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Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: pap14


Chapter Number: 23

Question type: Multiple Choice

1) Which of the following is NOT part of the upper respiratory system?


a) Nose
b) Oral cavity
c) Pharynx
d) Trachea
e) Nasal meatuses
Answer: d
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

2) Which of the following is NOT a conducting zone action?


a) Clean air of debris
b) Conduct air into the lungs
c) Add water to air
d) Warm air
e) All of these are actions of the conducting zone.
Answer: e
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

3) Which of the following is NOT a factor that determines the rate of pulmonary and systemic
gas exchange?

a) Partial pressure difference of gases


b) surface are availability for gas exchange
c) Diffusion distance
d) Molecular weight and solubility of the gases
e) All of these are factors that determine the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange.
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.4 Understand the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, including
the involvement of Daltons and Henrys Laws.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.4 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

4) Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?


a) Pharynx
b) Larynx
c) Paranasal sinuses
d) Trachea
e) Esophagus
Answer: a
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

5) Which structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea?


a) Arytenoid cartilage
b) Epiglottis
c) Nasopharynx
d) Thyroid cartilage
e) Paranasal sinus
Answer: b
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.

Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.2 Identify the functions of each respiratory system structure.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

6) The gas law that describes the pressure changes that occur during pulmonary ventilation is
a) Boyles law
b) Charles law
c) Henrys law
d) The inhalation law
e) The law of partial pressure
Answer: a
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

7) Which structure is located anterior to the esophagus and carries air to the bronchi?
a) Trachea
b) Larynx
c) Nasopharynx
d) Pharynx
e) None of these choices
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

8) Which of the following is the primary gas exchange site?


a) Trachea
b) Bronchiole
c) Nasal sinuses
d) Alveolus
e) Bronchus
Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.2 Identify the functions of each respiratory system structure.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

9) Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system?
a) stratified squamous epithelium with keratin
b) ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c) hyaline cartilage
d) mucus membrane
e) bone
Answer: c
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.2 Identify the functions of each respiratory system structure.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

10) Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting
organs?
a) stratified squamous epithelium with keratin
b) ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c) ciliated cuboidal epithelium with goblet cells
d) transitional epithelium with cilia
e) columnar connective tissue with goblet cells
Answer: b
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.2 Identify the functions of each respiratory system structure.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

11) The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called
a) Carina

b) Secondary bronchioles
c) Parietal pleura
d) Visceral pleura
e) Diaphragm
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

12) Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?
a) stratified squamous epithelium
b) ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c) simple squamous epithelium
d) hyaline cartilage
e) columnar connective tissue with goblet cells
Answer: c
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

13) Which of the following are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant?
a) Type I alveolar cells
b) Type II alveolar cells
c) Type III alveolar cells
d) Surface cells
e) Macrophages
Answer: b
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.

Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.2 Identify the functions of each respiratory system structure.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

14) Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects pulmonary ventilation?
a) Lung compliance
b) Suface tension of alveolar fluid
c) Elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs
d) Airway resistance
e) All of these are factors that affect pulmonary ventilation
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

15) Which of the following indicates the direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the
lungs?
a) Oxygen into blood, Carbon dioxide into blood
b) Oxygen out of blood, Carbon dioxide into blood
c) Oxygen into blood, Carbon dioxide out of blood
d) Oxygen out of blood, Carbon dioxide out of blood
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.4 Understand the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, including
the involvement of Dalton's and Henry's Laws.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.4.2 Describe the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in external
and internal respiration.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.4 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

16) Exhalation begins when


a) Inspiratory muscles relax
b) Diaphragm contracts
c) Blood circulation is the lowest
d) Both Inspiratory muscles relax and Diaphragm contracts
e) All of these choices
Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

17) Which of the following is the sum of the residual and the expiratory reserve volume?
a) Total lung capacity
b) Functional residual capacity
c) Inspiratory capacity
d) Vital capacity
e) Minimal volume
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.2 Differentiate between inspiratory capacity, functional residual
capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

