
Figure C52 Smith Chart Plot of DR5 CP Mode (Kydex) 146
Figure 
Dl Measured CP Pattern for DR1 on SLot 8 (LGP) 
147 

Figure D2 
Measured CP Pattern for DR1 on Slot 8 (LW & Kydex) 
147 

Figure 
D3 
Measured 
CP Pattern 
for DR1 on 
Slot 8 (SGP) 
148 
Figure D4 Measured CP Pattern 
for DR1 on Slot 8 (SGP & Kydex) 
148 
149
Figure D5 Measured CP Pattern of DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP)
Figure D6 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 149
Figure
D7 Measured
CP Pattern
for DR4
(U) on
Slot 2
(SGP)
150
Figure D8 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (U)on SIot 2 (SGP & Kydex)
150
Figure D9 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP)
151
Figure DIO Measured CP Pattern of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 151
Figure 
D11 
Measured 
CP Pattern 
for 
DR4 (M) 
on 
Slot 2 
(SGP) 
152 
Figure D12 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (SGP & Kydex) 
152 

Figure 
D13 
Measured 
CP Pattern 
for DR4 (L) on 
Slot 2 
(LGP) 
153 

Figure D14 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 153 

Figure D15 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (EGP) 
154 
FIgure D16 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on SIot 2 (SGP & Kydex) 154
Figure D17 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 
(L) on 
Slot 2 (VSGP) 
155 

Figure D18 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VSGP & Kydex) 155 

Figure Da19 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 on Slot 2 (SqSGP) 156 

Figure D20 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (SqSGP & Kydex) . 156 

Figure D21 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 
(L) on 
Slot 2 (VvSGP) 157 

Figure D22 
Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on 
Slot 2 (VvSGP & Kydex). 157 
Figure D23 Measured CP Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (LGP)
158
Figure D24 
Measured CP Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (LGP & Kydex) 
158 

Figure D25 
Measured 
CP Pattern 
for DR5 on 
Slot 4 (SGP) 
159 
Figure D25 
Measured CF Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (SGP & Kydex) 159 

Figure D26 
Measured CP Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (SGP & Kydex) 
159 
161
Figure F2 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR1 on Slot 8 (LGP & Kydex) 161
Figure F1 Dual Orthogonal Plots of
DR1 on Slot 8 (LGP)
Figure 
F3 
Dual 
Orthogonal 
Plots of 
DR1 on 
Slot 8 
(SGP) 
162 
Figure F4 
Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR1 on Slot 8 (SGP & Kydex) 
162 

Figure F5 
Dual Orthogonal Plots DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP) 
163 

Figure F6 
Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 
163 

Figure F7 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (U) on SIot 2 (SGP) 
164 

Figure F8 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (SGP & Kydex) 
164 

Figure F9 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP) 
165 
Figure F10 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 165
Figure Fll Dual Orthogonal
Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (SGP)
166
xii
Figure F12
Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (SGP & Kydex)
166
Figure F13 
Dual Orthogonal 
Plots 
of 
DR4 
(L) on Slot 2 (LGP) 
167 

Figure F14 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 
167 

Figure F15 Dual Orthogonal Plots 
of 
DR4 
(L) on 
Slot 2 (SGP) 
168 

Figure 
F16 
Dual Orthogonal 
Plots 
of 
DR4 
(L) on 
Slot 2 
(SGP & Kydex) 
168 
Figure F17 
Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VSGP) 
169 

Figure F18 
Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VSGP & Kydex) 169 
Figure 
F 19 
Dual 
Orthogonal 
Plots 
of 
DR4 (L) on 
Slot 2 (SqSGP) 
170 

Figure F20 
Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on 
Slot _{2} (SqSGP _{&} Kydex) 
170 

Figure F21 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VvSGP) 
171 

Figure 
F22 Dual 
Orthogonal 
Plots 
of DR4 (L) on 
Slot 
_{2} (VvSGP _{&} Kydex) 
17 1 

