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ISSN 2319-8885

Vol.03,Issue.33
October-2014,
Pages:6565-6581
www.ijsetr.com

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches


UPQC to Improve Power Quality
SHAIK.MABUSUBANI1, SURESH KORNEPATI2
1

PG Scholar, Dept of EEE, Sri Mittapalli College of Engineering, Guntur, AP, India, E-mail: subanimseee@gmail.com.
Associate Professor, Dept of EEE, Sri Mittapalli College of Engineering, Guntur, AP, India, E-mail: kornesuresh@gmail.com.

Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive review on the UPQC to reinforce power quality. Typically this can be often
speculated to gift a broad outline on the varied possible intelligent controls used with UPQC. The most purpose of a UPQC is to
control on voltage flicker/unbalance, reactive power and harmonics. In different words, the UPQC has the potential of up power
quality at the purpose of installation on power industrial power systems. The appliance of computing is growing quick within the
space of power electronics and drives. From olden days to now days we are using twelve switches used in back to back
configuration. But now we are using nine switches instead of 12 switches. In 9 switch UPQC converters given the most useful
benefits compared to 12 switches power converter. The nine switches UPQC converter gets the best results by using of two
methods. They are one is PI controller technique and other one is ANN controller technique. By contrast PI and ANN, ANN is
better than PI for power quality enhancement and voltage sag and voltage swell mitigations. The factitious neural network
(ANN) is taken into account as a replacement tool to style management electronic equipment for power-quality (PQ) devices. A
whole simulation study is administrated to analysis the performance of the ANN controller and compares its performance with
the quality PI controller results. The nine-switch convertor has already been proved to possess sure benefits, additionally to its
part saving topological feature. Despite these benefits, the nine-switch convertor has thus far found restricted applications
because of its several perceived performance tradeoffs like requiring associate degree outsized dc-link capacitance, restricted
amplitude sharing, and unnatural part shift between its 2 sets of output terminals. Rather than acceptive these tradeoffs as
limitations, a nine-switch power conditioner is projected here that nearly converts most of those topological short comings into
fascinating performance benefits. Aiming more to cut back its switch losses, Harmonics, Voltage Sag & Swell associate degree
acceptable discontinuous modulation theme is projected and studied here thoroughly to doubly make sure that top reduction of
commutations is achieved. With associate degree suitably designed management theme with PI and ANN with physical
phenomenon controller then incorporated, the nine-switch convertor is shown to favorably raise the general power quality in
Simulation, thus justifying its role as an influence conditioner at a reduced value.
Keywords: ANN, Active Power Filters, PI Controller, Nine Switch Converter, Power Quality, UPQC.
I. INTRODUCTION
The use of electronic controllers within the electrical powersupply system has become quite common. These electronic
controllers behave as nonlinear load and cause serious
distortion within the distribution system and introduce
unwanted harmonics within the supply system, resulting in
slashed potency of the facility system network and
instrumentality connected within the network [1]. To satisfy
the wants of harmonic regulation, passive and active power
filters area unit being employed together with the standard
converters [2]. Presently, active power filters (APFs) have
become value-effective attributable to cost reductions in
power semiconductor devices, their auxiliary components, and
integrated digital management circuits. Additionally, the APF
conjointly acts as a power-conditioning device that provides a
cluster of multiple functions, like harmonic filtering, damping,
isolation and termination, load equalization, reactive-power
management for power-factor correction and voltage
regulation, voltage-flicker reduction, and/or their mixtures.

Resent analysis focuses on use of the universal power quality


conditioner (UPQC) to catch up on power-quality issues [3],
[4].
The performance of UPQC principally depends upon
however accurately and quickly reference signals area unit
derived. Once economical extraction of the distorted signal, an
acceptable dc-link current regulator is used to derive the
particular reference signals. numerous management
approaches, like the PI, PID, fuzzy-logic, sliding-mode,
predictive, unified constant frequency (UCF) controllers, etc.,
area unit in use [5][7]. kind of like the PI standard controller,
the PID controller needs precise linear mathematical models,
that area unit tough to get, and fails to perform satisfactorily
beneath parameter variation nonlinearity load disturbance, etc.
fashionable management theoretic controllers area unit state
feedback controllers, self-tuning controllers, and model
reference adjustive controllers, etc. These controllers
conjointly would like mathematical models and area unit so

Copyright @ 2014 IJSETR. All rights reserved.

