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CIRCULARLY POLARIZED RECTANGULAR

DIELECTRIC RESONATOR ANTENNAS FOR PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Lieutenant Commander P.N.Dombowsky, CD

A thesis subrnitted to the Department of Electrical and Cornputer Engineering Royal Military CoUege of Canada Kingston, Ontario

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Engineering

November 1996

O Copyright 5y P.N.Dombowsky,1996

This thesis may be freely used within the Department of National Defence, but the copyright for open publication remains the property of the author.

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ABSTRACT

CIRCULARLY POLARIZED RECTANGULAR DIELECTRIC RESONATOR

ANTENNAS FOR PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

by Lieutenant Commander P.N.Dombowsky

Currently, a rapid growth of "persona1 communications" is underway which is spurring the development of many varied technologies, including antenna design. Some areas of "personal communications" include - Global Positioning Systerns (GPS),Cellular telephones (incl. Terrestrial and Satellite), indoor/outdoor wireless communications (e.g. cornputer networks) etc. - all of which operate maidy in the L and S bands. The word "personal" implies mobile, tnerefore, antenna designs must be small. lightweight and inexpensive yet still posses properties of high efficiency, 'wide bandwidth', and the ability to optirnize directivity, gain and polarization (particularly circular) to meet specific requirements. Many different antenna technologies are king investigated such as Microsmp Patch and Ferrite Resonator Antemas.

Recently, a new single feed circularly polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) was reported that could offer some promise in this area of communications. The antenna elements use mutually orthogonal nearly degenerate modes to generate circular polarization with low axial ratios over a wide fkequency band and beamwidth. In this thesis, the performance of these antennas in the S band has ken investigated and characterized in terms of parameters such as: far field patterns, radiation efficiency, impedance bandwidth, axial ratio beamwidth and bandwidth. The effects of finite ground planes on radiation patterns was also investigated using Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD). Also, the effects of dieiectric covers was investigated. Finally, sorne analytical design relations and performance predictors are given and used in conjunction with the experimental data to evaluate the potential of these antennas for "personal communications".

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This thesis is the culmination of more than one persons efforts or one persons ideas. The scope of an engineering postgraduate thesis demands the marshaling of numerous resources and acceptance of al1 forrns of assistance.

In this context 1wish to My, thank my thesis advisor, Dr. Yahia M.M. Antar for his support, guidance, gentleness and patience. Without, his unwavering confidence and his genuine persona1 interest in me, 1am sure I would never have completed this thesis. 1wamily thank Dr. Fan for shanng his knowledge with me and in always making time for my often times repetitive questions. For RMC and particularly the Engineering Department 1acknowledge your generous support particularly fiom the administration and technical support staff. Without Martine Simard 1would of been totalIy out of touch while researching in Ottawa at CRC.

To Dr. Apisak Ittipiboon thanks for helping me focus on the topic of rny thesis and for your

guidance and help with the theoretical portions of this work. 1 also offer my appreciation to Dr. Aldo

Petosa, for always making time to assist me and to intently listen and offer insight into my problems.

For the technical staff that provided both material and technical support 1am most grateful especially

to Shaun Sarazin, who is a cheerfûl kindred spirit and a fiiend who helped me tremendously.

More personalIy, 1wish to thank my fiend Major Luc Lafieniere for prodding cajoling and

supporting me throughout this whole process. There were times when 1needed a gentle (firm) push to

keep me going.

Finally, and most irnportanly, for Anne - two years with a new baby, long weeks and months alone in Ottawa, and a scared sometimes overwhelmed husband - your sacrifice which was far greater than mine made this work possible. thanks.

Dedicated to my wife and best friend, Anne You most of al, made this possible.

Graydon, Dad wiu no longer be in Kingston.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1

 

1

Introduction

1

1.1

Overview

I

1.2

Objective

2

1.3

Goal and Scope of Research

 

3

1.4

Organization

.

.

.

5

Chapter 2

 

7

Microstrip Patch Antennas for Personal Communications

 

7

2.1 Overview

-

7

2.2 Polarkation

7

2.2.1

Polarkation States

8

2.2.2

Circular Polarized Antemas

 

11

2.3

Microstrip Patch Antemas

11

2.3.1

Circular Polarized MPAs

13

2.4

Summary of MPA's for Persona1 Communications

 

15

Chapter 3

 