Figure F23 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR5 on Slot 4 (LGP) 
172 

Figure F24 Dual 
Orthogonal 
Plots 
of DR5 on Slot 
_{4} _{(}_{L}_{G}_{P}_{&} Kydex) 
172 

Figure G1 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR1 
173 

Figure G2 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (M) 
174 

Figure G3 Figure G4 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (U) 
175 

Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (L) Part 
A 
176 
Figure 65 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (L) Part B 
177 

Figure G6 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR5 
178 

Figure J1 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR1 LGP 
193 

Figure 52 
Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR1 SGP 
193 

Figure 53 
Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Field of DR4M LGP 
194 

Figure 54 
Predicted 
and 
Measured 
Orthogonal 
Fields of 
DR4M SGP 
194 
Figure J5 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR4U LGP 
195 

Figure 56 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR4U SGP 
195 

Figure 57 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR4L LGP 
196 
Figure 58 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal 
Fields of DR4L 
SGP 
196 
Figure J9 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fileds of DR4L VSGP 
197 

Figure J10 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of _{D}_{R}_{4}_{L} _{S}_{q}_{S}_{G}_{P} 
197 
Figure J11 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR4L VvSGP
198
Figure 512 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR5 LW
198
LIST OF TABLES
Number 
Page 

Table 21 Special Polarkation States 
9 

Table 31 
Summary of Results for Parallel Resonators 
28 
Table 41 
CP DRA Elernents Fabricated 
67 
Table 42 
Physical and Mechanical Properties of DRA Material 
68 
Table 43 
Microstrip Line to Aperture Dimensions 
71 
Table 44 
Electrical Properties of RTfDuroid 6010 
71 
Table 51 
Polarization Measurement Methods 
73 
Table 52 
Measured Resonant Frequencies (GHz)and Magnitudes (dB) 
79 
Table 53 
Error Table of Predicted Frequencies to Measured Values (GHz) 
80 
Table 54 
Measured 3 dB Impedance Bandwidths venus Predicted 
82 
Table 55 
Measured Axial Ratio Bandwidth and Beamwidth 
86 
Table 56 
Approximate Directivity Estimated from System Dimensions 
88 
Table 57 Measured and Corrected
Gains of Antennas on Boresight
89
Table 58 
Estimated DRA Efficiencies usin Wheeler Cap Method 
92 
Table 59 Axial Ratio Bandwidth and Beam width for finite Ground Planes 
95 
Table 510 Percentage Change in Characteristics due to Firite Ground Planes 96
Table 511 Gain and Directivity with Finite Ground Planes 
98 

