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Detailed Design of Irrigation Facilities for Irrigation Blocks

ACLBD 7 and LBRBD 10 in Wilayah II, MADA.

Final Design Report


Chapter 2 - Project Information

CHAPTER 2
PROJECT INFORMATION

2.1

EXISTING CONDITION

2.1.1

Background

Irrigation is required to supplement rainfall to provide adequate water for growth of


paddy and to provide irrigation supply during drier periods. Adequate irrigation supply
would enhance productivity of crops, which would otherwise be limited by the shortage
of rainwater.
Muda Irrigation Scheme, formulated in 1963, represents the single largest rural
development project initiated during the First Malaysia Plan (1966-1970). Located in
the traditional rice-bowl area of northwest Peninsular Malaysia, the project entailed
massive public investment in physical infrastructure to enable the introduction of paddy
double-cropping in some 95,855 ha of rice land hitherto growing a single rain-fed crop
annually. The objectives of the project, as originally envisioned, incorporated both
output and income goals. On the one hand, the introduction of double-cropping was
seen as a means to make a significant contribution towards national self-sufficiency in
rice, which was perceived of as a desirable economic and social goal. On the other,
the increase in cropping intensity was expected to increase farm incomes and living
standard significantly for the farm families, and help improve national income
distribution.
In 1967, during the construction phase of the project, a central coordinating office was
established within the Ministry of Agriculture to co-ordinate the activities of the various
government agencies involved towards project goals. Owing to physical isolation from
the project and the totally administrative approach taken in project planning, this office
was largely ineffective. Realisation of this led to the appointment of a professional
agriculturalist as project coordinator in 1969, and in that same year project
administration was transferred to the local level. In 1970, a semi-autonomous public
agency, the Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA) with full responsibility for

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the planning and implementation of the development programme, was established,


replacing the coordinating office. The following infrastructure components were
completed by 1970:

Two reservoirs with a total storage capacity of 980,000,000 m3;

A main canal system of total length 115 km;

Secondary irrigation canals of total length 965 km;

Drainage channels of total length 866 km; and

Farm roads of total length 771km.

Commissioning of the project with the initiation of the first phase of double-cropping
began in 1970 for 33,600 ha after several years of careful pre-project preparation on a
variety of technical, economic and social aspects of the development programme. By
1974, within 5 years, and in conformity with project targets, double-cropping had been
introduced in 92% of the project area, raising the cropping intensity to 176%. Average
yield gradually increased from 3.25t/ha to 4.50t/ha. This phase of the project is
generally called the Muda I project. Introduction of double cropping was successful but
production was not stable under low development conditions, that is, at a low level of
canal density of 10m/ha.
Thereupon, MADA launched a 15-year project, viz., the Muda II project in 1978, to
increase the density of infrastructure by about three times, rationalise water
management, save water and stabilize the production. The project launched with the
purpose of increasing the annual gross production by 352,000 t and the net income of
60,000 farm families by 35% according to intensification of field infrastructure from 10
m/ha level to 35 m/ha level in canal density. Physical work covered the provision of
tertiary infrastructure for 38 irrigation blocks with the combined area of 26,300 ha
(about 28% of the total Muda area). Construction works began in 1979 and was
completed in 1989 at a total cost of RM226 million.
To improve production, especially for non-Muda II areas, due consideration should be
given for early implementation of major capital investment projects, such as the
construction of tertiary system for the remaining 72% of Muda area. The haphazard
arrangement of cadastral lots in the irrigation blocks will require denser tertiary network
and hence higher development cost.

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Despite the presence of dams, water shortage has been the most significant constraint
to proper performance of the Muda agriculture since 1975 when double cropping
expanded into the whole Muda Area. There are three principal sources of water for
paddy cultivation in the Muda area, viz., direct rainfall on the paddy fields, stream flow
from catchments below the dams, and reservoir release. The water distribution is
shown in Figure 2.1. The off season crop depends mainly on reservoir release, while
the main season crop relies mainly on direct rainfall. Of the three sources, only the
reservoir water can be controlled effectively in terms of time and quantity of release. In
fact, the bulk of irrigation water supply comes from rainfall. Uncontrolled flow in the
rivers also contributed substantially. In addition, drainage water is recycled for
augmenting the irrigation water supply.

