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The Major

Effects of
Flooding

Table of Contents

Items
Acknowledgements
Introduction and Purpose of
Research
Literature Review
Data Collection Sources
Presentation of Finding
Analysis of Data
Discussion of Findings
Conclusion, Limitations and
Recommendations
Bibliography
Appendix

Page

Acknowledgments
In order for the completion of my School Based-Assessment Project much
assistance and support was offered. I would like to thank God most of all for
everything. Secondly, I would like to thank my subject teacher for guiding me
throughout all the sections in the SBA. I would also like to express gratitude to
all respondents who fill out my questionnaires and all interviewees and lastly
my parents for funding my SBA.

Introduction
&
Purpose of
Research

INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH


INTRODUCTION
Flooding occurs when water courses exceed their carrying capacities so there is an
overflow. There is also flashing flooding which occurs in cemented areas where the water
cannot be penetrated into the soil. Flooding is perhaps the most frequently occurring
natural disaster known. In Thailand during 2011, beginning at the end of July, flooding
soon spread throughout. The flooding persisted in mid-January 2012; it resulted in a total
of 815 deaths, 3 missing and 13.6 million people affected. In the Caribbean flooding is most
prevalent during hurricane season since heavy rains are often caused by hurricanes or
tropical cyclones. Some islands such as Haiti are more severely affected than others. This
depends on their topography, their development of infrastructures and buildings and
whether the country has been intensely by tropical cyclones. In Trinidad, Diego Martin,
several families have been forced to evacuate their homes after a widespread flooding in the
Western Trinidad early one morning. This affected infrastructures, decrease of property
value, and migration, having to move from their home to refurnish or rebuild it.
Research Statement

Loss of crops and livestock is the main effect of flooding.

Research Question
Is loss of crops and livestock the main effects of flooding?

Sub Objective
1.
2.
3.
4.

Do food prices increase as a result of flooding?


Is a decrease in productivity and economic loss to a country a result of flooding?
Does flooding have an impact on the spread of diseases?
Is damage to infrastructure such as roads and bridges an effect of flooding?

Purpose of Research

There are four purposes for my research. Firstly, it is a requirement for my CAPE
Caribbean Studies Exam. Secondly, it helps develop and enhancing my research skills and
my comprehension of information. Thirdly, it highlights some main effects of flooding that
affect my country and helps me to see how I can arrive at reliable solutions to these
problems. Finally, it helps to generate knowledge or understanding and appreciation.

Educational Value

In doing this research based on effects of flooding, it helps me to understand flooding as a


topic in Caribbean Studies better. It helps to educate the school population at North
Eastern College, and also communities at large, so they can take precaution to reduce
effects of flooding. The government can also alert the Regional Corporation and develop
infrastructures to minimise flooding.

Technical Terms

Flooding- Flooding occurs when water courses exceed their carrying


capacities so there is an overflow.
Secondary data- Second-hand information, this type of information already
exists.
Primary data- This is information that you acquire through surveys. This is
first-hand information; it deals with the issue at hand.
Blog- It is a shared online journal where people can post daily entries about
their about their personal experiences and hobbies.
Productivity- This is the balance between inputs and outputs- higher output
relative to input indicates higher efficiency.
Accuracy- This refers to the exactness and truthfulness of the data obtain
when carrying about this research.
Questionnaire- A questionnaire is basically a list of items/questions to which
you are seeking answers.
Surveys- A survey is a broad investigation of a problem.
Interview An interview is a conversational exchange between the researcher
and selected person(s). This is also a qualitative method of enquiry.
Sample- the group of persons that you choose to study.