Table 512 Dielectric Cover Specifications 
104 

Table 513 
DRA Characteristics with Kydex Cover 
105 
Table 514 
Cornparison of DRA Characteristics (Cover vs.No Cover) 
106 
Table 61 Summary of Circularlp Polarized MPAs Table G1 DRA System Characteristics versus Size of Ground Plane
113
179
ABBREVIATIONS
AR 
Axial Ratio 
AUT 
Antenna Under Test 
BW 
Bandwidth 
CP 
Circular Polarization 
CRC 
Communications Research Centre 
dB 
Decibels 
dBi 
Decibels (referenced to an isotropic source) 
dBic 
Decibels (referenced to a circularly polarized isotropic source) 
DR 
Dielectric Resonator 
DRA 
Dielectric Resonator Antenna 
DWGM 
Dielecmc Waveguide Model 
GHz 
Gigahertz ( 1'O hertz) 
GPS 
Global Positioning System 
GTD 
Geometrical Theory of Diffraction 
IMW 
Imperfect Magnetic Wall 
LP 
Linear Polarization 
MIC 
Microwave Integrated Circuit 
MMW 
Mixed Magnetic _{W}_{a}_{U}_{s} 
MoM 
Method of Moments 
MPA 
Microstrip Patch Antenna 
PEC 
Perfect Elecmc Conductor 
PMC 
Perfect Magnetic Conductor 
RMC 
Royal Military College of Canada 
UTD 
Uniform Theory of Diffraction 
VSWR 
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio 
xvi
1.1
Overview
Chapter
I
Introduction
The demand for "Personal Communications Systems (PCS)",which includes:
Global Positioning Systerns (GPS);indoor and outdoor 'wireless' communications; terrestrial and satellite ceilular telephones; and a host of medical, military and poüce data, voice and video communications is increasing rapidly. _{A}_{U} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} require highly efficient, srnail, low profile antennas, capable of operating over a large bandwidth (3% or greater). Most of these applications employ portable devices that are required to transmit high speed data (9600 baud or greater) either terrestrïally or extraterresmally using a variety of polarization's _{(}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{&} circular) to achieve low bit error rates. The criteria required to enable the portability, high data rates and polarization diversity are  high efficiency >958; large bandwidth (>3%) to enable high data rate transmission, and the ability to operate with either a linear or circular polarized wave. Consequently there is an increasing demand for low cost, Light weight and efficient antenna systerns that will conform to the obvious requirement of portability, yet remain stable, reliable and reproducible.
Another advantage, is that the antema's design process be fkequency scaleable. This stems Born the fact, the above communication applications currently operate in the Lband (12 GHz),however, due to forecasted congestion, other bands in the WKa specmirn (20/30 GHz) have ken allocated specifically for use in civilian satellite communications. A further advantage, is that these antennas (Es) are capable of producing both linear and circularly polarized waves.
Such antenna technology exists in the form of Microstnp Patch Antennas (MPAs), which have seen considerable research into there application for the above communications requirements. They have also demonstrated _{a} lirnited ability to operate in the K/Ka bands."' However, sorne disadvantages of single patch antennas
are their relatively narrow 3 dB _{a}_{x}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o} _{b}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{w}_{i}_{d}_{t}_{h} _{(}_{}_{1} _{t}_{o} _{1}_{.}_{5}_{%} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} geometry's) and their low radiation efficiency (80%). The low efficiency is due to high inherent conductor and surface wave losses. The surface wave losses aiso become worse with higher fiequencies because of stronger excitation of surface waves. The surface waves also have a distorting effect on the radiation patterns. Some research has been aimed at improving impedance bandwidths and at compensating for conductor losses for higher _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{,} by using stacked or coplanar parasitic subarray configurations, as well _{a}_{s} using active devices.ri.z.3.41
Recently, research into Dielectric Resonator Antemas (DRAs) has shcwn they may have some potential for use in persona1 communication systemsrS1suice DRAs in cornparison to MP As offer higher radiation efficiencies (98 %), wider bandwidths (>3% for simple geometry's) and no excitation of surface waves. _{T}_{o} _{d}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{f}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{t} has mainly ken into the characterizhg of iinear polarized antennas, with simple geometry's, within the fiequency range of 4 to 40 GHz using various feed systerns. However, some recent papers have shown that a simple single feed mechanism can produce circular polarization at frequencies of 4 to 6 GHZ? This thesis will investigate the characteristics of single aperture fed CP DRA'S within the L and S bands in order to demonstrate there use as a possible alternative to MPA's for persona1 communication systerns.
1.2
Objective
The objective of this research was to investigate and develop a design process for rectangular circularly polarized dielectric resonator structures for possible use _{i}_{n} persona1 communication systems. These devices were to then be characterized and compared to previous results £rom similar geometry's for MPA's in order to demonstrate the$ ability as an alternative Æ system Some possible applications for these DRA antennas are GPS,satellite cellular systems or indoor/outdoor cornputer _{n}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{s}_{.} For most of these applications it is desirable to have a circularly polarked