16

Dielectric Resonators

16

3.1 Overview

16

3.2 Introduction to Dielectric Resonators

16

3.2.1 Dielectric Resonators as Circuit Elements

17

3.2.2 Dielectric Resonators as Antennas

18

3.2.3 Linear Polarized Antennas

19

3.2.4 Circular Polarized Antemas

21

3.3

CP DRA Mode1 Development

26

3.3.1 Method

26

3.3.3 Simple DR Mode1

32

3.3.4

Models for Cylindncal DR'S

36

3.3.5 Models for Rectangular DRs

37

3.3.6 Modined Dielectric Waveguide Mode1 with Mked Magnetic Wab

39

3.3.7 CP Design Relations

3.4 Fzed System and Fields

-48

51

3.4.1

Structure

51

3.4.2

Microstrip Line

52

3.4.3

Aperture Feed

53

3.4.4 Aperture DRA Matching

3.5 Radiation Models

3.5.1 Far Fields ftom Crossed Magnetic Dipoles

Chapter 4

Material. Design and Fabrication

55

56

57

65

65

4.1

Overview

65

4.2

Elernent Design

65

4.3

Aperture Feed

69

Chapter 5

72

Experimental and Theoretical Results

~

72

5.1 Overview

72

5.2 Measurement Techniques

5.2.1 Radiation Pattern and Polarization

5.2.2 Measurement Equipment and Measurement Error

-73

73

-75

5.3 Antenna Performance

77

5.3.1 Multiple Coupling Positions

78

5.3.2

Resonant Frequency

78

5.3.4 Radiation Patterns

*

*

5.3.5 Directivity

82

87

5.3.6 Gain

88

5.3.5 Radiation Efnciency

-90

5.4 F'ite Ground Plane Effects

92

5.4.1 Overview

92

5.4.2

DRAs on Finite Ground Planes

94

5.4.3

Uniform Theory of Dfiaction

100

5.5 Dielectric Covers

104

Chapter 6

 

109

Conclusion and Recommendations

109

6.1

Introduction

109

6.3 Design Procedure

 

111

6.4 CP DRA Performance versus Printed Technology

112

6.5

Conclusions of Results

-

114

6.6

Future Work

116

Annex A

118

Loss Tangent

 

118

Annex B

Resonant Frequency and Q-Factor Prediction Program

Annex C

DRA Return Loss (SII)and Smith Chart Plots

Annex D

*

119

119

121

121

J47

Crossed Dipote Radiation Pattern Prediction Program

Annex F

Linear Radiation Plots of Orthogonal Fields

Annex G

Large and Smatl Ground Plane Axial Ratio Cornparison

Annex H

UTD Diffraction Coefficients

Annex I

O

160

161

161

173

173

180

180

182

UTD Program

182

1.1 Matlab UTD Program for Rectangular Finite Ground Planes

182

1.2 Matlab UTD Wedge Dfiaction Subrouthe

190

1.3 MatIab UTD Transition Function

Annex J

Measured and Predicted (Normalized) UTD Plots

REFERENCES

192

193

193

199

LIST OF FIGURES

Nurnber

Page

Figure 2-1

Polarkation Examples

8

Figure 2-2

Basic Microstrip Patch Antenna Configuration

12

Figure 2-3 MPA's for Circular Polarization

14

Figure 2-3

MPA's for Circular Polarization

14

Figure 3-1 Sub- Array of Chopped Corner DRA

 

22

Figure 3-2

Active Quarter-Wavelength Array

23

Figure 3-3 Slot-Fed Cruciforrn Antenna

23

Figure 3-4 Cylindrical Ring DRA with Dual Probes

24

Figure 3-5 Rectangular CP DRA with Single

Slot Feed

25

Figure 3-6 Parallel Resonant Circuit and Normalized Response

27

Figure 3-7 Dissimilar Media Interface with Incident Plane Wave 28

Figure 3-8 Infinite Rectangular Dielectric Waveguide

39

Figure 3-9

Transverse E & H Fields in a Rectangular DR

40

Figure 3-10

Truncated Dual Mode DR with End Wall Approximations

45

Figure 3-11 Ideal SI1 Response of Dual Mode CP DRA

Figure 3-12 Cross-section of a Microstrip Line (Quasi TEM mode)

49

52

Figure 3-13

Equivalent Magnetic Dipole

54

Figure 3-14 Crossed Magnetic Dipoles

58

Figure 3-15 Crossed Magnetic Dipoles and Image

62

Figure 4-1 Aperture Feed Configuration

70

Figure 5-1 Theoretical Field Patterns at Phi = 0

83

Figure 5-2 Measured Orthogonal Polarized Fields from DR4 (mid coupling)

84

Figure 5-3 DRA Axial Ratio with Frequency on a Large Ground Plane

85

Figure 5-4 Wheeler Cap Antenna Measurement Setup

90

Figure 5-5 DRA Axial Ratio with Frequency on Finite Ground Planes

95

Figure 5-6 DRA on Finite Ground Plane Geometry for Calculating UTD Rays101

Figure C-1 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode

121

Figure C-2 Smith Cjart Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode

121

Figure C-3 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex)

122

Figure C-4 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex)

122

Figure

C-5

Return Loss Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode

123

Figure C-6 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode

123

Figure C-7 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Lower & Upper Linear Modes

124

Figure C-8 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Lower & Upper Linear Modes

124

Figure C-9 Return Loss Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex)

125

Figure C-10 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex)

125

Figure C-11 Return Loss Plot of DR1 CP Mode

126

Figure C-12 Smith Chart Plot of DR1 CP Mode

126

Figure C-13

Return Loss Plot of DR1 CP Mode (Kydex)

127

Figure C-14

Smith Chart Plot of DR1 CP Mode (Kydex)

127

Figure C-15 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode

128

Figure C-16 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode

128

Figure C-17 Retum Loss Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode

129

Figure C-18

Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode

129

Figure C-19 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes

130

Figure C-20

Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes

130

Figure C-21 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) Figure C-22 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) Figure C-23 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex) Figure C-24 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex)

Figure C-25 Return Loss Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes (Kydex) 133

