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Architectu ~ith ~

RHEINZ~~

K Roofing and
Wall Cladding

Zn - Revestimentos de Zineo , Loa.


Rua Joaquim Oias Salg ueiro , 67

4 4 70 -77 7 Vila No va da Teth a - MA lA

Te lef. 22 998 33 40 - Fax 22 998 33 49

M o ve! 93 996 00 11

www .zn-revesl ime ntoS.pl

EINZI K GMB

D-45711 Datteln . Germany

Telephone (02363) 605-0

Telex 829787

Telefax (02363) 605209

Translation of the 8th German Edition:


"RHEINZINK - Anwendung im Hochbau",
January 1986.
En gli sh Issu e : Apr il, 19 88
Rep rod uctio n only w ith th e pe rmissio n of th e pu blis hers
Publi shed by RHEINZINK GMBH , Datteln
Printe d by Gr aph . Betrieb Pli tt , O berhaus en

Table of contents

Preface Note
RHEINZI NK"

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

Buildi ng Mat erial RHEINZINK


Material Marking
Material Produ ction
Materi al Particulars
Material Properti es
RHEINZINK Surface Finish
Catalogue of Compon ents
Tabl e of Weigh ts

Stresses

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Stress es and Adjacent Effects


Rain and Snow
Wind Load s
Temperature Variation s
Trapped Humidity and Moisture Yield
Combination with other Metals
Bituminous Co rrosio n

Installation
Instructions

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

Installation Instructio ns
Forming
Working Temperatu res
Fixing
Joi nting
Soft Soldering
Calc ulation of Thermal Exp ansion
Therm al Expan sion - Comp ensation

10

10 .

10

11

11

11

13

13

Technical
Terminology

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.6

17

17

17

19

19

21

21

21

22

4.7
4.8
4.9

RHEINZINKG Roof Cov erin g and Wall Cladding


Application Relative to Roof Pitch
Ventilated Roof Constructi on
Non -ventilated Roof Cons truction
Building Phy sic s - Terminol ogy
Sub structure
Roof Boards
Wood Chi pb oarding
Wall Boarding
Fixi ng Sh eet Metal Roofing with

Regard to Wind Sucti on Forces


Numbe r and Spacing of Fixing s
Width s of Str ips and Thickn ess of Metal
Eaves Flash ings in Metal Roofing

Roof and Wall


Details

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Roof Covering using t he Doubl e Sta ndi ng S eam Met ho d


Roll Cap System
Jo intings wi th RHEINZINK'" Roofing
Penet ration s in RHEINZINK Roofing
Facade Cladd ing
Snow Guar ds
Lightning Prote ct ion

25

30

32

36

41

44

45

Weathe rings
& Flashings

6.0
6.1
62
6.3
6.4
6.5

Weath erings and Flashings


Jointings
Weath erings and Flash ings - Hard Roofing
Flashings for Built-up Roofs
Eaves Flashi ngs
Weath ering s

46

46

22

23

23

24

46

48
53

55

Roof Drainage

7.0 RHEINZINK-massiv Roof Drainage


7.1 Ca lc ulation
7.2 Jo inting
7.3 RHEINZINK-massiv Gutt ers
7.4 RHEINZINK-massiv Downpipes

Tooling

8.0

Tools for Sh eet Metal Roof ing and Wall Cladd ing
Profiling and S eaming Mach ines , Mac hines for Bend ing S eams

65

66

G e neral
Instructions

9.0

Gene ral Directi ons fo r the S pec ifi cat ion of Items in
Sheet Metal Roofing Tec hnique and Roofin g Contractor's Work
Notifying Reservations

69

69

69

10.0

Introductory Comments Regarding Quotation s

69

11.0

Practica l Exampl es

71

Legend

84

Notice

85

9.1
I ntroductory Comments
Re garding Quotations

58

58

60

60

62

RHEI ZI

Processing and Application


in Building

Preface Note

1.0

The details and regulations forth e p ro


cessi ng and appli cation of RHEIN
ZINK in building referred to in thi s
book sho uld ensure compliance with
minimum technical requirements. Ref
erence must also be made to DIN
Standards, data s heets and prof es
sional specifications .

Building Material
RHEINZINK" = alloy ed zinc in ac cord
ance with DIN 17770, par t 1, descr ibed
as D-Zn bd ; D = creep resi stance, Zn =
zinc, bd = strip milled ,
and co nforming with BS 6561A.

1.1

Material Marking
DATIELN TITANIUM ZINC MADE IN GERMANY BS 6561 A - 0.70 Underside
(Con tinuo us stri p ma rking)

1.2

Material Production
As the only enterprise in the world ,
RHEINZINK possesses a continuous
wide strip mill. By means of this techni
cally soph ist icated process of zinc roil
ing, long strips in specified thicknes
ses are produced from the patented
RHEINZINK alloy in an un interrupted
cycle (smelting, casting , rolling , coil
ing) , the following shearing operations
cutting th e product into narrow strips
or sheets.

Mel tin g

Casti ng

The specially developed RHEINZINK


rolling process and th e exactly bal
anced RHEINZINK alloy guarantees
highly uniform properties, the distin
guishing mark of RHEINZINK.
RHEINZINK ~' strip and sheet are
straighten ed on modern machinery
and are thus technically plane and
straight. This improvement in quality is
of particular import anc e in facades and
roof structuring, as it enhances ap
pearance.

Roll in g

. ~~

0 i\ Ii

Sh eet cu tti nc

RHEINZINK semifinished product line

'

' .

IJ

--
0

_.-. - --

-- --

1.3

M aterial Particulars
Th e bas is of the pa ten te d RHEINZI NK
a ll o y is electrolyt ic high grad e zinc
(D IN 1706) with a 99 .995 %Z n deg ree of
pu rity and alloyi ng add iti ves of coppe r
a n d tita nium . RHEINZINKis a met al al
loy wh ich has bee n spec ially devel
oped fo r t he req uireme nts of building
co nst ructio n.

1.4

Material - Properties
Independently of the direction of rol
ling , RHEINZINf< may be fo lded 180
w ithout tea ring and may be folded back
to it s orig inal condi tion without break
ing. RHEINZINKis d ist inguished by its
h igh ductility w ith any kind of forma
t ion , including c old forming .
DIN 17 770 Part 2 "S t rip and Sheet Zinc
in Bu ild ing Construction-Dimensions "
s pec ifies variatio ns from nom inal
t hi c kness as 0.03 5 mm max .
Th e RHEINZINK(i, works standard per
mi ts a to lera nce of 0.030 mm only.

? hysical Properties
S p ec ific density
Th erm al
c o nd uctivity
Elect rical
cond uc tivity
M elt in g poi nt
Recrystallisat ion
limit
Li near th ermal
expan sion
- longitudinal
(Coeffici ent of
ex pa nsion)
Min imum elasticity
m od ulus

7.15

q/crrr'

109

w
m K

17
4 18

rn/ Ornrn?
C

30 0

0.022

rnm/rn -C

80, 000 f-J i lTlrn:1

---- -

-. _

__

_ . ._ -

- - - -- - - -- - - - - --

Mechanical Properties
(measured in longit ud inal direction)
in ac co rda nc e with DIN 17 770
mini mum*)
Exten sion
coe fficient 0.2 limit
100
Rp O.2
Tensile stren gth Rm 15 0
Breaking
40
exten sion A lO
%
Time creep li mit
(Creep res ist ance)
for 1 % exp ans ion/
p.a. - 0,/
50
Brinell hard ness
40
HB 1.25/2.5 /30
Vickers Hardness
HV1 /15
40
Technological Properties
Deep drawing limit rat io ~
D - Diameter of blank

*) with material thickness


up to 0.80 mm
Chemical Properties
RHEINZINK has good atmospheric re
sistance. First of all the zinc surface
reacts with the oxygen from the air,
forming zinc oxide. By the interaction
of water (ra in , humid ity) zinc hydroxide
is th en formed , which by reaction w ith
ca rbo n dioxi de in th e air is tran sform ed
into a den se, firmly adhe ring and
water-insoluble c oating of basic zinc
carbo nate (patina). Th is prot ect ive lay
er is respon sibl e for t he high c orrosi o n
resistanc e of zinc .
Sulphur dioxid e, whi ch under unfa
vourable conditions causes at mos
ph eric pollution , im pai rs the protective
co at ing of the metal when there is a
relat ive air humid ity over 70 %.
The protective layer, when worn or
damaged, repairs itself by using zinc in
relation lo lhe wear.

- -

Th e tab le below shows average co rro


sion rat es, frequently p ublished , for
four differ ent c rit eria.

Typ e of
Atmo sp h ere

DIN 50960
(ave rage d)
La bo ratory Tests
Me tall gese ll sc h.

E. Neufe r!

R. Pelzel

d - Diameter of cupping punch


Higher deep drawing limit
rati o ~ for special alloys up to
1.9
Bend test number for
bending radius
4 x metal thickness
10
Folding test - 180
with bend radius
at 20C ( 2)
without tearing and bending up,
without breaking

.. -

Th ere are varyin g deg rees of po llut ion


in loc al at mospheres and thus varying
inten sity of atmosp h eric c orrosi on.

(av eraged)

1.6

_ ._ -- _

.2..

en

<U

.;::

"'

Q;

"aJ 3O

. t5 ~

~
::J
a:

aJU

(j) .C::

:2: O N

2 .2

3.5

11.4

8 .7

1.5

4.0

10.0

4 .0

2 .0

2.5

8.0

9 .0

::J

::J

<1l ~ 0

2 .9")

Rates of co rros io n of zinc , ex p ose d to vario us


c lima tic infl uen c es: ave ra ge values from several
so urc es, in mic ro metres p er annum (1 micromet re
= 0.00 1 mm).

The wid e ra nge of rates of corrosion


show n in th e tabl e may be explained by
th e in exactly defined atmospheric cor
ros io n to wh ich the zinc surface is ex
po sed; in a n individual case no con
cr et e inf orm ation on the extent of the
rate of c o rros ion which is to be expect
ed ca n be d educed from the table.
Th is would also explain the frequently
expressed uncertainty by bu ild ing
contractors , de signers and artisans
when asked to assess zinc material for
durability. Ne ither galvanised steel
sheet with an average zinc pl atin g of
251-l , nor roof gutters of zinc sh eet are
su itable examples for making suc h as
ses sments .
In orde r to obtain defi niti ve find in gs o n
th e act ua l re sistan ce to corrosio n of
RHEINZINK(; mat eria l, RHEINZINK
GM BH c o nducts me asurem ent s of rna
ter ial th icknesses on work don e wi th
the ir RHEINZINK" mate rial (alloyed
zin c in ac cordance with DIN 17 770)
us ing scie nt ific , ver ifi able m ethods.
It is atte m pte d to f ind t he relations hip
be tween geograp hic loc at ion (emi s
sio n load ) and vary ing roo f pitc h from
flat pitc h 3 up to vertic al , i.e. fac ade
c ladd ing and th e eff ec tive de pt h of s ur
face attac k.

Analysis of measuremen t data has al


ready show n t hat with increased pitc h
there is a d ecrease in the average rate
of corrosion .
In the Ruhr region over a period of 14
years average surface wear values of
approximate ly 4 IJm per annum have
been found in respect of 3 roofs . When
related to half-thi c kn ess values (= su r
face wear up to half of th e init ial mate
rial thickness) a durability of approx i
mately 80 - 100 years in respect of
RHEINZINKmaterial can be expected
in this emission zone.
In the vertical range, e. g. facade clad
ding, average corrosion rate in each
case is below 2 urn/a. (even below
1 urn/a) according to our findings, so
that when using RHEINZINK for fa
cades , a maintenance-free life expec
tancy of some 200 years may be calcu
lated. This high life expectancy can of
course only be achieved if the stan
dards relating to building physics are
met and the material is laid according
to the rules of the building plumbing
trade .
As soon as the measurements have
yielded sufficient reliable and verifiable
data, RHEINZINK intends to publish the
results.

prov ide d. Depending on vapour diffu


sion load, either a damp course (va
pour barrie r) or insulation must be
install ed. The substructure should be
also wind-tight. (2.4 Complementary
information - see Guidelines, Roofing
Trade).
Further RHEINZINK specific data
Fire-resistant properti es
Non-flammable, building mat eri al CI. A
Damp-resista nt prope rties
Frost -resistant, water repell ant sur
face, damp-resistant, vapour-r esistant
Stability
UV-resistant, rot proof, will not break ,
recyclable
Painting
Owing to the natural protective coating
(patina) of basic zinc carbonate, additi
onal protective painting under normal
environmental influences is not re
quired with RHEINZINK.

If subjected to extreme environmental


influences or for visual reasons, paint
ing (coating), after natural weathering
or degreasing of bright surface, may be
proceeded with following suitable
priming .

In contrast with the behaviour of the


RHEINZINK surface exposed to the
atmospheres different criteria apply in
respect of the metal underside, l.e. the
side not exposed to the atmosphere.

For surface cleaning the use of organic


solvents is advised (these must be
clean so as not to contaminate the sur
face with fresh grease). This will pro
vide a good ground for the base paint.

A basic zinc carbonate coating cannot


develop here, as in this area the requi
site carbon dioxide from the air is lack
ing. There is no interc hange of air . The
metal remains shiny, or some zinc hy
droxide may develop (white rust)
which is of no consequence.

Attention is also drawn to the "Guide


lines for the execution of metal roofs,
wall cladding and plumbing work"
(Sept. 1985 edition).

Where, however, as a result of co n


structional or installational defects, the
metal underside suffers damp or con
densation over a longer period of time ,
heavy condensation corrosion must be
exp ected. Thi s typ e of cond ensation
corrosion will eventually lead to lo
calised depth corrosion (pitting) .
To avoid these eventualities, adequat e
ventil ation of th e subs t ructure must be

Afte r laying , undulat ions caus ed by ro l


ling show up on RHEINZINK bright
rolled fi nis h , as w ith othe r rolled metal s
suc h as copper and aluminium. The
undulatio ns are revealed by the reflec
tion of light, but it is difficult to measur e
them mech anic ally. Even in th e bright
roll ed finish, th ese undulations , so
st rongly emphasised visu ally , will dis
appear if one chang es the directio n of
view (with a c hange in focal point and
therefore th e angle of reflection) (see
illustrat ion) . As soon as the protecti ve
c oating begins to develop on the
RHEINZINK surface, then strong ref
lections can no longer app ear and th e
slight undulations will no longer be vis
ible; nor will they be visibl e on an artifi
c ially pat inated surfac e.

1.5

RHEINZ N~ Surface
Finish
RHEINZIN ~ Bright rolled finish

RHEINZINK and components made


th erefrom are supplied in bright rolled
fini sh. On expo sure to th e atmosphere,
the patina referred to above develops.
This blue-grey patina harmonizes well
with the natural colours of other build
ing materials, such as concrete , brick
and wood.

RHEINZ INI( "preweathered"


The formation of a typical RHEINZINK
patina takes a long time , depending on
the season and prevailing climatic and
environmental conditions.

A special process, developed by


RHEINZINK, - preweathering - gives
the surface patina a natural appear
ance from th e start.
"Preweat hered " RHEINZINK is pro
cessed exactly like RHEINZINK bright
rolled .
"Preweathered " RHEINZINK'" is parti
cularly suitabl e for the visible areas of
roofs and walls. For thi s reason, prepa
ration should proceed carefully and
cleanly, particularly ensuring there is
no gre ase on t he fold ing machine.

I
1.6

Catalogue of Components
RHEINZ INK Semis

Strip
max. width 1,000 mm
Sheet
1,000 x 2,000 mm
Thickness 1.50100 0.800.700.650.60 mm
Special sizes
on request

RHEINZINK- n1Iossiv
Finish ed p roducts (se lection)

-- .

Roofing Profiles
For the install ation and fixing of these produ cts
the reco g nis ed co de s of practice must be fol
lowed (VO S an d DIN).
All specia l p ro f iles in le ngths o f 2-6 met res can
be made on el ectronic b ending mach ine s at ou r
sales depots upon requ est.
Stand ard length : 3 m

These must ad eq u ately cover th e timbe r board of th e roo f area. The lap pin g of th e flash ing by th e roo f co vering is dep end ent on
roof pitc h, th e roofin g material and the c lim ati c (local) co nd iti ons prevail ing.

Eave s Flashin gs

Standard sections

P;:

"caV

.,I

~ <

c ut widt h

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

> 250
250
200
167

10
10
10

17
17
17

217
167
134

> 250
250
200
167

10
10
10

17

17
17

198
148
115

400
333
28 5
250
200
167

15
15
15
15
15
15

50
50
50
50
50
50

335
268
220
185
135
102

400
333
285
250
200
167

15
15
15
15
15
15

50
50
50
50
50
50

3 18
250
202
168
118
85

> 250
250
200
167

15
15
15

25
25
25

208
158
127

> 250
250
200
167

15
15
15

25
25
25

190
140
112

min.
thickness
mm

0.80
0.70
0.70
0.70

~CO

15
15
15

0.80
0.70
0.70
0.70

~[t

~
e

..,I

~[t
V

W
I

~
c

.,I
W

0.80
0.80
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
15
15
15
15
15
15

0.80
0.80
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70

0.80
0.70
0.70
0.70

15
15
15

0.80
0.70
0.70
0.70

min. thickness 0.70 mm

Valley Gutters

Stand ard sec tio ns

l~

~)
'v' 1~\

V'
' '../

cu t w idth

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

50

50

667
500
400
333

333
250
200
166
31 5
232
182
193

667
500
400
333

15
15
15
15

667
500
400
333

15
15
15
15

315
23 2
182
148

500

15

132

33 4
250
200
125

min. th ickness 0.70 mm

Cappi ng Strips

S tan dard se ctions

<
1:j 1
~

~]
V

'C

y".

Ll

:>

cut width

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

100
89

8
8

20
20

44
33

20
20

8
8

100
89

8
8

20
20

44
33

20
20

8
8

100
83

10
10

20
20

60
43

10
10

Angle Strips (wall abutment)

min. thickness 0.70 mm


333
28 5
250
250
250
200

lL {l!d
iI

208
160
150
125
150
100

125
125
100
125
100
100

400
333
250
200

15
15
15
15

200
166
125
100

183
150
108
83

Kerb Weath erings/Verge Flashings

min thickn ess 0.70 mm

Standard sectio ns

-r~t

<

~ ' ?!

/i ~

~
,
-I~
L'J
G
L..::: '-:j'

cut width

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

333
285
250

15
15
15

20
20
20

160
105
80

25
25
25

128
135
125

333
285

15
15

20
20

105
80

25
25

158
135

333
285
250
200

15
15
15
15

100
100
80
60

168
120
120
100

50
50
35
25

333
285
250
200

15
15
15
15

100
100
80
60

155
102
102
87

50
50
35
25

13
13
13
13

43
43
30
22

333
285
250
200

15
15
15
15

30
30
30
25

80
50
40
30

50
40
30
20

108
110
105
90

40
32
24
16

22
22
22

15
15

22
22

-rL~
,1
T~
W
,;r

43
43
30
22

'- '--'

~~
,1
I

-;
L

~. )

min. th ickn ess 0.70 mm

Standard sec tions

"I
J_

u
~

.
~>

mm

mm

mm

50
40
30
20

92
94
89
75

13
13
13
13

32
24
16

50
35
30
20

60
50
40
20

108
105
95
95

100
80
70
50

,50
'35
'30
20

60
50
40
20

92
90
80
80

cu t widthl
si ze
mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

167
125

15
15

68
48

58
40

mm

mm

mm

mm

333
285
250
200

15
15
15
15

30
30
30
25

80
50
40
30

333
285
250
200

15
15
15
15

100
80
70
50

333
285
250
200

15
15
15
15

~O

I\~ .

.. ~ >

"L ,;
"

cu t wi dthl
si ze
mm

~;
~

-_ . ~

..,I

L.J

min. thickness 0.70 mm

Gravel Boards

Standard sec tions

13
13
13
13

min. thickness')

Parapet Weatherings

Wind ow Sill Weat he rin g s

n. A.
= as
ord ered

15

n. A.

n. A.

n. A.

n. A.

n. A.

15

n. A.

n. A.

n. A.

n. A.

n. A.

15

n. A.

n. A.

Mini mum ga u ge lo r w eath erings 167 mm = 0.65 mm, up to 333 mm = 0.70 mm,
up to 400 = 0.80 mm and up to 60 0 mm = 1.00 mm.

1.7

T able of Weights
RHE INZINK in ac cordance with DIN 17770 D-Zn bd

in kg/100 m, Density ~ 7.2


(Weights
Thic kn ess mm
I

Approximate values)

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.70

0.65

0.60

864.00
69 0.00
576.00
432 .00
345.60

720.00
576.00
480.00
360.00
288.00
239.76

576 .00
460.00
38 4 .00
288.00
23 0 .40
192.00
164.1 6
152 .64
14 4 .00
115. 20

504.00
403 .20
336 .00
252.00
201 .60
168.00
143.64
133.56
126.00
100.80
84.00

468.00
37 4. 30
31 2.00
23 4.00
187.20
156.00
133.38
124 .0 2
11 7.00
93 .60
78.00

432.00
345 .60
288.00
2 16 .00
172 .80
14 4.00
123. 12
11 4.4 8
108.00
86 .40
72 .00

Cutmm

1000
800
66 7
50 0
400
33 3
285
265
250
200
167

2.0

Stresses and Adjacent


Effects
Any exposure to st resses and harmfu l
eff ects from other materials must be
av oi ded by taking appro priate preven
tive ste ps.

2.1

Rain and Snow


Claddings and covering s of RHEIN
ZIN Kt .' must be rain and s now pr oof .
Bas ic cons ideratio ns are th e maximum
valu es of local rainf all -->- 7.0 and maxi
mum snow load (DIN 1055, part 5).
The necessary c onstr ucti onal mea
s ures are described in sect ions 3.4,3.5
and 6.0 and are illu strated in the corre
sp ond ing sections .

rigid materials these longitudi nal


c han ges are c lea rly eff ected by tempe
ratureva riatio ns.Th erefo re RHEI NZINK
bu ild ing co mpo ne nts must be able to
ex pand and contract eas ily at a tempe
ratu re diff erenc e of 100 K, without be
co ming permeab le. To co mply wit h this
requi rement, only indirect fastening by
means of slidi ng c lips , strip s and
not ch ed battens is allowed , apart from
the anc horage po int s in the neut ral
area. Th e longitudinal movem ent s
mu st be ba lance d o ut by means of ex
pan sion jo ints (3.6 and 3.7).

2.2
Wind Loads
Wind suctio n and bac kpressu reforc es
mu st be tran sferred to the sub st ru c
ture by mean s of correctly dim en
sio ned fixing s (DIN 1055, part 4). Sp e
cia l att entio n must be paid to areas
suc h as roof edges or corners.The fas
ten ers or fixings to be used are c lips,
slidi ng clips or strips . Th e nu mber and
nature of fixi ng eleme nts for th e sub
st ruct ure are specified in sections 3.3,
4.6 and 4.7.

