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MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

Cand folosim „MAKE” si cand folosim „ DO”

Folosirea lui „MAKE” Folosirea lui „DO”


1. „make” se foloseste atunci cand creem, construim, 1. „do” se foloseste cand prestam o activitate zilnica,
preparam ceva palapabil, NU se foloseste pentru activitati. nepalpabila
• make food - a face mancare • do homework – a face temele
• make coffee – a face cafea • do a job – a face o treaba
• make a mess – a face mizerie • do the ironing – a calca
• make a cup of tea – a face ceai • do the dishes – a spala vasele

First, do your homework, and then you can


He made a tasty bread. go out.
El a facut o paine gustoasa. Mai intai, fa-ti temele, si apoi poti merge
afara.

2. „make” este asociat intotdeauna cu o decizie practica 2.„ do” este asociat intodeauna unei idei, teorii

I usually make about 50 sit ups in the morning. I ususally do the cleaning on Saturday Morning.
De obicei fac 50 flotari dimineata. De obicei fac curat sambata dimineata.

3. „make” este folosit in expresii standard formate din verbul 3.„ do” este folosit in expresii standard formate din
„make” + susbtantiv: verbul „do” + susbtantiv:
• make a copy – a face o copie • do an activity – a face o activitate
• make a change – a face o schimbare • do a course – a face o cursa
• make a comment– a face un comentariu • do a dance – a face dansuri
• make a date with girl / boy – a se intalni cu o fata / baiat • do a job – a face un serviciu
• make a demand– a face o cerere • do a favour – a face o favoare
• make a decision – a lua o decizie • do a lesson – a studia o lectie
• make a deal – a face o intelegere • do a paper – a scrie o hartie
• make a guess – a face o presupunere • do a problem – a rezova o problema
• make a mistake – a face o greseala • do a service – a face un serviciu
• make a movement – a face o deplasare • do the acting – a face teatru
• make a promise – a face o promisiune • do the cleaning - a face curat
• make a remark - a face o remarca • do the dishes – a spala vasele
• make a request – a face o cerere • do the ironing – a calca
• make a reservation – a face o rezervare • do the shopping – a face cumparaturi
• make a speech – a tine un discurs • do the trick – a faec un truc
• make a telephone call – a da un telefon • do aerobics – a face aerobic
• make an appoiment with – a stabili o intalnire cu • do business – a face afaceri
• make an accusation – a face o acuzare • do drugs – a folosi droguri
• make an effort – a face un efort • do exercises – a face exercitii
• make an estimate – a face o estimare • do good – a face bine
• make an excuse – a se scuza • do housework – a face treburi casnice
• make an impression – a face o impresie • do harm – a face rau
• make an offer – a face o oferta • do justice – a face dreptate
• make arrangements – a face aranjamente • do your best – a face totul pentru
• make friend – a face prieteni • do your duty – a-ti face datoria
• make noise – a face zgomot • do your hair – a-ti aranja parul
• make money - a face bani • do ( some ) damage– a face paguba
• make plans – a face planuri • do ( some ) research – a face investigatii
• make your bed ( aftre you get up ) – a-ti face patul • do some work – a face o treaba
( dupa ce te trezesti ) • do right / do wrong – a face bine / rau

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MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

Could you do me a favor and watch my bags?


I’ll make an exception this time.
Poti sa-mi faci o favoare sa te uiti la bagajele mele?
Voi face o exceptie de aceasta data.

4.„do” se foloseste cand vorbim de lucruri generale,


vagi sau activitati nedefinite folosind in acest caz:
4. --------------------------------------------------------- • something,
• nothing,
• anything,
• everything etc.

John does everything by hand – he is amazing!


----------------------------------------------------------
John face totul cu mainile – este uimitor!

5.„do” intareste uneori intelesul verbului pe care-l


5. -----------------------------------------------------------
determina

Yes, I do tell you the truth.


----------------------------------------------------- Da, ti-am spus adevarul.

Important!

Folosirea lui “DO” se face si pentru activitati variate terminate in “ ing” cum ar fi do some gardening, do some
thinking, do some painting, etc.

Retineti!

Pentru a nu mai fi in dificultate si a intelege cat mai bine cand il folosim pe ”MAKE” si cand pe “DO” retineti
urmatorul exemplu:

• Do the shopping. - A face cumparaturi. – explicatie: noi chiar nu creem nimic, noi doar facem o activitate.
• Make a cake. - A face o prajitura. – explicatie: noi chiar creem ceva.