Figure C-26 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 Upper & Lower Linear Modes (Kydex) 133

131

131

132

132

Figure C-27 Return Loss Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode

134

Figure C-28 Smith Chart Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode

134

Figure C-29 Return Loss Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode (Kydex)

135

Figure C-30 Smith Chart Plot of DR4(M) CP Mode (Kydex)

135

Figure C-31 Return Loss Plot of DR4 (U) CP Mode

136

Figure C-30 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (U)CP Mode

136

Figure C-33 Return Loss Plot of DR4 (U) CP Mode (Kydex)

137

Figure C-34 Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (U) CP Mode (Kydex)

137

Figure C-35 Retum Loss Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode

138

Figure C-36

Figure C-37 Return Loss Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode (Kydex)

Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode 138

139

Figure C-38

Smith Chart Plot of DR4 (L) CP Mode (Kydex) 139

Figure C-39

Retun Loss Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode

140

Figure C-40

Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode 140

Figure C-41 Return Los Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode

Figure C-42

Figure C-43 Return Loss Plot of DR5 Upper & Lower Linear Modes 142

141

Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode 141

Figure C-44

Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Upper & Lower Linear Modes

142

Figure C-45

Return Loss Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex)

143

Figure C-46 Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Lower Linear Mode (Kydex) 143

Figure C-47 Return Loss Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex)

Figure C-48 Smith Chart Plot of DR5 Upper Linear Mode (Kydex) 144

144

Figure C-49

Return Loss Plot of DR5 CP Mode

145

Figure C-50

Smith Chart Plot of DR5 CP Mode

145

Figure C-51 Return Loss Plot of DR5 CP Mode (Kydex)

146

Figure C-52 Smith Chart Plot of DR5 CP Mode (Kydex) 146

Figure

D-l Measured CP Pattern for DR1

on SLot 8 (LGP)

147

Figure D-2

Measured CP Pattern for DR1 on Slot 8 (LW & Kydex)

147

Figure

D-3

Measured

CP Pattern

for

DR1 on

Slot 8 (SGP)

148

Figure D-4 Measured CP Pattern

for DR1 on Slot 8 (SGP & Kydex)

148

149

Figure D-5 Measured CP Pattern of DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP)

Figure D-6 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 149

Figure

D-7 Measured

CP Pattern

for DR4

(U) on

Slot 2

(SGP)

150

Figure D-9 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP)

151

Figure D-IO Measured CP Pattern of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 151

Figure

D-11

Measured

CP Pattern

for

DR4 (M)

on

Slot 2

(SGP)

152

Figure D-12

Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (SGP & Kydex)

152

Figure

D-13

Measured

CP Pattern

for DR4 (L) on

Slot 2

(LGP)

153

Figure D-14

Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 153

Figure D-15

Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (EGP)

154

FIgure D-16 Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on SIot 2 (SGP & Kydex) 154

Figure

D-17 Measured CP Pattern for DR4

(L) on

Slot 2 (VSGP)

155

Figure D-18

Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VSGP & Kydex) 155

Figure Da19

Measured CP Pattern for DR4 on Slot 2 (SqSGP) 156

Figure D-20

Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (SqSGP & Kydex) . 156

Figure D-21

Measured CP Pattern for DR4

(L) on

Slot 2

(VvSGP) 157

Figure D-22

Measured CP Pattern for DR4 (L) on

Slot 2 (VvSGP & Kydex). 157

Figure D-23 Measured CP Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (LGP)

158

Figure D-24

Measured CP Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (LGP & Kydex)

158

Figure D-25

Measured

CP Pattern

for DR5 on

Slot 4 (SGP)

159

Figure D-25

Measured CF Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (SGP & Kydex) 159

Figure D-26

Measured CP Pattern for DR5 on Slot 4 (SGP & Kydex)

159

161

Figure F-2 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR1 on Slot 8 (LGP & Kydex) 161

Figure F-1 Dual Orthogonal Plots of

DR1 on Slot 8 (LGP)

Figure

F-3

Dual

Orthogonal

Plots of

DR1 on

Slot 8

(SGP)

162

Figure F-4

Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR1 on Slot 8 (SGP & Kydex)

162

Figure F-5

Dual Orthogonal Plots DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP)

163

Figure F-6

Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex)

163

Figure F-7 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (U) on SIot 2 (SGP)

164

Figure F-8 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (U) on Slot 2 (SGP & Kydex)

164

Figure F-9 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP)

165

Figure F-10 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex) 165

Figure F-ll Dual Orthogonal

Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (SGP)

166

xii

Figure F-12

Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (M) on Slot 2 (SGP & Kydex)

166

Figure F-13

Dual Orthogonal

Plots

of

DR4

(L) on Slot 2 (LGP)

167

Figure F-14 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (LGP & Kydex)

167

Figure F-15 Dual Orthogonal Plots

of

DR4

(L) on

Slot 2 (SGP)

168

Figure

F-16

Dual Orthogonal

Plots

of

DR4

(L) on

Slot 2

(SGP & Kydex)

168

Figure F-17

Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VSGP)

169

Figure F-18

Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VSGP & Kydex) 169

Figure

F- 19

Dual

Orthogonal

Plots

of

DR4

(L) on

Slot 2

(SqSGP)

170

Figure F-20

Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4

(L) on

Slot 2 (SqSGP & Kydex)