2.3
Temperature Variations
Wit h variat ion in temperature all mat e
rials are subj ect to longitudin al
c ha nges, acc ordi ng to th eir sp eci fic
coefficie nt of expa ns ion. In th e case of

Variat ion s in temp eratur e :


seaso na l. time o f day

2.4
Trapped Humidity
and Moisture Yield
RHEINZINKhas, as hav e oth er metals,

to be protected on the unde rsid e by

means of bitum inou s roofi ng felt or

no n- porous lin ing :

- aga inst alkaline influence, e.g.

fresh concrete or mortar,


- against acid reacting antifreeze
agents,
- aga inst th e harmful influence of
wood pre servatives.

~
tJ

Ice, snow. rain

Wi nd. s uctio n and back p ressure

Moistu re yie ld . trap ped humidity

Avoid conde nsation on the inside of


the zinc sinc e such condensati on can
caus e "whit e rust" corrosion. With
doub le leaf roof co nst ruct io n, th e
moisture is carried awa y by the ventil a
tion spaces provided und ern eath the
roof covering .
With singl e leaf roof co nstruct io n, both
the insul ation material and th e cover
ing have to be protected by a vapour
barrie r and the moisture dispersed
through the porous diffusion layers.
Single leaf roof constr uctio n is not nor
mal for sheet metal cov ering and
should be avoided.
Doubl e leaf roof cons tructio n should
be adopt ed in every cas e wh erever
practicabl e, so that air has fr ee access
to both sides of th e zinc. By this means,
condensati on on the undersid e of th e
metal is preve nted.

2.5
Combination with other
materials
In th e presence of an electrolyte (rain
water, condensation , etc .) there is a
danger of electro-chemical corrosion
(formation of voltaic couple). However,
this hazard is often over-estimated and
can be met with confidence, so long as
only the metals marked with the sym
bol + are used in combination.
RHEINZINK'"

AI

Pb

Cu

NRS

St

Alu mini um
AI
Pb = Lead
Cu = Co ppe r
NRS = Stain less steel
Galvani sed stee l
St

Where several different metals are to


be employ ed on a bui ld ing structure,
the follow ing rule must be observed : In
th e direct ion of rainwater flow the metal
with the highest normal potential must
be arranged at t he lowest point.
In the const ructio n of bu ildings there is
frequently direct contact between zinc
and aluminium . Examp les are : Facade
cladding of zinc , windows of alum in
ium, roofing of zin c , window sills of alu
minium , roof gutt ering of zinc, facad e
cladding of aluminium.
The combi nation of these metals is
basically possible wit ho ut danger of

contact corrosi on. The reason s are as


follows:

2.6
Bituminous Corrosion

Si nce in norm al atmos pheric condi


tions th e surfaces of bo th metals are
not in metallic form but covered with a
natural protective coating, which in th e
cas e of alumini um is ofte n reinforced
by anodising, apa rt from th e actual lay
ing stage, meta llic co ntact be tween
aluminium and zinc can almost be
ruled out. With zin c, th e natu ral protec
tive coating c onsists of an oxid e/ car
bon ate layer and with alumin ium, of
aluminiu m oxid e.

Bitume n c a n also c orrode zinc. Th is


has been known for over 50 years (Bib
liograph y VEDAG Year book 1936/R.
Deis , page s 123/135 ). More rec ent
wo rk by Prof. Witt ("Oxidatio n aci d co r
ro sion du e t o roofing bitum en", Mate
rials and Corrosion, Issue 1/1980, and
"Corrosio n beh aviou r of Zinc", vol. 4 11
The prop erties of zinc in c ombi nat io n
with bitumin ous mat erials, by Prof. Witt ,
publisher: Zinkberatung e. V. Dussel
dorf; Unte rsuchung der Bundesanstalt
fOr Materlalprutunq (BAM). ''The influ
ence of bituminous roofing materi als
on the corrosion propertie s of roof
d rainage systems of zinc and galva
nised steel ") has not only confirm ed
th ese find ings, but augme nted and ex
pand ed esse ntia l po int s. Our own in
tensive laboratory test s and practical
experience show the same results.
This research has been incorporated
into th e technology and is explained
briefly as follows:

Both coatings ad he re firmly toth e base


metal and prot ect it permanently
against corrosive damage. Corrosive
resistan c e is betw een pH 6 and pH 12.5
for zin c and pH 4.5 and pH 8.5 for alu
min ium . Both co atings are self-h ealing,
i.e. following mech anical dam age, they
reform. When evaluating contact cor
rosion between alum inium and zinc ex
posed to th e atmosphere , th e estimate
must be based on the inert surfaces re
ferred to . As both inert surfaces have
very similar potential (app rox. -170 mV
in alumin ium and approx. -200 mV in
zinc), corrosive destruction in normal
atmospheric conditions can be ruled
out. This can only occur with metals
whose pote ntials are spaced far apart,
e.g. 400 mV (silve r - zinc) .
These theoretica l considerations have
been confirmed in practi ce and have
been documented in many technical
publication s (Prof. Dr. C. A. Witt "The
co rrosion behaviour of aluminium in
c ontact with zinc in building con stru c
t ion ").
Please note:
In practice , it is unf o rtun ately oft en ob
served that galvanised ste el construc
tion s above RHEINZINK dra ining sur
fac es - pr imar ily roofing - lead to d is
figu ring rust-b rown dra inag e str eak
in g. Su ch rust usually fo rms very rapi d
ly at the unprotected cut edges of gal
van ised stee l com ponents. This un
sig ht ly di sc olouring, wh ic h impa irs the
overall ap pear anc e of a bu ild ing, can
be best avoided by employ ing chrom e
nic kel ste el const ru ct ions.

Bitum inous co rrosion is caused by th e


waste products of bitum en, wh ich form
due to the influence of ultraviol et rays.
These strongly acidic waste products
are water-soluble and in small quanti
ties of atmosph eric wat er (dew/fog)
form co nce ntra ted ac id whic h general
ly att ac ks metals.
If, co ntrary to the rules, bitumen re
mai ns with out an effe ctive shield (e.g.
grav el chipp ings 5 cm ) all metals, suc h
as wall abutm ents, eaves flashing and
gutters situat ed in th e area of roof
drainage, must be additi o nally prot ect
ed with a dense mat erial. In resp ect of
RHEINZINK c old bitum en and hot bitu
men with a primer are s uita ble.
Excepti ona l expos ure c an also be ex
pect ed whe re th e gutters and pip es of
old (e.g. moss- covere o) roof ti ies nee d
replac ing. In such cas es where th ere is
drippi ng into th e guttering fro m con
cave ti les, co rrosion may occ ur, as dur
ing the course of agein g the tiles have
accumulated harmfu l material s from
the at mosph ere and di scharg e these
in th e fo rm of weak ac id (e.g. in co mbi

nation with S02) when there is drizzle


or fog . Depend ing on the time of year
wh en th e new gutterin g is insta lled, of

tEn th ere has no t bee n suffi ci ent time


fo r th e developm ent of t he prot ect ive
co ating in the areas particul arl y at risk,

In thi s and simtla r cas es spec ial co at


ings should be ernploye o. The follow
ing easy-to- ha nd le mate rials are cur
rently avail ab!e :

1.

Protection against bituminous corrosion:

1 .1
1 .2
1.3

Intertol 49 W
Plasti kol 2 (AlB) or Hydrolan FS'2
Isopunkt

2.

Lechl er Che mie, St uttga rt


Deiteml ann Chemi e, Datteln
Ges ellsc haft fur c hem. Pm d ukte mbH, \IIliss en

Protection against acid atmosphe re

Her e, basically co at ings which do not contain bitumen, should be used ,


2 .1
2 .2
2 .3
2 .4
2 .5
2.6
2 .7
2 .8

Zinc powder colours of various manufacturers


Th . Goldschmidt AG, Essen
Tegocolor PVC'
Lubroplast PVC-Mi xed polym eri sat e co ating
Ind ustrielac k GmbH , Stadt Allendorf
Delt afle x-Iacqu er paints
Ewald Darken AG, Herdecke/Ruhr
L-Coating-Deck 458 or BUFA-Asbit 455
Busing & Fasch KG, Old enburg
Osopren
hi ' t d bb
' t
Lackschmidt, Hamburg
Vernolan
c onna e ru er pain s
Pietzker, Hamburg
Further manufacturers of prot ect ive paints see data she et "Tec hn. Mittei lung K9" published by Zinkberatung,

The paints can be applied to the zinc


surface without primer if the surfaces
are clean, dry and particul arly oil- and
grease-free. If a film of oil ha s to be re
moved, an alkaline degreaser must be
used (Chem etall, Frankfu rt , Bonder
Dept.),
The coating materi al must be densely
a p plied. Such protective coatings
must be regarded as routine mainte
nance, as they are exposed to natural
corrosion and ageing and must be re-

newed at regular intervals. Depending


on exposure, repainting should take
place every 2 to 3 years.
Numerous protective paint products
are offered on the market. Their effect
iveness as a protective coat ing must be
verified in every case . The manufactur
ers ' instructions must be strictly fol
lowed.
Important:
Bituminous emulsion sealing coatings
are unsuitable for use as protective
coatings on zinc since owing to their
high alkalinity they hav e a c orrosive ef
fect.

2.6.1
Chlorinated rubber paints
Chlorinated rubber paints have proved
themselves well in practice as res ist
ant, easily applied protective coatings,
also against possible corrosion from
bitumen. Applications of large areas of
bituminous coatings, exposed without
protection to UV radiation can , on the
other hand, cause bituminous corro
sion in following , unprotected flow sys
tems (e.g. rain-water pipes) .

3.0

3.1

3.2

Installation Instructions

Forming

Working Temperatures

Anisotropism , the different properties


across and in the direc ti on of rolling,
has been so reduced in the fin ely
grained structure of RHEINZINK that
no not ice need be taken . Thus RHEIN
ZINK is formabl e independent of the
d irect ion of rolli ng,

Rounding, bending, folding, fl anging,


sea mi ng and double seaming repres
ent t he forming methods in the proces
sing of RHEINZINK. This work can be
easily carried out with conventional
tools and eq uipment.

Un iform forming procedures at over


10C (m etal temperature) are no prob
lem. Fo r formatio n by impact or at lower
temperatures, preheating is advised to
counter the possibil ity of cracking due
to cold br ittl en ess of zin c .

For bend in g, a roun d bar wit h a ben din g


radius of 1,75 mm should be used , In
ac c orda nce with the c ode of pra cti ce
sha rp instrum ents s ho uld no t be used
(notching).

10

For d irect fixin g, partic ularly of c leats,


fix ing st rips, etc., galvani sed ste el nails
(flat head tack s 2.8/ 25 mm) mu st be
used. Th e tacks must pen etrat e to a
minimum depth of 20 mm into the roof
boards . For ind irect fixing of roof cover
ing, weathering s, etc ., cleats, sliding
c lips, continuous strips, tooth ed con
nection plates or fixing plate s s hould
be used . The indi rect fi xing of building
com po nents - exc lusive of anc horage
points - is obligatory (VOB) to allow
unhindered th erm al exp ans ion caus ed
by thermal influences.

3.3

Fixing

3.4

Jointing
All joints between the individ ual build
ing components must be rain - and
snow-p roof. This also applies to exp an
sion joints (3.7).
This requ irement is complied with by
soldering , double seaming, seam ing
and in the expansion area by th e
RHEINZINK expansion compensator,
or other constructional means, in ac
cordance with the roof covering con
cerned .
.>

..
Stand ard c lip

In some regions riveted jo ints instea d


of soldered joints are used. The riv ets
are cold punched. Due to this cold ri
veting the friction force between the
c omponents to be jointed will not be
transferred. Th e rivets are st ressed by
shearing strain and th e jointed part s by
bearing strength.

---------

Aluminium alloy rivet s are norm ally


used (no c ontact c orrosion).

In general th e flush riveting process is


employed, as this allows multi -side
rivetin g with out bac king.

3.5

Soft Soldering
of RHEINZINK
The remarkable advantage of RHEIN
ZINK is its easy solderability. By
simple soft soldering a sec ure, water
tight joint is produced.

Clipp ing strip

Solder
Lead-tin soft solder with 40% tin, low
antimony (Sb) in accordance with DIN
1707, for alloyed zinc .

Marking
Sold er st ick: DIN 1707-L-Pb-Sn 40
(Sb ). Exact marking on 25 kg lots o nly.
Flux
Flux in accordance with DIN 8511, part
2, Typ e F-SW11.
Marking
RHEINZINK Flux Z-04-S

Technica l Instructions
Solderi ng
Surface
Basically the surface of the area to be
soldered must be bright. If unclean ,
soldering will be difficult and the joint
ing incomplete.
Flux
To soft-solder RHEINZIN~, RHEIN
ZINK Z -04-5 flu x should be used . This
flu x ensures adequate cleaning of the
visual metal surface, optimal flow and
adequate protection against oxidation.
Nowadays, hydrochloric ac id is no lon
ger recommended, as the optimum
c leaning and flowing eff ects cannot be
ach ieved. After so ldering residual flux
can be removed with a damp rag.

Soft solder
Lead-tin soft solder with 40 % tin in ac
cord ance with DIN 1707-L-Pb-Sn 40
(Sb) is recommended. This solder has
max imum filling ability, good flow pro
perties and high stre ngt h. The melting
ran ge of thi s so lde r is betw een 183C
and 235 C. With a required working
temperature of about 250 C coarse
grain developm ent (e mbritt lement) will
not arise, and thu s there will be no dimi
nution of st rength .

Low ant imony solder is pres cribed for


RHEINZINK:'. The lette rs in brack ets
(Sb) de sc ribe th e low ant imony solder.
Solders containing a high proportion of
impurities have very negative proper
ties, parti cu lar ly with an antimony con
tent in exc ess of 0.5 %. A higher anti
mony con te nt result s in coa rse alloys
of high melting temperature, which

apart from everything else affects


capillarity and th e flow of th e sol der .
Even at room temperature segregation

11

ta kes place (rec rystallisat io n), i.e.


em brittlement of t he cast structure
(p remat ure ageing). The str eng t h of the
sol dered joint may be reduc ed to 50 %
o f t he original st reng th.
Soldering irons
Soldering (hamm er) irons with a mini
m um weight of 350 g ensure an ade
q uat e capacity for heat, without th e
da nge r of over-heat ing. A broad con
ta ct area is essential for rapid and
constant heat transfer to the joi nt. Care
must be taken to ensure that the heat is
applied to the overlap and not to the
joint.
Ca re of soldering irons
From time to time the copper bit must
be reforged to maintain its good ther
mal conductive property and correct
shape. The lateral flat surfaces and fins
are smoothed off by filing.

Before soldering is begun the area to


be treated must be cleaned free of
ox ide by tinnin g. The bit, which has
been brought to working temperature,
is moved back and forth in powdered
sa! ammoniac, at the same time touch
ing the surface with tin solder. Thecon
tact surfaces are thus tinned.

RHEINZINK bright finish:


No spec ial preparat io n, as RHEIN
ZINK is roll ed with a sp ec ial low oil
emulsio n.
RHEINZ INK"" oxidised:
Thick layers of oxide or dirt to be re
moved mechanically by scraping or
app lyi ng emery paper.
Soldering joint overlap
The joint ove rlap shoul d have a mi ni
mum widt h of 10 mm, as the bonded
joint width must be 10 mm in the hori
zontal area (DIN 18339), (i.e. in the
slightly inc lined area), and 5 mm in the
vertical area (DIN 18461).

Solder-penetrated joints, i.e. overlap


width = bonded width of soldered joint,
give the greatest degree of strength; on
the other hand a larger width of overlap
does not give the jo int increased
strength , since penetration is difficult,
if not impossible.
Pre-tinning
When soldering large building compo
nents, as well as materials thicker than
0.80 mm (e.g. shed roof gutters) pre
tinning of the joint areas is recom
mended, as dressing of the joint to a
The correctly dimensioned co p per bit for the
soft soldering of RHEINZINK"'.

.~

I "---f-H-Sold erin g iron > 35 0 g

o
o

J ~26
---1 8

:ii!::!::!"1
10

10..
12

[5

<

i
,

= 10 mm fo r h orizon ta l so lde ring seam


= 5 mm fo r vertica l sold erin g seam

measureme nt of 0.5 mm or below


ca use s tec hnic al problems. Pre-ti n
ning brings about bett er ad hesion.
Joint thickness
The thic kness of th e jo int must not ex
ce ed 0.5 mm in order to achieve max i
mum ca pillary fillin g. Due to diffusion in
the contact areas allo ying takes place,
an esse ntial fact or in determining the
st rengt h of the bond ing. In thi cker
jo ints a co arsel y po rou s st ructure
would occur in the seam instead of the
penetrating alloying layer but with an
inferior strength of solder

There is no recrystallisation with


RHEINZINK c at temperatures below
300C, which means there is no prob
lem of overheating during soldering.
Not only this, but RHEINZINK' is ac
tually tempered by the heat treatment
from soldering.
Drop seams (dripping) are wasteful of
solder, as they do not increase the
strength of the se am: only the solder
in the joint effects a bond.
(see RHEINZINK working procedure
for soft soldering)

3.6

3.7

Calculation
of Thermal Expansion

Thermal Expansion
Compensation

Coeffi c ie nt
of expansio n
K- 1

Materi al
Aluminiu m
Construc tiona l S teel
Lead
Bronze
Cast Iro n
Copper
Brass
Nickel

0.00002 4
0.0000 12
0.000029
0.00 0018
0.0000 104
0.00 0017
0.000 019
0.00001 3

To allow for lo ngitu dinal changes due


to variat ions in temp erature, expa nsion
jo int s must b e fitted w ithout, howev er ,
enda nge ring water-tig htn ess.

Coe ffi c ien t


of expans ion
K- 1

Material

0.00008 0
0.000 0 005
0.00 0020
0.000 022
0.00 0036
0.000012
0.0000 23
0.000005

PVC
Qu artz Glass
S ilver
RHEINZINK"
Z inc
Concr ete
Ti n
Bric kwo rk

Guidelines for maximum spacings of


expansion jo ints:
With mastic bondin g: abutm ent s,
eaves flashings, roof flashings, masti c
bon d ed intern al gutte rs, shed gutt er:

Linear co eff ic ie nt of th ermal expan sion between 20C and 100C for various materials.

All mate rials un dergo lon git udi nal


movement at variations of temperature.
The change in length IJ. I is calc ulated
from the product of the initial length 10 ,
the materi al co nsta nt coefficient of
expansion a and th e temperature IJ. t =
(1 2

t .).

For a temperature of 15C during instal


lation th e following values are cal culat
ed:
Expansion
10

Change in length IJ. I = I0


a2
(t -1
t )=
1 a . IJ. t
0

6 mm

0.000022 m/ (m k)
6 . 0.0 00 022 . 65
0.00858 m = 8 .58 mm

Con traction

.
I
.
DImenslona equati on : m

m :m

--- .

mK

IJ. t
I

=
=
=

In accordanc e with the generally ac


knowledged t echni ca l rules (VO B and
Guidelin es for faca des) a temperature
variation of 100 K is calc ulate d for roof
and wall areas . In this it is assumed that
inw inter temperat ures of - 20 C and in
summer + 80C are reac hed.
In accordance wit h this :
With an ass umed working temp erature
of 15C (met al temperature), 65C act
on expansio n and 35 C on cont ractio n
of the material.
The linear ex pansion of RHEINZINK is
0.000022 rn/( mK). For a leng th of 6 m
t he followi ng exam ple is given :

These guidelines are in respe ct of


st raight lengths. Half the guideline val
ues apply wh en measur ed from c or
ners or ends (fixe d point s).

15C - (-20C) = 35 K
6 . 0.000022 . 35
0.00462 m = 4.62 mm

Th e tot al c hange in length

13.2 m m
is divided into an
expansion of

8.6 mm

and a
co ntractio n of

4.6 mm

Wall co pings and weatherin gs ; roof


edge cover flash ings a bove water level,
internal non -bond ed roo f gutt ers, sec
tions over 500 mm
8m
With pan els for roof dec king and wall
c lad di ng, inte rnal gutters not sealed
with mastic sect ions below 500 rnm:
han gi ng gutter sect io ns over 500 mm'
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010 m
Hanging gutters up to 500 mm
sect ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 mm

IJ. t = 80 C - 15C = 65 K

Thus we have the formula:

6 m

The se value s should be born e in mind


in respect of the appropriate fixing
temperatu re and th e d urat io n of laying
in order to ensure the nece ss ary st eps
are take n for t he unimp eded longitudi
nal movement of individual bui ld ing
components (DIN 18339).

Even wh ere t he c lient fails to specify


th e numb er; type and installation of
ex pansio n joints, their supply and in
stallatio n as well as all construct ional
matte rs in relation thereto will be co n
sidered as part of th e servic es to be
carried out. Accord ingly VOB DIN
18 33 9 and the gu ide lines for th e exe
cut io n of plumbing work in building
const ruct ion, issue Sept. 1985 (Zen
tralver band San itar Heizung Klima)
contain obligatory instructions regar
ding lo ngitudinal movem ent du e to
temp erature fluctuations. It is c urren t ly
the custom to calc ulate expansio n
joints separ atel y as a main item of
work.

Total change in length:


f, I =

6 m . 0.000 022 mm . 100 K


m K

0.013 2

Dista nce of ex pa nsio n x


From edges o r ends ~

13.2 mm

[=':diJ

',. _~f---6 m

I
I
f-.-

~ f-_I_ L

- ,

'

_+

~
I
_'_ ~

_1_ - -' -_ _ , _

13

RHEI NZINK nomog ram for cal c ulating


lo ng itud inal ch ang e as a fac tor of tempe rat ure
+ 80

+60

+ 40

+ 20

- 20 fe l
22

20

10

Wit h falls over 5 % (3) compensat io n


ca n be arranged by means of dr ips
(d rip depth 60 mm). Where suc h ste p
ping is not possible because of the
subs tructure, or the fall is below 5 %
(3) , th e individual lengths are jointed
by soft soldering, and expansion joints
are installed at spacing s of 6 m. RHEIN
ZINK strip expansion compensators
are suitable in these instanc es, as they
do not obst ruct the flow of water.

Th e brie f temperat ur e loading d ue to


the use of hot bit umen is harmless.
High er tem perat ur e stress es than nor
mal hot bitum en (o pen flam e) are not
allowed, nor is the painting or sealing of
vul canised chloroprene.

For parapet and cornice weatherings :


various constructions to accommo
date expansion are pos sible. See 6.5.

10
12
14

When using RHEINZINK joints or


flashings for flat roofs, expansion
boxes or ready-to-install expansion
joints, made in the workshop, are used.
See 6.3.

Expansion joint (sli d ing b o x)

for kerb fla shing, made in the worksh op

16
18

20
1'-'-'-'-0-0---'---'-0---'--+ 22
+80
+60
+ 40
+ 20
O
- 20("C)
M et a l laying l empe ra ture , Ii I - 100 K
C' Exa mp le at 150(; and 6 m leng th

Construction of Expansion Joints

Compensation for expansion in exter


nal gutters, dimensions as per DIN
18461 , is assured by using the RHEIN
ZINK Dilatation Gutter, a ready-made
3 m roof gutter.
The integral chloroprene expansion
component does not impede the flow
of water and is invisible from outside.
For information on installing expansion
joints for gutters, see page 15.
For external gutters whose dimensions
are outside the scope of DIN 18461 and
internal gutters, a RHEINZINK str ip ex
pansion compensator is soldered in.
See instructions for install ati on .
For valley gutters, an unsold ered over
lap of 100 mm suffices as a slidi ng
seam if the sloping sides are over 58 %
(30); thp seam erigps of the overl ap
ping parts should be slightly notched
to prevent suction (capillary effect).