Literature
Review

Literature Review

A literature review is a review of the literature that is an essential part of the research
project. The review is a careful examination of a body of literature that points towards the
answer to your research question. Research has proven that loss of crops and livestock is
the main effect of flooding. In an article on the internet Rutherford (2013),
http://m.beefmagazine.com/disaster-amp-drought/after-flood-colorado-cattle-producersassess-impact, it stated that cornfields, hay meadows and pastures in the flood zone were
affected. As of mid-week, Hammerich says producers were trying to get into corn fields and
salvage what they could, but some fields still had running water. Most likely, he says, most
of the crops growing in the flood zone will be lost. Another article found on the internet by
Khan (2011)
, http://en.engormix.com/MA-dairy-cattle/dairy-industry/articles/flood-effects-onlivestocks-in-india-t1636/472-p0.htm, stated that the recent floods have caused huge losses
to human lives as well as to human belongings. The flood has badly affected the dairy
potential pockets in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 0.15 millions of animals and 0.8 million
poultry have been perished in the terrible waves of this July monsoon flood.
On further investigation, studies have shown that increase in food prices is also an effect of
flooding. In an article on the internet by Richards (2013)
http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/05/in-trinidad-causes-debated-as-flooding-worsens/ stated
that Shiraz Khan, president of the Trinidad and Tobago Farmers Association, (2013), warn
consumers to brace for increased food prices as helpless farmers watch their crops being
destroyed by flood. An in another article on the internet on the Perera (2011),
http://www.trust.org/item/?map=flooding-bring-higher-food-prices-in-sri-lanka , it stated
that vegetable seller from Mabola, a town on the outskirts of the Sri Lankan capital of
Colombo, says his sales have been suffering as vegetable prices rise sharply. Vegetables
prices, already on the rise in Sri Lanka, are now surging after devastating floods in early
January that hit food production in the country. Experts warn more sharp increase may be
around the corner, including in the countrys staple rice crop.

In an article on the internet by Porter (2013),


http://k99.com/colorado-school-business-closure-due-to-flooding-for-spetember-12th-2013/
he stated that due to torrential rains in Northern Colorado and some businesses and
schools have closed due to flood water. This shows that productivity decrease due to

flooding. According to Aldrete (2006 )in his book Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome, it
stated that the catastrophic August 2005 flooding of New Orleans and surrounding regions
as result of Hurricane Katrina occurred when this book was already press. Preliminary
estimates of the economic losses resulting from this event are around $100 billion. This
shows that economic losses and decrease in productivity is an effect of flooding.
In an article by Bishop (2012) in the Newsday, newspaper, stated that flood-borne diseases
are a composition of illnesses caused by different infections such as bacteria, virus and
parasites which are prevalent during rainy season. Flooding also poses an increased risk of
infection from water-borne diseases contracted through direct con tact with polluted
waters. This happened in shelters were flood victims had to stay due to the flooding in
Diego Martin. In an article on the internet by Herriman (2012),
http://www.examiner.com/article/one-result-of-the-philippines-floods-an-increaseinfectious-disease , it stated that after the accumulation of water during nearly two weeks if
torrential rains brought on by Typhoon Saola in the capital city of Manila and its
surrounding areas, in the aftermath of these massive storms and flooding that goes with it,
Philippines health officials will now be influx of infectious diseases among that population.
Therefore, research has shown that the increase in diseases is a result of flooding.
In the an article on the internet Ben (2013)
http://www.naco.org/newsroom/countynews/Current%20Issue/10-21-2013/Pages/Countyinfrastructure-damages-pile-up-in-Colorado-after-flood.aspx , it stated that county
infrastructure damages piles up in Colorado after flood. More than 1,000 people were
evacuated from their homes and few if any have been able to return. Boulder County also
saw roughly $100 million in damage to its roads and bridges. In an article Kaufmann(2013)
http://m.calgarysun.com/2013/07/02/initial-flood-damage-to-city-of-calgary-infrastructuretagged-at-256-million , stated that flood waters wreaked more than $256 million to city
infrastructure, states a report released Tuesday. But city officials say that number could
rise significantly. Among the carnage was more than $55 million to the downtown police
administration building. The losses were heavy. Therefore, the research proves that damage
to infrastructures is a result of flooding.