170

Figure F-21 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR4 (L) on Slot 2 (VvSGP)

171

Figure

F-22 Dual

Orthogonal

Plots

of DR4

(L) on

Slot

2

(VvSGP & Kydex)

17 1

Figure F-23 Dual Orthogonal Plots of DR5 on Slot 4 (LGP)

 

172

Figure F-24 Dual

Orthogonal

Plots

of DR5

on

Slot

4

(LGP& Kydex)

172

Figure G-1

Axial Ratio versus Frequency of

DR1

173

Figure G-2 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (M)

 

174

Figure G-3

Figure G-4

Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (U)

 

175

Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (L) Part

A

176

Figure 6-5 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR4 (L) Part B

177

Figure G-6 Axial Ratio versus Frequency of DR5

178

Figure J-1 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR1 LGP

193

Figure 5-2

Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR1 SGP

193

Figure 5-3

Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Field of DR4M LGP

194

Figure 5-4

Predicted

and

Measured

Orthogonal

Fields of

DR4M SGP

194

Figure J-5 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR4U LGP

195

Figure 5-6 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR4U SGP

195

Figure 5-7 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR4L LGP

196

Figure 5-8 Predicted

and

Measured

Orthogonal

Fields of DR4L

SGP

196

Figure J-9 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fileds of DR4L VSGP

197

Figure J-10 Predicted

and

Measured

Orthogonal Fields of DR4L SqSGP

197

Figure 5-12 Predicted and Measured Orthogonal Fields of DR5 LW

198

LIST OF TABLES

Number

Page

Table 2-1 Special Polarkation States

9

Table 3-1

Summary of Results for Parallel Resonators

28

Table 4-1

CP DRA Elernents Fabricated

67

Table 4-2

Physical and Mechanical Properties of DRA Material

68

Table 4-3

Microstrip Line to Aperture Dimensions

71

Table 4-4

Electrical Properties of RTfDuroid 6010

71

Table 5-1

Polarization Measurement Methods

73

Table 5-2

Measured Resonant Frequencies (GHz)and Magnitudes (dB)

79

Table 5-3

Error Table of Predicted Frequencies to Measured Values (GHz)

80

Table 5-4

Measured 3 dB Impedance Bandwidths venus Predicted

82

Table 5-5

Measured Axial Ratio Bandwidth and Beamwidth

86

Table 5-6

Approximate Directivity Estimated from System Dimensions

88

Table 5-7 Measured and Corrected

Gains of Antennas on Boresight

89

Table 5-8

Estimated DRA Efficiencies usin Wheeler Cap Method

92

Table 5-9 Axial Ratio Bandwidth and Beam width for finite Ground Planes

95

Table 5-10 Percentage Change in Characteristics due to Firite Ground Planes 96

Table 5-11 Gain and Directivity with Finite Ground Planes

98

Table 5-12 Dielectric Cover Specifications

104

Table 5-13

DRA Characteristics with Kydex Cover

105

Table 5-14

Cornparison of DRA Characteristics (Cover vs.No Cover)

106

Table 6-1 Summary of Circularlp Polarized MPAs Table G-1 DRA System Characteristics versus Size of Ground Plane

113

179

ABBREVIATIONS

AR

Axial Ratio

AUT

Antenna Under Test

BW

Bandwidth

CP

Circular Polarization

CRC

Communications Research Centre

dB

Decibels

dBi

Decibels (referenced to an isotropic source)

dBic

Decibels (referenced to a circularly polarized isotropic source)

DR

Dielectric Resonator

DRA

Dielectric Resonator Antenna

DWGM

Dielecmc Waveguide Model

GHz

Gigahertz ( 1'O hertz)

GPS

Global Positioning System

GTD

Geometrical Theory of Diffraction

IMW

Imperfect Magnetic Wall

LP

Linear Polarization

MIC

Microwave Integrated Circuit

MMW

Mixed Magnetic WaUs

MoM

Method of Moments

MPA

Microstrip Patch Antenna

PEC

Perfect Elecmc Conductor

PMC

Perfect Magnetic Conductor

RMC

Royal Military College of Canada

UTD

Uniform Theory of Diffraction

VSWR

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

xvi

1.1

Overview

Chapter

I

Introduction

The demand for "Personal Communications Systems (PCS)",which includes:

Global Positioning Systerns (GPS);indoor and outdoor 'wireless' communications; terrestrial and satellite ceilular telephones; and a host of medical, military and poüce data, voice and video communications is increasing rapidly. AU of these applications require highly efficient, srnail, low profile antennas, capable of operating over a large bandwidth (3% or greater). Most of these applications employ portable devices that are required to transmit high speed data (9600 baud or greater) either terrestrïally or extraterresmally using a variety of polarization's (linear & circular) to achieve low bit error rates. The criteria required to enable the portability, high data rates and polarization diversity are - high efficiency >958; large bandwidth (>3%) to enable high data rate transmission, and the ability to operate with either a linear or circular polarized wave. Consequently there is an increasing demand for low cost, Light weight and efficient antenna systerns that will conform to the obvious requirement of portability, yet remain stable, reliable and reproducible.