14

The expansion box made in the work


shop is not back-flow-tight; therefore
compensation must tak e place above
the water plane .
However, this type of construction is
not only very labour-inten sive, but also
complicated . Consequ ently it may not
fulfil its intended purpose.
The RHEINZINK expan sion compensa
tor, on the other hand , is a ready-to
install building compon ent , whi ch can
be installed in the water plane. It has a
vulcani sed middle piec e as an ex pan
sion part, made from highly elastic
chloroprene. Chloropren e is an elas
tomer of durable high elast icity , which
is suitab le for a cont in uo us weath er
temperat ures of - 40C to +100C.

Sliding bo x ex pansio n joint for ab utment,


made in the workshop

Within this range no embrittl ement


(c old britt lenes s or fissures) will occ ur.
Thus chloroprene is resistant to all
weathering in this temperature range,
even to ultraviolet rays.
Chlorop rene is not affe cted by tempe
rature due to soldering of RHEINZINK
profiles wh ich are to be jointed when a
minimum distance of 5 c m is adhered
to . For jointing to th e roof skin which is
to be mastic-bond ed, the expansion
joint has a mast ic flang e of 140 mm (DIN
stipulat es a min imum of 120 mm - DIN
18338) .

RHEINZINK 1-H ead expa ns io n


jo int for abut men t

Cov ering in
accordance w ith
g uide lines for
flat roofs

,I

v
RHEINZINK exp an sion
box gutter,
Standard length 2.95 m
RHEINZINK-Det ail : 1-head exp ansion joint with bonded eaves flashing s

Gutter expansion
joint at the upper
point of fall with
two separate
stop end s

Gutter expan sion


joint at the lower
point of fall w ith
RHEINZINKplug-in
oullet

Instructions fo r use
For half-round and box-shaped hang
ing gutters in sizes in accordance with
DIN 18461, appropriate 3 m long
RHEINZINK Dilatation (expansion)
Gutters DBM 78345 76 are supplied .
The sliding seams is in the water plane
and does not obstruct water flow in any
direction; further, it is invisible from
outside . The 3 m long RHEINZINK Dila
tation Gutt er is installed in exactly the

same way as the normal gutter, and wi


thout additional expenditure of time.
Jointing with the connecting gutters is
by soft soldering.
For gutters with non-standard dimen
sions, expansion compensation is
achieved by means of the strip expan
sion compensator. This is cut in ac
cordance with the gutter section and is
rounded and folded to fit the gutter pro
file. In the zone of the expansion strip
the gutter pieces to be jointed are
loosely overlapped. The expansion
strip is laid internally into the gutter,
one side being under the water welt of
the gutter. The sides of the expansion
strip are jointed with the two gutters by
soldering.
Prior to overlapping the gutter in the
area of the expansion joint, a prefabri
cated beaded capping is screwed into
the gutter profile.
Following soldering of the expansion
strip, the beaded capping is displaced
so that the free end grips over the edge
of the expansion joint and makes con
tact internally with th e c hloroprene
strip.
This expansion joint is also a sliding
seam, invisible from the outside. The
base of the gutter does not limit water
drainage.
Intermediate soldering of these expan
sio n joints without overlapping of gut
ter pieces is also possible, for exampl e
with shed gutters.

Expansion compensation for wall wea


therings, see 6.5, or cornice flashings
can also be achieved with expansion
strips in accordance with the above
examples.
In order to fac ilitate the working proce
dures described above and to mini
mise the time spent on the building
site, RHEINZINK de livers a prefabricat
ed dilatation capping .
This is an expansion element made in
3 m lengths for installing in a given pro
file with which it is jointed by soft sol
dering. The chlorop rene part must be
covered with a cap , fixed only on one
side by soldering, see 6.5.
The 1-head expan sion joint is suitable
for th e RHEINZINK abut ment in the
water plane (angle strips, eaves flash
ing, etc .).
The expansion joint can be bent to suit
any particularly profi le and is jointed to
it by soldering . Nails must not impede
the thermal movement of the profiles or
expansion joints. DIN 18 339 therefore
specifies th at only indirect fixing is per
mitted. For angle strips this can be
achieved by using toothed strip or
cl eat s; for eaves flashing s, by c leats
(welt ed cli ps).
The clips must be spac ed at inte rvals of
not less than 20 mm from th e expan
sion joint. The part of the expansion
joint proj ecting int o the roof area does
not have to be additionally fastened .

15

T h e 1-hea d expa nsion joint must con


ta c t the roof area alon g a total leng t h of
60 cm. When makin g an upsta nd on an
an gle strip of , say , 20 cm t herefo re, a
total lengt h of 80 cm is necessary .
Th e placement in the wate r plan e is
w it hout risk , as the sea ms are so lde red
to be wate rproof, an d th e upper lay ers
of t he roof fe li are bond ed to the f iarrge
free from s heari ng forces.
The areas to be bond ed must be paint
ed with a co ld bitum en emulsion .
Care shoul d be taken that at least o ne
b it ume n layer of th e roofi ng felt is ta ken
up to the u pp er edg e of the pro fi le be
low th e ang le joi nt or of th e eaves flash
in g . In add it io n a suitabl e bonding (slid
i ng ) strip should be fitt ed to bridge the
t ra ns ition fro m me tal to roof surface .

To speed up t he work, it is recom mend


ed th at the ch loro pren e co mp onent be
covered wit h a protective sheet pri or to
the appli cat ion of hot bitumen. Th is
must be remov ed o nc e the bondi ng
work has be en com ple ted.
In t he case of su bsequent work being
undertake n by anot her fi rm, full infor
mati on mu st be g iven regarding the
process and meth od employed.
Whe n adhe ring to th e recom mend ed
ins tru ctio ns regard ing the applicatio n

of these expans ion jo ints, the long itu


din al c hang es d ue to th ermal move
ment will be compe ns ate d for by t he
elas tic pro perties of t he ch loro prene
com pon ents. The rmal movement in
mastic bond ed she ets will be red uce d
to almos t nil du e to t he project ion of th e
ex pa nsio n jo int 's he ad into th e ro of
surface. The mast ic bond ing of th e ro of
sk in in the roof edge fl ash ing zone is al
mo st free fro m s hearing forces. There
tore it will not c rac k, and will rema in
water-proof. See 6.3.

RHEINZINK expansion joints

The 2-h ead exp ans ion joint is princ i


pally used fo r installation in mastic
bond ed inte rn al gutt ering.
Th e working and fitting proced ure is
simi lar to tha t for 1-h ead ex pa nsio n
j oints.
Th e approximate valu es indicat ed in
t he table in respec t of maximum spa
cing s app ly to all expansion joints, see
3.7.
The expansion joints may be fo rmed on
the custo mary fold ing ben ch es and
ad ju sted to any desired profil e. Th e ra
d i us of th e bend ing bar must be at least
2 mm. The lower bending bar mu st be
ad justed in accordance with the th ic k
ness of th e c hlo ro prene st rip to avoid
shearing. Therefore it is reco mme nd ed
to back su pport th e metal du ring bend
ing and to co mpe nsa te th e upper si de
by fir m pres sure. A minimum c learance
of 5 cm from th e c hloroprene part mu st
b e maint ained durin g so ldering to
avoid any contact w ith an op en flam e.
Po ssible adherent bitum en splashin gs
o n th e c hloropre ne do not matter;
however, chlorop rene mu st not be
c overed with bitum en or bonded with
b ituminou s felts, as th e fun ct ion of th e
c h loro pre ne co mpo nent wo uld be nu l
lified . Moreover, t his would ca use
cracking and subsequen t pee ling,
whi ch would co nti nue und er th e roof
skin.

16

Built-up roof ing


1-Hea d ex pa nsio n j oint

Box- sh ape d roo f guttering w ith c hlo ro p rene


exp an sion joi nt and ca p fro nta l view

Strip expan sion j oint

Sh ed gutt er w ith RHEINZI NK roo fing

RHEINZ INK Di lat at ion roof gutt eri ng, stan d ard
len gt h 3 m - unimp eded w ater fl ow
_

No t visi b le fro m olltsid e

4.0
RHEINZINK Roofing
and Wall Cladding
In th e desig n and execu tion of roofi ng,
wall cl add ing and weathering, a know
ledge of all t he possible st resses in
volved and their relat ionship wit h
const ructio nal phys ics is nec essary.
Respon sibility for profes sional work is
not limited to the laying tech niqu e
alone. For this reason the relevant
points are described in det ail in the fol
lowing c hapt ers.
In co nt rast to th e self-s upporti ng metal
profiles, suc h as trap ezoids, wh ich are
struct urally reinforced at nec essary in
tervals only, flat metal st rips laid to th e
double stand ing seam or batten roll
syste ms are laid and fi xed to a continu
ous su bstruc ture.
This substructure assumes a structu
ralfu nct ion and must be laid in accord
ance wit h DIN 1052 and DIN 1055. The
metal is th e ro of sk in or wall cladding .

This req uirem ent is justified when con


sidering t hat var ious factors can affect
roof pitc h. With pitc he s under 5 %, de
pending on the lengt h of the roof and
wit h norma lly admissible deflexion of
the substruct ure, po nding may arise.
Whe re the doubl e standing seam of the
batt ens are washed over by water, di
rect pen etratio n or cap illary actio n will
affect t he bay jo ints wit h water seeping
under the metal skin . As t here is no
vent ilation, this will c ause co nde nsa
tion in a part of th e area whic h may
dam age th e metal s kin from under
neath . See 1.4,2.4.
Wh ere roof pitch is shallow, penetra
tion of water can be largely avoided by
the heightening of the dou ble stand in g
seam or batten, as well as insertion of
sealing strip s. These are matters for
special arrange ment and are th erefore
not standard ised.

RHEINZINK0) pos sesses adequate


strengt h and du rability to res ist th e
stresses inherent in roofs and walls.

Where sealing strips are us ed , th es e


must be inserted without a seam, as
otherwise water may penetrate be
tw een the joints. Subsequent inspec
ti on will not be possible, and th e prob
lem wou ld be untrac eabl e and irreme
d iabl e.

RHEINZI NK is classified as a non


flammable build ing material in ac cord
ance with DIN 4102, part 4 (Clas s A) and
can thereto rs be used for th ese pur
poses without reservation.

With correct structural analysis of the


load-bearing substructure, the follow
ing are the ad missible valu es , whic h
negat ively influe nce the given roof
pitc h.

4.1

Application Relative to
Roof Pitch
Jointing of t he indi vidual RHEINZINK
strips or ba y s in ac co rdanc e with the
double stand ing seam or batten (Roll
cap) syste m fo llows th e upturning
of t he edg es of t he bays o utside the
water plane (see 5.0). The joints are
rain- and snowproof but not back
pressure-res ista nt.
Th erefore p rovis io n must be made for
drainaqe. In co mp lian ce wit h the gene
rally recognised rules of the art (Guide
lines fo r t he Exec uti on of Metal Roofs
Wa ll Cladd ings and Plumbi ng Work.
Marc h 198 3 iss ue) t he minimum roof
pitc h must be 5 % (3).

tr apezoidal sheets 1 . 300


1 . 200
stee l purlins
1 . 200
roof fr ame
concrete de ck
1 200
(DIN 1045)
Defl exi on roof bea ms, t imber 1 300
Deflexion ti mbe r purlin s, rafte rs 1 . 200
Deflexi on gas c onc rete sla bs 1 300

Defl exion
Defl exion
Deflexio n
Deflexion

These values ap ply not o nly o n a n indi


vidua l basis , but th e add itio n of two va
lues is possible.
Acco rding to DIN 18 202 part 3, con
crete decks are st ill co nsidered as
hori zo ntal wh ere t he height d iffe ren
tials are 30 mm or 40 mm with respect to
span widt hs fr om 4 - 10 m, orover10 m.
A meta l roof slope of 5 % is therefore
t he minimum . Fo r greate r slopes, even

up to 90 (where the roof becomes a


wall) the same met ho d s of exec ution
are emp loyed .

4.2

Ventilated Roof
Construction
Wit h a dou b le leaf vent ilated roof, t he
weat her-res istant roof skin and load
bearing su bstr uct ure are separat ed
from the ins ulate d structu re by an in
te rmediate cav ity. Here therm al insula
tion is loo sely plac ed on the enclosing
conc rete st ruct ure. The resultant oc
c upational moisture in t he rooms and
the tr app ed building moisture diffu se
as vapou r in direction of the vapour
pr essure. In our climatic condition s
this process occurs almost exclu sive ly
from insid e to outside.
With a ven tilated ro of construction t he
vapour pen etrates t he enc losing st ruc
ture and the ther ma l insulati on abov e
it , in orde r to mix with th e fr esh air c ir
cul ating in the area immedi ately above
and disp erse.
The enc losing roof slab co nsists of
cast in situ co nc rete, prefabricated
concret e components, timber, etc. , in
the dim ensions dete rmin ed by st ructu
ral ca lcu latio n.
So lid co ncret e roof sl abs are able to
absorb moist ure and, moreover, act as
a vapo ur brake. Diffu sio n of vapour is
lowe r and more un ifo rm, peak loads are
red uced and t he ventil ation syst em is
relieved. A vap our barrier c an be
d ispensed with.
Wit h all oth er enc losing roof structures
part icularly with open or close d joints ,
this c ushion ing eff ect does not exist.
To relieve t he venti lati o n syste m, provi
sio n of a vapo ur bar rier, or,wh ere there
is not muc h vapour p rese nt, a vapour
brake below t he insulation, is recom
mend ed.
A vapou r barrier has an impermeable
met al fo il; a vapo ur brake red uces t he
quantity of vapour diffused. Impermea
bil ity (J.1 ' s value ) must be determined in
accordance with the olrcumstances .

17

The vapou r barrier or the vapour brake


m ust alway. be arran ged under the in
sulation when vi ewed from inside to
outside. Installat ion of this layer above
the insulation is not perm itted, as then
water vapou r would condense unter
the underlay and the insulation would
get wet. The function of the insulation
would be cons iderably impared .
A d equate insulat ion is the prerequisite
for creat ing he althy and comfortable
rooms. In addition, the insulation must
protect the enclosing structu re from
inadmissible thermal expansion. DIN
4108 contains the min imum val ues for
the individual insulation spheres.
The vent ilation area is immediately
above the insulation . The system and
size of ventilation cross-sections are
left to the designer.
The effectiveness of a ventilation sys
tem must not be restricted. When in
stalling air inlet blocks or protective
grilles, the open cross section only is
effective. When determining ventilation
the maximum height difference should
be used. Therefore the air inlet vents
are usually installed below the eaves
and the outlet vents in the ridge area,
e.g. by top ventilation strips. The inlet
and outlet open ings must be distribut
ed as evenly as possible along the
whole length, so that the air stream can
reach every part of the vent ilation area
and thus be effective.
The external leaf encloses the ventila
tion area, determines roof pitch (re
commended minimum 13% = 7) and
fully supports the metal roof.
Natural ventilation, also called gravity
air ventilation, works in accordance
with the Archimedes principle by lifting
warm air in the ventilation cross sec
tion; this value represents the rising
draught intensity of a chi mney system.
The effectiveness of natural ventilation
is dependent on roof pitch.

In th is t he air w eight diff erenc es (Vi - Va)


are a fun ct ion of temperature differ
enc e bet ween exte rna l air t and th e air
in the ventilati on cross-se cti o n t.
Pressure equ al isation :
11 P = h (Vi - Va)
To ach ieve greater ventilation pre ssu re,
an inc rease of he ight d ifference be
tw een inlet and ou tlet appea rs to be t he
only practical possibility, si nc e the out
side temperatures and those in the
venti lation cross-section represent
given values.
Increased height can be achieved by
roof surface vents (outlet openings) or
correspondingly lower arrangement of
inlet openings in external walls or air in
let pipes at ground or basement level.
Based on standard construction meth
ods, the following approximate values
for ventilation cross-sections and the
height of ventilation area would apply.
For roofs and wall claddings
Roof pitch under 5% (3)

Roofs with internal slope (internal gut

ters) should be included in this classifi

cation.

Free ventilation cross-section 2 x1/ 400

(0.2 x 0.25%)

18

In th is:

!J = Water vapour diffusion resistance

c oeffic ient of in sulati on element or

construction under the ventilated area.

s = Thickness of thermal ins ulat ion ele


ment or construction under the venti
lated area in m.
Where the ventilation path exceeds
10 m, the height of the free ventilation
area should be increased accordingly.
In general, the following applies; The
air inlet opening should be placed as
low as possible; the outlet opening
should be placed as high as possible.

The data here presented are guide val


ues and applicable in normal cases. In
every case, however, it is the responsi
bility of the designer to indicate exact
values in respect of cross-sections for
ventilation, based on building physics.

Minimum height of ventilation space


20 cm
Roof pitch 5 % - 9 % (3 - 5) and 9 %
36% (5 - 20)
Free air inlet opening 1/500

(0.2 %)

Free air outlet opening 1/400 (0.25%)

Minimum height of ventilation space


10 cm
Roof pitch over 36 % (20)
Free air inlet opening 1/500

(0.2%)

Free air outlet open ing 1/400 (0.25 %)

Minimum height of ventilation space


5 em
Wall cladding

The uplift force (intensity of draught,


velocity of flow) IS calculated from the
height difference and weight differ
ence between the outs ide air t, and the
ventilation cross-section ti.

The abo ve values are based on roof


areas w ith insulation as speci fied in
DIN 4108, normal room temperature of
+ 20C and relat ive air humidity of 60 %.
For the structu re below th e vent ilat ed
area, all parts should have a diffusion
res istance of !J . s = 10 m.

Free air inlet opening 111000 (0.1 %)


Free air outlet opening 1/800 (0.125%)

Minimum height of ventilation space


2 cm

! rnportant:

With the frequent use of fibrous insula

tion materials in roof construction, at

tention has to be paid to exclusive ap

plication of the types W or WD to DIN

18165. Insulation materials of the type

WZ are to be strictly avoided because

of subsequent swelling (ultimately

30%) and resultant restriction in cross

section of the ventilation cavity.

4.3
Non-ventilated
Roof Construction
In singl e-leaf non -v entilate d roofing a
ventil ation syst em is inapplicabl e, so
there is no cross -vent ilati on of int er
mediat e zo nes. The cei ling slab of th e
upper flo or is also the roof fl oor and
suppo rts t he enti re roof structure. This
consists, in the directi on of th e th erm al
path , of a level ling course , a vapou r
barrier, ins ulati on, a vapou r barri er, in
sulati on, a vapour pr essur e equalise r
and roof s kin.
The function of th e single-leaf non
ventilated flat roof depe nds, inter alia ,
on the acc urate laying of the vapo ur
barri er in accorda nc e with co rrec t ca l
culations based o n cons truc tio nal
princ iples . To be effec tive the vapou r
barri er must be laid with sheets whi ch
have metal inserts of aluminium or
copper=0. 1 mm. These barriers being
vapour- proof, their task is to stop the
migration of vapour to the cool er out er
zone and prevent condensation and a
fall in temp erature, so the seams must
similarly be vapour-proof. If not, vapour
will seep through seams and insula
tion, damag ing the latter. As there is no
cross-ventilatio n, the insula tion cannot
dry out. It abso rbs moistu re, thus ap
prec iabl y impairing its effectivenes s.
Moistu re is collected like a spo nge and
is transferred to th e roof ski n. So th e
funct ion of th e non -v entilated roof will
be negated . Wher e the out er ski n is of
metal, corr osi on damage may subs e
quently oc c ur, effe c tively destroying
the metal. See 1.4.
Following the requ irements of buildin g
physics, th e non -vent ilated roo f lac ks
the nailable basis necessary for se
curing th e meta l roo f. A p racticab le
fixing of th e metal roof is pos sible onl y
with wood en batt ens. These must be
secured th ro ugh the vapour bar rier
with the roof slab and then bedd ed in
bitumen to reseal the vapo ur barrier.

Fo r all thes e reasons the installat ion of


meta l sheets on non -ventilate d ro of
s ub structu res cause prob lems and
th is typ e of work is undertake n o nly in
exceptio nal circ umsta nces.

4.4
Building Physics
Terminology
Vapour Diffusion
Mo istu re c ontent: At a temperature t air
ca n abso rb only a defined quantity of
wa ter: 1 m 3 saturated air exerts a d e
fin ed pressure, the so-called satura
tion pressure Ps. With partia l saturation
partial pressure P results.

Rel ative air humidity qi: Ratio of actual


vapour quantity d to saturati on p res
sure quant ity d, or of actual vapour
pressure to saturat ion pr essure:

cp = d . 100 or P' 100 %


d
P
Condensation : The actual qu antity of
wate r is greater than the absorpti o n
capacity of the air (sa turatio n quantity)
at a defined temper atu re.
Moisture migration in const ruction:
a) Vapour diffusion in dir ect ion of va
pour pressu re (in relation to tem
peratur e)
b) Capill ary effec t in direction of hu
midi ty release
c) Hygrosc opi c equilibrlurn moisture
Vapo ur perme ability resi stance is de
pendent on th e mat erial, its st ructure,
porosit y and surface .
Porous materials, i.e., th ose with good
ins ulat ion prope rties, are generally
more vapou r permea ble t han less po r
ous on es, but th is is not always a mar k
of wat er vapo ur permeab ilit y.
A co mparator is the dim ensionless va
pour diffu sion resistance coe ff ic ient I-l
which shows the resistance of a mate
rial in comparison wit h an air space of
eq uivalent thickness .

A com pariso n of two materials of dis


similar t hickness is calcu lated fro m
the d iff usion resis tanc e I-l . lay er thic k
ness s (IJ . s) .
It is essent ia l to use the co rre ct se
quenc ing of layers du ring constructio n
to avoi d con de nsatio n.
The rmal insulation
Bas ic termi nology
Heat con ductiv ity A
Movemen t of hea t W, whi ch in the inert
state pass es through 1m 2 of material at
a temperature d iff erence of 1 Kim .

t-. = W/ (m' K)
Heat conductance coefficient A
Movement of heat which in t he inert
state is tran smitt ed through 1 m2 of
building elem ent of thickn ess's' (in m)
at 1 Ki m temperature diff eren ce be
tween th e tw o surfaces
11. = W (m2 . K).

Th e heat co nd ucta nc e coeff ic ient is

calculated according to th e following

fo rmula :

A Heat conduction

s Thickn ess of material in m

Resistance to heat conductance 1/t-.


= Insulation valu e = the most important
term in build ing phy sic s relatin g to
th ermo static s: Heat tran smission re
sistance is the rec ip roca l value of A
1//\

m2

KIW

Coefficient of heat transfer ex


Movem ent of heat w hic h in the inert
state is exch anged between 1 m2 of a
surface and co ntact air at1 Ki m tempe
rature differenc e of air and surfac e.
This coe fficient depend s on a number
of fa ct ors, suc h as air movement, etc .

ex = W/ (m 2

K)

Heat transiei i'dsis',ance 1Iex

= rec iproc al value of ex

1/0

m2 . KfI"!