Figure 2.1 Water Distribution Diagram in the Muda area (source: MADA)
Pedu dam, Muda dam and Ahning dam are important water resources of the Muda
Irrigation Scheme.

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Figure 2.2 Pedu Dam (left) and Muda Dam (right)


Pedu dam has a total storage capacity of 1,073 million cu.m. In comparison, Muda
dam has a total storage capacity of only 160 million cu.m, and Ahning dam 275 million
cu.m. The controlled releases from the dams contribute 30% of the total irrigation
water supply for the scheme. It should be noted that, although Ahning dam is operated
and maintained by MADA, the water resources of this dam are reserved for potable
water supply.

Figure 2.3 Irrigation Sources (Source: MADA Website)


The river system in the Muda Irrigation System consists of Sg. Kedah and its
tributaries, the main ones being Sg. Anak Bukit, Sg. Baru and Sg. Pendang, as shown
in Figure 2.3. The upstream reach of Sg. Anak Bukit is known as Sg. Padang Terap,
which receives controlled release from the dams, while the upstream reaches of Sg.
Baru are called Sg. Temin / Sg. Bata / Sg. Tanjung Pauh.

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Figure 2.4 River System of Muda Irrigation Scheme

Direct rainfall forms the main bulk (52%) of the irrigation water supply for the Muda
Irrigation Scheme.
Rainfall data is available from 148 telemetric rainfall stations spread evenly throughout
the scheme and the dam catchment areas, as shown in Figure 2.5.
The uncontrolled flow in the river system is exploited for irrigation water supply and it
contributes about 12% of the total supply. MADA practises recycling of drainage water
(Figure 2.6) for augmenting irrigation supply and recycled drainage water contributes
6% of the total supply. It is estimated that this amounts to 20% of the water released
from the dams.
Probable rainfall in the Muda area in a drought year is estimated at 0, 2, 39, 98, 162,
and 83 mm respectively from January to June in a 5 year return period. There are two
peaks of rainfall in the Muda area, in May and October.
The results of a frequency analysis on Kepala Batas rainfall records for the months of
March, April and May are shown in Table 2.1.

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Figure 2.5 Telemetric Rainfall Stations in MADA Area

Figure 2.6 Recycling of Drainage Water for Augmenting Irrigation Water Supply in MADA
Table 2.1 - Results of Frequency Analysis of Kepala Batas Rainfall Records.

March
April
May

Average

Dry (1 in 5 years)

Severe Drought (1 in

(mm)
117
214
235

mm
68
124
160

10 years) mm
41
76
120

From agronomic studies undertaken by JIRCAS (Japan International Research Centre


for Agricultural Sciences), it is known that about 150 mm of rain per month is required
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for good seedling establishment. As shown in Table 2.1, the spatial and temporal
distribution of rainfall during March, April and May is so variable and sporadic (ranges
from 38% to 65%) that deficits can occur. It would appear that, in an average year, the
rainfall in April would be adequate to supply the 150mm needed for good seedling
establishment. If a dry year (1 in 5 years return period) were to occur, the rainfall in
May would be required. In the unlikely event of a severe drought (1 in 10 years return
period), the crop requirement cannot be met by rainfall. A frequency analysis (JIRCAS)
revealed that the southern districts receive rainfall earlier and of higher quantum,
compared to the northern districts. Moreover, coastal areas also receive rainfall earlier
than the inland areas. This is illustrated in Figure 2.7.
For the cultivation of paddy, irrigation is required for most of the dry seasons and for
short periods in the wet seasons to ensure compliance with planting schedules.
Adequate drainage is also required as poor drainage hinders the use of tractors and
harvesters for land preparation and harvesting operations. The absence of an
adequate network of on-farm canals and drains in addition to the sluggish flow and
high water losses render the existing irrigation system inefficient.
The proposed works involve the planning, design, preparation of tender documents
and calling of tenders for the tertiary irrigation development which comprises 2
irrigation blocks with areas listed in Table 2.2:
Figure 2.8 shows the locations of the two irrigation blocks.