Another advantage, is that the antema's design process be fkequency scaleable. This stems Born the fact, the above communication applications currently operate in the L-band (1-2 GHz),however, due to forecasted congestion, other bands in the WKa specmirn (20/30 GHz) have ken allocated specifically for use in civilian satellite communications. A further advantage, is that these antennas (Es) are capable of producing both linear and circularly polarized waves.

Such antenna technology exists in the form of Microstnp Patch Antennas (MPAs), which have seen considerable research into there application for the above communications requirements. They have also demonstrated a lirnited ability to operate in the K/Ka bands."' However, sorne disadvantages of single patch antennas

are their relatively narrow 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth (-1 to 1.5% for simple geometry's) and their low radiation efficiency (-80%). The low efficiency is due to high inherent conductor and surface wave losses. The surface wave losses aiso become worse with higher fiequencies because of stronger excitation of surface waves. The surface waves also have a distorting effect on the radiation patterns. Some research has been aimed at improving impedance bandwidths and at compensating for conductor losses for higher gain, by using stacked or coplanar parasitic sub-array configurations, as well as using active devices.ri.z.3.41

Recently, research into Dielectric Resonator Antemas (DRAs) has shcwn they may have some potential for use in persona1 communication systemsrS1suice DRAs in cornparison to MP As offer higher radiation efficiencies (-98 %), wider bandwidths (>3% for simple geometry's) and no excitation of surface waves. To date the effort has mainly ken into the characterizhg of iinear polarized antennas, with simple geometry's, within the fiequency range of 4 to 40 GHz using various feed systerns. However, some recent papers have shown that a simple single feed mechanism can produce circular polarization at frequencies of 4 to 6 GHZ? This thesis will investigate the characteristics of single aperture fed CP DRA'S within the L and S bands in order to demonstrate there use as a possible alternative to MPA's for persona1 communication systerns.

1.2

Objective

The objective of this research was to investigate and develop a design process for rectangular circularly polarized dielectric resonator structures for possible use in persona1 communication systems. These devices were to then be characterized and compared to previous results £rom similar geometry's for MPA's in order to demonstrate the$ ability as an alternative Æ system Some possible applications for these DRA antennas are GPS,satellite cellular systems or indoor/outdoor cornputer networks. For most of these applications it is desirable to have a circularly polarked

antenna, hence the bulk of the issues to be addressed wiU be to optimize the design for CP operation.

The research undertaken was focused on the performance and characterization of CP rectangular DRA'S, exarnining such properties as far-field radiation patterns, losses, polarization ability, radiation efficiency, effects of finite ground planes and effects of dielectric covers. The intent was to characterize a practical antenna system packaged for use in any one of the applications mentioned above, and to present a simple design methodology that could produce stable, reliable and reproducible results.

1.3 Goal and Scope of Research

Given the above objective, the goal of this thesis was to develop a simple design methodology that would enable the design of simple single feed low profile circular polarized rectangular dielecnic resonator antennas that wo uld out-perform

the state of the art MPA devices currently available. In so doing the validity of the first order design and engineering models used to develop and gain insight into the behaviour of these antennas would be demonstrated by cornparison to experimental results. The emphasis, was therefore, placed on designing and measuring the

performance of several antennas of various shapes and permittivities.

goal was to investigate sorne of the effects on the DRA'S performance when employed in a pseudo 'practical' package. This investigation was accomplished by operating the DRA'S produced above under differing configurations of finite ground planes and with a dielectic cover.

The secondary

The state of the art for MPA's of sirnilar simple design and feed systems was First found, through a literature search (surnrnary provided in Table 6-1).Given these results, and the fact that to date most PCS devices operate in the L and S bands led to the setting of some broad design goals for this thesis. Sirnply stated these were to design a range of devices that would operate within a fiequency band of 2.1 to 2.4 GHz. This range is used for GPS, some celiular applications, and it is also used in

some 'wireless' Intranet applications. To ensure stable high data rate communications (9600 baud or greater) for portable applications, circular poiarization operation was chosen, with axial ratio bandwidths of 36 or greater. In a radical departure fiom MPA's, this bandwidth was to be measured at the 3 dB points, not 6 dB as is the nom for MPA's, since the current research to date indicates the DRA would be capable of this more exacting standard. Finally, since the devices were to dernonstrate portable utility, with the inherent restrictions on power, size and weight, the DRA'S were to: have efficiencies >96%, such that as Little power as possible was wasted to any loss modes; be as small as possible to reduce their profde and weight.

The research for this thesis was primarily empixicai in nature, since the author had access to excellent research and test facilities. By reviewing this empincal research, the general reader, should gain useful information about the design process, fabrication and characterization of the operation of such an antenna under closely approximated real world conditions. It would have been equally valid to explore a numerical investigation of the characteristics of a CP rectangular DRA. However, the scope of the research would have been more involved analytically, concentrating mostly on the properties of the DRA element, with less information about the effects of a practical implementation. Thus Little the would of ken left. within the tirne fiame available, to investigate antenna fabrication, finite ground planes and dielectric cover effects.