18) Which of the following is NOT a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas
exchange depends on?
a) Partial pressure difference of the gases
b) Surface area for gas exchange
c) Diffusion distance
d) Molecular weight and solubility of the gases
e) Force of contraction of diaphragm
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.4 Understand the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, including
the involvement of Dalton's and Henry's Laws.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.4.2 Describe the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in external
and internal respiration.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.4 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

19) Which of the following is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?
a) Bound to hemoglobin
b) Bound to oxygen

c) Dissolved in plasma as a gas


d) Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions
e) Diffusion
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.5 Describe how the blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Section Reference 1: Sec LO 23.5 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

20) When blood pH drops, the amount of oxyhemoglobin _____ and oxygen delivery to the
tissue cells _____.
a) Increases, increases
b) Increases, decreases
c) Decreases, increases
d) Decreases, decreases
e) Does not change, does not change
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.5 Describe how the blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.5 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
21) Which of the following is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobins affinity for oxygen?
a) pH of blood
b) Partial pressure of the oxygen
c) Amount of oxygen available
d) Temperature
e) Respiratory rate
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.5 Describe how the blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.5 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

22) Where are the nasal conchae?

a) A
b) C
c) T
d) U
e) V
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

23) Which tonsils are found in the oropharynx?

a) V
b) R
c) S
d) Q
e) U
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

24) What structure is also referred to as the Adams Apple?

a) G
b) H
c) I
d) J
e) K
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

25) Where is the larynx?

a) I
b) M
c) L
d) N
e) O
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

26) Where is the uvula?

a) E
b) F
c) Q
d) S
e) U
Answer: d
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

27) Where are the palatine tonsils?

a) E
b) F
c) R
d) U
e) None of these choices
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

28) Where is the soft palate?

a) C
b) E
c) G
d) Q
e) S
Answer: b
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

29) Where is the epiglottis?

a) O
b) R
c) S
d) F
e) Q
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

30) Where are the olfactory receptors found?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) U
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

31) Where is the middle nasal concha?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E
Answer: b
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

32) Where is the inferior nasal concha?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E
Answer: c
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

33) What is E pointing to?

a) Soft palate
b) Ethmoid bone
c) Hard palate
d) Nasal septum
e) Air cells
Answer: d
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

34) What is line D pointing to?

a) Thyrohyoid membrane
b) Corniculate cartilage
c) Cricothyroid ligament
d) Cricoid cartilage
e) Tracheal cartilage
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

35) Where is the cricoid cartilage?

a) D
b) E
c) F
d) G
e) H
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

36) Where is the tracheal cartilage?

a) J
b) I
c) H
d) G
e) F
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

37) What is line A pointing to?

a) Hyoid bone
b) Trachea
c) Adams Apple
d) Thyroid
e) Epiglottis
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

38) What is line J pointing to?

a) Right secondary bronchus


b) Left secondary bronchus
c) Right primary bronchus
d) Left primary bronchus
e) Carina
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

39) Where is the right bronchiole?

a) F
b) G
c) H
d) L
e) M
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

40) What lines are pointing to tertiary bronchi?

a) E and K
b) D and J
c) F and L
d) H and M
e) A and B
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

41) What is line B pointing to?

a) Carina
b) Visceral pleura
c) Parietal pleura
d) Pleural cavity
e) Diaphragm
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

42) Which letter represents the primary gas exchange structure?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) E
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

43) What is line C pointing to?

a) Terminal bronchiole
b) Respiratory bronchiole
c) Alveolar ducts
d) Alveolar sac
e) Alveoli
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Learning Objective 2: 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

44) Where is the terminal bronchiole?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

45) Which structure provides disease resistance within the lungs?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) None of these choices
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

46) Which cells are the main sites of gas exchange?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) All of these choices
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

47) Which cell secretes surfactant?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) None of these choices
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

Question type: Essay

48) Describe the inward forces of elastic recoil, and explain why the lungs do not normally
collapse during expiration.
Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation
Solution: Elastic recoil is the recoil of elastic fibers stretched during inspiration and the pull of
the surface tension of alveolar fluid. Intrapleural pressure is always subatmospheric during
normal breathing, which tends to pull lungs outward and to keep alveolar pressure from
equalizing with atmospheric pressure. Surfactant in alveolar fluid decreases surface tension to
help prevent collapse.