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Figure 2.7 Commencement of rainy season in MADA


(source: MADA/JIRCAS Integrated Study Report)

Table 2.2 Irrigation Blocks and Areas as per TOR


REGION
II

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BLOCK
ACLBD 7
LBRBD 10

HA
1,329.80
619.20

TOTAL

1,949.00

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Figure 2.8 Location of Irrigation Blocks

2.1.2

Irrigation Block ACLBD 7

Irrigation block ACLBD 7 has a gross area of about 2,000 ha and a net paddy area of
1,329.80 ha. Sg. Baru borders it to the southeast, Alor Changileh canal to the north,
ACLBDr 7 drain to the east and ACLBDr 8 drain to the west. Gunung Keriang with the
highest peak level of about RL + 218m is situated at the southeast of ACLBDr 7 and
north of Sg. Tg. Murah. Irrigation block ACLBD 7 could be further subdivided into subblock ACLBD 7 (736.94 ha) in locality E-11 and sub-block ACLBD 7a/7b (592.87 ha) in
locality I-11. The mukims in ACLBD 7 consists of Naga, Padang Hang and Gunong in
the District of Kubang Pasu and Kota Setar. The mukims in ACLBD 7a/7b comprise
Gunung, Sungai Baru and Padang Lalang in the District of Kota Setar.
Currently, sub-block ACLBD 7 is irrigated by 6,296 m of secondary canals and drained
by 6,196 m of secondary drains. The secondary canal for this sub-block is ACLBD 7.
The main drains are ACLBDr 8 to the west and Pt. Kuar Jawa, which flows northwest

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across ACLBD 7 from Gunung Keriang to Kg. Hutan. To date, 8,155m of tertiary canals
and 6,615 m of tertiary drains have been provided.
An estimated area of about 150 acres at Kg. Hutan/Kpg. Padang Gunong to the west
of Pt. Kuar Jawa regularly experiences insufficient irrigation command due to high
ground level and the area being distant from the head of the secondary canal. In
general, as shown in Figure 2.9, areas that are far away from the secondary canal
ACLBD 7 experience irrigation problem, and areas that are distant from the secondary
drain ACLBDr8 experience drainage problem.
The villages in this sub-block are Kg. Alor Biak, Kg. Pematang Kong, Kg. Teluk Junus,
Kg. Teluk Jawa, Kg. Kubang Raja, Kg. Teluk Binasa, Kg. Padang Gunung, Kg. Telok
Semai and Kg. Gunung Hilir.
Paddy estate is practiced on 113 ha of paddy land at Kg. Simpang 3, Kg. Telok Binasa
and Kg. Matang Kong.

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Figure 2.9 Problem Areas in Sub-Block ACRBD 7 (Source: MADA)

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Sub-Block ACLBD 7a/7b

Sub-block ACLBD 7a/7b with 4,124 m of secondary canals, 3,159 m of secondary


drains, 2,529 m of tertiary canals and 6,170 m of tertiary drains is located south of subblock ACLBD 7. The main drains of ACLBD 7a/7b are ACLBDr 8 to the southwest and
Sg. Baru to the southeast. The secondary canals for this sub-block are ACLBD 7a and
ACLBD 7b.
An estimated area of about 490 acres at Kg. Sungai Baru frequently experiences
irrigation problem due to high ground and lack of tertiary canals as shown in
Figure 2.10.

The settlement areas in this irrigation block are Kg. Alor Janggus, Kg.

Padang Lalang, Kg. Pt. Buaya, Kg. Padang, Kg. Gelam and Kg. S. Baharu.

Figure 2.10 Problem Area for Sub-Block ACRBD 7a/7b (Source: MADA)