This thesis work is complementary to an earlier introductory investigation of CP rectangular DKAs lq at 4 to 6 GHz. Taken together the significant property of fiequency scalability of DRA design is demonstrated, by cornparison of the more basic properties - resonant frequency, Q-factor, radiation pattern, efficiency and the axial ratio beamwidth and bandwidth. However, the work undertaken for this thesis expands on these basic properties and investigates the characteristics of not only the DRA element but also, its behaviour as a practical antema system including the fhite ground plane and dielectric cover effects. This thesis work was carried out to lay a

foundation for future, more rigorous research delving more deeply into the optirnization of CP DRA elements.

1.4

Organization

This thesis is presented in a number of chapters. Chapter 1 provides a generaI ovewiew of the thesis, its approach, scope and a précis of the goal. Chapter 2 contains a review of polarization, particularly circular polarization. It continues with a general discussion of Microstrip Patch hte~as. Next it provides a general introduction and then a rapid review of some of the work done to date on circularly polarized MPA's. The major design characteristics are presented and an identification of the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are introduced.

Chapter 3, contains a similarly structured review of dielectric resonator antennas. It continues with the analytical mode1 development, which includes a discussion on field configurations, modes of operation and first order design equations. It also, contains a brief overview of the aperture feed mechanism and a prfcis of the design tools and their use. to provide impedance matching of the aperture to the DRA for CP. Chapter 4 discusses the material specifications and the methods of design and fabrication of the Æ systems used. It also, includes a bnef summary of the feed systerns.

AU the experimental results are presented in Chapter 5. First a description of the measurement techniques, equipment and errors are discussed. Next, the experimental and theoretical results are presented and any pertinent observations are made. All of the initial presentations are based on the Æ king on a large ground plane. The final two sections review all of the same constituent parameters (resonant fiequency, Q-factor, radiation pattern, efficiency and the axial ratio beamwidth and bandwidth) of the Æ on the large ground plane, except the effects of finite ground planes and dielectnc covers are shown.

Finally, chapter 6 compares the results of this work with results of previous work. From this cornparison, some concIusions as to the rectangular DRA'S performance will be given. Also, the applicability of this configuration will be explored. After presenting the final COnclusions based on the experimental and theoretical work some recornrnendations will be made for areas requûing further research.

Chapter

2

Microstrip Patch Antennas for Personal Communications

2.1

Overview

This chapter provides an introduction into polarization in general, and circular polarization in particular. Next, a general review of the research and development of MPA technology is given. The review begins with MPAs in general, but quickiy focuses on methods for producing circular polarized antennas. The intent is to outline sorne of the major advantages and disadvantages of this technology. In so doing the stage will be set, to introduce the DRA as an alternative to overcome some of the weaknesses of this existing and maturing technology.

2.2

Polanzation

Before reviewing the body of work concerning the employment of MPAs as circularly polarized elements it is prudent to provide a summary of definitions and requirements for polarized Es and circular polarization in particular.

The polarization of a wave is sirnply a description of the motion of the tip of the instantaneous electic field vector with tirne, at a fmed point in spacei7'. This electric field vector can then be decomposed into two orthogonal linear polarizations, usually taken to be horizontal and vertical. The relative amplitudes and phases of these cornponents determine polarization of the wave. In the most general case, the horizontal and vertical components can have any amplitude and any relative phase, thus the resultant locus forrns an ellipse.

If the electric field vector only varies in amplitude, but is always oriented in one plane (spatially invariant), the field is linearly polarized. Most Es used today are linearly polarized, such as dipoles, monopoles, horns, MPAs, and DRAs. An Æ is said to be circularly polarized when the electric field vector has constant amplitude, but rotates spatiaiIy at a constant rate. Examples of these three types of polarization are given in figure 2- 1.

I (a) Ellipcical Polanzation

(b)CirailuPof~on

Figure 2-1

Polarization Examples

(c) LinearPoIanPtion

Circularly polarized waves have some advantages in some applications. For example a CP wave operates better in rain and heavy fog with more consistent behaviour than LP, which is important in establishing a communication Iink. Also, since the instantaneous magnitude is invariant, a CP Æ does not require spatial orientation for maximum power transfer, like an LP Æ does. Another advantage of CP Æ's occurs with satellite to terrestrial Links. Here the receiver remain unaffected by the effect of Faraday Rotation as the signal passes through the ionosphere, uniike linearly polarized waves[*'.

2.2.1 Polarization States

The instantaneous electric field of a generally plane wave traveling in the direction can be decomposed into its x and y components as shown below:

+z

where E, ,E, =

o =

amplitudes of instantaneous electric field in x, y directions [V / m] radian fresuency = 21rf (rad/ s)

20

= phase constant = -

A

(rad / m)

6 = phase by which the y component leads the x component

Each component represents a linear polarized wave.

The resultant elecmc

field, is the vector combination of these two components at any instant in time:

The the varying field which corresponds to this at z 4, is the same for ail

points along the z axis. Therefore the resultant vector is:

Ë(t) = XE, cos(ut) + FE2 cos(wt + 6)

(2-4)

The length of this vector traces out an ellipse as a function of time, making one

revolution every penod (T = l/f). As can be seen i5om table 2-1 there are a number

of special cases, of polarization.