antenna, hence the bulk of the issues to be addressed wiU be to optimize the design for CP operation.
The research undertaken was focused on the performance and characterization of CP rectangular DRA'S, exarnining such properties as farfield radiation patterns, losses, polarization ability, radiation efficiency, effects of finite ground planes and effects of dielectric covers. The intent was to characterize a practical antenna system packaged for use in any one of the applications mentioned above, and to present a simple design methodology that could produce stable, _{r}_{e}_{l}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} results.
1.3 Goal and Scope of Research
Given the above objective, the goal of this thesis was to develop a simple design methodology that would enable the design of simple single feed low profile circular polarized rectangular dielecnic resonator antennas that wo uld outperform
the state of the art MPA devices currently available. In so doing the validity of the first order design and engineering models used to develop and gain insight into the behaviour of these antennas would be demonstrated by cornparison to experimental results. The emphasis, was therefore, placed on designing and measuring the
performance of several antennas of various shapes and permittivities.
goal was to investigate sorne of the effects on the DRA'S performance when employed in a pseudo 'practical' package. This investigation was accomplished by operating the DRA'S produced above under differing configurations of finite ground planes and with a dielectic cover.
The secondary
The state of the art for MPA's of sirnilar simple design and feed systems was First found, through a literature search (surnrnary provided in Table 61).Given these results, and the fact that to date most PCS devices operate in the L and S bands led to the setting of some broad design goals for this thesis. Sirnply stated these were to design a range of devices that would operate within a fiequency band of 2.1 to 2.4 GHz. This range is used for GPS, some celiular applications, and it is also used in
some 'wireless' Intranet applications. To ensure stable high data rate communications (9600 baud or greater) for portable applications, circular poiarization operation was chosen, with axial ratio bandwidths of 36 or greater. In a radical departure fiom MPA's, this bandwidth was to be measured at the 3 dB points, not 6 dB as is the nom for MPA's, since the current research to date indicates the DRA would be capable of this more exacting standard. Finally, since the devices were to dernonstrate portable utility, with the inherent restrictions on power, size and weight, the DRA'S were to: have efficiencies >96%, such that as Little power as possible was wasted to any loss modes; be as small as possible to reduce their profde and weight.
The research for this thesis was primarily empixicai in nature, since the author had access to excellent research and test facilities. By reviewing this empincal research, the general reader, should gain useful information about the design process, fabrication and characterization of the operation of such an antenna under closely approximated real world conditions. It would have been equally valid to explore a numerical investigation of the characteristics of a CP rectangular DRA. However, the scope of the research would have been more involved analytically, concentrating mostly on the properties of the DRA element, with less information about the effects of a practical implementation. Thus Little the would of ken left. within the tirne fiame available, to investigate antenna fabrication, finite ground planes and dielectric cover effects.
This thesis work is complementary to an earlier introductory investigation of CP rectangular DKAs lq at 4 to 6 GHz. Taken together the significant property of fiequency scalability of DRA design is demonstrated, by cornparison of the more basic properties  resonant frequency, Qfactor, radiation pattern, efficiency and the axial ratio beamwidth and bandwidth. However, the work undertaken for this thesis expands on these basic properties and investigates the characteristics of not only the DRA element but also, its behaviour as a practical antema system including the fhite ground plane and dielectric cover effects. This thesis work was carried out to lay a
foundation for future, more rigorous research delving more deeply into the optirnization of CP DRA elements.
1.4
Organization
This thesis is presented in a number of chapters. Chapter 1 provides a generaI ovewiew of the thesis, its approach, scope and a précis of the goal. _{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{2} contains a review of polarization, particularly circular polarization. It continues with a general discussion of Microstrip Patch hte~as. Next it provides a general introduction and then a rapid review of some of the work done to date on circularly polarized MPA's. The major design characteristics are presented and an identification of the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are introduced.
