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Data for Out-of-Step Detection

Dikpride Despa*,**, Yasunori Mitani *, Masayuki Watanabe* ,

Changson Li,* Bessie Monchusi*

Abstract The algorithm based on equal area criterion is developed and the stability of generators after a fault is

assessed. The power swing equation is integrated to calculate the accelerating and decelerating area under the power

delta curve. Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data from a four generators power system is utilized in detecting

out-of-step condition. A three phase to ground fault on the power system is simulated by MATLAB and Dymola with

ObjectStab. The algorithm developed is tested by simulations on the four generator power system.

Keywords: Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU), Out of Step Detection, Equal Area Criterion, Transient Stability.

1. Introduction

estimate the condition of the entire power system network,

current

capacitance can be

system.

conditions. Meanwhile, the controlled separation at the preselected points provides load-generation balance in each

*

**

Technology, Japan (i589502d@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.jp)

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Lampung University, Indonesia

The power-angle relationship and the swing equation are

essential in understanding transient stability and can be

swing equation describes the swings of the rotor angle ()

during a disturbance. EAC on the other hand, describes the

movement of the rotor angle using three graphs

representing the pre-fault, fault and post-fault conditions.

Based on the accelerating and decelerating areas of the

rotor angle, under these graphs, EAC assesses transient

stability. The swing equation is given by [3]:

d 2

= Pi P

dt 2

= Pa

d

dt

(1)

(2)

Fig. 1 P- Curve

synchronous machine, Pm = mechanical power, Pe =

electrical power and = rotor speed. The inter-area

oscillation component in the voltage variables resulting

from disturbances is utilized for extrapolating system

impedances beyond the measured buses by:

=

T

V1 V2 Sin( )

The EAC integrates the energy gained when the turbinegenerator is accelerating, during the fault (area A, in Fig. 1 )

and

during the fault. The accelerating and decelerating area at

the different generator conditions are

(3)

angle and P is the output power. The maximum power

transferred between the generators and the mechanical

calculated by

boundary angles. In Fig. 1 the simplest condition is shown,

i.e. immediately at the occurrence of a fault, the electric

power output drops to zero and as soon as the fault is

cleared the electric power output returns to its initial curve.

P max

Pm = Pmax Sin ( 0 )

(4)

Criterion by Fig. 1. Area A is the accelerating or positive

area and B is the decelerating or negative area

(5)

(6)

synchronized phasor voltages,

angle.

B =

cl

max

sin P m ) d

(7)

Transient stability of the system is guaranteed if A<B.

th

reached and the accelerating power (Pa) is equal to zero.

The unstable case is reached when A>B, the angle keeps

COA

i i

i =1

using the equivalent phase angle.

XT =

Vref e i V

comprehensive view of the broader system. Conventional

calculated by :

XT

jX T

= tan 1

for determining the operating condition of the electric

(10)

angles while PMU provide the phasors of voltage and

(9)

the power system. PMU data from different utilities is time-

(8)

i =1

N

P=

V2

XT

sin ( ) +

Vref x V

XT

sin ( )

(11)

the indirect measurements or estimation used in traditional

and delta.

4. Out-of-Step Algorithm

time step. Using time phase angle and power vector at each

time step the P- curve is constructed. The area under the

estimate the power output for the fault and post fault at

forced out of service. Before losing synchronism the

Cons tan t =

P

Sin

(12)

areas, this phenomenon is called a power swing. The outof-step algorithm creates vectors of complex current,

(13)

construction the P- curve, the equivalent phase angle for

the system is calculated using the COA algorithm [4].

Power [p.u.]

2.5

placed on the generators bus bars (1, 2, 11 and 12)

1.5

0.5

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Angle [degrees]

Fig. 2

power for the power system in steady state

operation.

2.5

Power [p.u.]

1.5

0.5

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Angle [degrees]

power under fault and post fault conditions

Its applied in calculating the output power and mechanical

power. The new vectors of phase angle and power for all

time steps are calculated from the above complex values.

To detect angle change the difference between the reference

value and a value at a specific time-step is calculated. If the

difference is too much, the algorithm to detect the power

the graphs of the change of phase angle. If the phase angle

has changed too much and the electric power output has

mechanical power. The output power for the fault and after

fault condition is shown by graphs with dashes. The

5. Simulation

power system.

two areas power system (shown in Fig. 4) on MATLAB.

The system is designed by Dymola with ObjectStab. The

generators have an exciter and a turbine governor.

th

synchronism.

In Fig. 6 the solid curve shows the stable electric power

output before the fault. The dashed curves represent the

mechanical power input is represented by the dotted line. In

this case, the generator is far from losing synchronism. The

power will oscillate back to its stable equilibrium point.

A fault has occurred but the system remains stable.

Generator 4 does not loose synchronism even if there is a

fault in the power system. The power at the stable point and

the change of power around the time of the instant fault for

generator 4 are shown in Fig. 7. From the results of the

simulations, it can be concluded that the fault in the system

Control,McGraw Hill, 1993.

[4] B. B. Monchusi Optimal Approach Towards Using

Phasor Measurement (PMU) Data in Equal-Area

Criterion Based Systems for Power System Transient

Stability Assessment, PhD Thesis, Graduate School

of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology,

Japan, February 2010.

Figures 8-10 show the P-curves for out-of-step condition,

for generators 2, 3 and 4. The out-of-step message is issued

to warn that the generators 1 and 2 are out- of- step while

generator 3 remains in synchronism with generator 4.

5. Conclusion

Phasor measurements are utilized to calculate the vectors of

complex current, voltage and impedance which are applied

to determine the new vectors with phase angle and power

for all time steps. The angle change is determined by the

difference between the reverence value and a value at a

specific time-step is calculated. The Equal Area Criterion is

utilized to detect if the generators are going out of step or

not. A three phase to ground fault is simulated on the four

generators power system.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by in part by Grant-in-Aid for

Science Research (A) 18206028 of JSPS.

References

[1]

Analisys, McGraw Hill, 1980.

[2] Mark R Gerald T.H. Phasor Measurement Unit

Data in Power System State EstimationJanuary

2005.

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