1 PARAMETER

1

POLARIZATION STATE

6= 0 LUiear Polarization 6th tilt angle r = tan*'EJEl

6 = 90"

1

 

El = O

E2= O

I

Left Hand Circular Polarized

1ato=O.rJZ

Ë(t) = XE, cos(ot) - jE ,sin(wt)

É(~=o)=B,

and

Ë(t=~/4)=-j~*

Linear PoIarization nominally dong y-mis Tilt angle depends on the value of 6

Linear Polarkation nominally dong x-mis

( Tilt angle depends on the value of 6

Table 2-1Special Polarization States

In the more general case we can show that the electric field actuaily describes an ellipse. Using the mgonometric identity below equation (2.4) becomes:

cos(a

f p) = cosa cosp T sina sinp

E,(t) = E,(COSW~COS~- sinotsin6)

Using

and substituting these hto independent of any tirne variation:

= Ji-(E,

/E,I2

equation(2.5) we get the following result that is

y

positions in a rectangular graph. They can easily be transformed to Ee and E+ for a spherical graph. The polarization can have any shape (axial ratio) and orientation (tilt angle) or sense of rotation ('handedness').

This is an equation of an ellipse when Ex and E, are treated

as

x and

A usefül neasure, comrnonly used, for the quality of CP is the axial ratio, which, as indicated above, is the ratio of the two orthogonal field components. The components are either rneasured in the two principle planes, or as the ratio of the magnitudes of the major and minor axis, of the polarization ellipse (figure 2-la).

Axial Ratio (AR) =

(2-7)

AR = 1, is by definition perfect circular polarization, although no such antenna exists. The purity of polarization usually deteriorates as observations move away

£kom boresight (extent and magnitude can be dependent on £inite ground plane effects). The polarization emanated from a practical CP Æ is generaily eiliptical, with varying degrees of ellipicity throughout the pattern.

2.2.2 CircuIar Polarized Antennas

The are two general methods to create CP. Type 1 CP antemas produce CP by virtue of their unique structure. Examples of type 1 Es are heh and spirals. The sense of polarization is determined by the sense of the winding of the helix or spiral.

Type 2 CP Es produce CP as a result of a special feed structure or some mode

These Es must be able, by virtue of the two previously

rnentioned mechanisms, explicitly generate spatialiy orthogonal components in phase

quadrature and of equal amplitude. The Es under study in this thesis are ail of the type 2 variety and thus must be able to meet these three requirements for CP:

degeneracy characteristics.

a. Each field component must be of equal amplitude;

b. There must be spatial orthogonality between each field component; and

c. There must be tirne quadrature between each field component.

A more detailed discussion of polarization is available kom either Harold ~ott's'~'or Warren ~tutzrnan's'~'book.

2.3 Microstrip Patch Antennas

In its sirnplest form the MPA is composed of some arbitrarily shaped radiating patch separated fiom a ground plane by a dielectric substrate as shown in figure 2-2. The radiating patch may be a simple resonant circular or rectangular shape, a resonant dipole, slotted patch or some other construction. Since the early work by Munson in the mid 1970's ['O' MPAs have seen rapid development. Most of this development has focused on irnproving upon, or compensating for, some inherent limiting factors.

These include narrow band performance (1 - 6 %), and low radiation efficiency due to high conductor losses £?om the rnetallic patch and surface wave excitation - which distorts the far-field radiation pattern and causes extra power loss, and thus less radiation efficiency. These limiting factors become dramaticaily worse at millimeter frequencies where there is stronger excitation of surface waves and thus greater distortion. Also, the conductor losses are greater, thereby further reducing radiation

Dielechic Sube

RadiatingPatch

d Plane

Figure 2-2

Basic Microstrip Patch Antenna Configuration

Despite these Limititions a large body of work with MPAs has produced some weil proven configurations and designs['3114*151. Also, extensive current research has been airned at compensating for conductor loss (for high gain), and for irnproving bandwidths by using active de~ices''*~'.Other approaches include: parasitic resonators or thicker substrates to irnprove bandwidth; or different patch sizes or spur iine fiiters to permit multiband operation [16.17,13.181 . Ali these achieve greater performance but at the cost of eiiminating the MPAs' prime advantages of king simple, small, low cost and conforma1 in nature. Also, the thicker substrates cause increased surface wave excitation[191,and increasing the conductor size or using multiple patches increases

conduction oss ses,['^^ both

of which reduce the radiation efficiency.

One very cornmon analysis method for analyzing the MPA is to consider the patch and ground plane as forming the upper and lower surfaces of a resonant cavity.

The side walls (in the dielectric) are then considered to be perfect magnetic wails (PMC), while the metal surfaces are considered as perfect electric wah (PEC)'~**"'. It is this approach that wiU be followed as it has direct application to the theoretical developrnent of this thesis.

2,3.1

Circular Polarized MPAs

MPAs are inherently linearly polarized (when driven in the fundamental mode). therefore, to produce CP radiation fiom these Æs requires the use of simultaneous multiple modes or multiple feeds on a single element, or multiple Æ elernents. Thus these Es are classed as type 2 CP Æ's. A variety of Æ designs using multiple orthogonal radiators or using various feed mechanisms (hybrids or phase shifter/power dividers) have ken shown in the literature. However, such designs are cornplicated and relatively large in comparison to single element designs and, hence, become unwieldy when size is limited in area or thickness.