Chapter 3, contains a similarly structured review of dielectric resonator antennas. It continues with the analytical mode1 development, which includes a discussion on field configurations, modes of operation and first order design equations. It also, contains a brief overview of the aperture feed mechanism and a prfcis of the design tools and their use. to provide impedance matching of the aperture to the DRA for CP. Chapter 4 discusses the material specifications and the methods of design and fabrication of the _{Æ} systems used. It also, includes a bnef summary of the feed systerns.
AU the experimental results are presented in Chapter 5. First a description of the measurement techniques, equipment and errors are discussed. Next, the experimental and theoretical results are presented and any pertinent observations are made. All of the initial presentations are based on the Æ king on a large ground plane. The final two sections review all of the same constituent parameters (resonant fiequency, Qfactor, radiation pattern, efficiency and the _{a}_{x}_{i}_{a}_{l} ratio beamwidth and bandwidth) of the Æ on the large ground plane, except the effects of finite ground planes and dielectnc covers are shown.
Finally, chapter 6 compares the results of this work with results of previous work. From this cornparison, some concIusions as to the rectangular DRA'S performance will be given. Also, the applicability of this configuration will be explored. After presenting the final COnclusions based on the experimental and theoretical work some recornrnendations will be made for areas requûing further research.
Chapter
2
Microstrip Patch Antennas for Personal Communications
2.1
Overview
This chapter provides an introduction into polarization in general, and circular polarization in particular. Next, a general review of the research and development of MPA technology is given. The review begins with MPAs in general, but quickiy focuses on methods for producing circular polarized antennas. _{T}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{o} outline sorne of the major advantages and disadvantages of this technology. In so doing the stage will be set, to introduce the DRA as an alternative to overcome some of the weaknesses of this existing and maturing technology.
2.2
Polanzation
Before reviewing the body of work concerning the employment of MPAs as circularly polarized elements it is prudent to provide a summary of definitions and requirements for polarized Es and circular polarization in particular.
The polarization of a wave is sirnply a description of the motion of the tip of the instantaneous electic field vector with tirne, at a fmed point in spacei7'. This electric field vector can then be decomposed into two orthogonal linear polarizations, usually taken to be horizontal and vertical. The relative amplitudes and phases of these cornponents determine polarization of the wave. In the most general case, the horizontal and vertical components can have any amplitude and any relative phase, thus the resultant locus forrns an ellipse.
If the electric field vector only varies in amplitude, but is always oriented in one plane (spatially invariant), the field is linearly polarized. Most Es used today are linearly polarized, such as dipoles, monopoles, horns, MPAs, and DRAs. An Æ is said to be circularly polarized when the electric field vector has constant amplitude, but rotates spatiaiIy at a constant rate. Examples of these three types of polarization are given in figure 2 1.
I (a) Ellipcical Polanzation
(b)CirailuPof~on
Figure 21
Polarization Examples
(c) LinearPoIanPtion
Circularly polarized waves have some advantages in some applications. For example a CP wave operates better in rain and heavy fog with more consistent behaviour than LP, which is important in establishing a communication Iink. Also, _{s}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s} magnitude is invariant, a CP Æ does not require spatial orientation for maximum power transfer, like an LP Æ does. Another advantage of CP Æ's occurs with satellite to terrestrial Links. Here the receiver remain unaffected by the effect of Faraday Rotation as the signal passes through the ionosphere, uniike linearly polarized waves[*'.
2.2.1 Polarization States
The instantaneous electric field of a generally plane wave traveling in the direction can be decomposed into its x and y components as shown below:
+z
where E, ,E, =
o =
amplitudes of instantaneous electric field in x, y directions [V / m] radian fresuency = 21rf (rad/ s)
20
= phase constant = 
A
(rad / m)
6 = phase by which the y component leads the x component
Each component represents a linear polarized wave.
The resultant elecmc
field, is the vector combination of these two components at any instant in time:
The the varying field which corresponds to this at z 4, is the same for ail
points along the z axis. Therefore the resultant vector is:
Ë(t) = XE, cos(ut) + FE2 cos(wt + 6)
_{(}_{2}_{}_{4}_{)}
The length of this vector traces out an ellipse as a function of time, making one
revolution every penod (T = l/f). As can be seen i5om table 21 there are a number
of special cases, of polarization.
1 PARAMETER
1
POLARIZATION STATE
6= 0 LUiear Polarization 6th tilt angle r = tan*'EJEl
6 = 90"
1 