49) Why is epinephrine injected as a treatment for the respiratory signs and symptoms of
anaphylaxis?
Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy
Solution: Epinephrine enhances sympathetic activity to dilate airways and decrease airway
resistance, which had been elevated by the effects of histamine on the bronchioles. It also raises
blood pressure, which enhances oxygen delivery to tissues by increasing flow.

50) Describe and explain the effects of smoking on the functioning of the respiratory system.
Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.11 Describe the disorders that affect the respiratory system.
Section Reference 1: Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that Affect the Respiratory System
Solution: Nicotine constricts terminal bronchioles to increase airway resistance, as does the
increased mucus secretion and swelling of the mucosa. Smoke inhibits the movement of cilia,
which allows buildup of substances and microbes normally removed. Over time, smoking leads
to destruction of elastic tissue, which decreases compliance, and ultimately to the effects of
emphysema.

51) Describe the neural, chemical, and physical changes that increase the rate and depth of
ventilation during exercise.
Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.7 Describe the effects of exercise on the respiratory system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.7 Exercise and the Respiratory System
Solution: Anticipation of exercise generates neural input to the limbic system. Sensory input is
provided from proprioceptors and motor input is provided from the primary motor cortex. As the
partial pressure of oxygen falls due to increased consumption, the partial pressure of carbon
dioxide and the temperature increase due to metabolic activity in muscle fibers. Also, carbon
dioxide is added via the buffering of the hydrogen ions produced as a result of lactic acid
production. Chemoreceptors sense the changes in partial pressure and notify the medullary
rhythmicity center to increase the rate and depth of breathing.

52) In chronic emphysema, some alveoli merge together and some are replaced with fibrous
connective tissue. In addition, the bronchioles are often inflamed, and expiratory volume is
reduced. Using proper respiratory system terminology, explain at least four reasons why affected
individuals will have problems with ventilation and external respiration.
Answer:
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.11 Describe the disorders that affect the respiratory system.
Section Reference 1: Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that Affect the Respiratory System
Solution: Answers could include: reduced compliance (reduces ability to increase thoracic
volume); increased airway resistance (decreases tidal volume); decreased diffusion due to
increased diffusion distance, decreased surface area, and changes in partial pressures of gases
(altering gradients). Other answers may be acceptable.

Question type: Multiple Choice

53) Normal quiet breathing is controlled by the


a) Pontine respiratory group
b) Medullary respiratory center dorsal respiratory group
c) Medullary respiratory center ventral respiratory group
d) Medullary respiratory center dorsal respiratory group and medullary respiratory center ventral
respiratory group
e) all of these
Answer: e
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.6 Explain how the nervous system controls breathing.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.6 Control of Breathing

54) What area in the figure is the sum of the tidal volume and the inspiratory reserve volume?

a) A
b) B
c) G
d) E
e) H
Answer: d
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

55) What area in the figure is the sum of the tidal volume and the inspiratory reserve volume and
expiratory reserve volume?

a) H

b) B
c) G
d) E
e) F
Answer: e
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

56) What area in the figure is the sum of the vital capacity and residual volume?

a) B
b) A
c) G
d) D
e) F
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

57) What area in the figure is the sum of the residual volume and the expiratory reserve volume?

a) H
b) A
c) G
d) E
e) F
Answer: a
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

58) What area in the figure represents a very deep inhalation, much greater than the tidal
volume?

a) B
b) A

c) G
d) E
e) F
Answer: b
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

59) What area in the figure represents the volume of a normal breath?

