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To determine the hardness values along the jominy bar

To develop an understanding of how cooling rates effect the
microstructures and hardness values of the specimen

The hardenability of a steel is defined as that property which determines
the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching ftom the
austenitic condition. The dependence of hardness upon quenching rate
characteristics of steel, and, for a particular steel, can be estimated from
the T-T-T diagram.
A part may be hardened by quenching into water, oil, or other suitable
medium. The surface of the part is cooled rapidly, resulting in high
hardness, whereas the interior cools more slowly and is not hardened.
Because of the nature of the T-T-T diagram, the hardness does not vary
linearly from the outside to the center. Hardenability refers to capacity of
hardening (depth) rather than to maximum attainable hardness.
The hardenability of a steel depends on
1- The composition of the steel,
2- The austenic grain size,
3- The structure of the steel before quenching.
In general ,hardenability increases with carbon content and with alloy
content. The most important factor influencing the maximum hardness
that can be obtained is mass of the metal being quenched. In a small
section, the heat is extracted quickly, thus exceeding the critical cooling
rate of the specific steel and this part would thus be completely
martensitic. The critical cooling rate is that rate of cooling which must be
exceeded to prevent formation of nonmartensite products. As section size
increases, it becomes increasingly difficult to extract the heat fast enough
to exceed the critical cooling rate and thus avoid formation of
nonmartensitic products. Hardenability of all steels is directly related to
critical cooling rates.
Hardenability of steels can be measured using the Jominy end test. The
jominy end test testifies the incidence of the composition of the alloy and
heat treatment procedures for manufacturing purposes.

Sample is placed in a furnace and held at austenitizing temperature for
about 30 minutes. It is a cyclindirical bar with a 25 mm diameter and 100
mm length (Figure 2). The specimen is placed in the furnace at 850 0C for
about 30 minutes. The water flow rate is adjusted so that the water
column is approximately the distance 50 mm above the end of the pipe,
when water is flowing freely. After the sample has been austenitized, it is
removed from the furnace and placed directly into the quenching
apparatus (Figure 1). A jet of water is quickly splashed at one end of the
specimen. After entire sample has cooled to room temperature and the
scale oxidation is removed, two opposite and flat parallel surfaces are
ground along the length of the bar. Rockwell C hardness measurements
are the made every 1.5 mm these reading are recorded.

Figure 1: Jominy End Quench Test Setup

Standart-size sample

Figure 2:


Rockwell C Hardness Data

Figure 3: Rockwell C Hardness Data

By looking Figure 3 above it can be said that hardness eventually
decreases as the sample is tested in sections farther from the quenched
end. Also it can be said that the very first 3 mm of the specimen has
higher martensite percentage compared to further locations. Because after
3 mm range, hardness values decreased dramatically.
Microstructure (martensite and/or pearlite) depends on the cooling rate.
For pearlite formation, slower cooling causes coarse pearlite while fast
cooling causes fine pearlite to from. Cooling rates faster than the critical
cooling rate result in martensite. In this test, rapid cooling rates were
applied to the specimen. So the quenched end of the specimen is
supposed to be martensite as well as the hardest location. Figure 3 above
proves that hardest locations of the specimen are the very first 3 mm
range which are martensited. By going further, hardness values decrease
so it can be said that, martensite percentage decreases while pearlite
percentage increases. In summary pearlite is formed during the slow
cooling of iron alloys. On the other hand martensite is formed in steels
when the cooling rate from austenite is sufficiently fast. By this difference
and hardness results, it can be said that quenched end of specimen has
martensite microstructure form while upper has pearlite.
If photographs were taken under electron microscopy,

- pearlite (coarse) microstruce would supposed to be Figure 4,

- martensite microstructure would supposed to be Figure 5 shown

Figure 4: Pearlite

Figure 5:

The Jominy test describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth
by quenching. The hardenability depends on the alloy composition of the
steel, and can also be affected by processing, such as the austenitisation
Because of the effects of cooling rate to specimen, it was expected that
our hardness values should decrease while going further from quenched
end to upper. Our hardness values followed the hypothesized curve was
Knowloedge of the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select
the appropriate combination of alloy and heat treatment for components
of different size, to minimise thermal stresses and distortion.

[1] W.D Callister, Materials Science and Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,
2011, pp. 594
[2] C. F. Jatczak, Hardenability of Carbon and Alloy Steels, Metals
Handbook, Vol.1, 9th Edition, ASM International, pp 492
[3] Krauss, G., Steels: Heat Treatment and Processing Principles, ASM
International, 1990, p 163-178
[4] Sourmail T and Garcia-Mateo C: A model for predicting the Ms
temperatures of steels Computational Materials Science Vlume 34, Issue
2, September 2005, pp213-218