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI


sensitive to parameter variations [8]. In recent years, a serious
ent of the consecutive configuration to scale back its losses,
effort has been afoot to develop new and unconventional
part count, and quality would still be favored, if there\'s no or
management techniques that may typically augment or replace
solely slight expected trade-off in performance. A classical
standard management techniques. Variety of unconventional
different that may straight off be brought out for thought is
management techniques have evolved, providing solutions to
that the direct or indirect matrix device, wherever eighteen
several tough management issues in trade and producing
switches area unit employed in total. That represents six
sectors. not like their standard counterparts, these
switches quite the consecutive configuration, however has the
unconventional controllers (intelligent controllers) will learn,
advantage of removing the intermediate electrical condenser
remember, and create choices. Artificial intelligence (AI)
for compactness and period of time extension. If the
techniques, notably the NNs, area unit having a major impact
significant switch count remains of concern, those indirect thin
matrix converters planned in [7], [8] is thought-about,
on power-electronics applications.
wherever the minimum switch count getable is 9, however at
Neural-network-based managementlers give quick dynamic
the expense of supporting solely one-way power flow. Neither
response whereas maintaining the soundness of the device
storage electrical condenser nor dc micro source is once more
system over a good in operation vary and area unit thought of
required, that therefore renders the traditional and thin matrix
as a brand new tool to style control circuits for PQ devices
converters as not the well-liked selection, if ride-through could
[9][12]. Over the previous couple of years, major analysis
be a demand. Matrix converters also are not most popular, if
works are disbursed on feedback circuit style for UPQCs with
voltage buck and boost operations area unit each required for a
the target of getting reliable management algorithms and quick
specified direction of power flow.
response procedures to get the switch management signals
[13][15]. During this paper, for raising the performance of a
Yet another reduced semiconductor topology is found in
UPQC, a multilayer feed forward-type ANN-based
[9], wherever the B4 device is introduced for dcac or ac dc
managementler is meant for the present control of the shunt
energy conversion. The B4 device uses four switches to create
active filter rather than the standard PI controller. Associate
2 section legs with its third section drawn from the centre of a
rule for coaching the ANN controller is developed and trained
split dc electrical phenomenon link. For fastening 2 ac systems
offline. Numerous simulation results area unit given and
along, 2 B4 converters area unit required with their split dc
verified through an experiment, and compare the performance
link shared [10]. The full variety of switches required is
of the ANN controller with standard PI controller results. A
therefore eight, that most likely is that the minimum possible
DSP-based microcontroller is employed for the period of time
for interfacing 2 ac systems. The ensuing acdcac device
simulation and implementation of the management rule. Since
ought to then be a lot of truly cited because the B8 device. The
its initial introduction, static power convertor development has
B8 device is, however, known to suffer from massive dc-link
full-grown quickly with several convertor topologies currently
voltage variation, unless each systems area unit of constant
pronto found within the open literature. Incidental this
frequency and synchronized in order that no basic current
development is that the equally speedy identification of
flows through the dc link. That actually could be a constraint,
application areas, wherever power converters will contribute
additionally to the lower ac voltage that may be made by every
absolutely toward raising the general system quality [1], [2].
B4 device from its given dc-link voltage.
In most cases, the known applications would need the
ability converters to be connected nonparallel [3] or shunt [4],
looking on the operational situations into consideration.
Additionally, they have to be programmed with voltage,
current, and/or power regulation schemes in order that they\'ll
swimmingly make amends for harmonics, reactive power
flow, unbalance, and voltage variations. For even additional
tight regulation of provide quality, each a shunt and a series
convertor square measure more with one amongst them tasked
to perform voltage regulation, whereas the opposite performs
current regulation. nearly always, these 2 converters square
measure connected in an exceedingly back to-back
configuration [5], victimization twelve switches in total and
sharing a typical dc-link capacitance, as mirrored by the
configuration drawn in Fig. 1(a). Wherever obtainable, a small
supply may be inserted to the common dc link, if the intention
is to supply for distributed generation in an exceedingly small
grid [6], while not considerably impacting on the long proved
correct functioning of the succeeding configuration.
Even though facing no major operative issues at the present,
enhancements through topological modification or replacem-

Overcoming some limitations of the B8 device is that the 5


leg device introduced in [11], that conceptually is viewed as
adding a fifth section leg to the B8 device. The other section
leg is shared by the 2 interfaced ac systems with currently no
massive basic voltage variation ascertained across its dc link.
The sole constraint here is that the imposition of common
frequency operation on the 2 interfaced ac systems that then
makes it unsuitable for applications like utility steam-powered
adjustable speed drives and series-shunt power conditioners.
Presenting a much better reduced semiconductor different for
top quality seriesshunt compensation, this paper proposes
one stage integrated nine-switch power conditioner, whose
circuit association is shown in Fig.1(b). As its name roughly
inferred, the planned conditioner uses a nine-switch convertor
with 2 sets of output terminals, rather than the same old twelve
switch back-to back convertor. The nine-switch convertor was
earlier planned in [12] and [13] at regarding a similar time,
and was counseled for twin motor drives [14], rectifier
inverter systems, and uninterruptible power provides [15].
Despite functioning as supposed, these applications are
burdened by the restricted part shift and strict amplitude
sharing enforced between the 2 terminal sets of the nine-