a) B
b) A
c) G
d) E
e) F
Answer: a
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

60) What area in the figure represents the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a deep
exhalation?

a) C
b) H
c) D
d) B
e) G
Answer: c
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

61) What area in the figure represents a very deep exhalation, much greater than the tidal
volume?

a) C

b) H
c) D
d) B
e) G
Answer: a
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.3 Differentiate between the different lung volumes and capacities.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.3.1 Explain the difference between tidal volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities

62) Which of the following is a forced exhalation against the closed rima glottidis as may occur
during periods of straining while defecating?
a) sobbing
b) coughing
c) crying
d) hiccupping
e) Valsalva maneuver
Answer: e
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

63) Which of the following is a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm followed by spasmodic
closure of the rima glottidis, which produces a sharp sound on inhalation?
a) sneezing
b) coughing
c) laughing
d) hiccupping
e) Valsalva maneuver
Answer: d
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

64) Which of the following is an inhalation followed by many short convulsive exhalations
during which the rima glottidis remains open and the vocal folds vibrate, accompanied by
characteristic facial expressions?
a) sneezing
b) yawning
c) hiccupping
d) laughing
e) Valsalva maneuver
Answer: d
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

65) Which of the following is an inhalation followed by many short convulsive exhalations
during which the rima glottidis remains open and the vocal folds vibrate, accompanied by
characteristic facial expressions?
a) sneezing
b) yawning
c) hiccupping
d) crying
e) Valsalva maneuver
Answer: d
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

66) Which of the following is a series of convulsive inhalations followed by a single prolonged
exhalation where the rima glottidis closes earlier than normal after each inhalation so only a little
air enters the lung with each inhalation?
a) sobbing
b) sneezing
c) coughing
d) hiccupping
e) Valsalva maneuver
Answer: a

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

67) Which of the following is a deep inhalation through a widely opened mouth producing an
exaggerated depression of the mandible, the precise cause of which is unknown?
a) sobbing
b) yawning
c) coughing
d) laughing
e) hiccupping
Answer: b
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

68) Which of the following is a long drawn and deep inhalation immediately followed by a
shorter but forceful exhalation?
a) sobbing
b) yawning
c) sighing
d) hiccupping
e) Valsalva maneuver
Answer: c
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

69) Which of the following is a spasmodic contraction of the muscles of exhalation that
forcefully expels air through the nose and mouth?
a) sobbing
b) sneezing
c) coughing
d) sighing
e) Valsalva maneuver

Answer: b
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

70) Which of the following is a long drawn and deep inhalation followed by a complete closure
of the rima glottidis, which results in a strong exhalation, pushing the rima glottidis open and
sending a blast of air through the upper respiratory passages?
a) crying
b) sneezing
c) coughing
d) sighing
e) Valsalva maneuver
Answer: c
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 23.2 Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

71) Which structure in the figure is the hyoid bone?

a) A
b) B
c) D
d) F
e) G
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

72) Which structure in the figure is the ventricular fold?

a) F
b) D
c) C
d) E
e) G
Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

73) Which structure in the figure is the vocal fold?

a) F
b) D
c) C
d) E
e) G
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.1 Describe the anatomical structure and function of the respiratory
system components.
Study Objective 2: SO 23.1.1 Describe the anatomy and histology of the nose, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy

74) Where is the rhythmicity center for respiration?


a) in the medulla
b) in the pons
c) in the cerebrum
d) in the hypothalamus
e) in the cerebellum
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 23.6 Explain how the nervous system controls breathing.
Section Reference 1: Sec 23.6 Control of Breathing

75) With which body system does the respiratory system work to regulate the pH of body fluids?
a) muscular
b) digestive
c) nervous
d) endocrine
e) urinary
Answer: e
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 23.9 Describe how the respiratory system contributes to homeostasis.
Section Reference 1: Focus on Homeostasis: The Respiratory System