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Cracking of Hydrocarbons using a Zeolite

AIM
To Crack Hydrocarbons (Liquid Paraffin) using Zeolite and analyzing the resultant
product.
APPARATUS
1. One heat Resistant Test Tube with Rubber Stopper
2. 5 normal test tubes with rubber stoppers
3. One rubber cork with a hole
4. Transfering (Delivery) Tube
5. Test tube holder
6. Bunsen burner
7. Ceramic bowl
MATERIALS REQUIRED
1. Glass Wool
2. Liquid Paraffin
3. Distilled Water
4. Zeolite
CHEMICALS REQUIRED
1. Dilute acidified solution of KMnO4 for conducting Bayers Test (To prove
presence of Alkenes)
2. A dilute aqueous solution of Br 2 for conducting bromine water test (To prove
the presence of Alkenes)
PROCEDURE
1. The heat resistant test tube is thoroughly cleaned and air dried for zero
moisture presence and clamped to the test tube holder.
2. A piece of glass wool is then inserted into the bottom of the test tube using a
transferring clamps and a glass stirrer.
3. A specified volume of Liquid Paraffin is added to the glass wool and made to
be soaked in completely.
4. The heat resistant test tube is the horizontally clamped to the test tube
holder and zeolite pieces are carefully inserted into it such that they stay at
some distance from the glass wool from the bottom and the test tube mouth
at the top.
5. Fill in two inches of water in the ceramic bowl and place the remaining test
tubes inside such that they are completely immersed in water.
6. The delivery tube is then attached to the rubber cork and then fixed to the
mouth of the heat resistant test tube.

7. The other end of the delivery tube is then kept inside the ceramic bowl of
water such that it stays inside the water at least by an inch.
8. Ignite the Bunsen burner and gently heat the zeolitel first and pass the heat
uniformly throughout the test tube heating the glass wool occasionally.
9. When gas bubbles start forming at the other end of the delivery tube, place
an inverted test tube full of water to collect the gas such that the test tube
stays inside the water at least an inch from its mouth.
10.
The gas is collected by the downward displacement of water and five
test tubes full of gas are to be collected by heating the zeolite to displace
volatile gases from the liquid paraffin.
11.
After heating the zeolite till it turns black because of coal deposition,
the gas collection is to be stopped and the delivery tube is to be removed
from water.
12.
The Bunsen burner is the switched off and the zeolite is removed for
regeneration or analysis.
TESTS
1. The third test tube is smelled for the presence of hydrocarbons and the
introduced to an open flame to check burning of fuel.
2. The fourth test tube is tested for the presence of alkenes by introducing
dilute acidified solution of KMnO4 as Bayers reagent. In the presence of
alkenes the solution turns light brown or colorless.
3. The fifth test tube is also tested for the presence of alkenes by introducing
bromine water, a dilute aqueous solution of Br 2. In the presence of alkenes
the solution turns colorless.
4. The first two test tubes are usually discarded as they contain mostly
displaced air from the heat resistant test tube and the zeolite air packets.
PRECAUTIONS
1. The delivery tube must be removed before the flame is turned off as the
volatile gases may be sucked out if the flame is removed before as it
produces immediate cooling.
2. The heat resistant test tube and the remaining test tube must be completely
dried without any presence of water at the start of the test experiment.
3. Uniform heating is to be applied initially and then vigorously to the zeolite
part as the last of the volatiles that are trapped in the zeolite get released
before carbon is deposited on it.
4. Zeolite is to be kept a little warm before checked for carbon deposit before it
gets too cold as it might trap air in its pockets once cooled.
REFERENCES
1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7M7RY04KKBs
2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYyKUePdC2Y

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0BlY9QT2fJo