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches UPQC to Improve Power Quality
switch convertor. More significantly, a far larger dc-link
provided to clarify that the lot of restricted nine-switch
capacitance and voltage ought to be maintained, so as to
convertor won\'t underperform the lot of freelance back-to
supply similar ac voltage amplitudes as for the consecutive
back convertor even for sag mitigation. During voltage sags,
the second set of management schemes conjointly has the
convertor.
flexibility to endlessly keep the load voltages inside tolerable
Uncalled-for to mention, the larger dc-link voltage would
vary. This sag mitigation ability, along with different abstract
amplify the semiconductor switches unnecessarily, and would
findings mentioned during this paper however not within the
possibly to some extent overshadow the saving of 3
open literature, has already been verified in experiment with
semiconductor switches created potential by the nine-switch
favorable results discovered.
topology. The attractiveness of the nine-switch convertor, if so
any, is thus not nonetheless absolutely brought out by those
II. POWER QUALITY
existing applications mentioned in [13][15]. Though followPower Quality (PQ) connected problems area unit of most
up topological extensions will later be found in [16], wherever
concern today. The widespread use of equipment, like info
a Z-source network and different modulation schemes are
technology instrumentality, power physical science like
introduced, they didnt absolutely address those crucial
adjustable speed drives (ASD), programmable logic
limitations sweet-faced by the nine-switch convertor, and not
controllers (PLC), energy-efficient lighting, diode to a whole
its ancient consecutive counterpart. Investigating more by
modification of electrical hundreds nature. These hundreds
taking a more in-depth read at those existing applications
area unit at the same time the key causers and also the major
delineate earlier, a general note discovered is that they
victims of power quality issues [8]. Because of their nonnormally use the nine-switch convertor to exchange 2 shunt
linearity, of these hundreds cause disturbances within the
converters connected consecutive. Such replacement can limit
voltage undulation. alongside technology advance, the
the total functionalities of the nine-switch convertor, as
organization of the worldwide economy has evolved towards
explained in Section II. Within the same section, an alternate
globalisation and also the profit margins of the many activities
conception is mentioned, wherever the nine-switch convertor
tend to decrease [11]. The magnified sensitivity of the
is chosen to exchange a shunt associate degreed a series
overwhelming majority of processes (industrial, services and
convertor found in an integrated power conditioner, rather
even residential) to PQ issues turns the provision of electrical
than 2 shunt converters.
power with quality an important issue for fight in each activity
sector. The foremost crucial area unit as are the continual
method trade and also the info technology services [15]. Once
a disturbance happens, immense money losses could happen,
with the ensuing loss of productivity and fight. Though several
efforts are taken by utilities, some shoppers need tier of PQ
beyond the extent provided by fashionable electrical networks
[12]. this means that some measures should be taken so as to
attain higher levels of Power Quality.

Fig.1. (a) back-to-back and (b) nine-switch power


conditioners.
Underlying operational principles are mentioned
comprehensively to demonstrate however such seriesshunt
replacement will induce the total blessings of the nine-switch
convertor, whereas nonetheless avoiding those limitations
sweet-faced by existing applications. Details explaining sleek
transitions between traditional and sag operational modes are

III. UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER


The Unified Power Quality Conditioner may be a custom
power device that\'s used within the distribution system to
mitigate the disturbances that have an effect on the
performance of sensitive and/or essential load [19]. it\'s a kind
of hybrid APF and is that the solely versatile device which
might mitigate many power quality issues connected with
voltage and current at the same time thus is multi functioning
devices that compensate numerous voltage disturbances of the
ability offer, to correct voltage fluctuations and to stop
harmonic load current from getting into the ability system.
The system configuration of a single-phase UPQC is shown in
Fig.2. Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) consists of
2 IGBT primarily based Voltage supply converters (VSC), one
shunt and one series cascaded by a typical DC bus. The shunt
convertor is connected in parallel to the load. It provides
power unit support to the load and provides harmonic currents.
Whenever {the offer the availability the provision} voltage
undergoes sag then series convertor injects appropriate voltage
with supply [2]. Therefore UPQC improves the ability quality
by preventing load current harmonics and by correcting the
input power issue.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI


The most elements of a UPQC square measure series and
energy storage condenser. One among these 2 VSIs is
shunt power converters, DC capacitors, low-pass and highconnected serial with the AC line whereas the opposite is
pass passive filters, and series and shunt transformers the most
connected in shunt with an equivalent line. A UPFC is used in
purpose of a UPQC is to catch up on offer voltage power
an exceedingly power gear mechanism to perform shunt and
quality problems, such as, sags, swells, unbalance, flicker,
series compensation at an equivalent time. Equally a UPQC
harmonics, and for load current power quality issues, such as,
may perform each the tasks in an exceedingly power
harmonics, unbalance, reactive current, and neutral current.
distribution system. However, at now similarities within the
The key elements of this technique square measure as follows.
operational principles of those 2 devices finish. Since an
influence cable typically operates in an exceedingly balanced,
2 inverters one connected across the load that acts as a
distortion (harmonic) free surroundings, a UPFC should solely
shunt APF and different connected nonparallel with the
give balanced shunt or series compensation. An influence
road as that of series APF.
distribution system, on the other hand, could contain
Shunt coupling inductance Lsh is employed to interface
unbalance, distortion and even dc elements. Thus a UPQC
the shunt electrical converter to the network. It
should operate below these surroundings whereas providing
conjointly helps in smoothing this wave. Generally
shunt or series compensation.
associate isolation electrical device is employed to
electrically isolate the electrical converter from the
The UPQC may be a comparatively new device and not a
network.
lot
of
work has been reported thereon however. It has been
a typical dc link that may be fashioned by employing a
viewed
as an integration of series and shunt active filters. It
condenser or associate inductance. In Fig.2, the dc link is
has
been
shown that it may be accustomed attenuate current
accomplished employing a condenser that interconnects
harmonics
by inserting a series voltage proportional to the
the 2 inverters and conjointly maintains a continuing
road
current.
Instead, the inserted series voltage is
independent dc bus voltage across it.
supplemental
to
the voltage at the purpose of common
Associate LC filter that is a passive low-pass filter (LPF)
coupling
specified
the device will give a buffer to eliminate
and helps to eliminate high-frequency switch ripples on
any
voltage
dip
or
flicker.
It is additionally potential to control
generated electrical converter output voltage.
it as a mixture of those 2 modes. In either case, the shunt
Series injection electrical device that\'s accustomed
device is employed for providing a path for the important
connect the series electrical converter within the
power to flow to assist the operation of the series connected
network. an acceptable flip magnitude relation is
VSI. Additionally enclosed during this structure may be a
commonly thought-about to scale back the voltage and
shunt passive filter to that the entire comparatively low
current rating of series electrical converter.
frequency harmonics area unit directed.
In principle, UPQC is associate integration of shunt and
series APFs with a typical independent dc bus. The shunt
electrical converter in UPQC is managementled in current
management mode such it delivers a current that is adequate to
the set price of the reference current as ruled by the UPQC
control algorithmic program [20]. To boot, the shunt electrical
converter plays a vital role in achieving needed performance
from a UPQC system by maintaining the dc bus voltage at a
group reference price. so as to cancel the harmonics generated
by a nonlinear load, the shunt electrical converter ought to
inject a current. Similarly, the series electrical converter of
UPQC is managementled in voltage control mode such it
generates a voltage and injects nonparallel with line to realize
a curved, free from distortion and at the required magnitude
voltage at the load terminal. Within the case of a voltage sag
condition, actual supply voltage can represent the distinction
between the reference load voltage and reduced offer voltage,
i.e., the injected voltage by the series electrical converter to
take care of voltage at the load terminal at reference price.
Altogether the reference papers on UPQC, the shunt electrical
converter is operated as controlled current supply and also the
series electrical converter as controlled voltage supply except
during which the operation of series and shunt inverters is
interchanged.

Fig.2. UPQC general block diagram.

IV.OVERALL CONTROL CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION


OF NINE SWITCH UPQC
REFERENCE GENERATION (PHASE LOCKED LOOP)
Reference currents and voltages square measure generated
victimization part secured Loop (PLL). The management
strategy is predicated on the extraction of Unit Vector
Templates from the distorted input provide. These templates
are going to be then a dore pure curving signal with unity
(p.u.) amplitude. The 3-ph distorted input supply voltage at
PCC contains basic element and distorted element. To induce
A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) may be a
unit input voltage vectors Uabc, the input voltage is perceived
device .The UPQC, sort of a UPFC, employs 2 voltage supply
and increased by gain adequate to 1/Vm, wherever Vm is
inverters (VSIs) that area unit connected to a standard dc
adequate to peak amplitude of basic input voltage. These unit
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches UPQC to Improve Power Quality
input voltage vectors square measure taken to part secured
In order to own distortion less load voltage, the load
loop (PLL). With correct part delay, the unit vector templates
voltage should be adequate to these reference signals. The
square measure generated. The management strategy is
measured load voltages square measure compared with
predicated on the extraction of Unit Vector Templates from
reference load voltage signals. The error generated is then
the distorted input provide. These templates are going to be
taken to a physical phenomenon controller to get the desired
then a dore pure curving signal with unity (p.u.) amplitude.
gate signals for series APF. The unit vector templates are often
The extraction of unit vector templates is
applied for shunt APF to compensate the harmonic current
generated by non-linear load. The shunt APF is employed to
catch up on current harmonics likewise on maintains the dc
link voltage at constant level. to realize the higher than
(1)
mentioned task the dc link voltage is perceived and compared
with the reference dc link voltage. A PI controller then
processes the error. The signal from PI controller is increased
Multiplying the height amplitude of basic input voltage
with unit vector templates of equation (1) giving reference
with unit vector templates of equation (1) offers the reference
supply current signals. The supply current should be adequate
load voltage signals,
to this reference signal. So as to follow this reference current
*
(2)
V abc Vm .U abc
signal, the 3-ph supply currents square measure perceived and
The error generated is then taken to a physical phenomenon
compared with reference current signals. The error generated
controller to get the desired gate signals for series APF. The
is then processed by a physical phenomenon current controller
unit vector template are often applied for shunt Fig.3
with appropriate band, generating gating signals for shunt
Extraction of Unit Vector Templates and three- Reference
APF.
Voltages shown within the Fig.3.The unit vector templates
square measure generated APF to compensate the harmonic
V. CONTROL STRATEGY OF NINE SWITCH UPQC
current generated by non-linear load. The shunt APF is
A. Static Shunt Compensator using PI
employed to catch up on current harmonics likewise on
Nine Switch UPQC consists of series compensator and
maintains the dc link voltage at constant level [13-14]. To
shunt compensator. The shunt compensator is managementled
realize the higher than mentioned task. The dc link voltage is
by a PWM current control formula, whereas the series
perceived and compared with the reference dc link voltage. A
convertor is managementled by a PWM voltage control
PI controller then processes the error. The signal from PI
formula. In step with the adopted management theme, these 2
controller is increased with unit vector templates of equation
components of 9 Switch UPQC have totally different
(1) giving reference supply current signals. The supply current
functions as follows:
should be adequate to this reference signal. So as to follow
Static Shunt Compensator: Shunt electrical converter
this reference current signal, the 3-phase supply currents
control: during this study, shunt electrical converter
square measure perceived and compared with reference
undertakes 2 main duties. initial is compensating each current
current signals. The error generated is then processed by a
harmonics generated by nonlinear load and reactive power,
physical phenomenon current controller with appropriate
second is injecting active power generated by PV system. The
band, generating gating signals for shunt APF. The 9 Switch
UPQC uses 2 consecutive connected 3 part VSIs sharing a
standard dc bus. The physical phenomenon controller is
employed here to manage the switch of the each VSIs.