Data
Collection
Sources

Data Collection Sources

In this research, primary and secondary sources of data collection were used to obtain and
achieve required information.
Primary sources are sources that are closest to the issue being studied. They are directly
concern with the issue at hand. This information is acquired through interviews and
questionnaires, its first-hand information. The advantage in this method of acquiring data
was that, it is up to date. But the disadvantage is that the interviewee could have been bias
and the questionnaire printing was expensive. The interview took placed during 25-30th
November and the questionnaires were distributed 28th of October to 1st November. These
were distributed during school hours and interviews were held with teacher. Participant
observation took place while in school during the November month. One advantage was
that we observed some of the effects of flooding at hand that help us further understand
our research and one disadvantage was that school had to be dismissed early as flooding
tampered roadway and this caused damage to infrastructure and loss of productivity
because of students missing classes.
Secondary sources are those one or more steps removed from the problem and could be
considered second-hand information or even third- hand information. These maybe
published information. This is information that already exists. The sources used were
newspaper, books, and the internet. These sources helped my research as it helped to
enhance my knowledge of my research topic and have a stronger stance in supporting my
claims.

Presentation
Of
Findings

A
%
18
50

B C
%
%
18
50

D
%
-

E
%

F
%

TOTAL
%
36
100

13
36.1

20
55.6

3
8.3

36
100

6
16.7

6
16.7

6
16.7

6
16.7

6
16.7

6
16.7

36
100

12
33.3

12
33.3

12
33.3

36
100

30
83.3

5
13.9

1
2.8

36
100

9
25

27
75

36
100

20
55.6

12
33.3

2
5.6

2
5.6

36
100

17
47.2

17
47.2

1
2.8

1
2.8

36
100

7
19.4

27
75

1
2.8

1
2.8

36
100

16
44.4

15
41.7

4
11.1

1
2.8

36
100

20
55.6

10
27.8

3
8.3

1
2.8

2
5.6

36
100

19
52.8

11
30.6

5
13.9

1
2.8

36
100

17
47.2

3
8.3

7
19.4

4
11.1

36
100

16
44.4

6
16.7

4
11.1

1
2.8

9
25

36
100

Tabulation Sheet: showing summary of results above

Text showing results for the interview


Majority of the population said flooding had definitely increased during the last ten years
and they stated that in Trinidad flooding mainly affects the agricultural sector and
infrastructure. Majority agreed that the economy is affected due to the reduction in food

and compensation to residents and farmers, they also agreed that food prices increase as
there were shortages in crops which leads to decreased in foreign exchange. Majority
agreed that infrastructure especially homes were mainly damaged by floods leading to
more compensation. Most agreed that there is increase in diseases especially waterborne
such as ring worm and dengue. Most agreed that the solution should be to improve
drainage infrastructure, it will help to reduce flooding in Trinidad. Some also stated that
strict laws against pollution and illegal quarrying would decrease flooding while others
stated stopping deforestation would help.

Picture 1: Showing Damage to infrastructure in Colorado

Picture2: Showing loss of crops due to flooding in Penal, Trinidad

Picture3: Showing decrease in productivity due to flooding as


children are unable to go to school and neither parents to work, in
Port Of Spain, Trinidad

Figure1: Column chart showing responses to question 8

Flooding gives rise to disease such as Cholera and Dengue.

50%

47%

47%

45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%

Respondents

10%
5%
0%

3%

3%
0%

Therefore, the majority of 94%of the respondents agreed, whilst a minority of


6% disagreed and none Undecided.

Figure2: Pie Chart showing responses to question 9


As a result of flooding, farmers experience losses in crops and livestock.

Responses from Respondents

3% 3%

19%

Agree
Strongly Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Undecided

75%

In total the majority which is 94%Agreed the minority this being 6%


Disagreed whilst there is none Undecided.

Figure3: Doughnut Chart showing responses to question10


Food prices tend to increase due to flooding events

Responses from Respondents

3%
11%

Agree
Strongly Agree
47%

Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Undecided

39%

In essence, the chart shows that 86% Agreed and 11% Disagreed with 3%
Undecided.

Figure4:Bar Chart showing responses to question 12


Due to flooding the government has to increase spending on compensating
victims as well as repairing infrastructure such as roads and bridges.

Responses from Respondents


Undecided
Strongly Disagree
Disagree

6%
3%
Responses from
Respondents

8%
28%

Strongly Agree

55%

Agree
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

This demonstrates that the 83% of the respondent, which is the majority,
Agreed whilst the minority which is 11% Disagreed and 6% is Undecided.

Figure5:Table showing responses to question 13


In your opinion which one of the following is the major impact of flooding in
Trinidad?