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2.1.4

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Irrigation Block LBRBD 10

Irrigation block LBRBD 10 has a gross area of about 630 ha and a net paddy area of
619.18 ha. It is bound by the Lana Bulu Canal to the southeast, Parit Air Hitam to the
southwest, Parit Sanglang to the northwest and secondary canal LBRBD 10 to the
northeast. This block is located in locality C-11 in Mukim Sanglang in the district of
Kubang Pasu..
Irrigation block LBRBD 10 has been provided with 2,315 m of secondary canal
(LBRBD10), 3,455 m of tertiary canals, 5,987 m of tertiary drains, and 1,480 m of farm
roads. The main drains are Parit Air Hitam to the southwest, Parit Sanglang to the
northwest and Feeder 16 to the north. An estimated 103.48 ha is being operated in the
form of paddy estate.
About 336.6 acres at Kg. Matang Kerengga and Batas Bengkok frequently experience
delays and shortage of irrigation water due to high ground and lack of tertiary
infrastructure. As such, an electrical pump station (LB 9) has been installed at Matang
Kerenga to supply water for about 12% or 183.6 acres of the total paddy area in this
block. Another electrical pump (LB1) has been installed at Kpg. Sanglang, serving
about 244.8 acres or 16% of the total irrigation area. Three mobile pumps (7% of water
supply) have been provided at Lubuk Pinang Sanglang and Matang Kerengga. An
estimated 91.8 acres at Kg. Matang Kerengga has drainage problem mainly due to low
ground level. Villages in this irrigation block are Kg. Batas Bengkok, Kg. Sanglang, Kg.
Pematang Kerengga, Kg. Lubok Pinang Sanglang as shown in Figure 2.11.

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Figure 2.11 Problem Areas in Block LBRBD 10 (Source: MADA)

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Table 2.3 shows the project inventory for the respective irrigation block/sub-blocks.
Table 2.3 - Project Inventory for ACLBD 7 and LBRBD 10
No.
1
2

Description
Locality
Mukim

Sub-block ACLBD

Inventory of Existing Infrastructure


Sub-block ACLBD 7a/7b Block LBRBD 10

7
E-II
Naga

I-II
Gunong

Pdg Hang

Sg. Baru

C-II
Sanglang

Daerah

Gunong
Kubang Pasu

Pdg Lalang
Kota Setar

Kubang Pasu

4
5

Irrigation Area
Secondary Canal

Kota Setar
736.94 ha
6,296 m

592.87 ha
4,124 m

619.18 ha
LBRBD 10: 2,315 m

Secondary Drain

6,196 m

3,159 m

ABC: 1,750 m
Pt. Air Hitam: 2,584 m

Main Drain

ACLBDr 8

ACLBDr 8

Pida 16: 1,709 m


Pt. Air Hitam,

8
9
10
11

CHO
IEC
DEC
Pump Station

Sg. Kuar Jawa


5 ft. 1 No.
-

Sg. Baru
3 ft. 2 Nos.
3 ft. 2 Nos.
3 ft. 2 Nos.
-

Pt. Sanglang
3 ft. 1 No.
3 ft. 1 No.
3 ft. 1 No.
1) LB 9 Mtg Kerengga: 5 cusec - 1 No.

12

Mobile Pumps

3 cusec: 4 Nos.

2) LB 1 Kg. Sanglang: 5 cusec - 1 No.


3 cusec: 1 No.

13

Irrigation

Problem

Kg.

1 cusec: 7 Nos.
Kg. Sg. Baru 490 acres

1 cusec: 2 Nos.
Kg. Matang Kerengga & Batas Bengkok

14

Areas
Drainage

Problem

acres
-

Kg. Kepala Bukit 20 acres

336.6 acres
Kg. Matang Kerengga 91.8 acres

15
16
17
18

Areas
Tertiary Canals
Tertiary Drains
Tertiary Farm Roads
Paddy Estates

8,115 m
19,861 m
Kg. Spg 3,

2,529 m
6,170 m
Kg. Sg Baru A & B,

3,455 m
5,987 m
1,480 m
103.48 ha

Kg. Telok Binasa, &

Kg. Sg. Tok Keramat, &

Kg. Mtg Kong

Kg. Sg. Baru Wawasan

113.96 ha.
3.10 m/2.90 m

93.822 ha.
2.60 m/2.58 m

19

FSL @ CHO

Hutan

150

2.70 m/2.60 m

Source: MADA
2.1.5

Water Availability

Table 2.4 gives the diversion discharges and estimated demands for block s LBRBD
10 and ACLBD 7 based on the irrigation areas provided in the TOR. The figures show
that there is a deficit of 19 cusec for block ACLBD 7 that should be met by using
recycled drainage water from Sg. Baru. This warrants a water availability analysis of
Sg. Baru.

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Table 2.4 Status of Irrigation Supply and Demand


Description
Total diversion

at

head

of

Block LBRBD 10
32.0

Block ACLBD 7
68.45

28.6
-

82.37
13.92

secondary canal (cusec)*


Peak irrigation demand (cusec)
Deficit (cusec)

Total diversion = A/48 where A is the area of irrigation block given in the TOR.