19

Air
Te mperature

10 0%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

Satn. water
vap . pressure
Ps IJ bar

- 20
- 10

1.1 0
2.37
4. 85
6.8 1
9.42
12.85
17.32

0.99
2.13
4.37
6.13
8.50
11.57
15.59

0.88
1.90
3.88
5.45
7.55
10.28
13.86

0.77
1.66
3.40
4.77
6.6 1
8.99
12. 13

0.66
1.42
2.9 1
4.08
5.66
7.71
10.40

0.55
1.19
2.4 3
3.40
4.72
6.42
8.66

0.44
0.95
1.94
2.72
3.78
5.14
6.93

0.33
0.71
1.46
2.04
2.83
3.85
5.20

1.02
2.59
6.09
8.70
13.05
17.01
23.31

Moistu re co ntent (q/rn") at relat. humi d .

+ 5
+ 10
+ 15
+ 20

Mo ist ure content of air & water vapour saturatio n pressur es at variou s temperatures & relativ e hum iditi es.

Table 2.

Minimum va lues of res istance to heat transm ission 1/ A of no n-transpa rent building components for living rooms as
specified in section 1 (with t h e exception of light building components in ta ble 3) Extrac t from DIN 4108 , part 2

Co lumn

Li ne

Bui ldi ng compon ents

External walls

room wa lls a nd walls b etw een


~ Living
extra neo us workin g roo ms

1.2

2.2

K+
4.2

6
7
8

Stai rcase wall s


Livin g-ro om cei lings & c eili ngs
bet w een ex tra neous rooms

general ly
in ce nt rall y heat ed o ffices
Be low living roo ms w ith no baseme nt under

(bo rd er in g, dir ectly or vi a a non -ventilated void,


the s ub soil)

~ Ceiling s un der no n- f inis he d att ics

6.2
7.1

7.2
8.1

!i'2

Cell ar floors
Floor s betw een livin g ro oms & the atmo sphere be low

9 .si, Floo rs be tween livi ng rooms


9.2

& t h e atmosphere above

He at t ra nsmi ttanc e coeffici ent k


Mo vemen t of hea t whi ch in the ine rt
st ate is trans mitted t hrou gh 1 m 2 of
building mater ial of th ic kness' s' at
1 Kim te mp erature difference of adj a
c e nt air (room air - exte rna l air)
k = W/(m ? . K)

20

genera lly
For small area ind iv. co mpone nts
(e.g. pil lars) in bui ldin gs with a
grou nd f loor (1st use ful fl oor ar ea)
;;;; 500 m above NN
in non-ce nt rally heated bui ldings
in cen tra lly heated buil d ings

Heat t ransmittance res ist ance 11k


= reci pr ocal value of k

11 k = m2

KIlN

2
3
Resistan c e to h ea t tran smission
1/11
m2 . K/W
remarks
0. 55
0.47

everyw he re

0.25
0.07

0.25
0.35
0.1 7

everywhere

0.90

everywhere

0.90
0.45
0.90
0.45
1.75
1.30
1.10
0.80

everyw h e re
in the least fav.
averag e
in the least fav .
average
in th e le ast fav.
average
in th e least fav .

everyw here

everywhere

place
place
place
plac e

4.5
Substructure

accordance with DIN 4102 part 1 Class


B1.

4.5.1 Roof Boards


Timber roof board ing is generally used
for th e metal shee t substructure, si nce
no prob lems aris e with fixing or co n
struct ional requirement s. Air -d ried
pinewood, grad e II, unpl aned, with
clean edges and a minimum thi c kn ess
of 24 mm and width of 80 mm to 140 mm
is a suitabl e materia l. Fungi cidal and in
sectici da l impregnation is requ ired , as
laid down in the relevant building regu
lations .

In roof areas where t he substructure is


requi red to comply with fir e protection
regulations (class A), gas co nc rete ele
ments, tr apezoidal profiles or fibre con
c rete slabs ca n be used in plac e of tim
ber. In th e case of the exp and ed co n
cre te , t he fastening of th e c lips is by
th readed dowels; for t rapezo id al pro
files by alumini um cavity rivets, and for
fib re concrete slabs by special d owels
and co rrosi on- resistant sc rews. It is
pointed out that trap ezoidal profiles
should be used only fo r stee p-s loping
roofs (= 60") t hat ca nnot be walked on.
See 5.4 .

In general t hese pre servatives are a


mixture of variou s chemical compos i
tions, whi c h may be aci d, neu tral or al
kalin e. For thi s reason an underlay is
advisable, si nce the compatibility of
preservative s and metal ca nnot be
guaranteed .
The criteria governing the cho ic e of
wood pr eservat ives are the following :
1. Water-s oluble preservatives as a
pro tecti on aga inst fungi and in
sects fo r under-roof timber or tim
ber ex posed to th e atmosp here.
Symbols: P Iv SW
2. Water soluble preservatives as
protection aga inst fung i and in
sects for under-roof timber.
Sy mbo ls : P Iv S
3. Explanation of symbol s :

Underlays have a double functio n: In


the first place metal mus t be pro t ected
against moist t imber, but in part icu lar
against impre gnating agen ts ; second
ly the underlay pro tects the work in
case of rain wh ile th e plumbing wo rk is
in pro g ress.
It is reco mmended that t he underlay be
of bitu minous glass fibre as spec ified
in DIN 52 143, light ly sa nde d or talc ed.
The und erlay is placed with 8 - 10 cm
wide overla p j oints of th e seams . The
overlap must be fasten ed with broad
headed galvanis ed tac ks and the joint s
may also have t o be packed with mas
tic sealant.
Where in the case of a flat pitched roof
up to 25 the underlay is not requ ired to
comply with fire - proofi ng co nd ition s,
perforated bit uminous mat sheeting
shou ld be used.

eff ective against fun gi (rot


proof)

Iv

effect ive
in
preventing
att ack by insects

Ib

effective as an insectic ide

for paint ing, sp raying and


immersion of building timber

St

for paint ing and immersion


of building t imb er , as well as
s p raying in situ .

In acco rdance with DIN 1052, Timb er


Cons tru ctions , Part 1, 11.3.20 , boards
must be fixed with at lea st 2 nail s to ev
ery rafter, frame or po st.

also for timber ex posed to


t he weat her, but not in co n
tact with sa il or water

Calc ulation of extrac t ive va lues is


omitted for nailing in head grai n wood.

For a better result in the eaves area th e


use of a 40 x 140 mm wooden plate is
recommended. The surf ace of th e
plate should be fix ed 5 mm bel ow the
res t of the roof s urface.

st ress in res pect of 3.4 x 90 nails is 200


N/nail for 24 mm timb er.

4.5.2 Wood Chipboarding


In the Rules of Workmanship of th e Ex
terna l Plumbe r's Trad e, as well as in th e
RHEINZINK Instructi ons for Extern al
Plum be r's Wo rk (cf: RHEINZINK-Ap
plica tio n in Buildi ng 7th Edit ion 1984)
ch ipboardin g (partic le boar ding) is
describ ed as unsuitable for use as
roof board ing under metal roof cover
ings with ou t , however, offer ing more
detailed reas on s for t his.
The term " unsuitable" has res ulted
from ca ses where damag e to metal
roof co verings , including zinc, has aris
en in connect io n wit h c hipboarding.
For us it is inc o mprehensible that chip
boar d, for so-called economic con
sideratio ns, sh ou ld be rep eated ly sp e
cified and actually used as a roof
boar di ng, an d we cont inue to reject th e
use of chipboard - incl uding isocya
nate-bonde d bo ards - as a roof board
ing mate rial in conn ect ion with RHEIN
ZINK. As ex pla natio n for th is refu sal
we offer th e following reasons, which
result from practi ca l ex per ience :
The supposed advantages of a lar
ger board size have proved in prac
tice to be a d isadv ant age, es pec ial
ly inconve nient in artic ulate d areas
of roof and faca de .Assembl y is only
poss ib le in dry weath er as chip
boa rd is susceptible to mo ist ure.
High specific densities are incon
venient in the layin g procedure ; the
presc ribe d thic kness of at least
25 mm is mostly more expe nsive
than rough board ing (natural
woo d).
No rmal phenolic- resin-bonded chip
bo ard is hy gro sc op ic, i.e. it takes up
moisture, absorbs it and sw ells in
the pro c ess. This is tr ue als o for iso
cyanate-bon ded boards in the core
area (moisture penet ratio n via t he
jo int s).
In t he most f requent ly used c hip

board Typ V100 Gto DIN68 763,the


For fire-p roof ing there is a foaming
agent fo r under-roof timbe r, tested in

In accorda nce with DIN 1052, part 1,


Table 16, the perm issible extractiv e

G sig nifies p rotectio n against fun


goid attack. The fungici de com

21

pound con tains fluor ine and has , in


combi nation with condensation, a
corrosive effect. The sodium hy
droxide (l'-JaOH) contained in chip
board is soluble in contact with
moisture and during evaporation
crystallizes as an alkaline salt. This
can always become activated with
water and therefore strongly corro
sive.

We t he refore rec omm end that where


chipboarding has been specified for
wood linings, fundament al reserva
tions should be stated in writing and a
guarantee for the roofing contractor's
work using such boarding should be
rejected, unless the chipboard manu
facturer is prepared to cover these
risks with his own statement of guaran
tee.

The incidence of moisture in roof


boarding can never be completely
excluded, whether through vapour
diffusion orthrough slight leakages
in a standing seam covering. There
is no natural absorption and evapo
ration of moisture, as with wood .

Concrete
Direct contact between metal and con
crete, light concrete, stone and mortar
must be avoided.

With this characteristic of phenolic


resin-bonded chipboarding, the
formation of condensation below
the metal skin may occur rapidly.
A cross-section through chipboard
reveals varying densities (s) :
External layer: s = 0.9
Core layer:
0.55 - 0.6
i.e. the core layer
is more moisture
absorbent (hygro
scopic) than the
covering surfaces.
This gives rise to differing degrees
of resistance in chipboard, with
varying degrees of moisture ab
sorption and an increased inci
dence of vapour diffusion in the
jointing zones of the board, which
represents an increased hazard for
the metal roofing skin.
The negative characteristics of chip
boarding applied as roof boarding and
extensive experience arising from
cases of damages explain the use of
the term "unsuitable" in connection
with a RHEINZINK roof covering.
Isocyanate-bonded chipboard of the
type V 100 G ISO can be permitted for
facade application; owing to different
physical conditions a corrosive ' effect
from this type of chipboard seems here
to be considerably reduced. In prin
ciple, however, if fire protection re
quirements allow it, a normal rough
boarded lining should also be used for
facade areas. From the point of view of
building physics wood is the optimum
matenal tor boarded linings to RHEIN
ZINKfacade cladding .

22

To mix 1 m3 of reinforced concrete,


some 150 Iitres of water are added, and
for1 m3 mortar the quantity isabout 200
lit res.
A proportion of the mixing water is che
mically bonded. The remainder, how
ever, possibly increased by subse
quent moisture or rain, constitutes the
trapped moisture in the concrete or
mortar. This residual trapped moisture
can amount to no less than 100 litres
per m 3 concrete. These values make
clear the quantities of water which
must evaporate until the concrete has
dried out. The drying out process can
take several months.
During this time the remaining alkaline
enriched water separates from the
building and aggregate materials. Pe

netr at ing under th e metal, it con


denses.
All metals, including RHEINZINK,
must be protected against these dam
aging effects of con crete, breeze con
crete, mortar and stone. The underlay
must also act as a vapour brake and the
base fully sealed with mastic. Including
its hot bituminous layer, a glass fibre
bitumen layer in accordance with DIN
52143 has a vapour diffusion resis
tance factor of 2000 ; a metal foil ,
0.1 mm thick, coated on both sides with
bitumen, is vapour-proof.

4.5.3
Wall Boarding
The substructure for the facade is sub
ject to the same rules as the roof, ex
cept that in the vertical area isocya
nate-bonded wood ch ipboard Type V
100 G ISO, = 25 mm th ick can be used.
Special fixings for the substructure, for
example fibre concrete slabs and tra
pezoidal profiles, are possible; they
must, however, be conceived and de
signed spec ifically for the purpose. In
such cases our technical department
should be consulted .
Furthermore, plastic sheetings are
suitable as an underlay for facades.
The sheetings allow quick and simple
execution of work.

4.6

Section A-B

Fixing Sheet Metal


Roofing with Regard to
Wind Suction Forces
The anchorage and method of fasten
ing are crucial factors in the fixing of
the roof skin to the substructure. DIN
1055, part 4, Loads for surface struc
tures, traffic, wind loads of building
work not subject to vibrations, pub
lished May 1977, lays down that all
forces arising from wind stress must be

-J ~{ ~ ; L
Roof areas for cp values arising
(DIN 1055, part 45, Table 4)

The following wind suction loads (W) are calculated in N/m 2 :

Roof pitch

Hei ght of Building

Corn . area

edge area

normal area

0-25 U
(0-47%)

0
8
8- 20
20-100

1600
2560
3520

900
1440
1980

300
480
660

26-35
(48-70%)

0
8
8- 20
20-1 00

900
1440
1980

550
880
1210

300
480
660

safel y directed f ro m whe re t hey arise


(e.g. the roof skin) via all ot he r bu ilding
co mpon ents into th e anc h orage (DIN
1052,Timb er Struct ures , Part 1,11 .3.20) .

To d etermin e t he nec essary number of


tacks or nails per unit area, t he techni
ca l sp ecific at ions of DIN 1055, part 4 5,
load s for surface st ructures - tr affic
loads - must be taken into ac count.
The suction load s applicabl e to a roof

are essent ially inf luenced by roof


shape, as well as height and position of
t he building .
Peak suction load s arise in the ex
posed roof edge and corner areas.

4.7
Numbe r and Spacing
of Fixings

1600 N. Si nce , ho wever, the 50 cm


ing from met ho d s of fix ing. Practice has
sp acing rul e ca nnot be exc eeded (see
show n, however, th at att entio n must be
Table), even in respect of screwed
pa id to correct adju stment of pressure
down cl ips, the use of screws is appro
for complete punch ing in of the nails .
The basis for calculating the total num
pr iate in s pec ial ca ses only. (Corner
Should nails sti ll protrude through in
ber of clips or the number of cl ips per
correct pressure sett ing or wrong
and edge areas of buildings over 20 m ;
m2 for absorbing wind suction load s is
buildings which are exposed du e to
handling, they must be worked over in
-.lb..e..naiLeJDrac1.LlLe.1ill.c~ELLeJatL\!JU{LOall1
il _-tk;-m-""";ofir;:oi"t">..........,"",,,=""' ------r<= rr;-;;--.--r;-~=---;-;-;==T;"";""l~=~ ;-no ;-;:;

their particu lar POSition).


order to ElVo ld un sigh tly bump s In t he
size and substructure.

metal surfaces.
be
The
nailing
machines
that
have
The results of extensive tests have es

Based on an average extractive value


tablished the following guidelines in
come available over the past two years
have
proved
extraordinarily
helpful
in
of
560 N per clip, and adding a margin
agreement with DIN 1055 parts 4 and

assembly. Extraction tests have indi


for safety, the table below is offered as
45, and which are calculated for the

a guide.
least favourable load in respect of roof
cated that there is no difference result
pitches from 0 to 25

So far as RHEINZINK i material is con

cerned, the minimum requirements are

as follows:

hot dip galvanised steel large flat head

nails (deck tacks) 2.8/25.

Clips which are fastened with 2 nails of

the above type can be used with an

average extractive value of 560 1\J.

Where nails other than these are used

to secure the clips, only those with a

shank diameter greater then 2.8 mm

and a grip length of at least 20 mm are

permissible.

Where clips are screwed down with 2

countersunk head screws 4.0/25, the

average extractive value increases to

4.8
Widt of Strips and
Thickness of Metal
Strip width is relat ive to building height.
Generally a standard width of 600 mm
and 0.70 mm metal thickness applies.
These dimensions also apply to build
ings hig her than 20 m, whose loads are
not in excess of t hose indicated in DIN
1055.

Number and spacing of clips in relation to height of building and least favourable

roof pitch (area of highest wind suction loads).

Note: Spacings greater than 50 ern are inadmissible.

Height of
Buildi ng

Norm al area
st rip w id th / co or di n. axes"
80 0/73 0
600 / 530
700/630

Him' c m/ H Him' c m/H Hi m' cm / H Hi m' cm /H Hi m' cm/ H Him ' cm/ H

m
0-

Corner & edge areas


strip width / co ord in. axes"
600 / 530
700 / 63 0
800 1730

50'

42

8- 20

33

28

20- 10 0

25

36

50'

42

40

33

33

36

Hi m' = cllps/ rn"


c rn/ H = c li p spaci ngs in c m
= max. c lip spac ing
(10m length of sect ions)
= width of bay"" unit spacing (coordinated axes)

In exceptional cases, with buildings of


lesser height, wider strips of greater
metal thickness may be used.

He ight of
bu ilding

Strip width

M etal gau ge

0 - 100 m

600 mm

0.70 mm

0 -

20 m

700 mm

0.70 mm

0 -

8m

800 mm

0.80 mm

For sheet roofing similar values apply.

Roof pitch must be greater than 13 %

(]O).

Prior to current practice 1 x 2 rn, 0.80


mm gauge panels were used. This was
in the days before strip was produced.
On the narrow sides the individual pan
els were also jointed by means of a flat
do uble cross-welted seam. This cross
welt divides up, as does the double
w elt ed st and ing sea m, wind sucti on

23

fo rce . Thi s type of panelling is adm is


s ib le for buildings up to 8 m high.

Eave s flash ing


for RHEINZINK wa ll
clad d ing at the
low er edge

All owances for seams


Tables 5 and 6 in section 9 show the
" lo sses" in relation to seam or batten
h ei ght in relation to t he do uble st and
ing seam and batten roll sys te m. The
ext ras needed for calc ulation are
sh own in t he tabl es.

4.9
Eaves lashings
in Metal Roofing
Eaves flashings for metal roofing have
a special fun ction . They are not seals in
the acce pted sense , but have the fun c
tion of a continuous edging strip with
an extra projecting edge (a preformed
apron) which is folded out at least
25 mm to engage with the metal roof
skin. See 5.

Proj ect in g eaves edgi ng str ip for RHEINZINK


coveri ng , e. g. for cu rbs, stepped co ver
flash in g s, etc. Us ual sec tio n 200 mm

The function of the eaves flashing can


be considerabl y enhance d when an
a ngled strip elf 0.80 mm th ickness has
previously bee n nailed to it which
reach es deeply into th e pr oje cting
ed ge of the flash ing .
Th e eaves flashings s hould be to a
depth of 10 cm on the timber board and
are fixed , like clips, by staggered nail
ing at 50 mm int ervals .
The individual lengths are not jointed
but laid with a loose overlap of approx.
5 em. Only fla shing s whose projecting
ed ge directly adjoi ns th e water stop of
the pan el can be laid at 2 - 3 mm inter
vals in individual lengt hs. Min imum
thi ckn ess of th e str ip is 0.70 mm .
For roof pitc hes of 7 (13%) th e eaves
timber board sho uld be fixed 3 - 5 mm
bel ow the metal roof . This will avoid
wa t er acc umulatio n arising at the
edges due to th is partic ular de tail.

Eave s flas h ing tor RHEINZ INK roof. Roof gutte r with o r w itho ut fall s sec tion ?RS mm min

24

5.0

Roof Covering using the


Double Standing Seam
Method
The name de sc ribes th e meth od of
joining adj ac ent sheets or bays . The
heigh t of th e sta nding seam should be
at least 23 mm. Some te xt boo ks state
that t he minim um pitc h is 5 % (3 ) but
pract ical ex perienc e has shown that
slopes of 5 % (and less) nearly always
cause prob lem s. When using long
lengt hs - max. 10 m - we have found
that very ofte n insu ffic ient provision , if
any, has been given for th erm al move
ment , espec ially at th e eaves . Du ring a
cold spell (at wi nte rt ime) th is co uld
cause th e bay to lift at the eaves and re
sult in pond ing with deposits of dirt,
thus prod uc ing a potenti al corrosion
area. A similar effect of this kind of un
knowin gly built-in co rrosio n is behind
the "waves" which would develop
along the wh ole length of the bay. The
rate of corrosion increases for lower
roof pitch es.

The angle seam should not be use d o n


roof pitch es below 25

and thic kne ss details are spec ifi ed in


Sectio n 4.8 . These must be followed .

Peak mechanical stress of the roo f is


caused by the suctio n effect related to
the wind direction and str engt h. These
sucti on forc es are not uniform bu t vary
in str engt h and d uration , they act on
the metal roofing ski n wit h differing
forces be ing app lied to separate pan
els and even alo ng the length of the
same panel.

The sheets or bays are fixed by indivi


d ual cli ps to t he subst ruct ure and
th ereby th e "att ac king" fo rces are dis
pe rsed and diverted . See Section 4.5.
The frequency of clip s and spac ing re-

Doub le stand in g sea m - for fi xing manually

To ensure correct use of RHEINZINK


and to avoid flutt ering and subseq uent
c rac king, th e pan el widt h dimen s ions
Do uble standing sea m - for fi xi ng with
RHEINZINK PROFIMAT/F ALZOMAT

Bay wid th
"'" un it spac ing

We therefo re rec o mmend a minimum


roof pitch of 13 % (7 ) for bay length s of
5 m and longer (see also page 2).
Clips for machin e fixing
The RHEINZ INK PROFIMAT/FA LZOMAT

.~

///

Cli ps fo r ma n ual fix ing


Angl ed stand ing sea m

douhle standi nq sea m

25

lative to the hei g ht of th e building, for


no rmal and exposed areas, may be tak
e n from the table in Section 4.7.

1m
~/1%
~
%:/

~~
:ro0

Every clip must be fastened down with


two hot dipped g alvanised deck nails
(2.8/25 mm) penetrating at least 20 mm
into the timber.

~ I~

~~
~

~r:a
~~

When the bay length is more than 3 m,


s lid ing cl ips mu st be us ed. How ever,
within a stipulated distance of 1 rn, four
fixed clips must be positioned within
the standing seam to prevent any slip
ping.

-~

!..

The position of the fixed clips is de


pendent on the roof pitch illustrated:
3 (exceptio nally)

Single cross seam


Roof pitch
~ 47% (25)

Single cross seam


with soldered clip
Roof pitch
~ 18 % (10)

Double cross seam


for roof penetrations
or small deckings
with sheets
Roof pitch
"= 13% (YO)

Drip
Roof pitch
.2:. 5% (3)

:2: 60 mm

cress seams tor RHEII-JZINK roofillg

26

11 1... 1

--1

i If

~~
> 30

The bay length must be continuous


metal , up to a maximum of 10 m. Bay
lengths made up of smaller pieces
joined together by soldering or welting
should not be used .
For bay lengths over 10 m a stepped fall
must be introduced.
For roof pitches over 18 % (10) a single
lock welt with an additional soldered
undercloak may be used as an alterna
tive method of fixing.
The height of a stepped fall should be
60 mm minimum, and provided for in
the substructure plans. A step is
achieved by parallel lowering or by the
introduction of angled fillets into the
roof detail.
About 150 mm from the eaves the
double standing seam is turned down
through 90 with the folded side upper
most. The end of the turned down
standing seam may be folded-in with
the sheet or bay end around the spac
ing template.