El = O 

E2= O 

_{I} 
Left Hand Circular Polarized
1ato=O.rJZ
Ë(t) = XE, cos(ot)  jE ,sin(wt)
É(~=o)=B,
and
Ë(t=~/4)=j~*
Linear PoIarization nominally dong ymis Tilt angle depends on the value of 6
Linear Polarkation nominally dong xmis
( Tilt angle depends on the value of 6
Table 21Special Polarization States
In the more general case we can show that the electric field actuaily describes an ellipse. Using the mgonometric identity below equation (2.4) becomes:
cos(a
f p) = cosa cosp T sina sinp
E,(t) = E,(COSW~COS~ sinotsin6)
Using
and substituting these hto independent of any tirne variation:
= Ji(E,
/E,I2
equation(2.5) we get the following result that is
y
_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{a} _{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{.} They can easily be transformed to Ee and E+ for a spherical graph. The polarization can have any shape (axial ratio) and orientation (tilt angle) or sense of rotation ('handedness').
This is an equation of an ellipse when Ex and E, are treated
as
x and
A usefül neasure, comrnonly used, for the quality of CP is the axial ratio, which, as indicated above, is the ratio of the two orthogonal field components. The components are either rneasured in the two principle planes, or as the ratio of the magnitudes of the major and minor axis, of the polarization ellipse (figure 2la).
Axial Ratio (AR) =
(27)
AR = 1, is by definition perfect circular polarization, although no such antenna exists. The purity of polarization usually deteriorates as observations move away
£kom boresight (extent and magnitude can be dependent on £inite ground plane effects). The polarization emanated from a practical CP Æ is generaily eiliptical, with varying degrees of ellipicity throughout the pattern.
2.2.2 CircuIar Polarized Antennas
The are two general methods to create CP. Type 1 CP antemas produce CP by virtue of their unique structure. Examples of type 1 Es are heh and spirals. The sense of polarization is determined by the sense of the winding of the helix or spiral.
Type 2 CP Es produce CP as a result of a special feed structure or some mode
These Es must be able, by virtue of the two previously
rnentioned mechanisms, explicitly generate spatialiy orthogonal components in phase
quadrature and of equal amplitude. The Es under study in this thesis are ail of the type 2 variety and thus must be able to meet these three requirements for CP:
degeneracy characteristics.
a. Each field component must be of equal amplitude;
b. There must be spatial orthogonality between each field component; and
c. There must be tirne quadrature between each field component.
A more detailed discussion of polarization is available kom either Harold ~ott's'~'or Warren ~tutzrnan's'~'book.
2.3 Microstrip Patch Antennas
In its sirnplest form the MPA is composed of some arbitrarily shaped radiating patch separated fiom a ground plane by a dielectric substrate as shown in figure 22. The radiating patch may be a simple resonant circular or rectangular shape, a resonant dipole, slotted patch or some other construction. Since the early work by Munson in the mid 1970's ['O' MPAs have seen rapid development. Most of this development has focused on irnproving upon, or compensating for, some inherent limiting factors.
These include narrow band performance (1  6 %), and low radiation efficiency due to high conductor losses £?om the rnetallic patch and surface wave excitation  which distorts the farfield radiation pattern and causes extra power loss, and thus less radiation efficiency. These limiting factors become dramaticaily worse at millimeter frequencies where there is stronger excitation of surface waves and thus greater distortion. Also, the conductor losses are greater, thereby further reducing radiation
Dielechic Sube
RadiatingPatch
d Plane
Figure 22
Basic Microstrip Patch Antenna Configuration
Despite these Limititions a large body of work with MPAs has produced some weil proven configurations and designs['3114*151. Also, extensive current research has been airned at compensating for conductor loss (for high gain), and for irnproving bandwidths by using active de~ices''*~'.Other approaches include: parasitic resonators or thicker substrates to irnprove bandwidth; or different patch sizes or spur _{i}_{i}_{n}_{e} fiiters to permit multiband operation ^{[}^{1}^{6}^{.}^{1}^{7}^{,}^{1}^{3}^{.}^{1}^{8}^{1} . Ali these achieve greater performance but at the cost of eiiminating the MPAs' prime advantages of king simple, small, low cost and conforma1 in nature. Also, the thicker substrates cause increased surface wave excitation[191,and increasing the conductor size or using multiple patches increases