Fig.4.Control block diagram of shunt inverter using PI.


Fig.3. Extraction of 3- Reference Voltages Unit Vector
Templates.

shunt electrical converter dominant system ought to be


designed during a manner that it\'d give the power of

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI


enterprise 2 higher than duties. Shunt electrical converter
alternative distortions like unbalanced and unexpected load
management calculates the compensation current for current
current variations will cause oscillation in DC bus voltage. so
harmonics and reactive power once PV is out of the grid. the
as to trace the error exists between the measured and desired
facility loss caused by electrical converter operation ought to
worth of electrical condenser voltage, a PI controller is
be thought-about during this calculation. Also, shunt electrical
applied. This dominant signal is applied to current system in
converter management undertakes the duty of (stabilizing) DC
shunt voltage supply during a manner that it management DC
link voltage throughout series electrical converter operation to
electrical condenser voltage by getting needed active power
compensate voltage distortions. DC link electrical condenser
(Id) from the grid. The output a part of PI controller (idc), is
voltage dominant loop is employed here by applying PI
additional to the letter of the alphabet a part of reference
controller. Fig.4 shows the circuit diagram of shunt electrical
current, where, the reference current would modification as
converter dominant.
follow:
Shunt electrical converter management in interconnected
mode: Mode one of shows UPQC shunt voltage supply
electrical converter dominant diagram applying synchronous
coordinate system theory technique wherever sensitive load
currents area unit Ia, Ib and Ic. Measured load currents applying
synchronous coordinate system conversion technique (dq0),
area unit transferred to dq0 frame victimization curved
functions. Sinusoidal functions are obtained by PLL using grid
voltage. Currents during this synchronous reference area unit
rotten to 2 DC and AC (50 Hz) quantities (using ~ sign higher
than the parameter).
dq 0
I ldq 0 Tabc
I abc

dq 0
Tabc

cos

2
sin
3
1

2
2

cos
cos

3
3

2
2

sin
sin

3
3

1
1

2
2

(3)

(4)

Ild Ild Ild , Ilq Ilq Ilq

(5)
where, Id is active and IQ is reactive a part of power. AC and
DC components is extracted by an occasional pass filter. In
this case:

Il I s I c

(6)
In Eq. 4, Is is that the supply current, Il is that the load current
and Ic is that the compensating current injected by shunt
electrical converter. If compensation reference currents area
unit thought-about as follow:

I *fd Ild , I *fq Ilq

I cd* Ild idc , I cq* Ilq

(11)
As it is shown in Fig.4, the reference currents can transfer to
fundamentals frame by reverse changing the synchronous
coordinate system, as Eq. 1. Resulted reference currents are
compared with shunt electrical converter output currents (I fa,
Ifb, Ifc) during a PWM current controller (hysteresist type) and
needed dominant pulses area unit generated. Applying these
signals to shunt electrical converter power switches gate,
needed compensation current is generated by electrical
converter.
In addition to earlier duties, shunt electrical converter
management ought to inject active power of PV system to the
grid once PV is working. Active power is injected to grid by
electrical condenser voltage dominant loop. In alternative
words, once voltage will increase and reaches to {the
worth|the worth} that is quite the reference voltage value,
shunt electrical converter injects active power to grid and once
it decreases to worth that is a smaller amount than the
reference voltage value; shunt electrical converter receives
active power from the grid.
B. Static Shunt Compensator using ANN
In Fig.5 the fast current of the nonlinear load is expanded
into three terms. the primary term is that the load functions
sent from PLL (Phase latched Loop) in accordance with
equation.(3)
I Ldq 0 Tabc dq 0 iLabc
(12)