Options

No. of respondents

Loss of crops and livestock

47%

Damage to infrastructure

11%

Increase in food prices

17%

A decrease in productivity and


economic loss
An increase in diseases

14%
11%

In fact, a majority chose loss of crops and livestock and minority chose an
increase in diseases.

Analysis
Of
Data

Analysis of Findings
The problem question for my research was Is loss of crops and livestock the
main effects of flooding? This was constructed into question 9. The majority
of 94% of the respondents Agreed with this question asked. Whereas the
minority of 6% Disagreed. This is because the problem of losing crops and
livestock due to flooding is a major concern with farmers in Trinidad. 17
males and 17 females agreed because both genders have had some sort of
experience pertaining about farmers complaints about losses caused by
flooding. Also 12 students between the ages of 11-14, 19 students between the
ages of 15-17 and 3 students ages 18+ showing that this agreement was wide
scale as persons of all ages agreed with the problem. It shows that children
from 11-15 have acquired knowledge based on Agriculture as it is one of the
compulsory subject of North Eastern College for the lower form whom are
part of my sample.
In question 8 Flooding gives rise to diseases such as Cholera and Dengue the
majority of 94% of the respondents agreed while the minority which is 6%of
the respondents disagreed. 16 males and 18 females are part of the sample size
which agreed that disease increase due to flooding. 12 students between ages
11-14, 19 students between the ages 15-17 and 3 students 18+ have agreed that
this is a problem is a result of flooding. A lot of the respondent would have
experience or acquire knowledge about the issues of Dengue and Cholera and
possible factors that influence these diseases to spread as a lot of the
respondent chose Agreed. This shows that all ages have knowledge of flooding
and it effects. The results can be because the sample group had known persons
that suffer from these diseases who live in flood prone areas or have been a
victim themselves as most of these students live in rural areas.

Question 10 Food prices tend to increase due to flooding events Figure3


illustrates that 86%of the respondents agreed, which is the majority, and
11%Disagree and 3% is Undecided. This has been an issue because it had
been brought to the attention of the public when there was a flooding incident
that food prices have increase for local products. Students may have been
observer of this news report and applied their knowledge in the
questionnaires. 14 male students and 17 female students have agreed to these
claims showing that both have been educated about the effect that flooding
have on food prices. 12 students between the ages of 11-14, 18 students
between the ages of 15-17 agreed, showing that students between these age
group are up to date with current affairs and know about the effects that
flooding has on the food production especially agricultural based products
and may have experience it while going to the market with their parents.
The forth sub-question refers to question 11 and 12 which is two questions
incorporated into one problem statement. It stated that The rate of
productivity decreases and there is economic loss as result of flooding Figure
4 illustrates that the government compensation have cost a decline in the
economy. 83% of the respondents agreed which are the majority and the
minority which is 11% disagreed and 6%undecided. This show that most
students are aware of the losses the flooding causes the economy. Question 12
which deals with the decrease in productivity 83% of the respondents which is
the majority and the minority being 17% disagreed these further shows why
they are linked as one influences the other. Then in the formulation of
question 13, we incorporated both. In question 11 students between the ages of
15-17 where the majority of persons agreed and in question 12, 17 students
between the ages of 15-17 showing that in both case students are becoming
more aware of what happens in the society as flooding affects the economy.
Students were even victims as they had to stay home from school due to
flooding. This shows decrease of productivity.

In question 7 Damage to infrastructure such as roads and bridges is a major


effect of flooding majority of 88% of the respondents agreed and the
minority which was 6% disagreed and 6% were undecided. This is possibly a
problem for respondents that they have experienced. Some respondents were
sent home from school due to flooding shows they have knowledge of what
happens when flooding occur. 18 students between the ages 15-17 agreed
showing that students between this age group are becoming more aware of
damages caused by flooding than students between the ages of 11-14 who
were, 11 in total showing that they too have knowledge about the effects of
flooding.
Certainly, a pattern was observed in this research. A majority of respondents
belonging to the age group 15-17 agreed the most with all the problems. Of all
the respondent the females agreed the most also showing that females have
more experience and knowledge of flooding at all age group.This could be that
adolescents experienced flooding effects or are becoming more aware of the
problems of flooding and the effects it have on the island of Trinidad.