2.1.1

Low Flow/Return Flow Analysis

Low flow analysis for a river system is often carried out using Hydrological Procedure
No. 12 (HP12) published by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID). The
application of HP12 is subject to the following conditions:
(a)

The catchment must be rural; and

(b)

The catchment must not have significant storages (swamps and lakes) or
regulation (reservoirs).

The Sg. Baru river network passes through the Muda Irrigation Scheme and is one of
the sources of irrigation water for the scheme. The upstream reach of the river, known
as Sg. Bata, has been diverted into Terusan Utara with the construction Tg. Pauh
Headworks. Below the headworks, the remaining catchment of Sg. Tg. Pauh and Sg.
Baru is only in the order of 60 sq. km. As the catchment mainly consists of paddy land
that acts like storage bodies, low flow analysis using HP12 is invalid. Therefore, an
irrigation return flow analysis is carried out instead.
The contributors of irrigation return flows are the MADA blocks ACLBD 1 to ACLBD 8
that are flanking Sg. Tg Pauh / Sg. Baru as shown in Figure 2.12.

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Block ACLBD 7

Figure 2.12 Irrigation Areas Contributing Return Flow to Sg. Tg Pauh/Sg. Baru
Assuming 25% [1] of the irrigation supply as the return flow, the return flow from these
irrigation blocks due to the water supply from Alor Changileh Canal is estimated to be
138.5 cusec as shown in Table 2.5.

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Table 2.5 Status of Irrigation Supply, Abstraction and Return Flows

Currently, there are numerous abstraction stations (excluding mobile pumps)


along Sg. Tg Pauh and Sg. Baru as shown in Table 2.6. The locations are
shown in Figure 2.13.
Table 2.6 Current Irrigation Abstraction from Sg. Tg Pauh and Sg. Baru

As the total irrigation abstraction is 206 cusec is much greater the irrigation return flow
of 138.5 cusec, there is insufficient flow in Sg. Tg Pauh and Sg. Baru to sustain the
irrigation abstraction if the abstraction is carried out simultaneously. However, if the
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abstraction is carried out at three (3) equal staggers, the abstraction at any time is 70
cusec. There is therefore a balance of 138.5-70=68.5 cusec in Sg. Baru, which is
sufficient to meet the deficit of about 14 cusec for Block ACLBD 7.

Figure 2.13 Current Irrigation Abstractions from Sg. Tg Pauh and Sg. Baru

2.2

PREVIOUS STUDIES

According to records obtained from JPS, several studies had been carried out for the
Project areas as listed below with brief descriptions:

MADA: Feasibility Report on Tertiary Irrigation Facilities for Intensive


Agricultural Development in the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia, 1977
It was projected in the Muda II feasibility report that by investing RM 4,645
per ha, the present land utilization ratio will increase from 1.79 to 2.00, the

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yield per unit area rises from 4.1 to 5.5t/ha/season and eventually 227,708
t/year of yield increment can be achieved. The estimated economic rate of
return is 25%, which is quite high comparing with the Muda I project (18.3%)
in spite of the low yield increment.

Bahagian Parit dan Taliayer: Proposed Improvement Works to Internal


Reticulation System, Peringkat I- Kawasan Utara, Projek Pengayeran
Muda, July 1970 - This paper put forward two alternative proposals for
improving the existing facilities to meet the new requisites in the first phase of
the Muda scheme covering the northern area for the consideration of the
MADA:
(a) To decide on the construction of either field channels or parallel
distributions and drains. The paper strongly support that parallel
distributaries and drains be adopted as these are more flexible and can
readily cater for sophisticated irrigation and drainage practices in order to
grow a third crop, as a main crop or in the form of an intercrop.
(b) To decide whether the new farm roads should be of single lane or of
double lane. Bahagian Parit dan Taliayer was of the opinion that, as these
roads would be constructed in accordance with JKR standard for rural
roads, it might be possible for the State to apply to the Federal
Government to obtain assistance for maintenance of these roads, being at
about 1 to 1.25 mile or 2 to 2.25 mile intervals, can be turned into rural
roads. Therefore the double-lane option was recommended
(c) To recommend to the Government to give the works to either
consultant, JPT or MADA. The paper recommended the work to be given
to a consultant firm in view of the shortage of manpower (engineers and
technicians) in JPT & MADA.