(7)

In this case, the system`s currents are:

I sd I ld , I sq I lq

(8)
In the Eq. 6, simply the load current harmonics area unit
remunerated. If power issue is taken into account too, the
reference currents would be as follow:

I *fd Ild , I *fq I lq

(9)

then system currents are:

I sd I lq , I sq 0

(10)
So, no harmonic and reactive power are provided by the
supply. Switching losses and therefore the power that the
Fig.5. Control of the shunt Converter of the Nine Switch
series electrical converter receives from electrical condenser,
UPQC using ANN.
will scale back the voltage average worth of DC bus.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches UPQC to Improve Power Quality
By this remodel, the basic positive sequence parts area unit
Vm
remodeled into dc Quantities in d and letter of the alphabet
*
dq 0
*
Vldq 0 Tabc .Vlabc 0
axes, which may simply be extracted by low-pass, filter (LPF).
All harmonic parts area unit remodeled into ac quantities
with a harmonic shift
I Lq i Lq iLq
(13)
Since
(14)
iL is ic
This means there\'s no harmonics and reactive parts within
the system currents. The change loss will cause the dc link
electrical condenser voltage to decrease. alternative
disturbances, like unbalances and unexpected variations of
masses can even cause this voltage to fluctuate. so as to avoid
this, in Figure four. a PI controller is employed. The input of
the PI controller is that the error between the particular
electrical condenser voltage and therefore the desired worth,
its output then additional to the reference current part within
the d-axis to create a replacement.
C. Series Inverter Control using PI
The duty of series electrical converter is compensating
voltage distortions that are caused by fault in distribution grid.
Series electrical converter management calculates the voltage
reference values, that are injected to grid by series electrical
converter.

Vm cos t

*
Vlabc
Vm cos t 120
Vm cos t 120

(15)

(16)
where, Vm is desired peak worth of load voltage and () is
voltage point that is calculated by section latched loop (PLL).
By subtracting the specified worth of d-axis section voltage
from Vsd, all distortions in d-axis are obtained. Also, the
specified worth of load section voltage in q-axis is zero. In
alternative words, Vsq represents total q-axis distortions. So,
series compensation reference voltage is resulted by
combining weight. 16:
*
*
V fdq
0 Vldq 0 Vsdq 0

(17)
These voltages are compared with associate angular wave
form in PWM controller and needed dominant pulses (g1,...,
g6) are generated to be applied to series voltage supply
electrical converter switches. This corrected methodology is
programmable with an occasional price. the opposite
advantage is that the dominant system`s calculation time is
shortened and then dominant system`s response is quicker.
Fig.6 shows the diagram of series compensator`s dominant
circuit applying synchronous frame of reference methodology.
so as to enhance series electrical converter operation, SPWM
methodology is employed wherever, the resulted worth of
subtracting from Vfabc is increased to a continuing constant
and also the obtained worth is superimposed to . Applying
this methodology distinctively improves operation of series
electrical converter.

Fig.6. Control block diagram of series inverter using PI.


In order to regulate series electrical converter of UPQC, load
curving voltage dominant strategy is projected. during this
condition, UPQC series electrical converter would be
controlled during a approach that it compensates the total
distortions and helps the voltage of load voltage keep
(balanced curving 3-phase). so as to succeed in this aim,
synchronous frame of reference theory is applied (11). In this
methodology the specified worth of load section voltage is
replaced in d and q-axises rather than high pass and low pass
filters. Load voltage ought to be utterly a curving perform and
has constant frequency and amplitude. Desired voltage of load
is as combining weight. 14:

Fig.7. Control block diagram of the series converter of the


UPQC using ANN.
D. Series Inverter Control Using ANN
The system aspect voltage might contain negative-zerosequence still as harmonics parts which require to be
eliminated by the series compensator [15-16]. The
management of the series compensator is shown in Fig.7. The

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI


system voltages are detected then reworked into synchronous
square measure tan sigmoid and pure linear within the hidden
dq-0 frame of reference exploitation equation (6).
and output layers severally.
VI. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
The ANN controller used is a feed forward one, comprising
three neuron layers, the input layer, the hidden layer and the
output layer shown in the Fig.8. The input layer offers
connection points to transmit the input signal to the hidden
layer. The latter begins the learning process and the output
layer continues the learning process and provides outputs. The
hidden layer neurons have a tan-seg-moid transfer function,
and the output layer neurons have a linear transfer function.
The control objective of the NN is to provide the wanted
proper gating patterns of the PWM inverter, leading to
adequate tracking of the APF reference phase currents and
constant DC voltage. Neurons in the hidden layer is specified
as the minimum number that produces the permitted training
criterion. The training criterion is taken as the mean square
error of the NN outputs with a value of 0.0001. Sufficient
input-output training examples are obtained by using the
triangular carrier modulation technique.