In order to provide for later comparison to the single feed single element DRA the rest of this summary will be restncted to discussing the designs employing single elements. The single patch can have single or multiple feeds. Double feed MPAs achieve the required mode orthogonality by the use of hybnd or quarter-wave delay line~[~? Whereas, the single feed MPAs excite two nearly degenerate modes by using a perturbation segment. If adjusted properly, the boresight axial ratio WU be extremely srnall, theoretically approaching unit y.

For square or nearly square patches, this perturbation can be achieved by truncating corners, introducing inductive or capacitive discontinuities (slots or notches) or by feeding the nearly square patch nom a corner [alUv26J. Figue 2-3 presents a selection of some proven configurations. While these Es are shown as edge fed they may be equally excited by using other techniques such as dots, probes, or proximity coupling.

Most of the results pubiished for the configurations shown in figure 2-3 are quite limited. The bandwidths are normaUy reported as between 1% to 3% for axial ratios not greater than 6 dB for those Es operating in the L and S bands. Also, for this 6 dB axial ratio. beamwidths ranged from 1.5% for the eiliptical LEIn' to about 60% for diagonal slot loaded lEi2? One of the more recent studies was of a simple rectangular patch structure that was proximity fed, offset fiom the centre of the patch operating at 1.575 GHz. It reported a 10 dB irnpedance bandwidth of 3.54. and a 120 degree bearnwidth with Iess than 2 dB axial ratio. However, the bandwidth reported was only 0.55% at this same axial ratior1? Although no reference was made to the radiation efficiency this Æ suffers from the same conductive losses inherent in all MPAs and thus it would be expected to be about 80 - 85%.

Offset Feed

Figure 2-3

Slot Loaded

Nearly Square

MPA's for Circular Polarization

Elliptical

These results, and those from the slot Ioaded patch are excellent representatives of the abilities of simple MPAs within the L and S bands, and are singled out sirnply for Iater cornparison to the simple slot fed DRA proposed in this thesis.

2.4 Summary of MPA's for Personal Communications

This chapter has reviewed polarization, particularly the requirements for the creation of circular polarization fiom inherently linear polarized elements. Also, a review was presented of the various architectures proposed for enhancing, eliminating, or compensating for the inherent Limitations of narrow bandwidth, low gain, and low radiation efficiency. Next, a subset of simple MPAs designed to produce circular polarization was presented, giving some quantification as to there relative performance. Fiiially, a particularly recent and simple design that is similar in construction, and operation to the proposed DRA was discussed as a particular example for future cornparison. This chapter was not intended to be a thorough review, but merely an introduction into the large body of research into CP MPAs and there relative 0verai.I performance levels. In doing so, the foundation has been laid fi-om which to introduce a new Æ and a frarnework introduced fkom which to asses its relative perfomance.

Chapter

3

Dielectric Resonators

3.1

Overview

This chapter firstly, will provide a brief historieal background into the research into dielectic resonators. From this foundation, the historical employment of DR's as circuit elements, and the research undertaken in this area wiU be surnrnarized. Continuing on this theme the research and employment of DR's as hearly and circularly polarized Æ elements will be presented. Next, the development of the mode1 used in this thesis will be presented ending with an analytical description of the fields at the periphery of the element. From this development, a design relation for establishg LP and CP resonant fiequencies, as they relate to the physical dimensions of an isolated DRA wiU be derived. FinaIly, a brief description of the feed mechanism wïll be given.

3.2 Introduction to Dietectric Remnators

Diefectrics as resonators were first proposed by Richtmyer in 1939r?81however it was not until the 1960's when suitable dielectric rnatenals were available for any applications. A typical dielectric resonator (DR) is arbitrarily shaped, and made of low-loss, high permittivity, temperature stable material of resonant dimensions at its frequency of operation (i.e. the dimensions are proportional to the operating wavelength).

Early research was into the use of DR's as microwave components, such as waveguide filters or oscillators. As better materials appeared, more progress was made into employing DR's as rnicrowave circuit elements. A significant step occurred when COM[~~'demonstrated in 1968 that a Titanium Qxide DR filter could be made, that was 3 to 5 percent srnalier in volume, to an equivalent waveguide filter. As interest grew so did the amount of theoretical and analytical research. This research

demonsnated the advantages of DR's as srnaii, iight, low cost, microwave elements that could easily be integrated with WC's.

However, to fuUy employ these new devices more research was required that could classify more of their circuit properties like: resonant fiequency, modes, coupling to other microwave circuits and Q-factors. Some significant papers were published by ~ee"", who examined the natural resonant frequencies and modes of DR's. Karp et af3"offered sorne experirnental data on circuit properties of DR's. In the 1970's Van Bladel conducted significant theoretical work on the modal resonance behaviour of lossless, very high permittivity re~onators'~~*'~~.Further work with ~erplanken[~*~'exarnined resonance's in ring resonators and developed the Quality (Q) factor. As the analytical modeling progressed, more accurate predictions of circuit properties were possible. The use of the variational technique used by Konishi

et al'"] to investigate the resonant frequencies of a cylindncal dielectric resonator was

further developed in the late 70 s

variations of the Dielectric Waveguide Model (DWM) developed through the work of

Okaya & Barash and ~arcatili"?

[37,38]

and early 80's"~'. AU these models used

Increasingly, with the development of cornputers, numerical analysis of many shapes of DR's have been solved for their resonant fkequency and Q-factors.