conduction oss ses,['^^ both
of which reduce the radiation efficiency.
One very cornmon analysis method for analyzing the MPA is to consider the patch and ground plane as forming the upper and lower surfaces of a resonant cavity.
The side walls (in the dielectric) are then considered to be perfect magnetic wails (PMC), while the metal surfaces are considered as perfect electric wah (PEC)'~**"'. It is this approach that wiU be followed as it has direct application to the theoretical developrnent of this thesis.
2,3.1
Circular Polarized MPAs
MPAs are inherently linearly polarized (when driven in the fundamental mode). therefore, to produce CP radiation fiom these Æs requires the use of simultaneous multiple modes or multiple feeds on a single element, or multiple Æ elernents. Thus _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{E}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{c}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{s} _{t}_{y}_{p}_{e} _{2} _{C}_{P} _{Æ}_{'}_{s}_{.} A variety of Æ designs using multiple orthogonal radiators or using various feed mechanisms (hybrids or phase shifter/power dividers) have ken shown in the literature. However, such designs are cornplicated and relatively large in comparison to single element designs and, hence, become unwieldy when size is limited in area or thickness.
In order to provide for later comparison to the single feed single element DRA the rest of this summary will be restncted to discussing the designs employing single _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.} The single patch can have single or multiple feeds. Double feed MPAs achieve the required mode orthogonality by the use of hybnd or quarterwave delay line~[~? Whereas, the single feed MPAs excite two nearly degenerate modes by using a perturbation segment. If adjusted properly, the boresight axial ratio WU be extremely srnall, theoretically approaching unit y.
For square or nearly square patches, this perturbation can be achieved by truncating corners, introducing inductive or capacitive discontinuities (slots or notches) or by feeding the nearly square patch nom a corner _{[}_{a}_{l}_{U}_{v}_{2}_{6}_{J}_{.} Figue _{2}_{}_{3} presents a selection of some proven configurations. While these Es are shown as edge fed they may be equally excited by using other techniques such as dots, probes, or proximity coupling.
Most of the results pubiished for the configurations shown in figure 23 are quite limited. The bandwidths are normaUy reported as between 1% to 3% for axial ratios not greater than 6 dB for those Es operating in the L and S bands. Also, for this 6 dB axial ratio. beamwidths ranged from 1.5% for the eiliptical LEIn' to about 60% for diagonal slot loaded lEi2? One of the more recent studies was of a simple rectangular patch structure that was proximity fed, offset fiom the centre of the patch operating at 1.575 GHz. It reported a 10 dB irnpedance bandwidth of 3.54. and a 120 degree bearnwidth with Iess than 2 dB axial ratio. However, the bandwidth reported was only 0.55% at this same axial ratior1? Although no reference was made to the radiation efficiency this Æ suffers from the same conductive losses inherent in all MPAs and thus it would be expected to be about 80  85%.
_{O}_{f}_{f}_{s}_{e}_{t} _{F}_{e}_{e}_{d}
Figure 23
Slot Loaded
Nearly Square
MPA's for Circular Polarization
Elliptical
These results, and those from the slot Ioaded patch are excellent representatives of the abilities of simple MPAs within the L and S bands, and are singled out sirnply for Iater cornparison to the simple slot fed DRA proposed in this thesis.
_{2}_{.}_{4} Summary of MPA's for Personal Communications