MADA: Irrigation Requirements for Growing Paddy in the Muda Irrigation


Project, December 1970 A rational basis for determining water
requirements for paddy cultivation in the Muda Project Area has been used to
estimate the irrigation duty and requirements. The initial ground condition will
determine the water requirement during pre-saturation period. However, for
the purpose of computing actual water requirements, very dry conditions have
been assumed. For Bahagia variety of paddy, the water requirements for the
two seasons are as follows:
1st crop (off season) Presaturation for 20 days at 30.5 acres/cusec or
23.6 in/month. Cultivation for 21 days at 77.5 acres/cusec or 19.3

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in/month. Transplanting for 21 days at 77.5 acres/cusec or 19.3


in/month. Growth period for 107 days at 66 acres/cusec or 10.9

in/month.
2nd Crop (main season) - Presaturation for 20 days at 34 acres/cusec
or 21 in/month. Cultivation for 21 days at 95 acres/cusec or 8 in/month.
Transplanting for 21 days at 95 acres/cusec or 8 in/month. Growth
period for 97 days at 85 acres/cusec or 8.5 in/month.
Field losses of 30% had been assumed. In addition, the following

recommendations were made:


All activities such as presaturation, cultivation and transplanting should

not only be shorter, but should be introduced as early as possible.


Short-term varieties should be introduced as early as possible.
More effective use of rainfall should be acheved by establishing field

weirs and practicing rotational irrigation.


Shallow depth irrigation should be practiced with effective weed control
using weedicides etc.

MADA-TARC, Studies on Rice Double Cropping in the Muda Area,


Development of Field Infrastructures, Shigeo Yashima (TARC), April 1984
- The study proposed that construction of tertiary drains should not be carried
out in a hurry; instead, tertiary canals and farm roads should precede tertiary
drains in order to save water consumption. The following steps were
recommended to be taken for tertiary development:
Ist. Step: Small recycling facilities to be installed for isolated irrigation
problem area of 25,000 ha which are scattered over the Muda area.
With this, the controlled area of Pelubong Headworks would be
reduced from 95,855 ha to 70,855 ha and its maximum intake

discharge raised from 13.90 mm/day to 18.80 mm/day.


2nd Step: Tertiary canal and farm roads are to be constructed for the
whole Muda area. The cropping schedule will be rationalized and yield
level of 5t/ha attained due to improved cultural practices. Daily water
consumption will not vary so much because of no drainage

improvement.
3rd Step: A water-user association is to be organized for the farmers for
each ISA. When they are ready, the tertiary drain system will then be
constructed. There would be an increase in daily water consumption
due to drainage improvement but it will be balanced by water saving

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due to the shortening of the flooding period and maximization in the


utilization of rainfall.

MADA & JIRCAS, Recent Advances in Malaysian Rice Production, Direct


Seeding Culture in the Muda area, August 1996 - Under the Memorandum
of Understanding, a collaborative study between MADA and JIRCAS (Japan
International Research Centre for Agricultural Sciences, former TARC:
Tropical Agriculture Research Centre) was initiated in the early 1970s. MADA
and JIRCAS had undertaken several specific research projects relating to rice
double cropping in Malaysia for over 20 years. This integrated report
represented part of the results of the collaborative study, focusing on recent
direct-seeding culture in the Muda area, conducted mainly from 1989 to 1994,
including two years follow-up survey. The study indicates the direction for
research in assessing the full impact of direct-seeding culture, cost and labour
saving technology for transplanting-based rice producing countries.

UPEN & DID, Sungai Kedah, Basin Management Plan 2007-2012 - The
irrigation system is of great importance to the economy of the state as it allows
double cropping in the Muda area. At the same time it has an adverse impact
on the water quality in Alor Setar because (a) the diversion at Pelubang
means that the pollution from Alor Seta is less diluted and (b) the barrage at
Ampang Jajar prevents the tidal flushing of the pollution to the sea. The major
use of water resources in the Sg. Kedah basin is for irrigation of paddy, while
portable water supply only uses about 10%. Since 1992 MADA had reduced
irrigation water use by recycling drainage water. It is estimated that at least
400 mm of drainage water (i.e. 386 MCM) can be recycled. There are now 27
recycling pumping stations in MADA. The average amount recycled is 160
MCM. It is expected to increase to 258 MCM, which means that MADA is able
to cover 10% of the irrigation water demand by recycling. Total demand for
water with direct seeding of paddy is 2,843mmm (1,205mm for main season
and 1638 mm for off-season). This corresponds to 745 MCM for the entire
Muda area of 96,558 ha of paddy. Irrigation efficiency is a key factor in
estimating demand. The current irrigation efficiency for MADA is estimated at
60%. It is expected to increase gradually to 62% during 2010-2020 and to
65% by 2050.