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MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

Axa timpurilor

Perfect Past simple Present simple Future 1 - 2


Past Present

continuous

Prezentul perfect simplu ( The Present Perfect Simple )

Prezentul perfect simplu se refera la o actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata pana in prezent sau savarsita in
trecut si legata intr-un fel sau altul de momentul vorbirii.

I. Prezentul perfect simplu se formeaza astfel:

1. Afirmativ:

• Subiect + Have / Has + Verb – col III ( participiu trecut ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.
 You have heard a noise. - Tu ai auzit un zgomot.

2. Interogativ:

• Have / Has + Subiect + Verb – col III ( participiu trecut ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 Have you heard a noise? - Ai auzit un zgomot?

3. Negativ:

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MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

• Subiect + Have / Has + Not + Verb – col III ( participiu trecut ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

 You haven’t heard a noise. - Tu nu ai auzit un zgomot.

II. Prezentul perfect exprima:

1. O actiune care a avut loc in trecutul recent si care are rezultate in prezent

 I’m afraid I have lost my wallet. I can’t find it anywhere.– Mi-e teama ca mi-am pierdut portofelul. Nu-l pot
gasi nicaieri..

2. O actiune din trecut care se poate repeta si in prezent sau chiar in viitor

 My brother has written a book of poems. – Fratele meu a scris o carte de poezii.

3. O actiune care tocmai s-a incheiat si este legata de momentul prezent.

In acest caz se folosesc adverbe si expresii precum: just, already, yet, lately, recently, till now, so far,
the last few hours / days etc.

 I’m worried because I haven’t received any letter from my sister so far.

R: Sunt ingrijorat pentru ca nu am primit pana acum nici o scrisoare de la sora mea.

Atentie !

a. Just – se foloseste numai in propozitii afirmative.


The postman has just come. – Postasul tocmai a venit.

b. Yet – se foloseste in:

 propozitii interogative pentru a afla daca actiunea a avut loc, fara a ne interesa timpul in care
s-a petrecut actiune si nu se traduce in romana.

 Has the postman come yet? – A venit postasul?

• propozitii negative – traducandu-se prin “inca“

The postman hasn’t come yet. – Postasul nu a venit inca.

Already – se foloseste in:

propozitii afirmative accentuandu-se idea ca actiunea a avut loc.

 The postman has already come. – Postasul a venit déjà.

 propozitii interogative exprimand mirarea ca a avut loc actiunea.

 Has the postman already come? – A venit déjà postasul?

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O activitate care a avut loc in mod frecvent in trecut pana in prezent, cu rezultate in prezent.

In acest caz se folosesc adverbele de timp nehotarat: never, ever, sometimes, often, seldom, always,
usually.

Have you ever met George? – L-ai intalnit vreodata pe George?

Atentie !

Adverbele de timp nehotarat: never, ever, sometimes, often, seldom, always, usually – pot fi folosite
si la trecutul simplu, daca se refera la situatii fara nici o legatura cu prezentul.

We always got on well together when we were young. – Intotdeauna ne impacam bine cand eram
tineri.

O actiune desfasurata intr-o perioada de timp bine definita, terminata sau continuand in momentul
vorbirii, poate chiar si-n viitor

In acest caz se folosesc adverbe si expresii precum: since, for, how long,

Atentie !

a. Since – introduce fie un complement sau o propozitie circumstantiala de timp, care se refera la momentul
inceperii actiunii ( trecut ).

I have known George since last month. – Il cunosc pe George de luna trecuta.

b. For – introduce fie un complement circumstantial de timp si arata durata perioadei de timp, terminate sau
continuand si in prezent, in care se desfasoara actiunea.

I have known George for a few weeks. – Il cunosc pe George de cateva saptamani.

O actiune savarsita intr-o perioada incompleta de timp.

In acest caz se folosesc adverbe de timp precum: today, this morning, this afternoon, this evening,
this week, this month etc.

I have met George this morning. – L-am intalnit pe George in aceasta dimineata.

Atentie !

This morning – se foloseste cu verbul la prezentul perfect numai pana la ora 12.
This afternoon – se foloseste cu verbul la prezentul perfect pana la asfintit.

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Prezentul perfect continuu ( The Present Perfect Continuous )

Prezentul perfect continuu se refera la o actiune inceputa in trecut si a caror consecinte se vad si pot continua
in prezent.