The sheet is engaged into the folded


edge at the ste pped fall. Here too ca re
must be taken to allow for th e lin ear

Variou s po ssibil it ies f or fi nish at eaves

nI
I
35

45

I
Jl.i:: l 0 mm

Detail: step ped fall

thermal expansion of RHEINZINK


metal. The turned -down edge of the
bay must not be able to disengage it
self from the eaves flashing during
thermal expansion, and conversely,
there must be sufficient room to allow
for a fall in temperature and free con
traction of the bay .

45

35
- 25

[k

Stand ing doubl e seam - swabian method

To ac hieve this obj ect ive, as well as a


straight edge, a spac ing templet
should be used.

I
I

=:h-

---t

71 ~I

\.-

"

Sta nd ing doubl e seam


standa rd dim en si o ns (mm)

45

35

f---

finish at eaves
with standing welt

Experience has shown that the double


seam need not be folded over in all roof
pitches as the eaves flashing would
prevent any minor ingress of moisture
arising . Moisture penetration due to
capillary action can be dismissed al
t ogeth er and th erefore no damage
should occur.
The double seam is cut at the eaves
nod only tho end of the sheet is en

~~~.~.~..!.n .~ ~~ ~~':'::~. !~c:.s ~! ~ g ...I.n__!~i ~

m~
Curve

~I

stand ing angled ca pping , fin all y c urve d

method, whi ch has considerably work


ing advantages, any possible probl ems
of lateral expansion can be ruled ou t.

it is particularly suit able for horizontal

Th e double stand ing seam with angl ed

curbs and superior lower edge detail


ing .

low er end is visually the best, and ma


nually th e most dem and ing, end detail;

27

10

10

o
on

I-~----

I
!

J 20

-.1-- -

__

With both finis hes a distance of 10 mm


must be main ta ined between the base
point and th e area to be joi nted, to
avoid buckling during t hermal expan
sion.

An upstand is mad e at th e upper end of


th e bay. The height and finish of the
up st and will dep end on th e jointing d e
tail. For jointing with ridges, hip rafters,
and verge s without ventilation, a joint
ing height of 40 rnrn suffice s. Joints to
ridge ventilators and walls must be 150
mm in height. For ste eply pitched roof s
from 25 , heigh ts of 60 - 80 mm are
ad equ ate . To be weathertig ht, th e joints
must be completely conti nuo us.

In this way the necessary measures


have been taken to assure the unim
ped ed expansion and contracting of
the bays parallel to the doubl e stand
ing sea m, wit hout c ausing leakage .

To balance out small height differ


ences a backing is used to bridge the
stepped fall. Following this, after ex
tracting thewedge, 60 mm plus jointing
height of the double welt is turned
down with the welt , and the folded
edge marked .

Similar facilities for unhindered move


ment must be created transversely to
the double standing seam. When the
bays are laid, th is must be at intervals
of 3 mm . This s uffi c es, and ex pansio n
strips and separators, even in large
roof surfaces, ne ed not be used .

After this the end of the bay inc luding


the turned down double standing
seam , is folded up and then folded
back 20 mm.

Thus expansion strips are only rarely


spec ified. Where they are, however,
the work must be in accordance with
the batten system as described in Sec
tion 5.1 .

Where, for reasons of space, this meth


od is not possible, the double standing
seam must be finished as a pinched
seam.

pin ched seam

I'

I
I

/~'~

~//

Working seq uenc e of j ointing double standing


upp er roofs by making a
pin ched seam

Seam c lad d inq to

28

/ /--- _ -

/ '

.//~--

- ~~

-----

~ /
~

Jun ction with turn ed down doubl e sea m

//

Turn ed down d oubl e sc am

t-------'

Half round rainwa ter gutter in accordance


w ith DIN 184 61 wit h cornice de tail

in

Saw tooth roof


RHEINZINK doubl e standing seam roofing
Deta il :
Shed g utt er
Win dow joint
V0. rg p.~

29

5.1

Roll Cap System


Th e roll cap system of roofi ng is the
o ld est metal roof ing syst em still in use.
T h e roll cap roof is characterised by the
wood en batt en, to which the 12teral up
t u rn s of t he bays are j oi nted. Th e wood
batte n is covered with a capp ing. The
cap ping embraces th e lateral upt urn s
of t he bays and so makes the roof rain
proof.
M inimum pitch , metal gauge , widt h and
lengt h of bays, dist anc e betwee n c lips ,
as w ell as the tec h nic al sp ec ific atio n in
respect of cros s welted joi nts and
st epped fal ls, are in accordance wi th
the rules governi ng th e dou ble sta nd
in g seam roof whi ch are ap pl ica ble
here.
Because the water st op is omitt ed in
th e Belgi an wood batten system, appli
cati on mu st be lim ited to roof pitch es
b etween 25 and 75 , as resistance to
wind-driven rain will be abse nt. In shal
low sloping roofs th is sys te m will not be
bac k-flow-resistant.

The clips for fasteni ng t he bays are se


c ure d to t he wood batt ens. The woo d
battens mu st be securely a nc hored on
the sub struc ture, so that they ca n ac
co mmod at e th e st resses eff ecting the
bays.
Es se ntia lly two ty pes of roll cap sys tem
are used, nam ely th e Bel gian and t he
Ge rman met hod. Th e shape of th e bat
ten is t he same for both. Th e difference
betwee n th e two meth ods co nsist s in
th e form of jo intin g the bay to the bat
ten, the cap ping and th e fixing of c lips
on th e batte ns, as th e dr awing s which
foll ow illus trate .
The sheets are sec u red laterally by
clips.
In th e Belg ian meth od the c lip is se
c ured to th e w ood batten . It has a width
of 40 - 50 mm. ln th e German method a
strip is nailed with 4 nails on the upp er
side of th e wood batten. Becau se of the

lesser st reng t h of thi s st rip, it mu st be


at least 100 mm w ide, where the
Belgian pri nc ip le of c lip arra nge ment is
not used. Therefore , in the batten
syste m th e bays mu st be pr ot ect ed
agains t slipp ing in an area of 1 m (see
illustr atio n).
The ca ppi ng is forme d in accor dance
with th e meth od se lected, and en
gaged int o th e cl ips, wi th 5 c m over
laps . A nail into the batt en pr event s it
sli ppin g .
Si multaneou sly the nail se cures a
spri ng which hold s the last batten in
place, as nails ca n no lon ger be used
here.
At th e eaves th e end of the bay is en
gaged into the projecting edge of the
eaves flash ing in acco rdance with th e
code of practice governing th e double
standing sea m roof. Finishing and
jointing of the bay to the battens at the

In c omp arison with the narrow doubl e


sta nding seam , th e joi nt with th e bay is
more strong ly profiled du e to the size of
th e batt en and is th erefore more vis
ible. For th is reason th e batte n system
is to be especially co nside red wh en
desi gnin g roof areas.
Th e wood batt en measures 40 x 40 mm.
The height or width of the wood batten
ma y be inc reased if requ ired . Greate r
hei ght is parti cularly recomm end ed for
low -pitch ed roofs in regio ns subject to
heav y snow.

The roll cap sys tem - Ge rman meth od

Fixin g to preve nt slipping of the bays in the


Be lgia n roll cap syste m

Roll cap syste m - Be lg ian metho d

Fix in g to prevent slip pi ng of the b ays in the


Germa n roll ca p system

Be cause of thermal expa ns ion th e


spacing of th e wood battens must be
5 m m greater than th e clea r wid th of th e
bays where square or rec tang ular bat
te ns are used. The inclin ed lateral up
turns of t he bay th en co nta ct th e wood
battens with the ir up per edg es only. By
this mean s th e necessary spac e at bay
level is guaranteed .

30

eave s is diff erent in th e Bel gian and t h e


German metho d and must be exec uted
in acc ordanc e with loc al requ irements .

The up per junction of the bay to upper


paris uf slr uclures is simp ly ac hieved
by means of a pinched seam (see illus
tration).
As for the rest, th e code of practice in
respect of double st anding seam roofs
applies here , as we ll as to th e lateral
jointi ng of a roll c ap roof to walls .

Working seque nc e: Jo inting batten s to up pe r


c on structio ns (p inc h ed sea ms) .

Work ing sequ e nc e: Jointi ng batte ns to eaves

.>

/~

Detail : Ap ron cladd ing in co mb ined sys tem . Main


spac ing batt en, inte rmediate spacing ang led
stand ing seam

Detail: Facade c ladding in c ombined sys te m.


Main spacing batten, inte rmediate spac ing
angled standi ng seam wi th stagge red c ross
welts.
Ge rman roll ca p sys tem with eaves and ridge
c ap ping.

rarapet wall cladd ing with vertical joi nts in Ge r


man roll cap syste m .

31

5.2
J ointings with
RHEINZINt( roofing
All joints to th e eaves (see 4 .9), verge,

ridge and wa ll (parapet) must be con

tinuous and for me d witho ut seams

f ro m the RHEII\J ZINK roofing to avoid

t h e risk of wat er perm eability. To

accommo date therma: expa nsion of

the RHEINZINK,i, roofing adequate

spaci ng mu st be allowed for.

To facil itat e unr estr icted mov ement,

th e upstand of th e bay is not fi rmly

jointed with the vertical part of a build

ing. Wh ere the bay width at the ed ge is

n ot suff ic ient to make t he upstand

w ithout havin g to jo in on, wid er bays

m ay be us ed, as also in respect of

verg es. How ever, th e max imum per

m issibl e width of sh eets must not be

exceeded. See 4.8.

Eaves wit h hanging gutter, wit h or wi thout falls

Th e height of join tings to wal ls, roof pe

netration s, chimn ey s, etc . must be re

lative to roof pit ch . App roxim ate valu es

for height s are:

Ro of pit ches up to 5 (9 %) - 150 mm

minimum

Roof pit ches of 5 (9 %) - 100 rnrn mini

mum

To w ate rp roof the upper part against

wind-driven rain , a flash ing strip (ca p

ping str ip) or a c app ing with a dripping

ed g e is fixed on.

--j

Ridge d etail on mono pitch roof


to RHEINZINKc w all c ladding

Vent ilat ed ridg e de ta il to mo no pitch roof at


verti cal wa ll

It is pointed out, however, that for many

j o int ings the code of practice specifies

a m in imum height of 150 mrn .

Designe rs should allow for a minimum

s p ac ing of 200 mm between roo f pene

trat ions and standing sea ms to en sure

th at a pro fe ss io na l jo b ca n be execu t

ed .

Doubl e stand ing


sea m ro ofing

Rid ge saddlcback ro of wi th ridge ventuation and pr ote c ti on 393 inEt dr ifting enow

32

Batten roo f ing

Doubl e stan din g seam with verge detai l


for roof sl op es 2 ~ 3 (5 %)

j\
Ang le standing seam wi th verge d etail for ro of
slo pe s ~ ~ 22 (47 %) ; areas with high snowf all
;;;;; - 3 5 (70 %)

Doubl e angl e standing sea m with cap pi ng str ip


and verg e d etail for roof slo pes 2 - 25 (47 %J

30

German roll cap without wo od roll , wit h ve rge d e


tail for roof slo pes > - 3 (5 %)

German roll ca p v.it h verge do tai: fo r roof slope s


;C, - - 3 (5%)

Bal qi an roll cap with vergp rl ptAII for mnf ",Inrp",


2-- 25 -75 0

33

Hip Details

For good visual effect hip s c an be


form ed in vario us ways as the illustra
tion s sho w. Welt ed bays converging on
hip s can be finished o nly by mean s of a
flash ed batte n or capp ing. Th e mini
mum width for th e batten cappi ng is
abou t 6 cm; for cap ping with out a bat
ten abou t 3 em.

Hi p de tai l with batt en

sa
i

Where t he hip is not emp has ized t he


bay welts must con verge at th e hip by
means of a stagg ered arra ngeme nt.
This arrang ement is nece ssary, since
ot herwise the hip welt would have a
10-fold material thickness and a cor
rect fini sh would not be possible. Th is
requirem ent needs to be consid ered at
the plann ing stage.

H ip d etai l with cap ping

H i p de tail with double


s ta ndi ng seam

Vall ey with rece ssed


valley gutter fo r pitc h

<:

7 (t 2%)

Valley det ail wit h valley


bay for pitc h :5 25 (47 %)

Valley Details

\
Hip formed with doubl e sta nding seam and
stag gered int o bay we lts

The method of val ley forming depends


firstly on the slope of the valley and
secondly on its length. Therefore, th e
constru ctional requirements for th e
various methods should be obs erved
right at th e planning st ag e (see illustra
tions). For shallow valleys of 7 (12%) a
recessed valley (va lley gutter) s hould
be made . Where thi s is not possible for
constructional reason s then, as th e
last illustration shows, a valley with a
tapering pattern of bays must be made.
For short lengths of valley, the so
called valley welt (wit h or without bat
ten) can be used , but th is is not eas y to
execute and, moreover, causes prob
lems when jointing to rid ge and eaves.
Further, it should be noted that with
long s heets, linear ex pa nsio n in th e
valley welt cannot be accommodated
satisfactorily.
To allow for linear expa nsion th e length
of th e bays sh ould be limited to 6 m.

Valley deta il wit h valley bay


and supplementary we lt for pitch :5 10 (18 %j

Vall ey with bay s welt ed both sid es

gutter

1
Valley with tap ered arrangemen t
Example : Hi p detail

34

Concealed Roof Gutters


For co ncea led roof gutters downpipes
must be dimens ioned and asso ciate d
with the relevant gutt er cross-s ectio n
in compliance wit h DIN 18 460.

For precaut ion ary reason s, however,


two rainwater pipes must be installed,
each of which must have th e c ross
section calcul at ed for on e down spout
only. By this means one rainwater pipe
can perform the full function of the
other in the eve nt of a blockag e. Thi s
arrange ment for rainwate r pip es as
sumes that the flow of wat er from
downpipe to downpipe is not impeded
by a conventional sliding gutter seam .
It follow s that an expansion piece must
be use d. This is t he RHEINZINK expan
sion gutter. See 3.7.

,2
I I.-I I----r
:-~
'
-

-,

Concea led gutt er


with overflow

.f

I
I

,
L

II

The much -used practice, for reason s


of safety, of d oub ling the cros s-se ctio n
for conc ea led gutters is without
measurable effect, as is show n by th e
calcu lat ion in S ection 7.1 .
Where the arrangement of two se pa
rate rainwat er pipes is not possib le,
th en, to gain sp ac e for an emerge nc y
overflow, the uppe r edg es of the gutt er
must be turn ed up sufficiently high to
perm it the bac kflow to dra in off freely
without pen etrating into th e building,
where an overflow gutter ca nnot fulfil
this function.
These essential precautions must be
planned in at the de sign stage.

Conc ealed gutte r


wit h ove rflow gu tter

,,

,1..

,
I

,
Conce aled gutter ,

hallro un d v.. . lt h overfl ow gutter ' . .

l..,~-- - -

__

, ..

35

Side Flashing to Walls


Side flashing to walls adjoining RHEIN
~ I NK roof covering is exemp lified in
th e illustrati on below.

Ex am ple NO.1 . Capp ing strip with inset


sectio n
Example NO. 2 . Screed with wedged -in
ca pping stri p
Both methods are distingui shed by
the ir simplici ty and reliable fu nction .
The jointing section and rendering
ed ge trim can be fixed independent ly
of roofing progress. For lateral height
s ee 5.2.

5.3

Penetrations in
RHEINZINK roofing
Penetrations for chimneys, hatches,
roof windows, vent pipes , snow guard
s u p ports, etc ., must be made rain- and
snow-proof by soldering, welting or
double welting . The method of jointing
is di ctated by t he roof pitch . The safe

Side fl ash ing to wall with d ou bl e sta ndi ng seam


decking with ca p ping strip in sec tio n

Sid e flashing to wall with rend ering and wedg ed


in ca p ping stri p

weathering of penetrations with roof


pitches below 7 (12 %) can only be
achieved by soft so lde ring. Weathering
above and below the penetration to the
bays is made by double cross welting.

per seam is formed ob lique ly to the


eaves line .

Where roof openings are of a width


greater than 1 m, the back gutter junc
tion is to be made in wedge or saddle
form . To improve rainwaterflowthe up

.-

~~~
-

..

i=="'"'

--- ---

. . . . ?'i

. ... '1
-:1

I .

~~

~I

--------J .------r
D

--

~
!

'-J

c-

I,

,I

I
I

--- - - -

--

__

.~_1 '"

:J

... -- -

- _. _

- - - -

Dom ed roo f li ght w ea th ering esserno rm


Typ e RHEINZ INK in so lde red fi ni sh

~- - - - - - -

.~

_ .-

36

:1

~I

Chimnev fl il 'lh ing in w elt ed fini sh

- - - - -

- - - -r ....,~

:)

- - -

(
--

!
\
I

-~

Rooflight upsta nd essernorm


Type RHEINZINK
The recentl y developed ups tand fu lfils
important c rite ria:

Jointing height of 15 c m with timber


frame (12x 15 ern). The refore, jointing in
a RHEINZINK welt ed roof is simple
and complies with th e co de of prac tic e
(15 cm heig ht),
Can be fitt ed at any tim e to the welted
roof prior to mounting roof light.
The upstand has a vertical 5 cm edging,
specifica lly shap ed for the welted roof,
whic h is resistant to wind -d riven rain at
the up per j ointing wit h the roofi ng and
offers, mor eover, ad equat e spac e for
carrying out welting work.
The rooflight upstand with shaped rim
is then plac ed on th e flash ed wooden
frame and se c ured with sc rews and
seals,
The colour of th e roofl ight upstand is
anthracite-g rey.

0I~'- -

15 0 mm

Rooflig ht essernorm
Type RHEINZINK in w elte d finish

Join ti ng to th e roo flig ht with c overing fram e

Rooflight essern on n
Type RHEINZIN K - so ld ered fin is h

37

Flashings to
Skylights
Examples of Various
F inishes

Skyli gh t with ap ron , ch eek and


back gutter ju nc tions

Roof wind ow s in sea me d work w ith co p ing fram e


a bove

Skyli ght in pitc he d roof , recessed, s oldered

38

Sk ylig ht, u p p er join t w ed g e s ha p ed

S ky lig ht in p ilc h ed roof , so ldered in we lte d ro of

Sky lig ht in w elt ed fini s h

Chimney Flashings
Chimney Claddings
Roof Penetrations
Examples of Various
Finishes

Shaped chimney cla ddi ng in special fi ni sh

--= .r

',--

,.

--=---,

~
~

Chimn ey flue c ladd in g inserted within seam


spactn q

-~

-r--r!"': ,

Clad d ing of glaze d lantern light in seam


tec hni que

~:::;:-~:rT~

~~

--- ; ' - , q

Ch imn ey c lad d ing integ rated into roof area

Detail : Side jo int in c urve d form

Wed ge detail to back g utte r


of c himney stac k

Roof penetration in soldered technique

39

Roof Dormers
Examples of Various
Fin ishes

Row of roof dormers with pro no unce d fasci as


co rres pond ing to eaves cornice/ridge de ta ils in
ang led standing seam sys tem

Roo f do rmer as co ntinuation of ver tical emphasis


into the roof

'"
~ ;;;-~- " --~

- '~ ';~

', ~

~...-::--

Gabled dor mer of de lib erate ly simple desig n

Systematic co ntinuatio n of eaves d esign as fascias to the dormers

Vertical pa tt e rn of sea ms of th e dormer fasci as


co nti nued as w indow mullions.

S played join ts of the fasc ia exec uted as seams

Successfu l jux tapos itio n of va rio us do rme r


forms

Round do rmers in ang led sta nding seam w ith


c ross we lts

40

5.4

The pref erred vertical jo intin g method


is the wider angl ed sta nding seam,
whi ch, as we ll as ensuring acc u racy of
lin e, (se e se cti on 8 - sea ming pliers)
emph azises
t he ve rticals
more
strongly.

Facade Cladding
As with the technical proc edures for
roof cover ings and weatherings using
RHEINZINK, exter io r vert ical cladd ing
must also be exec uted by th e standi ng
seam and roll ca p methods.

A spec ial kind of verti cal jointing is th e


doub le angled stand ing seam whi ch ,
when jo int ed to wind ows, avoids the
c hange from left to righ t of the single
welt. See illustrat ions 4.1 and 4.2.

Logically th is area is not cont ro lled by


guidelines fo r faca de clad ding with and
witho ut subst ruct ure. As soo n as DIN
18516 - Ext erior Wall Cladd ing, cur
rently und er discussion, has been ap
proved and finalis ed , the guidelines
will be withdrawn . DIN 18516 E, part 1,
J uly 1982, also does no t envisage a
specificat ion in respe ct of th e sta nding
seam and roll cap met hods .
It must not be assumed, however, that
good pract ic e for cladding exterior
walls is not influenced by this standard.
There are overlapping rules which
must be observed.
DIN 1055, sheet 4 and ancillary regula
tions apply in resp ect of wind loads.
Where the c onstr uction of the facad e
will allow settlement of snow or the for
matio n of ic e, loads must be cal cul ated
in accordance with DII\J 1055 , sheet 5.
For sloping walls loads must be ca lcu
lated as for roof coverings. S ee 4.6.

Fig. 1

To secure to the substructure, the


same rules as for roof deck ing apply to
RHEINZINK" wall c ladding ; however,
special con struction s are po ssibl e.
See 4.5.1 and 4.5.2.
Large areas of facade whic h are cla d
by th e stand ing seam sys te m, some
times do not look very attractive wh ere
long panels are used (not to exceed 6
m as this leng th is not suitable forwork
on sc affold ing) .

Fig . 4.1

Fig. 2

To impro ve appearance , t he indiv idu al


length s can be mo un ted with c ross
welts in a symmetri ca l pattern. By this
method a smaller sea led eff ect c an be
achieved. Se e f igure 1.
Creative effe c ts can also be achieved
by a dia gonal arrangement of the
panels, see fi gu re 2, or by a comb ina
tion of variou s length joint s, for
instance by a rhyt hmic alt ernation of
batten and angled stan ding seams
~i~ u~e ~L

__.__. _ _

. -

.....

P""

~-

o-

e..

,-

e-

;---,

F-

~lR..l.

---I

J-

-
-

'-

'-

I
r

~-

Fig .

~ .2

r-r-r-

Where the seams have been properly


made with the right kind of machin es,
the .cuos.are almosj.Jnvlsibla
_

41

However, t he tra nsit ional period up to


completion of patination of the RHEIN
ZINK surface shou ld not matt er in
evaluating th e mat erial forfacade c lad
ding, as functionall y and aesth etic ally
it will serve its pu rpose for several ge
nerations.

Th e use of th e do uble stand ing seam


for facade c ladding is disadvanta
geous for techn ic al reasons, as th e Fal
zom at ca nnot be used on the sca ffo ld
ing because of its relat ive height In
s uch cases the seams would have LO
be c losed manually, whi ch from a vi
s ual aspe ct could affect the st raight
lin es of th e seam. Sectio n 8.