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2.3

REVIEW AND FINDINGS

2.3.1

Introduction

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Chapter 2 - Project Information

The lack of adequate tertiary facilities makes on-farm water management difficult.
Therefore there is an urgent need to review and upgrade the existing irrigation,
drainage and road systems with the objective to provide adequate and timely irrigation
supply and to enable modern paddy farming to be practiced. This in turn will bring
about better yield and thus better income for the farm families while at the same time
help the country towards achieving self sufficiency in rice production.
Therefore, a few obvious options to overcome irrigation problem can be envisaged as
follows:

To overcome supply shortage is to develop new sources and storage facilities


such as to increase the quantity of water available. In the Muda area, such
quantity will come from surface water. This translates into building more dams
and storage reservoir.

The second option is to improve main system management, such as to


increase delivery and distribution effectiveness and efficiency. It entails physical
works as well as managerial expertise. Physical works may include lining of
canals to reduce conveyance losses, construction of higher density canal
network and strategic regulating structures, facilities to reuse drainage water
and of course good maintenance. Managerial expertise require accurate
forecasting of supply availability and assessment of needs, thorough
understanding of the system behaviour and prudent policies on the
apportionment of water.

The third option is relatively much more complex as it involves both the supplier
and the users of water that is to reduce demand. It is about creating a total
environment conducive to the conservation of water, from adjusting the planting
schedules to maximize use of rainfall and uncontrolled flow, developing and
promoting planting techniques that use less water, instilling confidence in the
reliability of supply and drainage such as to reduce hasty decision, building
water user institutions that help to manage water distribution and exert peer

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pressure against wastage, or even to the extent of imposing direct cost for the
use of water and penalty for abuses.
2.3.2

Findings

Like other non-Muda II blocks, the distribution of water to the paddy field has been
carried out on plot-to-plot basis from the existing secondary canals, sometimes over a
great distance to reach the most remote areas, or not at all if micro topography of the
irrigation block does not permit. The command water level available is usually in the
range of 25 to 50 cm only. This is obviously an unsatisfactory method of water
distribution. Over the years, field channels had been constructed on an ad hoc
manner. Others had resorted to extracting water directly from the main canals (direct
tapping), or secondary canals of adjacent block (back irrigation), or pumping from
sources that happened to be accessible.
The practice of closing off the drainage outlets and causing the water to head up in the
drains with a view to supplying water to some isolated high plots of paddy land causes
inundation of the low areas was rampant. The lack of batases and intermediate
drainage controls posed farm water management problem.
The problems identified as faced by these irrigation blocks including the following:

Inadequate tertiary level irrigation and drainage facilities resulting in poor


water management and large losses;

Existing facilities not designed to meet the need of direct seeding practices.

Frequent breakdown of pumps due to aging and high maintenance cost;