Discussion
Of
Findings

Discussion of Findings
After analysing the data from the questionnaires, answers to sub-questions
were obtained. All were similar to the research in the literature review and are
now being discussed altogether.
The first sub-question, Is loss of crops and livestock the main effects of
flooding? implemented into question 9 of the questionnaire. This is where he
majority of the respondents which was 94% agreed and was supported by
literature on the websites in article by Rutherford (2013),
http://m.beefmagazine.com/disaster-amp-drought/after-flood-colorado-cattleproducers-assess-impact and by Khan (2011) http://en.engormix.com/MAdairy-cattle/dairy-industry/articles/flood-effects-on-livestocks-in-indiat1636/472-p0.htm.All information corresponded because most persons have
knowledge from studies at school and from the local newspapers and in the
literature review it was quoted as, The flood has badly affected the dairy
potential pockets in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 0.15 millions of animals and
0.8 million poultry have been perished in the terrible waves of this July
monsoon flood. Flooding cause farmers to loss crop and livestock and also
my school is located in a rural area and students could have family members
who are farmers that influence their responses. In question 13, 47%
respondents chose this as a major effect, and this was the majority, supporting
all claims and evidences.
The second sub-question, Do food prices increase as a result of flooding?
executed into question 10 where the majority of 86% respondents agreed and
it was supported by the literature presented from the article by Richard (2013)
http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/05/in-trinidad-causes-debated-as-floodingworsens/ and Perera (2011), http://www.trust.org/item/?map=flooding-bringhigher-food-prices-in-sri-lanka. Both sources were similar because the
literature stated that . Vegetables prices, already on the rise in Sri Lanka, are
now surging after devastating floods Majority of the children between the
ages of 11-14 and 15-17 agreed because Agriculture is one of the subjects that
is taught and studies at North Eastern College. The fact that this was on the
newspaper shows that the public is aware of the crisis. However only 17% of
the respondents agreed in question 13 maybe because they dont think its

more major than the others listed and most was from the same ethnic
background that selected this question.
In third sub-question Is decrease of productivity and economic loss to a
country arising because of flooding? this was implemented into question 11
and 12 because both is and outcome of another. If flooding occurs person may
stay home from work and school decreasing rate of productivity which leads
to economic loss. 83% of the respondents agreed with each question this being
the majority in both questions. Both sources of information was similar in the
results obtained from the questionnaires and the article and book presented in
the literature by Porter (2013),http://k99.com/colorado-school-business-closuredue-to-flooding-for-spetember-12th-2013/ and by Aldrete (2006 )in his book
Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome, because most respondents who selected
this question are in the field of business and they know the factors that causes
economic loss. The literature review supported the findings because as stated
in the literature review he stated that due to torrential rains in Northern
Colorado and some businesses and schools have closed due to flood water
This shows that people were not able to go to work because of flooding. The
14% of the respondents who chose this is question 13 were of the same
religion.
The fourth sub-question Does flooding have an impact on the spread of
diseases? which was implemented into question 8, 94% of the respondents
agreed that this was the case when flooding occurs. The information from the
literature review from an article on the newspaper Bishop (2012) in the
Newsday, newspaper, the literature and the finding were similar as the
respondents agreed with the statement the increase in diseases is a result of
flooding. The information corresponded with the findings because this a
topic taught in school in Geography, it probably influenced the respondents to
choose this question. However, in the selecting of questions in question 13 the
respondent was the lowest only 11% of the respondents chose this a major
effect, all belonging to the same religion.
The fifth sub-question Is damage to infrastructure such as roads and bridges
an effect of flooding? was compatible with question 7. The findings from the
questionnaires and the literature by the