Width of panels and thickness


of material

Facade cladding is not merely installed


as weath er protection for exterior
walls, but also to create a pleasing ar
ch itectu ral effect. For th is reason the
criteria regarding unit spacing and me
tal thickness are different from those
for roof decking.

Fig. 5

ing must overlap the upper jointing of


the panel, thus :
Height of building

<

8 m
< 20 m
> 20 m

>

5cm
8cm
> 10 c m

>

RHEINZINK is a thin gauge material


which when laid in bays does not have
an absolutely plane surface. Therefore,
to improve its visual effect a unit spac
ing of 500 mm is recommended and for
panel lengths over 5 m, 400 mm should
not be exceeded . See 5.
Raising the gauge from the usual 0,70
mm to 0,80 mm improves the visual
appearance of the whole dueto greater
rigidity.

A furth er, very important prerequisite


for well executed fac ade c ladding with
RHEINZINK is not only a prec ise a nd
clean preparation of the individ ual
co mponents by qualified experts, but
also the orderly storage of the semi
products (strips/panels) and prefabri
cated components to avoid dirt and
white rust.
During storage and tr ansportat ion, no
water must be allowed to pen etrate
between stacked panels, strips or
other profiles or co ils . It is a well known
fact that in such ca ses of humidity and
simultaneous exclusion of air; white
rust develops on the su rface. See 1.4.
Thi s is a visual defect only but s hould
be immediately removed by brush and
a lot of water; as otherwise it will always
be visible to a greater or lesser degree.

Fig. 6

Patination and surface


Notes

Very great care must be taken when


cladding facades, since every defect or
omission will show. Prefabrication in
the workshop of individual elements is
essential.
Coupled with the special care that
must be taken by the builder is the use
of suitable tooling and machinery cur
rently available on the market. See 8.0.
It should be pointed out that in addition
to the necessary fold at the base point,
the panel at the upper joint must be
folded over (water check) .
On the design side it mu st be borne in
m ind th at ventilation must be allowed
for underneath a window sill (figure 6)
or parapet with the necessary overlap.
The outer vertical flanks of this cover-

42

The chemical process which results in


the protection film on the surface of
RHEINZINK (see 1.4) has several
stages and may take a long time to
develop, dependent on seasonal,
weather and other factors. During this
transitional phase, it has been ob
served that the surface seems to be ir
regular due to light reflection since, as
has already been mentioned, thin
gauge material never lies absolutely
flat. With progressive patination these
reflections will disappear; the greyish
blue protective film will become denser
and the colour more uniform .
Builders and designers frequently find
this trans itional phase irritating as they
feel it has a prejudicial effect on the
overall architectural picture. For this
reason only , RHEINZINK has been
pre-weathered (1.5) so that the transi
tion al phase does not show.

Roof in RHEINZI NK'" doub le standi ng seam co v

ering.

Facade in RHEINZINK' angled standing sea m

cl add ing.

Details:

Box gutt er be hind c o rn ice with function of ex

pose d gutt er. Drip edge of wall c ladd ing above

wi ndow lintel.

Windo w flash in g with join tin g to lower ang led

standing sea m cladd ing or win d ow sill flash ing

over facing b ric kwork.

Roof and parap et ap ro n in RHEINZINK"' ang led

stand ing seam c overing with visibl e parape t c op

in g :

Det ails:

Para pet co ping above slo ping surface .

Det ailing of apron curb with standi ng, visuall y

sep arated , sea m.

Eaves line of wall c ladd ing abo ve window lin tel.

Illustration of parapet ap ro n wit h substruct ure,


venti late d

Seame d parap et bays in ap ron cover ing


Detail : Sta ndi ng seam termi nu s

Cu rb in apro n c lad d ing wit h visu ally c ontinuous


sea m

Roo f and parape t apron clad in RHEINZINK"

ang led standing seam co ve ring with co ncea led

para pet copi ng.

Detail s :

Conc ealed parape t cop ing abov e slop ing sur

face w it h inside fasc ia.

Detailing of apro n c urb w it h stand ing, visually

co nti no us, sea m.

Low er edge of wall c lad d ing with weath erin g to

p lint h .

Detai l : Sect ion of visua lly c o ntinuo us seam

43

5.5
Snow G ards

5.4 .1
Fir e Protection
In ac c ordance w it h building regula
tio ns of the (Ge rma n) Fed eral State s
spec ial requireme nts may be laid down
for fac ad e cladd ing with regard to their
behaviour in ca se of fi re. The mand ato
ry build ing materi al c at eg orie s B 1 or A
corresp ond , together with th e a~t u a l
s urfa ce c ladd ing of RHEINZINK , to
cem ent- bonded
sub st ructures
of
wood c hipboa rd (1 6 mm ) suc h as Duri
pan el from Et ernit. Various alumi nium
subframing syst ems are available for
fi xing these Duripanel bo ards. Th eir
suita bility fo r employment for thi s pur
pose IS to be ascertained either by re
ference to cu rrent regulati on s for te ch
nical c onstruct ions, or following com
ponent tests in the form of an authori
zation. Included among the aluminium
subframing systems, consisting es
sentially of wall anchors and fixing sec
t ions, and wh ich have proved them
selves in connection with Duripanel
facade boarding, are the systems from
Haase, Ickier and Wagner. Advice in
th is matter ca n be obtained from the
techn ical service of Eternit.
Between the Duripanel boards and
RHEINZINK cladding a separation
membrane of PE sheeting is usually
placed, spotfixed with a solvent-free
contact adhesive. Alternatively, un
sa nde d bitum inous felt or Duripanel
impervious coating 250 g/m 2 may be
used.

For th e saf ety of tra ffic, and depe nd ing


on the deg ree of roo f slope and heig ht ,
legally binding bu ilding regul at ion s
may presc ribe me asures for protec t io n
against fall in g ic e and snow. These
measure s ca n ad d it io nally serv e in any
fu rth er roof wor k to pr eve nt accid ent s
by slipp ing .

Aluminiu m subfram ing, Wag ne r System . Normal


and abutted areas fo r cemen t- bonde d woo d
ch ipb oarding .

:"..

Detail : Su b fr amin g with rivet ed woo d c hi pboa rd


Dur ip anel wit h bu tt joints
Exampl e : Rees snow g uard system

The fastenings are carried out with ri


vet s, for example. Honsel, Alfo 5 x ap
propriate length, rivet head diameter14
mm AIMg6.The boards are predrilled to
accept the rivets.

th e tube in th e layer of snow, fr ozen


snow or ice . The system has recently
b een co mpleme nte d by ice guard s
fi xed to the tubes (photo) to pr event
the slipping of thin sheets of ice whi ch
oft en rema in after a snow th aw.

Extracti on values in accorda nc e with


static al evidence for an alre ady com
pleted object amount to 560 N/rivet
with triple safety facto r. In order to pro
vide ge nerally valid da ta , ext raction
valu es are being currently investigated
by an independent institute and will be
p u blished when compl eted.
The foregoing rules a pply in equ al
measure for lay ing sh eet ing in bays.

44

For RHEINZ INK doubl e stand ing roo f


ing a sys te m has proved its elf over
yea rs in wh ic h a suff ic iently st rong
t ube (25 - 30 mm) is fix ed to the seam
by mean s of two spec ially form ed
clamps (cf. ph oto) . The eff ectiveness
of thi s syste m is based on the preven
tion of a thrust effect from the snow ly
ing on th e roof by th e binding eff ec t of

Th e te chni c al adva nt ag e of th is syst em


li es in t he fixin g m ethod wh ich avoid s
penetrat ing t he roo f skin, and th eref ore
all ows t he roof skin its unobstru cted
th erm ally co nd itio ne d c ha nges of
length .
Example : M unici pa l Savings Ba nk, Dor tmund

Des ig n : Ar chitects BDA Rick meyer & Saalkamp

Roo fing contractor :

Arge A ufd erh eide Gm bH, 4400 MOnst er

Ke ntzlc r M etall b eda ch ung , 460 0 Do rtmun d

In addition, t he visu al restraint of thi s


syste m provid es fo r a pleasant app ear
an ce in th e roofscape.
T he clamp s and th e tub ing are ava il
ab le in spe cia l hard alumini um allo y, in

5.6

Lightning Protection
Owi ng to th e relatively good electrical
co nduct ivity of RHEINZ INK special
lightning co nduct o rs need not be in
sta lled wit h th e do ubl e sta nd ing seam
sys te m. Onl y th e metal surface mu st
be earthed in comp liance wit h th e rel
evant specificat io ns.

Comp lete Rees snow guard sys tem wi th add itio nal ice g uard

c hrom e-nic kel ste el and in galvanised


steel, thou gh we do not recom mend
the use of galvanised steel becau se
the thi n laye r of zinc will be worn away
over the years due to th e co ntinuous
surf ace abra ison . This results in ru st
ing with subsequent drainage stre ak s
to the visual detriment of the roofing
surface. In applying non-rusting mate
rials att ention should also be paid to
using the appropriate non-ru sting
scre ws and nut s.
In areas of heavy snowfall exp erience
shows that all tubes should be fixed at
eac h seam ; wh ilst in the more moder
ate snowfa ll areas a c lamp to every
seco nd seam is adequate.

to prevent masses of wet snow dro p


pin g into str eet areas. However, for
stru ctural reason s, the sup porting
effe ct of snow gua rds p rovide d at
high er level is definitely req uired,
especi ally in suc h cases . In so far as
the snow gua rds in mode rate snowfall
area s serve to reli eve loading on the
gutter sy stem, as is frequ ently th e c ase
in northern Germ any, a single snow
gu ard at the eaves is generally ad
equ ate.Apart from this, th e question as
to t he necessary numb er of snow
guar ds ca n only be answe red by con
side ring each object individually.

Exampl e: Earth ing be twee n roof and gutte r

Examp le : Earth ing to ve rge

Tall c lamp fo r the seco nd tube

Whe re necessary, severa l s now guards


must be p rovided ac ross the roof s ur
face in ac c ordance with the func ti on al
princi ple d escribed above (ct. pho to).
Dep endin g on th e d egree of roof slo pe
and snow load ings a vertical spacing of
1.5 to 4 m s hou ld be used. The ap plica
tion of double sn ow guards (tall
clam ps) at the eaves is recumrnenued
in the case of widely ca ntileve red roo fs

Example: Ligh tning co nductor


at ch imney wi th

earthing to ridge

45

6.0

W eatherings
and Flashings
In th e area of wea t herings and flash
ing s RHEINZIN K is an exce llent com
pl em ent to th e fun ction of ot her mat e
rial s.

The same method is applied in respe ct


of val ley gutters. A wate r check is fitted
at bo th sides and sho uld lie flu sh on a
recessed board .

Flash ings fo r c hi mneys, roof wind ows


and to roof st ruc t ures are so ldered or
welted and, as usual , fi nished off wit h a
ca pp ing str ip . An expansion joint need
not be fitted so lo ng as the length of a
side does not exce ed 2 m.

Ow ing to th e good form abili ty and duc


t ility of RHEINZINK, almo st any joint
ing wor k can be satisfactorily carried
ou t.

6.1

Jointings
For all jo intings to upper wall areas the
angle strips m ust be formed at least
150 mm above the upper edge of the
promenade roofing . For terracing or
gravel chippings this can be some 200
mm and more. The upper edge of the
angle strip is indi rect ly fixed with clips
an d covered w ith a capping strip or
fla shing to avo id wat er entering behind
th e angle str ip. See 6.3.
The capping strip is turned into a
groove or jo int in the wal l at a depth of
20 mm and fastened with hot dip galva
nised masonry (plaster) hooks, no me
tal sect ions or cover flashings with drip
ed ge having to be used . There are
other methods, but great care is need
e d with water-proo fing (primer).

~;;;;~~~::==::il - .

Eaves fin ish wi th proj ecti ng bo x gutter in accorda nc e w it h DIN 18 461 and c ornice flashin g with slate
roof

6.2

Roofi ng of tiles, slate, fib re ce me nt or


si mi lar coverings is by ove rlapp ing of
in divi dual roofing elements ; th is is not
backfl ow- resistant and th erefo re a
mi nimum roof pitch is req ui red.

46

o
o

Weatherings
a nd Flashings
H ard Roofing

For pitc hes ove r 58 % (30) t he ind ivi


d ual lengths of RHEINZINK fl ash ing s
ne ed not be so ft sold ere d; an overlap
of 3 minimum of 50 mm suffi c es and t he
ends shou ld be grooved.

Eaves finish wit h projecting g utte r in acco rdanc e with DIN 184 61, w it h roo fi ng tile s

Vall ey gutt er to slate roo f

Valley detail as b ox gutte r fibre ceme nt roof ing


(625 mm long - so -c alle d " Ber lin er Well e")

Verge with verge gutt er and roof til es

Verge detail with wa ll cladding coping

II

Iii

47

6.3

Flashings for
Built-up Roofs
Ri gid joints are made by t urning up th e
flat roof membrane. The sh eets t o be
jointed to vertical constructions must
b e fixed and flashed at the upper edge
to make them rainproof

Th is is by meane of capping strips w it h


or w ithout clamp . Sealing can also be
achieved by overlap pin g co ver ings ,
s u c h as wall c lad d ing, parapet c o ping
o r similar details.
Overlapping

Th e usual measures aga ins t penetra


ti on of rainw at er and for fixing are not
s uffic ient. The turned-up memb ran e to
ve rt ic al con stru ct ions mu st be protec t
ed against ultra-violet radia tion and
m ech anical damage to avoid pr ema
ture ageing or destruction. Using
RHEINZINK'" for this purpose fulfil s
these protective requirements perm a
nently. The RHEINZINK'J angle strip is
formed in accordance with local requi
rements and is placed without a fi xed
joint on the turned-up roof felt ,
fastened and additionally held with
clips . See 3.3.

Ca pping strip
w ith sealing rop e

The individual flashings can be fixed in


standard lengths of 3 m.Thi s is done by
5 cm overl ap joints . The joints are not
connected, as no water-proofing fun c
tion is involved here .
To avoid any possible damage du e to
sharp metal ed ges at the joints, th e
a ng le strip flashing on the roof edge is
fold ed , so th at a c li p can be secured in
it. For roofs with gravel ch ippin gs or
c em ent slabs , the lower edge of th e
RHEINZINK flashing should be at
le ast 1 c m be low the upper surfac e of
th e co vering .
The height of the angle strip and the
protection of the upper edge mu st be
c a rried out in accordance with section

6 .1.

Ang le strip flashing as protoct ion again st ult raviolet radi ati o n and mech an ical d amage, above the roo f
relt

48

-e-: Slop e of the


plastering
edge 15

Capp ing strip turned into bric k


jo int with maso nry h ook s
Capp ing strip
c lampe d into meta l sectio n

Bonding

Movable or rigid joints between the


flashing at the water plane and pene
trating or bordering constructions are
safely made by angle strips of RHEIN
ZINK with out end angering the water
tightn ess of the roof sk in.
In the vert ical area the angle strip must
be turned up at least 15 cm above th e
surface of the gravel or conc rete tiles.
The flange joint of th e angle strip must
be at least 12 cm wide . For bett er adhe
sio n of the seal, the f lange is painted
with a co ating of so lvent. The metal sur
face must be clean and dry .

RHEINZINK" c apping str ip, lon g, as protectio n again st ultr a violet radi ation and mec h an ic al da mage,

The angle strip must be bond ed be


twe en laye rs. The fir st layer must be
turn ed up on th e c onst ruction up to th e
upp er edge of the angle str ip . This

with holder and metal sectio n.

complies with the requirements for a

linin g between metal and mason ry,

~.C? ~c!e~~_9!: _ l ~ I.~~ b~_lj~ ~e . ~ ~N. 1.~. 3?9).


49

------_._._. __.._--

- -

- ---

---

- -

- --

- - - - - --_.. ._-- -

--

--

_ .

__.-

Furt her layers are fu lly bonded on t he


f lan ge of t he angle st rip. The joint ing
g ro ove is t hen furt her bo nded by
m eans of a hot ad hesiv e, dressing
com pound, or similar.

,A. roof t emp erature difference of 100 K


(- 20 D C to + 80 D C) is assu med. When
laid at a temp erature of + 15DC , RHEIN
ZINKwill expa nd so me 8.6 mm pe r 6 m
length and contract 4.6 mm, S ee 3.6.

To accommodate movem ent , the tran


sit ion from metal to the firs t layer of the
roof lining must be cove red w it h a
10 cm wide separator strip, fi xed on one
s ide , befor e furth er layers are bonde d.

In th e lower temp erature zon e t he


angle st rip becomes too "short", Stress
on t he solde red seam may th erefore
become so gr eat th at it crac ks ope n.
St resses cause d by fluct uat ions in
tem peratur e may cause the openi ng of
the soldered seam to co nt inue to the
flang e and result in permeability The
split in th e solder ed seam may con ti
nue into the roof felt and ca use it to tear.

The angle strip mu st be fastened down


to make it storm-proof. This precludes
it from being placed directl y on th e in
sulation. A timber edg ing st rip must be
laid under the angl e strip, with a min i
m um proj ection of 4 c m beyond the
angle st rip on the roof side for secure
nailing.
The indi rect fastening of angle st rips by
clips, batten s or tooth ed clips is abso
lutely necessary (exception RHEIN
ZINK System Type 1) to ensure th at
linear expansion of the angle st rip is
not prevented.

In detail , the process can be exp lained


as follows: By splitting of the soldered
seam, a small gap of a few millim etres is
cr eat ed. Initially th is equ alled zero.
The rat io zero millimetres to a few milli
metr es equals : infinity. As the roof felt
is firmly bonded to the angle strip, this
has the same ratio as the soldered
seam . No material possesses unlimit
ed elastic ity, It must break. Con se-

quent ly t he c rack in the soldered seam


continues into th e roof felt
If theoretically th e roof fel t were bond
ed to c onc rete, a s plit would result lik e
th e so ldered sea m and th e same me
chani c al processes would becom e ef
fective . Therefore, the angle strip must
be fastened ind irect ly with clips .
Th e laying inst ructi o ns in Sec tion 3.7
must be obse rved.
As a precautionary measure all angle
strip s or similarly bonded components
in th e wat er plane should be bitu me n
coated. In respect of terrace tiling in
part icul ar, bituminous coating is es
sential, as air cannot reach th e moi st
zon e. See 1.4. In this case the protec
tive coati ng, commencing in the water
plane, must be applied up to 2 em
ab ove the terrace tiling .

Again and again one reads that the


angle st rip is to be fast ened by nailing
at 5 cm intervals. It c ould be con clud
ed, therefore, that direct fastening of
the angle strip is permi ssible.
In contrast to the indirect fastening by
clips, as described above, direct fas
ten ing prevents linear movement. A
nailed angle strip, when bonded, is
fixed like a locomotive rail. Therefore
no forces can act by linear expansion
on the individual soldered joints, and
the soldered seam cannot break. On
closer examination, however, this is
not correct. The flange of the angle
strip cannot be regarded on its own, for
the vertical joint is not fixed firmly.
Here th e for ces of t hermal movem ent
beco me fully effecti ve. Th e proc ess
become s cle arer, t he more note is
taken of the fact th at in bond ing, lin ear
expan sion and contraction due to fluc
tuations in tempe rature, is impeded by
direct fastening with nai ls at 5 e m inter
vals, and thu s is equ ivalent to zero. In
the vert ical zone , where there are no
nail s, the c hange in len gth pe r 6 m of
ang le strip is up to 1.3 em. There is,
therefore, c ons ide rable stress.
'

50

,... ~ .: .. r--: ' 1

1 " . _
,

R H E II~ Z Il~ K

expa ns ion jo int with bo nd ed ang le strip

..

RHEINZINK Systems
Type 1
Togeth er with th e trade, we have devel
oped two sys tems for th ese angle
j oints , partic ularly for the joints in the
wate r plane of logg ias a nd terr ac es.
The previously described require
ments for th e fast ening of angle st rips
and flashing s or sim ilar bond ed join ts
are fulfilled by a spe c ial process with
co nside rable adva ntages in handlin g
and exec ut io n. Following a period of
test s, patents have now be en regis
tered.
As th e drawing shows, fast ening of th e
RHEINZINK(; joint s and cappi ngs o r
angle strips to be bo nded is by nailing
to th e first layer of th e roof felt. Hot dip
galvan ised flat headed nails/d ecking
tacks must be used .
In ord er to allow the play of forces
through fixing by nails, certain provi
sions must be exactly observed.
Instead of nail holes as required for
direct fastening, slot perforat ions are
punch ed into the profile prior to us ing
the RHEINZINK angle strip. These
should be about 2.5 cm from the roof
side edge of the angle strip to be bond
ed.

Th e slot perforatio ns are parallel to th e


lo ngitudinal axis of th ermal expansion.
Th e slot holes are 3 mm wide and
16 mm long. Wit h a nail di ameter of
2.8 mm, a 13 mm movement of RHEIN
ZINK strips is pos sibl e. Thi s is s uf
fi c ient for full y acco mmodat ing th erm al
line ar ch ang es, as th e wor ked
example , Secti on 6.3 "Bond ing",
proves. Th e distance between perfora
tio n is approx. 5 ern, i.e. once every
7 c m the RHEINZINKstr ip is held by a
nail , and connection to th e edge or
eaves board is made . For indirect
fast ening of bonded RHEINZINK
an gl e strips by nail s in the area of slot
perforation, a further provi sion must be
obse rved.

The nail head must not pr ess th e


RHEINZINK strip to the base because
in th is way lateral movem ent of th e
metal could be conside rably impeded
or even blocked. To avoid thi s, a metal
strip 0.5 mm thick is interp os ed be
tween the nail and the edging board
before impact which , upon removal ,
leaves suff icient play for movement of
the RHEINZINK strip. In accordanc e
with the guidelines, every 6 m (or 3 m) a
1-head expansion joint is req uired. See

To balance out t he diffe rent move


ment s between metal and roof felt, th is
area is cove red wit h a slid ing st rip,
12 c m wide . The slidi ng st rip is made
from 0.5 m m thic k RHEINZINK an d
fixed by a few nails on the roof sid e, but
no ad hesi ve sho uld be applied to eithe r
side . Due to all th ese ste ps the usual
rise in th e ro of felt w here it meets t he
metal, caus ed by we lts, c lips and 4 mm
t hic k sliding fe lt , is almost totally avoid
ed.
Impairment of water fl ow in the jointing
zones to vertical structures as well as
at the eaves is avoided, so that th ere is
practically no danger of pond ing on flat
roof s.
Th e sec ond and third layers of th e roof
fe lt are fully bonded to the 12 cm wide
RHEINZINK" strip flange. Prior to th is a
coating of so lvent is app lied. For thi s
th e material must be clean and dry The
pr ecaut ionary prot ective coating of the
angl e strip, se e 2.6 and 6.3 "Bonding"
last paragraph , is c arried out as des
c ribed.

3.7.

, ',

RHEINZINK ex pa ns ion joint wi th bo nd ed angle strip Typ e 1

'

'

"

Bonded angl e st rip with 1-h ead dilat o r (expan


sio n j o int)

51

RHEINZINK Systems
Ty pe 2

is fold ed down as a cli p to form a


fi nis hed sing le welt.