I. Prezentul perfect continuu se formeaza astfel:

1. Afirmativ:

• Subiect + Have / Has + Been + Verb infinitiv + terminatia “ing” + restul propozitiei neschimbata.
 I have been taking driving lesson for a month. – Iau lectii de condus de o luna.

2. Interogativ:

• Have / Has + Subiect + Been + Verb infinitiv + terminatia “ing” + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 How long have you been taking driving lesson? – De cat timp iei lectii de condus?

3. Negativ:

• Subiect + Have / Has + Not + Been + Verb infinitiv + terminatia “ing” + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 You haven’t been taking driving lesson lately. – In ultima vreme nu ai m-ai luat lectii de condus.

II. Prezentul perfect continuu se foloseste pentru:

1. A accentua continuitatea unei actiuni pentru o perioada mai lunga de timp pana in momentul vorbirii:

 Please excuse my dirty hands. I have been digging the garden. – Te rog sa ma ierti ca am mainile
murdare. Am sapat in gradina.

2. O actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata neintrerupt in prezent:

 We have been talking since the meeting started. – Stam de vorba de cand a inceput sedinta..

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Cuvinte si sinonimele acestora

Cuvant Sinonim Traducere

to cope to manage a se descurca, a administra


to wonder to ask a se intreba, a se minuna
to wander to walk a se plimba
to fail not to succeed a esua
nowadays thesedays acum, in zile noastre
to fulfil to achive a duce la indeplinire
conducive the proper for propice, potrivit
the appropriate the proper for propice, potrivit
average the middle part medie
to hang out to relax a se relaxa, a pierde timpul
to use to to do usually a obisnui sa
to rent to hire a inchiria, a se angaja
yard garden gradina
to concern to worry a se ingrijora
folks people oameni
kid child copil
block street strada
flat apartment apartament
to nurture to bring up a creste, a educa
to cherish to appreciate a aprecia
to clear up to bring home a lamuri
bond link legatura
whether if daca, in orice caz
anxious eager nerabdator
date meeting intalnire
data information informatii
short look glance ocheada, privire scurta
make an excuse make apologize a se scuza
carefully simpathetically cu atentie
lately a long time ago in ultima vreme
briefly shorthly pe scurt
find out to discover a afla
look into to investigate a investiga
look for to search a cauta
loot at to pay attention a fi atent
look after take care a avea grija
look over to check a verifica
hear about to know a auzi
hear from to have news about a sti despre
glance through have a look a se uita peste
to pay a visit to go on a visit a face o vizita
to pay attention to be atendive a fi atent
to pay back to revenge a plati cuiva ( o polita )
to pay off to finish a finaliza
to pay off to come to an end a finaliza
to persuate to convince a convinge

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MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

Expresii si sinonimele acestora

Expresie Sinonim Traducere

as far as I know ------------------------- din cate stiu eu


meanwhile ------------------------- intre timp
in a while immediately imediat
as soons as shortly imediat
we’ll get a new brand ------------------------ a lua de la capat
in a blue moon never niciodata
to be blue homesickness a fi nostalgic
waste of time ------------------------ pierdere de vreme
the time is right for me ------------------------ este timpul meu
i’ll cross the stream ------------------------ voi trece peste probleme
both as .... and as ------------------------ atat .... cat si
holiday open house ------------------------ cu usile deschise
to make to talk to have a talk with a face conversatie
to make an excuse to apologize a-si cere scuze
to make an appoitment to arrangement a face un aranjamnet
to be looking forward to ------------------------
there is no use ------------------------ nu are sens sa
to strike a deal come to agreement a ajunge la o intelegere
to take a seat sit down a lua loc
in the day ----------------------- in timpul zilei
many happy returns of the day happy birthday la multi ani
looke here! ---------------------- asculta!
not at all ---------------------- de loc, nicidecum
i beg your pardon --------------------- scuzati-ma
to get on well --------------------- a se impaca bine
here you are --------------------- poftim
do you mind? --------------------- te superi?
to make up one’s mind to decide a se hotara
above all on the first time in primul rand
to have a touch of ------------------ a fi atins de
on one’s way to ------------------ in drum spre
to lose one’s way to get lost a se rataci
to have a rest ------------------ a se odihni
on the one hand ------------------ pe de o parte
in spite of ----------------- in ciuda
tanks awfully ------------------ multumesc foarte mult
is good enough for me sufficient imi este suficient
if you ask me my opinion dupa mine, dupa parerea mea
to bear out to confirm a confirma
what’s the matter? happened ce s-a intamplat?
to bear out to confirm a confirma
glance through have a look a arunca o privire peste

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