Ben(2013)http://www.naco.org/newsroom/countynews/Current%20Issue/10-212013/Pages/County-infrastructure-damages-pile-up-in-Colorado-afterflood.aspx and another article on the internet by Kaufmann(2013)


http://m.calgarysun.com/2013/07/02/initial-flood-damage-to-city-of-calgaryinfrastructure-tagged-at-256-million. The literature stated that county
infrastructure damages piles up in Colorado after flood. Both corresponded
where 89%of the respondents agreed. However, only 11% of the respondents
agreed with this in question 13 which was one of the lowest. Showing that
respondents have knowledge on this topic but they does not think it more
important than the loss of crops and livestock and increase in food prices.
Indeed, the finding observed contributed significantly to my investigation. It
provided a clear arrangement of how researching skills are to be carried
about using specific outlines. To Policy Makers, this information adds
meaning and touch topic that persons are aware of and suffering from and
gives them the necessary recommendation from existing education of how to
decrease the problem of flooding. In question 14, 44% of the respondents
which is the majority, chose proper drainage infrastructure as the best
solution in order to reduce flooding. So this can help in their decision making.
In addition, the findings prove confidentiality that I am certain about the
information I have gathered in this investigation is actual and correct
pertaining to the topic.

Conclusion

Limitation

Recommendation

Conclusion

For the sub-question 1 Is loss of crops and livestock the main effects of
flooding? the majority of 94% of the respondents agreed. For sub-question 2,
the majority of 86% of the respondents agreed to Do food prices increase as
a result of flooding? For sub-question 3 Is decrease of productivity and
economic loss to a country arising because of flooding? the majority of 83%
of the respondents answered in question 11 and 12. Does flooding have an
impact on the spread of diseases? is sub-question 4 in which the majority is
94% of the respondent agreed. Sub-question5 asked Is damage to
infrastructure such as roads and bridges an effect of flooding? the majority
of 89% of the respondents agreed. In conclusion, I hereby, I support my
problem as 47% of the respondent chose this as the major effect of flooding
which was the majority.

Limitations
To ensure good organization of this research, guidelines were provided to
researchers. However, several problems transpired. Most important, would be
the word limit to research was too minor because important and valuable
information which could have been use to help support my problem
statements, clearly and educate the reader were left out due to the word limit.
Secondly, not all questionnaires that were distributed were returned so extra
copies were made in this case and sample size was not large to give a strong
accuracy of what is the main effect of flooding. Lastly, student of the age
group 15-17 could have been bias following what their friends opinions in the
selection of answers in the questionnaires. This would affect reliability of the
research as respondent answers were dishonest and imprecise. As a result of
this, most respondents attain during this investigation was a bit inaccurate.

Recommendations

At the completion of this research, I realise that I have acquire a greater


understanding of the effects of flooding and this is also a topic in the
geological aspect of Caribbean Studies and this would help me to relate better
to this topic.
Firstly, the Government should educate farmers so they would not plant their
crops in flood prone areas. Most farmers plant their crop in the Central areas
of Trinidad close to the floodplain. It have good soil but the when rainy season
occurs the crops and livestock are destroyed.
Secondly, the Government should develop and build more flood resistant
infrastructures. This will help as repairs would not have to repeat themselves
any time flooding occurs.
Thirdly, the Government should educate the public on measures to undertake
when a flooding occurs to prevent the spread of diseases. This would help to
reduce the amount of person that gets disease due to flooding.
However, a technique that I can use to improve my research skill is by
conducting more interviews and increasing my sample group. This can help
accuracy and higher quality information.

Bibliography

Bibliography

Bibliography

Bibliography

Newspaper articles
Bishop (2012)
Newsday, Newspaper

Articles found on websites


Rutherford (2013), http://m.beefmagazine.com/disaster-amp-drought/afterflood-colorado-cattle-producers-assess-impact
Khan (2011) http://en.engormix.com/MA-dairy-cattle/dairyindustry/articles/flood-effects-on-livestocks-in-india-t1636/472-p0.htm
Richard (2013) http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/05/in-trinidad-causes-debatedas-flooding-worsens/
Perera (2011), http://www.trust.org/item/?map=flooding-bring-higher-foodprices-in-sri-lanka
Porter (2013),http://k99.com/colorado-school-business-closure-due-to-floodingfor-spetember-12th-2013/
Ben(2013)http://www.naco.org/newsroom/countynews/Current%20Issue/10-212013/Pages/County-infrastructure-damages-pile-up-in-Colorado-afterflood.aspx
Kaufmann(2013) http://m.calgarysun.com/2013/07/02/initial-flood-damage-tocity-of-calgary-infrastructure-tagged-at-256-million.

Book
Aldrete (2006 )
Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome

Appendix

Appendix
Appendix