Low pump efficiency due to pump sump design, inadequate submergence,


and poor sitting of pump houses

Therefore, rehabilitation and upgrading of the existing irrigation and drainage facilities
should be implemented to facilitate optimum water management, irrigation scheduling
and the use of direct seeding technique.
From the Consultants field reconnaissance and discussion with the JPS staffs, it is
noted that some changes have taken place in the above irrigation blocks. Some
improvement works such as tertiary canals with concrete-lined channels have been
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carried out, Poor drainage as well as access roads are mainly due to the lack of
adequate allocation. A full scale upgrading works is deemed necessary in order to
overcome the problems faced.
For detail design, the proposed alignment of tertiary waterways has to be determined
not solely based on topographical considerations and hydraulic efficiency, but also to
avoid truncation of lots and ensure equitable land acquisition among neighbouring lots.
Since arrangement of lots in the Muda area is rather irregular, this had resulted in
zigzag type of canal alignment instead of more preferred neat straight lines. Land
consolidation or land readjustment techniques were considered but rejected because it
was deemed socially unacceptable.
As required by the TOR, it is necessary to determine the canal capacity design based
on irrigation scheduling. The concept is to divide the irrigation block into 3 or more
irrigation service areas (ISA) each commanded by a tertiary canal. An ISA will be
further divided into 2 or more irrigation service units (ISU) of about 50 - 80 ha each, in
order to limit the number of farmers to be organised to a manageable number.
Irrigation water is to be supplied to each ISU on a 10-day rotational period for the
purpose of saturating the soil and establishing a standing water of 150 mm to facilitate
land preparation, and subsequently on a continuous basis for supplementary
requirement (duty:80 acres/cusec). In this way, the peak discharge would not exceed
the carrying capacity of the existing secondary canal, and yet able to reduce peak
demand for labour and machinery for land preparation, transplanting and harvesting
works.

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3.

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DATA AVAILABILITY

MADA/JPS had been very helpful in providing the necessary information in order to
enable the Consultant to carry out the detailed planning and design of the project. The
information covers the following:

Pelan Kedudukan TBM Daerah II showing irrigation blocks, main and


secondary irrigation & drainage network;

Pelan Umum MADA;

16 chain plan for Irrigation Block LBRBD 10;

16 chain plan for Irrigation Block ACLBD 7;

Pelan Kedudukan Pejabat PPK dan Kawasan Wilayah II, MADA;

8 chain sheet for Irrigation Blocks ACLBD 7a & 7b;

8 chain sheet for Irrigation Blocks ACLBD 7;

8 chain sheet for Irrigation Blocks LBRBD 10;

Inventory of irrigation, drainage and access infrastructure;

Water Pattern Plans (Figure 2.14 to Figure 2.17);

Maps showing Problem Areas;

Future Landuse according to Local Plans (Figure 2.18, Table 2.7 and
Figure 2.19)

LiDAR Survey (enclosed in Appendix I);

Grid Survey of the irrigation blocks (enclosed in Appendix II);

Detailed design drawings for LB9 pumping station at Kg. Matang Kertengga in
Block LBRBD 10.

Report on Geotechnical Investigation, Detailed Design of Sg. Kedah/Sg. Anak


Bukit (Phase I) Flood Mitigation Project.

No detailed engineering survey of existing and proposed canals, drains and access
roads were made available although these had been requested.

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Figure 2.14 Water Pattern for Presaturation of Sub-Block ACLBD 7 in Season 1/2010 (Source: MADA)
Red Week 1

Green Week 2

Purple Week 3

Figure 2.15 - Water Pattern for Presaturation of Sub-Block ACLBD 7 in Season 1/2007 (Source: MADA)
Yellow Week 1

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Blue Week 2

Green Week 3

Orange Week 4

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Figure 2.16 - Water Pattern for Presaturation of Sub-Block ACLBD 7a & 7b in Season 1 (Source: MADA)
Blue Week 1

Orange Week 2

Yellow Week 3

Green Week 4

Purple Week 5

Figure 2.17 Existing Irrigation Pattern in Block LBRBD 10 (Source: MADA)

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Figure 2.18 Future (2020) Land for Block LBRBD 10 according to Local Plan for Kubang Pasu District.
(Source: Kubang Pasu Local Plan)

Table 2.7 Future Landuse (2020) Areas


LANDUSE
Residential
Industrial
Business & Services
Institutional & Public Facilities
Open Space & Recreation
Agriculture
Total

Dr. Nik & Associates Sdn Bhd

AREA (ha)
LBRBD 10
201.08
0.75
1.06
1.15
6.76
343.33

ACLBD 7
210.7
5.64
2.46
56.74
5.27
1318.31

554.13

1599.12

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Figure 2.19 Future (2020) Land for Block ACLBD 7 according to Local Plan for Kota Setar District.
(Source: Kota Setar Local Plan)

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Reference
1.

H K Kim, T Jang, S J Lim and S W Park, Estimation of Irrigation Return Flow

from Paddy Fields considering the Soil Moisture, Agricultural Water Management,
2009, vol. 96, issue 5, pages 875-882.

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