For jo ints to vert ic al constructi ons we


have introduced a system for fast ening
the bond ed RHEINZlf-.JK ang le strip s.
This is distinguished by the fact that
plumbing work can be ca rried on inde
pendently of the roofing wor k, as soon
as all layer s of the roof co nstr uction
below insul ation level are lai d .

Th e RHEINZINK anc horing sect ion is


0.8 mm thi ck . Th e fixing sc rews should
be spac ed abo ut 25 cm apart. There
are slits in the up per edge of the vert i
cal web . By thi s mean s jointing of the
vapour pre ssu re ex pansi on layer with
the roof edge is obta ine d. The lay ing
and fast en ing of the ang le strip and th e
so lde red 1-head dil ators can follow in
de pendently from any further roof seal
ing work .

By fastening the RHEINZINK angle


strips with RHEII\JZII\JK anchoring sec
tions, the otherwise necessary edging
board used as a support for nail s wh en
sec uring clips can be omitted.
RHE INZINK anchoring sectio ns are U
shaped as shown in the dr awinq, Th is
section is placed with its op en side to
the c ent re of the roof on the insulation
lining.
Th e shank of the RHEINZINK ancho r
ing section is fastened firmly by the
usual means and bonded with the
s u bstruct ure bearing the roof felt. Th e
c lea r height of the U-shape corre
s po nds to the insulation thickness.The
edg e of the RHEINZINKanchoring sec
tion is already turned up 120 0 at a width
of 20 mm at the upper free shank and,
aft er laying the RHEINZINK angle strip,

With the RHEINZINKangle strip with a


17 c m wide flange, the RHEINZINK an
c ho ring section is mounted with a
14 c m c lear di st ance from the vertical
constru ction to be flashed, so that after
covering with the separator strip the
flange is 12 cm wide. The space in be
tween is filled with insulating material
in acc ordanc e with the predetermined
thi ckness.
Prior to mounting the RHEINZINK
angle strip, this area of weathering is
covered with the first layer of the roof
felt. This is bonded by spot application,
or may be laid loosely. Fastening of the
RHEINZINK angle strip by the single
welt allows thermal linear movement.
Ac commodation of this th ermal ex pan

RH EINZINK - 1-h ead di lat or wit h bo nded parap et jui nt and parapet wea the ring

52

sion is by means of 1-head dil ators , see


Sec t. 3.7. Th e se parator str ip over the
tran sition me tal to roofing felt, is plac ed
in posit ion as des c ribe d. Thi s c an als o
be don e in th e subse qu ent roof sea li ng
work. Th e roof felt is bond ed on to th e
specially prepared flange. In ac cor
dance with th e c od e of practice the
angle strip mu st be protected up to a
heigh t of 2 c m above the fini sh ing layer
by an appro pr iate d ense coa ting. See
Sect. 2.6

Correct arr angement of RHEINZINK


expansion joints (d ilato rs) 3 .7.

6.4
Eaves Flashings
1. Eaves fla shings fo r roof coverings
2. Eaves flashing s for met al roof s

3. Eaves flashing s for roof sealing


- bo nde d into t he sealing felts
- as a su ppo rt for roof sealing

1. Eaves flashings for roof coverin gs.


In tiled or slated roofs, the flashin g can
also serv e as a drainag e area wh ere the
covering does not project over the rear
edge of the gutter. Th is flashing can be
fixed with a loose 5 cm wide overlap.As
a precaution, the joint edges in the
water plane should be lightly grooved
to avo id capillary suction. The seating
width on the eaves board depend s on
the type of roof c overing and roof
slop e. See 6.2. Fixing is by galva nised
nails.
Eaves detail - flat roof wit h gr avel bo ard and RHEINZINK expans ion joint
section wid th mm

Min. Thickness
mm

> 2 40
250
200

0.80
0.70
0.70
0.70

16 7

2. Eaves flashings for metal roofs

Eaves flashings for metal roofs are a


spec ial product. Se e 4.9 .
3. Eaves flashing s for roof sealing

- bond ed into the sealing felt.


The same provis ions apply to laying,
fast en ing,
bonding of ind ividual
length s and inclu sion of expan sion
joint s as for bonded angle strips. See
6.3. The eaves board should be 1 c m
thinner th an th e insulation to avoid
pud dle s.
- as a suppo rt for roo f sealing
The flashing assum es anot herf unctio n
whe re in "c hea p roofing " reinforced
st rips or th e roo f seali ng itself can be
dres sed over the oute r edg e of th e
eaves .

Eaves deta il w it h pr oj ec tin g gutte r in ac c orda nce wit h DIN 18461 - tiled roofin g

Here the flashing has a sup portive


rat her th an a weat he ring functi on
whi ch is exercised by th e roof sea ling
felts. Watertight jointing with the indivi
dual lcnqths L~ U1 -, r,~\"'","'"cll y. A G \jIll
overl ap is suffi cient. Th e flash ing is

53

fi x ed directly with galvani sed nails in a


sta ggered arrangem ent at 5 cm inter
v al s. The bond ing flang e is 12 c m and is
pa inted with a solvent for bett er adh e
s io n of th e roof felts. Here also the
eaves board should be 1 c m thinn er
t h an the insulation.
Of course in th is met ho d the laws of
p hysi cs conc erning th ermal expan
sion are not canc elled out, but becom e
effe ct ive along th e seam of th e loose
ov erlapping This movement mu st not
be tran smitt ed to the bonded roof seal
ing , as oth erwise th e elasti c ity of the
ro of felt would be over-stressed and
break. See 6.3. Therefore, the loos e
seam s of two eaves flashings must
have an unbonded zone of 15 c m on
both sides instead of the otherwise ful
ly bonded felt. Where the roof sealing is
by roof felt or welded bitumen sheets
with glass fibr e, then the first layer in
the eaves flashing zone must have an
additonal
bituminous cloth/fabri c
fla shing or equivalent, as sheets with
glass fibre cannot be folded down into
the gutter on the front edge of th e
eav es flashing strip.
Th e use of the eave s flashing strip as a
support should be restri cted to small,
simple
and
undemanding
v ery
("ch eap" ) roof s.

RHEINZIN K-Detail : Eaves flash ing st rip bo nd ed with roo f - indi rec t fasten ing by c lips

RHEINZINK- Deta il : Eaves fl ash in g st rip as s up po rt, fi xed direc tly with nail s , with bo nde d c over strip

R;:
C~

-C Cr

.:

-CtV
y".y \ 1
\~

\;\

'-.~.
c

.,i

LJ

.r=p
~

RHEINZINK" prod uc tion prog ra mme - eaves flash ings

54

.,I

LJ

,~

.,

{)I

c6

-l~
~ ,1

,"

6.5
Weath e rings

A+A ,

f~

Sect ion B-B

r - -,

I -,

: I:

~ } *, A,

~ A
Section A1 - A1

Covering in
acco rda nce wit h
gu id elin es fo r
fl at roo fs

10 mm
>-----<

Parapet co ping and angl e strip joint


Se ctio n A-A

Cornice, wall or other coping s are indi


rectly fixed by sliding clips or strips to
allow for thermal Iinear movement. The
spacing of the ind ividual fasten ers
depends upon the construction, local
requirements and wind load. See 4.7.

Vario us possibilities with


RHEINZIN K:' parapet copin gs

The overhang of the metal flashings is


made wit h a drip edge with a distance
of 20 mm min. from the construction to
be prote cted (DIN18 339). An overhang
of 30 mm is recommended .
Every 8 m or, measured from the edges,
every 4 m, an expansion joint must be
provided. Expansion can take plac e by
means of a flat sliding seam expansion
joint or an additional weathered under
lay with open joint.
Metal thickness re lat ed to sectio n
Sec ti on width
mm
up
up
up
up