The speedy detection of the disturbance signal with high


accuracy, quick process of the reference signal, and high
dynamic response of the controller square measure the prime
needs for desired compensation just in case of UPQC. the
traditional controller fails to perform satisfactorily below
parameter variations nonlinearity load disturbance, etc. now
shows that NN-based controllers offer quick dynamic response
whereas maintaining stability of the device system over wide
operational vary. Shows The Fig.9 ANN is created of
interconnecting artificial neurons. It is basically a cluster of
befittingly interconnected nonlinear components of terribly
straightforward kind that possess the power to find out and
adapt. It resembles the brain in 2 aspects: 1) the data is
nonheritable by the network through the educational method
and 2) interneuron association strengths square measure wont
to store the data. These networks square measure characterized
by their topology, the means during which they convey with
their atmosphere, the style during which they are trained, and
their ability to method info.
ANN has gained plenty of interest over the previous few
years as a robust technique to solve several world issues.
Compared to standard programming, they own the aptitude of
finding issues that don't have recursive answer and square
measure thus found appropriate to tackle issues that folks
square measure sensible to unravel like pattern recognition.
ANNs square measure getting used to solve AI issues while
not essentially making a model of a true dynamic system. For
up the performance of a UPQC, a multilayer feed forwardkind ANN-based controller is intended. This network is
intended with 3 layers, the input layer with two, the hidden
layer with twenty one, and also the output layer with one
somatic cell, severally.

Fig.8. The basic architecture of the feed forward neural


network with accompanying equations that describe the
transfer functions between layers.
An ANN is basically a cluster of fittingly interconnected
non-linear components of terribly easy kind that possess the
flexibility of learning and adaptation. These networks square
measure characterized by their topology, the means during
which they convey with their atmosphere, the style during
which they\'re trained and their ability to method data [18].
Their easy use, inherent reliableness and fault tolerance has
created ANNs a viable medium for management. An alternate
to fuzzy controllers in several cases, neural managementlers
share the requirement to switch laborious controllers with
intelligent controllers so as to extend control quality. A feed
forward neural network works as compensation signal
generator. This network is meant with 3 layers. The input
layer with 7 neurons, the hidden layer with 21 and therefore
the output layer with 3 neurons. Activation functions chosen
Fig.9. The basic architecture of ANN.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches UPQC to Improve Power Quality
This network is meant with 3 layers, the input layer with a
pair of, the hidden layer with twenty one, and therefore the
output layer with one vegetative cell, severally. The big
information of the dc-link current for n and (n-1) intervals
from the traditional methodology area unit collected and area
unit hold on within the Mat lab space. These information area
unit used for coaching the NN. The activation functions
chosen area unit tan colon for hidden and input layers and pure
linear within the output layer, severally. This multilayer feed
forward-type NN works as a compensation signal generator.
The topology of the ANN is as shown in Fig.10. The
compensator output depends on the evolution and its input.
The NN is trained for output basic reference currents. The
signals so obtained area unit compared during a physical
phenomenon band current controller to produce change
signals.

Fig.12. Block diagram of Nine Switch UPQC.

Fig.10 Block diagram of the ANN-based compensator for


offline training.
VII. SIMULATION CIRCUITS
Simulation circuits of this paper is as shown in bellow
Figs.11 to 17.

Fig.13. Block diagram of Nine Switch UPQC with PI


controller.

Fig.14 Block diagram of Nine Switch UPQC with ANN


controller.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Fig.11. Block diagram of without UPQC.

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI


The management methods are sculptured victimization
MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results are listed
compared of various management methods are shown in
figures. To verify the operational performance of the
projected 9 Switch UPQC, a 3- electrical system, a PLL
extraction circuit with physical phenomenon controlled 9
Switch UPQC is simulated victimization MATLAB
software system. Figure22. Shows the unit vector
templates generated by victimization projected
management technique.

Fig.15. Neural network sub circuit.

Fig.16. Neural network layer 1.

Fig.18. without UPQC at Load Voltage, input Voltage,


and Injected Voltage.

Fig.17. Neural network layer 2.