This chapter has reviewed polarization, particularly the requirements for the creation of circular polarization fiom inherently linear polarized elements. Also, _{a} review was presented of the various architectures proposed for enhancing, eliminating, or compensating for the inherent Limitations of narrow bandwidth, low gain, and low radiation efficiency. Next, a subset of simple MPAs designed to produce circular polarization was presented, giving some quantification as to there relative performance. Fiiially, a particularly recent and simple design that is similar _{i}_{n} construction, and operation to the proposed DRA was discussed as a particular example for future cornparison. This chapter was not intended to be a thorough review, but merely an introduction into the large body of research into CP _{M}_{P}_{A}_{s} and there relative 0verai.I performance levels. In doing so, the foundation has _{b}_{e}_{e}_{n} laid fiom which to introduce a new Æ and a frarnework introduced fkom which to asses its relative perfomance.
Chapter
3
Dielectric Resonators
3.1
Overview
This chapter firstly, will provide a brief historieal background into the research into dielectic resonators. From this foundation, the historical employment of DR's as circuit elements, and the research undertaken in this area wiU be surnrnarized. Continuing on this theme the research and employment of DR's as hearly and circularly polarized Æ elements will be presented. Next, the development of the mode1 used in this thesis will be presented ending with an analytical description of the fields at the periphery of the element. From this development, a design relation for establishg LP and CP resonant fiequencies, as they relate to the physical dimensions of an isolated DRA wiU be derived. FinaIly, a brief description of the feed mechanism wïll be given.
3.2 Introduction to Dietectric Remnators
Diefectrics as resonators were first proposed by Richtmyer in 1939r?81however it was not until the 1960's when suitable dielectric rnatenals were available for any applications. A typical dielectric resonator (DR) is arbitrarily shaped, and made of lowloss, high permittivity, temperature stable material of resonant dimensions at its frequency of operation (i.e. the dimensions are proportional to the operating wavelength).
Early research was into the use of DR's as microwave components, such as waveguide filters or oscillators. As better materials appeared, more progress was made into employing DR's as rnicrowave circuit elements. A significant step occurred when COM[~~'demonstrated in 1968 that a Titanium Qxide DR filter could be made, that was 3 to 5 percent srnalier in volume, to an equivalent waveguide filter. As interest grew so did the amount of theoretical and analytical research. _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{c}_{h}
demonsnated the advantages of DR's as srnaii, iight, low cost, microwave elements that could easily be integrated with WC's.
However, to fuUy employ these new devices more research was required that could classify more of their circuit properties like: _{r}_{e}_{s}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{f}_{i}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{y}_{,} _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{s}_{,} coupling to other microwave circuits and Qfactors. Some significant papers were published by ~ee"", who examined the natural resonant frequencies and modes of DR's. Karp et af3"offered sorne experirnental data on circuit properties of DR's. In the 1970's Van Bladel conducted significant theoretical work on the modal resonance behaviour of lossless, very high permittivity re~onators'~~*'~~.Further work with ~erplanken[~*~'exarnined resonance's in ring resonators and developed the Quality (Q) factor. As the analytical modeling progressed, more accurate predictions of circuit properties were possible. The use of the variational technique used by Konishi
et al'"] to investigate the resonant frequencies of a cylindncal dielectric resonator _{w}_{a}_{s}
further developed in the late 70 s
variations of the Dielectric Waveguide Model (DWM) developed through the work of
Okaya & Barash and ~arcatili"?
[37,38]
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{e}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y} _{8}_{0}_{'}_{s}_{"}_{~}_{'}_{.} AU these models used
Increasingly, with the development of cornputers, numerical analysis of many shapes of DR's have been solved for their resonant fkequency and Qfactors.
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.