to
to
to
to

167
333
400
600

II
II

L
/

Section C - C

~~~~~

Min . Thickn ess


mm
0.6 5
0.70
0.80
1.00

.j . '

R H E INZI NK~w indow s ill cover with wo od en wi ndow fra mes and -side upturn to rend erinq

:' '-

':\:~ ~: ." .~ " '

, :.

'. ~- ' .: "

RHEINZIN K"' wintl ow sill c over with woode n


fram8:;'

55

[~]

Compensation for
Expansion
To co mp ensate for th ermal linear
movement, an expans ion joint has to
be mad e without causing permeability.

wall copings ; roof edges outs ide water


pla ne ; intern al rec essed, unbo nded
gutters
Sec tion larger t ha n 500 mm
8m

The appro x. value for max. spac ing of


exp ansio n joints is as follows:

RHEINZIN K" wall coping with edging strip

RHEINZINK~ wall coping with edging strip and


fl at slid ing joint
Vert ic al face : Poss ibility 1.

Sec tio n B-B

10 mm

Section A-A

RHEINZINK" wa ll coping with edging strip and


fla t sliding join t
Verti cal face : Pos sibi lity 2.

10mm

!
Se ct ion C-C

56

RHEI NZINK~ wa ll c opi n g bonded fully with EN

KOLl T, jo int area with un derlay butl joint 5 mm fo r


3 m indiv. len gths
Can also b e u s ed fo r win dow sill cov er

Sec tion A-A

RHEINZINK" wall copi ng with RHEINZINK ex


pans ion joint an d joi nt cap pi ng

Sec tion A-A

57

7.0
RHEINZINK-massiv
Roof Drainage

Peak loads in a brief un it of time and


t heir frequency are esse ntial factors in
calc ulating roof dr ainage .

General Code of Practice - VOB - DIN


Standards

The frequ ency (n) rep resents the num


be r of exces ses per annum of defined
vo lume of rainf all , e.g. n = 1 means th at
a measured peak load is exceeded
once annually.

Terminology, Calculation and Dimen


sions for roof drain ag e are defin ed in
t wo DIN Stan dard s.

01N 18460" External rainwater pi pe s


on buildings and gutt ers .
Terminology and Princi
ples governing Calcula
tion

* Published S ept. 1978

The peak loads of some cit ies are sum


mari sed in Table 1.

7.-',

Tabl e 1. Peak Load : Rainfall r fo r n

Calculation

City

Because of the greater pollution


hazard in gutters, rainwater pipes are
dimensioned for rainfalls of at least
300 I/ (s . hal to prevent the ingress of
precipitation moisture from the gutter
into the building .
Te rminology and Principle of Cal cuia
ti o n

Rainfall (r) is th e measured qu antity of


rain per unit of time in relation to area in
I/ (s ' hal. Rain volume is defined as rain
intensity measured in relation to dura
tion.

58

Roof s
Roof s
Roo f ga rde ns

> 15 (2 7%)
< 15 (2 7%)

1
0.8
0,3

' ) Extract from DIN 1986, part 2 (Issue 1978), Tab le 13,
Drainage coefficients for dete rmining rainwater drain

age Or:

For int ern al recesse d gutters the


downpipe and co rrespo nd ing gutter
cross-section s must likewi se be
dimensioned in accordance with DIN
18460.

DIN 18461 * Eave s gutters , exte rna l


rainwater pipes and fit
tings made of met al.

Calculation of rainwater pipes and as


so c iated gutters is based on th e cross
sectional areas calculated from the
c lear dimensions of the profiles carry
ing the water. In rainwater pipes of rec
tangular cross section the smallest
side must be at least equal to the dia
meter (nominal size) of corresponding
rainwater pipes of circular cross sec
tion .

41 Drainage
c oeffic ien ts

Ty p e of adjace nt
ro of area

DIN 18 460 (Iss ued 19 78) Table 4 shows


th e pr ecipitation area in respect of
rainw ater pipe s in com plianc e with DIN
1986 (Drainage installations for build
ings and land) Part 2, Table 11, with local
rainfall of 300 I/(s . hal .

Th ese are:

Calculation of rainwater pipes and also


associated gutter size depend on the
amount of rainfall, effective roof area
and drainage coefficient (pitch, nature
of surface) .

Tab le 3 Drain ag e coeff ic ient ')

Augsburg
Bonn
Fran kfu rt/M ai n
Kar ls ruh e

1. T

5 min .

I/ (s ' hal

I/( min . rn")

333
532
370
53 2

2.00
3.20
2.22
3.20

Tabl e 2, Rainfall for Germany for : n

City
Kassel
M6n ch engl adbach
MOnchen-Pasing
Rot enburg/H ann .

I/ (s' hal

I/(min ' mO)

203
300
416
4 90

1.22
1.80
2.50
2.94

1 ; T ~ 5, 10 & 15 min ,
10

Durati on o f T rain
I/( s ' hal
N. W. Germ an y
North East to
Centr. German y
West German y
Saxo ny/ Sile s ia
So uth West Germ .

As a precautionary measure, however,


two rainwater pipes must be installed ,

I/ (min . mO) I/ (s' hal

15

I/(min ' mO) I/ (s ' hal

I/(m in 'mo)

154

0 ,92

110

0 ,66

85

0,51

162
162
174
2 12

0.97
0.97
1.04
1.28

121
124
132
150

0.7 3
0.75
0.80
0.90

94
96
106
119

0.57
0.58
0.64
0.72

Rainwater flow (q.). Rainw aterflowas a

factor of area in I/ (s . hal .

each of which must have the cal culat


ed cross section for only one outlet.
Thu s in th e event of a blo c kage, one
rainwater pipe can take over from th e
other. This ar rang ement of rainwate r
pip es as sumes that the flow from rain
pipe to rainpip e is not blo cked by a
conventional sliding seam .

Table 2 shows five main regions of Ger

many with different climatic cond itions

and average rainfall.

Therefore, an expansion joint situated


in the flow must be used. RHEINZINK
expansion joint see 3.7.

Discharge coefficient ljJ Factor: Ratio

of rainwater flow to rainfall (Table 3) .

The usual pract ice , for precautionary


reasons, of doubling the cross section
of recessed gutters rema ins without
proven effect, as is demonstrated by
calculation at the end of Ch apter 7.1 .

Further definitions are:

Rainwater discharge (Q r) defined as

the volume of water per second flowing

into rainwater pipes (l/s) .

Q (I/ s)

= area (ha) . Rainfall I/ (s . hal .

Discharge coefficient lV .

'T
!

Tab le 4

Calc ulating rainwater pipes wit h c ircu lar cro ss sectio n and relate d half- roun d and bo x- sh ap ed metal gutt ers

(see DIN 184 61)

(Extract from Ta ble 11 DIN 1986, part 2, Issue 1978)

Effe ctive ro of area

rainwater
d rainage' )

Related g utt er

Rainwater pipe
Cros s
sect.

Qrzul

Diam .
ON

l/ s

mm

37

1.1

60')

28

57

1.7

70

38

with max. rainf all


r : 300 I/(s . ha)")
m'

Haif -rd .

Box - shaped
gutter cro ss
sect.
- em'

Nom .
size

gu tter c ro ss
sect.
- em'

200

25

200

23

50

250
285

43
63

250

42

em'

Nom . size

83

2.5

80

150

4.5

100' )

79

333

92

333

90

24 3

7.3

120')

113

400

145

400

135

125

122

150 ')

177

500

245

500

220

270

8,1

44 3

13.2

*) Where local rainf all is gre ater th an 300 I/ (s . hal. corresponding values must be calculated (see example)

') Usual nom inal sizes for roof dra inage

') The values indicated derive from funnel-shaped outlets.

Where an arrangement of two separate


rainwater pipes is not possible then, to
gain space for an overflow, the upper
edges of the gutter must be sufficiently
high to permit the backflow to drain off
without entering the building, in so far
as an emergency gutter does not per
form this function.

mension of 120 mm must be selected


when using a cylindrical outlet. This
can be readily seen, since with a
straight, angular downflow, due to con
traction, the effective pipe cross-sec
tion is reduced to about 60%.lnstead of
a DN 100 pipe, effectively it is only DN
80.

These essential precautionary steps


must be considered at the design
stage.

For this reason DIN 18461 has stand


ardised funnel-shaped outlets, so as to
comply fully with the requirements of
DIN 18 460 as well as with the principles
of calculation in DIN 1986.

It must be noted that when calc ulati ng


external roof drainage on the basis of
the above criteria, it is not the gutter
cross-section which is calculated, but
the required diameter of the drain pipe
as a closed pipe. Of importance is only
the size of the pipe cross-section for
safe drainage of water; the gutter is
merely related to the size of the pipe,
as it only deli vers water to the pipe as
an open gutter.

In accordance with DIN 1986, part 2,


4.2.4, calculations for dimensioning
rainwater pipes are based on funnel
shaped outlets. This means, however,
that with cylindrical outl ets commonly
in use, the rainwater pipes must be one
dimension larger. If, for example,Table1
indicates a rainwater pipe dimensi on of
100 fo r Or = 4.5 li s , a nominal pip e di

The gutter opening must be oval, about


30% larger than the cross-section of
the pipe and the edges must be
flanged downwards.
For recessed gutters the use of funn el
shaped outlets is essential. If cyl indri
cal outlets are nevertheless used , one
does not select the calculat ed value ,
but the next higher standard nom inal
width in Table 4 to e nsure the prev en
tion of possible backflow.

Ft-H3r'.-Z\!'II<'. ou 'ets ;',;!h I\.r o el-sh<l:;:ed .,le l


Ov-dl Pl.~lc C DC ~ ng - 30 % JarQC' IIV'l D'N

R-ilNZiN-<

0C01ets I'l ith eyilnd::;.aI rfl!e\

01'CUk1' j)l/. IC' ~rW1r;l- Ol'l p-oe

~oe

C<Y.1: f~ion 1/- ~ -

Cont,a::'Q"lIl-

~-

C.6'

EX<lmv.c: cal culation as per [)I N 1t14 tiU


Funnel-3h nped outle l: Pipe d t.:lrn,,;,l(:l ON 100
Cy lindfrc al
ou tlet: Pipe dlamp.I W I) N 120

59

Th e following w orked example de


monst rat es the h yd ro-mec hanic al im
portance of a c o rrect ly calculated rain
w ater pi pe in re lati on to th e negli gi ble
flow capacity of gutters.
Ro of are a to be
drain ed
L en gth of recessed
g utt er
G utter c ross-section
as in Tabl e 4
Nominal gutter
size
Capacity c ross
s ection of gutter
With rainfall of
th e result is Q r inflow

Examp le 1 : (loc al rain fall up to 300 I/ (s hal


Rainfall
Effective roof area 12.5 m x 17.5 m
Drain age co effi c ient (Roof ~ 15)
Rainwater discha rge

10 rn

333

90 drn"
300 I/(s . hal
45 li s

By dividing the gutter flow capacity by


the rainwater flow of 4.5 lis (Table 4)
the time nece ssary to fil l the entire gut
ter will be obtained
20 s

Ca lculat io n exam ples:

fr om Tabl e 4
se lec ted pi pe for Q r ,.: 7.3 l/ s
Example 2:
(loc al rainfall r > 300 I/ (s ' hal
Rai nwater di scha rge
Rainfall e.g.
Effective roof area : 12.5 m x 17.5 m
Drainage coeffi ci ent: (Roo f 2.: 15)

= 300 1/\s ' [; '-)


= 220 m
ljJ
~ 1.0
220
Qr - - - - . 300 . 1.0
10000
Q r ~ 6 .6 I/ s
r
A

1 down pipe nomina l size 120 mm


or, o ptionally, 2 down pi p es nominal size 100 mm

Qr = A . r . ljJ l/ s
r
~ 400 I (s h al
A = 220 m'
ljJ
= 1.0
Or

= ~ '4 00 1 . 0

Qr

10 000

from Tabl e 4
se lec ted pip e for Q r

~: ~

0.33 min.

,g .~

Qj

0 ';;;

13.2 l/ s

8.8 I/ s

1 downp ip e nominal size 150 mm


or, op tio nally , 2 downpipes nomin al size 100 mm

RHEINZINK nomogram for determining down pipe size as a factor of


roof area to be drained (DIN 18460 + DIN 1986)

Thi s calculation proves that an ade


quately dimensioned downpipe is
alone responsible for reliable roof
drainage. Enlargement of the gutter
cross section ~ a s no measurable
drainage effect.

Roof area to be drained

7.2

7.3

Jointing

RHEINZINK-massiv
Gutters

RHEINZINK-massiv gutters are jointed


eitherfirmly by soft soldering or loosely
by sliding seams.
By the soft soldering method the over
lap at the joints should be at least
10 mm , and the soft solder should cov
er the gap to a width of 10 mm horizon
tally and slightly inclined. In th e verti cal
area in particul ar , the solder seam
should be at least 5 mm. The det ail s in
Section 3.5 sho uld be noted.

60

The recent DIN Standard 18461 has


added the box-shaped to the half
round hanging gutter. Omitted here is
size 285, the reason being the very
small cross sectional enlargement of
about 15 ern? next to size 250. The 285
gutter is frequently seen in competition
with the larger size 333, although it is
really only a slightly larger size 250 gut
ter. The cross sect ional difference of
approx. 48 ern" can be useful within the
range of increasing sizes.

"" 2 2 - max. gu tt e r ro ll (bead)

- t
~ il<

">

/ \ --nf---

--L.

Half-rd. gutter and brackets, sizes as per DIN 18461


Siz e s in mm. Tole rance, w here not stated , 1 mm
Nom.
size

II> rd.
gutter sizes
d

80 ' 6
105 '18
127 18
153 20
192 22
250 22

5
7
7
9
9
9

8
10
10
11
11
21

200
250
285
333
400
500

Gutt er bra ck ets


Mel.
with 2 sp rings FF
Thickn .
verI.
Acrn?
s
d1 a2 c1
c2
c2
25
43
63
92
145
245

0.65
0.65
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.80

80
105
127
153
192
250

18
20
20
20
20
20

40
50
60
75
95
125

200
230
230
230
250
250

240
280
290
300
340
390

with nosing & sprin g NF


verI.
ct
c2
d1 N
c2
80
105
127
153
192
250

40
50
60
75
95
125

12
14
14
14
14
14

200
230
230
230
250
250

240
280
290
300
340
390

Row

No m.
size

200
250
285
333
400
500

bxs

bxs

b xs

25
25
30
30
30
40

x
x
x
x
x
x

4
4
4
5
5
5

30
30
40
40
40

x
x
x
x
x

25 x
25 x
25 x
25 x
25 x

4
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
8
8

d 2 = 6 mm w it h s < 5 mm and 7 mm with s > 5 mm


Fron t sp riil g with s ~ 4 mm 20 x 1.2 5 x 100 mm, with s = 5 mm 24 x 1.25 x 100 mm and wi th s > 5 mm 24 x 1.50 x 100 mm
Rear sp ring with s < 5 mm 20 x 1.00 x 80 mm & with s > 5 mm 24 x 1.2 5 x 80 mm
With s =
mm a2 becom es 5 mm sho rter
Ap prox. values . See also DIN 1055 she et 5

~i

~L

.L

11
- t ;:,
I

-l.

'----'C==

-=3I-- [

Box-shaped gutter and brackets, s izes as per DIN 18461


Sizes in mm. Tolerance, whe re not sta ted, 1 mm
Nom..
size

bo x gu tte r
Siz es

200
250
333
400
500
667
b
d2

42
55
75
90
110
180

70
85
120
150
200
225

50
65
085
100
130
200

16
18
20
22
22
22

5
7
7
9
9
9

Mel.
Th ic kn II
s
A ern" min .
a1
28
42
90
135
220
400

0.65
0.65
0.70
0.70
0.80
0.80

31
43
62
76
96
166

with 2 sp rings FF

Row

Nom.
size

Gutter brac ket s

with no sin g & spri ng NF

a2

c1

c2

c2

a3

18
20
20
20
20
20

70
85
120
150
200
225

34
46
65
79
99
169

200
230
230
250
250
260

240
280
300
340
390
390

31
43
62
76
96
166

12
70
14
85
14 120
14 150
14 200
14 225

c1

c2

34
46
65
79
99
169

200
230
230
250
250
260

c2
240
280
300
340
390
390

bx s

bxs

,
200
250
333
400
500

667

25
25
30
30
40
40

x
x
x
x
x
x

4
4
5
5
5
5

30
40
40
40
40

x4
x5
x5
x5
x5

3
bx s
25 x 6
25 x 6
25 x 8
25 x 8
25 x 8

Num. size. Basically : Gutter = b - 1 rnrn, br ac ket b + 2 mm


= 6 mm wi th s < 5 mm and 7 mm with s > 5 mm
Only w ith s = 8 m m a1 b ec o mes 10 mm and a2 5 mm short er
Front s p ring with s = 4 mm 20 x 1.25 x 100 mm, w ith s = 5 mm 24 x 1.25 x 100 m m and wi th s > 5 mm 24 x 1.50 x 100 mm
Rear sp ring with s < 5 mm 20 x 1.00 x 80 mm and w ith s > 5 mm 24 x 1.25 x 80 mm
Appro x . va lue s. See als o DIN 1055 she et 5
'l engt hened
=

61

As the tables s how, exac t bracket sizes


f or halfround a nd box-shaped gutters
in finish ed bent co ndit io n are given.
Thu s t here are standardi sed brack ets
f or every size of gutter. For s pecia l
appli cati ons the dimen sion c is
length ened:
in stead of 200
inst ead of 230

24 0
280, etc.

Gutters are fix ed to a fall. Hor izont al f ix


ing is possibl e, but great ca re must be
take n to maintain a n exact ho rizontal
position, not only while fixing , but in the
long term.
Gutters are also subject to th erm al
mov ement. Bec ause of exp ansi on their
lengths must be limited to 15 m,
corners , e.g. in joints with angles, being
treated as straight length s. Long er gut
ter lengths must be divided into dra in
age lengths. Th e conventional gutter
sliding seam arrang ed at the upper fall
is preferable , prov iding se paratio n of
the movable interlocking gutte rs by
means of gutter stop ends with cap
ping or freely movabl e joint into an out
let at th e lower fall. If possibl e the
downpipe spac ings should be adjust
ed to th e maximu m gutter length s. For
long lengths of gutter, the in stall ation of
RHEINZINK exp an sion gutters as a
ready-to-install unit is recomm ended.
See 3.7.
For recessed drainage gutters, e.g.
s hed gutters, gutt er length s can so me
times not be redu ced by a cl ose r arran
gement of downpip es.A subd ivision by
mean s of stepped falls is not always
c o nstruc tively possibl e eith er.
The emp loy ment of the RHEINZINK
c h loroprene expan si on joint is a sim
pler soluti on.

7.4

RHEINZ INK-massiv
Downpipes
DIN 18461 now differentiates between
horizontal and ve rtical so ldered
seams .
In the vertical area, int o which catego ry
downp ipes fall, a sold ered sea m widt h
of at least 5 mm is required. Soldered
seams in downpipes mu st be regarded
with a degree of scepticism.
Round pipe s

Diameter
DW
60
80
100
120
150

round pipes
Dimen sion s
A c m?
d
60
28
76
45
80
50
87
59
100
79
120
113
150
177

Metal
thi ckn.
s
0.60
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0. 70
0 .70

Diam.
d
60
76
80
87
100
120
150

Brack et
I

I
120
120
120
120
140
140
140

Nail
l verl.

200
200
200
200
20 0

Round d ow npipes. intern all y solde red, and brac ket. Siz es as per DIN 18461

The fr equently indifferent quality of so l


dering as well as the DIN stipul ation
motivated RHEINZINK to develop a
RHEINZINK downpipe, soldered int er
nally, whi ch complies with th e DIN re
qu irement for a 5 mm wide so lde red
seam. In this type of downpip e the
seam d oes not break , not even du e to
frost. Furth ermore, t he RHEINZINK
downpi pe also meets cr iti cal aest hetic
requirements.
VOB (DIN 18339, 3. 8. 9) sp ec ifies the
fixing of the downpipe so that the sea m
is visibl e. This is fo r th e bette r co nt rol
and repair of possible damag e to the

seam. For aesth etic reasons, however,


th e seam of a conventional downpipe
should not be to th e front but to the
side.
A remarkable extension to DIN 18 461 is
th e standard isation of plug-in gutter
out lets. The se are in th e RHEINZINK
produ ction programm e. Two types are
offere d : the st raight and the s lop ing
plug-in outlets are manufactured as
standard. With the funn el-shap ed in
lets the requ irem ent s of DIN 18460,
and th us the pri nciples of calc ulatio n
of DIN 1986 , are fully met.

Sectional d etail of mec hanica lly interna lly sol dere d


d ownpi pe seam by th e RHEINZI NK pr oc ess DBP 2607 970

62

Nom.
size

Oiam.

Oia.
rd.
pipe

O. D.

d,
d
60
20 0
58
74
76
250
80
80
78
78
80
285
80
85
87
98
333
10 0
100
118
400
12 0
120
out lets, weld ed Form G, st raight, size
ON
60

Nom.
size

200
250
285
333
400
outle ts,

Oia m.

Dia.
rd.
pip e

Width

Height

b
140
150
165
165
165
190
205

h
75
80
80
80
90
95
95

d2
100

112
129
In

DW
60
80
100
120
150

I length
Put- in
I
35
40
40
40
40
45
50

..-

~
~r:~

. -,

'

115/ 60
140/80
155/ 85
155/85
120/ 90
150/ 110
240/ 13 5

mm

Outl et, Form S, slop ing


O. D.

Wid th Heig ht

ON
d
d,
d2
60
60
58
76
74
100
80
78
80
78
80
80
85
112
87
10 0
100
98
129
120
120
118
wel ded Form S, angled, sizes in mm

Diamet er

Gutter
o penings
ap prox.
val.

Ou tlet, Form G, strai ght

b
140
150
165
165
165
190
205

Diam.
rd.
pi pe

Spigo t
lengt h

Metal
Thickn .

d
60
76
80
87
100
120
15 0

c
30
35
35
35
35
40
40

s
min.
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.80
0.80

h
75
80
80
80
90
95
95

Put- in
length
I
35
40
40
40
40
45
50

(~
er

~~
-i=_. -~ ~ - - -

/1/~ -?~

\0' \
/ \

..

\"

t\

Gutt er
opngs .
appro x.
val.
(max .)
11 5/ 60
140/ 80
155/ 85
155/85
120 / 90
150/ 110
240 / 135

a ~ 40 0 ,600 , 7 2 0
R= d x 1.75
R = d x 1.35

Elbows for round downpipes, internally soldered sizes as per DIN 184 61

Mec hanical ly inte rnal ly soldered RHEINZINK elbows, 60 0 , to the RHEINZINK


process, pat ent regist ered (DE-OS-29 39319).

G utt er corner
The outlets deve loped for easy fixi ng
not only ensure co rrect drainage, but
are design ed for economica l mou nting,
as well as bein g aes thet ic ally ac c ep
table . The gu tt er ope ning should be
oval and the ed ges flanged dow n
wards . Th e use of a wire foliage trap in
th e inlet to th e do w npi pe is not rec om
men ded, as th is will hin der necessary
maintenance . A screen over t he sta nd
pipe fitted with a RHEINZINK pip e flap
will prevent fo uling du e to de ad fo lia ge.

Gutter corners, deep d raw n in one


piece, are newco mers to th e RHEIN
ZINK pro duction pro gramme. The fo rm
of the external and internal corn ers
exa ctly match es tha t of the associ at ed
stan dard gutter. Accurate retenti on of
the rear raised wall ensures safe f low
and preve nts overflow damage. The
rounded c orners be tween th e sho rt
legs ensure perfect c irculatio n of wa ter.
Th e short leg lengt h of th e ang les com
pe nsates for ang ular variat ions on
bui ldi ng co rners.

63

H o lderbat s of RHEINZIN K-massiv


for rai nwa t er pipes with triple
protection against corrosion.

o
o
o

ho lde rbat of RHEINZINKGl


sc rew and hing e non-ru sting
dista nce piec e, angled or
thread ed to c ho ice , galv anised

T h is means :

o
o

th e same weath ered pati na on


rainwater pipe and hold erb at
no rust ing sc rews with unsigh tly
rust strea ks
maximum durability

Ho lderbat with galvanis ed thr eaded pin,


length 200 mm, non- rusting sc rew, bead
and hinge

Hol derb at with galvanised angl ed pin ,


non-rusti ng sc rew, bead and hinge

Eaves gutter brackets of RHEINZIN I(


sheated mantled with triple
protection against corrosion:

o
o
o

of hot-d ip galvanised steel


with RHEINZINK mantled
two spring clips of stainless stee l

This means:

o
o
o

the same weathered patina on


eaves gutter and gutter brackets
gutter spring clips non - rusting
maximum dur ability
Eav es gutter br ack et, RHEINZINK" mantled , for
hal f-rou nd gutters,
wi th 2 no n-ru sting spring c lips

64

Hol derb at wi th galvanise d threaded pin,


le ngth 100 mm , non-ru sting sc rew, bead
an d hinge

8.0

Tools for Sheet Metal


Roofing
A prerequi site for professional wo rk
manship with RHEINZINK materials, in
addition to ob se rving app ropriate
co nstruct io nal tech niques, is th e em
ploymen t of suitable tools , mac hi nery
and anc illa ry equipment.
The most impo rtant tools and ma
ch ines for seaming work on roofs and
facade are de pict ed below

Tool s for seaming by hand

Hardw ood mal let


Deck h ammer

Shears

Eaves locking tool

Eaves fol ding tool

Straigh t seam ing ton gs

Hol din g down tool

Sta nding seam tool

Cran ked se amin g tongs

Dec k tongs
(0130 cra nked . rv1c.uth

Seam open in g to ng s
d",~l1l ~

18 ern)

65

Profiling and Seaming Machines,


Machines for Bending Seams
Fo rm ing doubl e standing seams with
too ls fo r seaming by hand and with a
h a rdwood mallet is very labour-int en
siv e. Therefore seami ng machi nes are
empl oyed, parti c ularly for large roof
area s.

Clos ing the d ouble sta ndi ng seam w ith the RHE INZIN K-F alzo m at.

M achin e for closing an ang le sta nd ing seam

RHEINZINK- profi ling mac hin e in act ion:


var iab le c o nt inu ously from 380 to 88 0 mm , with c utti ng facili ty.

S t retc hing machin e for produ c ing c urved


ba ys with a fi xed radiu s. S mallest rad ius 1 m .

66

Th e co nt inuo us ly va riable adjus tme nt


is very important fo r facad e cladd ing
bec ause of diffe rent grid di mension s.

Profimat and Falzomat

Profimat and Falzomat mach ines have


proved their worth in the produ ction of
double stan d ing seam roofs with
RHEINZINK strips. Even now it is only
by th e comb ination of thes e two ma
chines that strips with an initial widt h
from 380 to 880 mm can jointed by
means of the double standing seam in
on ly two operat ions.
Work procee ds qu ic kly , simp ly and
economi cally . Naturally, all jointing to
eaves, ridge and roo f penetration s
must be carried out by co nventiona l
means.

The Falzomat can be int rod uc ed or


withd rawn anywhere along th e doub le
stand ing seam. The moto r is switched
off and a lever diseng ages the lower
roll
The Profimat form s the two ed ges of
the str ips to a profil e at the rate of 6 m/
min. The Falzom at c lose s the doubl e
sta nd ing seam at th e rate of 12 m/m in.
These capac iti es cl early show th e eco
nomic advantages of using Profimat
and Falzomat mac hi nes .

From th ese c ons ide rat ions and also t o


pro vide th e mos t favourable c onditio ns
for laying, we have de c ided in general
to wind on t he faci ng surfac e as the
inner surf ace . In c o nse que nce, th is
means for the roof-layer th at th e sma ll
co ils always have to be unrolled fro m
und ern eath, so that the correct fac ing
surf ace is always laid uppermost.
Thi s proced ure offe rs in add ition the
adva ntage of bring ing the slightly con
cave curved side of the bays to lay on
th e roof bo ard ing and thus, togeth er
with the locking of the seams , achiev
ing an almost fully flat surface.

The Profimat has a sys tem of rollers by


means of wh ic h the RHEINZI N ~ strip
is simu ltaneously profi led on both
sides. See 5.0 .

Attenti on is here d rawn once agai n to


the fact that the flatness even of
str etched sheeti ng can be impaired
during layi ng. S ee 1.5.

The profiled and cut bay is lai d on th e


substructure and fastened with special
RHEINZINK sliding clips. These perm it
the thermal linear expansion of the
bays. ~HEINZINK fixed clips prevent
slid ing. In order to facilitate lateral
movement , the strips are pre -profiled
to giv e a 3 mm tolerance within the fi
nish ed double standing seam.

In case of doubt, the fac ing surface can


also be recognized from its appear
ance, being marred neither by punch
marks nor adhesive tap ing. Punch
marks and adhesive tape are always
applied to the underside , not to the
facing surface, of the strips.

The profiled bays are int erlo ck ed. Th e


Falzo mat with its roll er sys tem pro
duc es the double stand ing seam in o ne
operation. The Falzomat uses the pro
filed upstand as a "rail" on whic h it
automatically moves forward . See 5.0.
Prio r to using the Falzomat the vert ica l
upsta nd of t he interl oc king profile of
the bay must be clos ed along a length
of 30 cm by mean s of cranked seaming
tongs and wo rked as a 20 cm do ub le
welt. Ths process sh oul d be repeated
at intervals along the preseam ed pro
file to acc urate ly secu re the interloc k
ing prof iles.

RHEINZ IN

roo fin g areas

RHEINZIN ~

Handling instructions for preforming


RHEINZINK strips.

"preweathered " always


has as th e outside face of the coil th e
visually inferior surfac e, which is with
out subsequent treatment. Therefore,
in this case too, always unroll from
below for the pre-p rof iling work.

It is known from experi ence that t he


small co ils used in the t rad e (from
app rox . 100 kg), brigh t mille d and "pre
weathe red" fo r roof coverings and
facade cl add ings, ca n be unrolled
eith er from the bott om or from the top ,
acc or ding to the pos it ion ing in the Pro
fimat. It fo llows that eit her the milled
upp er side or the mill ed und ersid e
appears as fac ing surface . Th is furth er
mean s that in the initial stage the ca r
bon ization (wea the ring) develops with
varying intensity. The cause of the se
temp orary differenc es in weathe ring is
founded in th e milling process.
RHEINZINK strips are regularly
stretc hed to ac hieve optimum eveness
and to obvi at e curved edges.

For demo nstration :

Unr oll from und erne ath onlv !

67

Seam-Bending ("Stretch-and-Com
pre ssion') Ma chines

T hese mac hines facil itate t he prod uc


t io n of curved j oints. Ad ditional pro
cesses such as heating, etc. are not re
qui red. The machin e c an be used fo r
t he usual materi al thi c kn esses.

Sea m bendi ng machin e for manua l work


Ex ampl e of ap plicatio n to a " stun ted py ramid"
wi th a curv ed transit ion to th e vertica l

Sea ming Tongs for the Angle Welt

Wo rki ng example : Stre tc h ing and c ompr ess ing


to smalle r areas, e.g. d o rmers

For aesthe tic reaso ns th e angle welt is


oft en preferred to t he dou ble welt in
facade clad d ing. The seaming tongs
repro d uced in th e photograph not only
facilit ate t his wo rk, but a perfe ctl y
straight seam is ac hieved. Normal'
seami ng ton gs ca n hardly produce an
exactly st raig ht sea m. Th erefore,
seami ng tongs sh ould be used onl y for
short length s, suc h as co rnices. For
areas of c ladd ing us ing longer bays,
the angle welt sea ming mach ine
sho uld be used, as bei ng more econo
mical.

Electrica lly powered stre tc hi ng machi ne

Example of app lica tion to barrel-vau lt roofs

. i.

,, .. -'"

~-~~~~ :

t ;~

Working example : wall ascent: ro und

68

Locking to ng s for ang le sea m

II
Exa mp le inv olv ing the use of seam c losing p inc
ers

9.0
General Directionsfor the
Speci fication of Items in
Sheet Metal Roofing
Technique and Roofing
Contractor's Work
Where th e descri ption of items of work
in the bill of q uantities o r in t he co ntract
permits d iff erent interpretat io ns, t he
cont ractor mu st indicate his preci se
int ent ions and oblig at ions not later
than th e qu ot ation date , i.e. prio r to
signat ure of the co ntract or, on being
requ ested, bef or e this t ime.
Where the bid der or co nt ractor find s
variatio ns between th e terms of th e
subm ission and works or detailed
draw ings, this must be clarified wit h
th e proje ct representative prior to com
menc ing wo rk and the method of carry
ing out the wo rk determined.
Th e contractor must take all dim en
sio ns for th e execu tion of the work to
be done .
'

10.0

Tabl e 1: Strip widths & Metal

Introductory Comments
Regarding Quotations
In t he speci ficat ions which follow an at
tempt has been mad e to fo rmul ate
c learly and exha ust ively, as far as pos
sible, the serv ices to be rend ered in
acco rda nce wit h VOB Part A para. 9,
and ampl ified by numerous drawings ,
so th at th e tende r is based on a cl ear,
comparative descriptio n of services.

Height of
Building

strip
w idth

metal
thic kness

0-1 00 m

60 0

0.70 mm

20 m

700

0.70 mm

8m

800

0.80 mm

Tab le 2: Pos it io n of fixed c lips as a facto r of


ro of pitch
in c ent re of she et
5%- 18%

3 -1 0

Pric es includ e all mat erials and anc il


lary se rvices in accor dance with the
technical spec ificat io ns for building
serv ice s (VOB).

18%-5 8%

10 - 30
58%

30

Exam ples of s pecificatio ns are c lassi


fied summarily, some being illustrated
with drawi ngs. Sentences or parts of
sente nces in brack et s are for informa
tion o nly. For the purpose of c larity
som e important table s have been sum
maris ed.

at up per third

at up per qua rte r

at upp er end of bay

The relevant values should be in serted


into the spe cif ication s.

Tabl e 4 . Cross s eams for RHEINZINKfJ de c king

9 .1

Notifying Reservations

Tab le 3 : Numbe r and spacings of c lips in rela tion to he ight of building and least favou rable roof
pit ch (area of hig hest win d suc tio n loads)

Befor e work co mmences, th e cont rac


tor must c heck that the proj ect is one
whic h he can car ry out. Querie s must
be notified in writing with out delay
Obli gations for c hecking pr elimin ary
work by oth er cont ractors regardi ng
suit ab ility are co ntained in VOB, Part B,
DIN 1961 , para. 4 No.3.

Height of
Buildi ng

50 '

42

20

33

28

20- 100

25

'-

80
90
100
110

36

50'

42

40

33

33

36

cm lH = c lip sp acings in cm
max. c lip spacing
(10m length of sec tio ns)
width of bay c; unit spacing (coo rd inated axes)

Tabl e 5 : Double stan ding sea m syste m


(Ap prox. values)
01
seam
"lo ss"
co ord.
1O
height
axis
lo ss
25
30
35
40

Him' = c llps/m"

Roll cap system


with 125 mm

Normal area
st rip width /coo rd in. axes "
600 /530
700 /630
800 /730

Him' cm/ H Him' cmlH Him' cmlH Him ' cmlH Him' c ml H Him' c ml H

Seaming loss for


600 mm strips

Corne r & edge areas


strip w idth / c oordin. axes '"
700 /630
800 /730
600 /530

520
5 10
500
490

13.3
15.0
16.7
18 .3

Table 6 : Roll cap sys tem


(Approx. values)
%
extra
15.4
17.7
20.0
22.4

8elg .
Decki ng
German
Dec ki nq

batt en
hei g ht

"lc ss"

40
60
40

165
205
195
?1S

GO

c oo rd.
ax is

%
lo ss

"10

extra

22.8

29.5

53 0

28.3
26.9

39 .4
36 .8

dqn

32 .~

~8 .0

560
520

69

Notifying Reservations
Reservations are especially notified regardi ng:
- uns uitable condition of the underlying surfaces, e.g. too rough, porous, mois t or
so iled
- use of unsu itable wood c hi pboard ing on t he facade:
e.g. pheno lic- res in-bonde d, recommende d isocy anat e-bo nded c hi pboa rd
Type V100 G - ISO, min. 25 mm thi c k
- un suitable boarding ,
e.g. insuff ic ie nt board th ickness (min. 24 mm), unequ al board thi c kness,
e.g. eaves board for embedd ing g utt er brack ets (mi n. 40 mm)
- absence of or ins uffici ent mea ns for fixing to joi nts, coveri ngs and c laddings
- unsu itable positi on on site (altitude or fall),
e.g. of drain age faciliti es, jo int s and coverin gs
- ins uffic ient space for conc ealed g utter, e.g. for necessary precautio ns (emer
ge nc y overflow, 'ad ditional rainwater pipe, overflow gutte r)
- ins ufficien t roof pit ch
e.g. strip decking min. 5 % (3) on all pa rts of the roof (eaves , dr ip, valley): recom
mend ed 13 % (7)
- div erqen ce from the hori zontal level or fall s as nec essary o n site
- abse nc e of recessing for eaves flash ings
- non -provision of wedge/saddl e above roof opening (bac k gu tter det ail)
- use of RHEINZINK and copper (contact c o rrosion) ; combin ation with alumin
ium, lead, galvanised steel and stainless ste el is possible
- abse nc e of prot ective coat ing of the drainage surfac es on eaves flash ings, gut
ter s, etc . in combi nation with bituminous felts
- abs ence of de nse protect ive co ating of the bonded angle strip s up to a height of
2 c m above the layer
- insufficient width of masti c flange (min. 12 c m, measu red with out th e c lip area)
- insufficient height of abutments (pitc h < 5 z: 15 ern, ~ 5 c: 10 cm hei ght abov e
the layer)
Drip edge: pl ease not e!
h eight
b ui ld ing
(rn)

:58
8 - 20
2: 20

dim ensi on s of ke rb wea t h er ing


hi
h.
(rnrn)
(mm)

40 - 50
40 - 50

2:

50
80
2: 100
2:

d rip edge
mi n. d istance
fro m co ns tructio n

20
20
20

h i = up stan d of th e bay , h 2 = ove rla pp ing o f th e kerb we atherin g over the c o nst ructi o n to be protec ted

70

11.0

RHEINZINK
Practical Examples

71

Ir '

I
I

i
I

::

10

13

'

14

73

20

75