VIII. SIMULATION RESULTS
The harmonic content of input and output of the
Bridge convertor are shown in Fig.18. (three phase
voltages) and Figure nine. (three phase currents). because
of non-linear masses, like massive thyristor power
converters, rectifiers, voltage and current unsteady
because of arc in arc furnaces, sag and swell because of
the shift of the loads etc. one in every of the numerous
solutions is that the use of a combined system of shunt
and active series filters like 9 Switch Unified power
quality conditioner (UPQC) . This device combines a
shunt active filter beside a series active filter in an
exceedingly consecutive configuration, to at the same
time compensate the provision voltage and also the load
current or to mitigate any kind of voltage and current
fluctuations and power issue correction in an exceedingly
power distribution network. The management methods
Fig.19. PI without UPQC at Load Current, input
used here are supported PI & ANN controller of the 9
Current, and Injected Current.
Switch UPQC well.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches UPQC to Improve Power Quality

Fig.20. PI controller with SAG condition at Load


Voltage, input Voltage, and Injected Voltage.

Fig.23.PI controller with SWELL condition at Load


Voltage, input Voltage, and Injected Voltage.

Fig.21.PI controller with SAG condition at Load


Current, input Current, and Injected Current.

Fig.24.PI controller with SWELL condition at Load


Current, input Current, and Injected Current.

Fig.22.Dc voltage, without compensation and Neutral


compensation current.

Fig.25.PI controller with SAG & SWELL condition at


Load Voltage, input Voltage, and Injected Voltage.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI

Fig.26.PI controller with SAG & SWELL condition at


Load Current, input Current, and Injected Current.

Fig.27.ANN controller with SAG condition at Load


Voltage, input Voltage, and Injected Voltage.

Fig.28.ANN controller with SAG condition at Load


Current, input Current, and Injected Current.

Fig.29.ANN controller with SWELL condition at Load


Voltage, input Voltage, and Injected Voltage.

Fig.30.ANN controller with SWELL condition at Load


Current, input Current, and Injected Current.

Fig.31.ANN controller with SAG & SWELL condition


at Load Voltage, input Voltage, and Injected Voltage.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches UPQC to Improve Power Quality
Without UPQC utility side voltage THD is 4.15% at 5 th
harmonic order.

Fig.32.ANN controller with SAG & SWELL condition


at Load Current, input Current, and Injected
Current.

Fig.35. without UPQC Utility side voltage at 5 th


harmonic.

rd

Without UPQC Utility side Current THD is 12.15% at


5th harmonic order.

Fig.33. without UPQC Utility side voltage at 3 rd


harmonic.

Fig.36. without UPQC Utility side current at 5 th


harmonic.

Without UPQC utility side Current THD is 12.11% at


3 harmonic order.

Without UPQC Utility side voltage THD is 4.15% at 7th


& 9th harmonic orders.

Fig.34. without UPQC utility side current at 3 rd


harmonic.

Fig.37. without UPQC Utility side voltage at 7 th & 9th


harmonics.

Without UPQC Utility side voltage THD is 4.15% at 3


harmonic order.

rd

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI


Without UPQC Utility side Current THD is 12.17% at
Utility side voltage THD with PI 4.09% at 5th harmonic
th
th
7 & 9 harmonic orders.
order.

Fig.38. without UPQC Utility side current at 7 th & 9th


harmonics.

Fig.41. Utility side voltage THD with PI at 5 th


harmonic.

Utility side voltage THD with pi 3.99% at 3rd harmonic


order.

Utility side current THD with pi 2.33% at 5th harmonic


order.

Fig.39. Utility side voltage THD with PI at 3 rd


harmonic.
Utility side current THD with PI 2.29% at 3 rd harmonic
order.

Fig.40. Utility side current THD with PI at 3 rd


harmonic.

Fig.42. Utility side current THD with PI at 5 th


harmonic.
Utility side voltage THD with PI 3.88% at 7th & 9th
harmonic orders.

Fig.43. Utility side voltage THD with PI at 7 th & 9th


harmonics.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

Comparison of PI and ANN Control Techniques for Nine Switches UPQC to Improve Power Quality
Utility side current THD with PI 2.26% at 7th & 9th
Utility side voltage THD with ANN 1.35% at 5th
harmonic orders.
harmonic order.

Fig.44. Utility side current THD with PI at 7 th & 9th


harmonics.

Fig.47. Utility side voltage THD with ANN at 5 th


harmonic.

Utility side voltage THD with ANN 1.36% at 3 rd


harmonic order

Utility side current THD with ANN 1.31% at 5th


harmonic order.

Fig.45. Utility side voltage THD with ANN at 3 rd


harmonic.

Fig.48. Utility side current THD with ANN at 5 th


harmonic.

Utility side current THD with ANN 1.48% at 3rd


harmonic order.

Utility side voltage THD with ANN 1.37% at 7th & 9th
harmonic orders.

Fig.46. Utility side current THD with ANN at 3 rd


harmonic.

Fig.49. Utility side voltage THD with ANN at 7 th & 9th


harmonics.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581

SHAIK MABUSUBANI, SURESH KORNEPATI


Utility side current THD with ANN 1.39% at 7th & 9th
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Authors Profile:
Voltage and Current Source Harmonics, Journal of
Mr. SHAIK. MABUSUBANI is a
Electrical Engineering.
student of Sri Mittapalli College of
[19]
Ambrish Chandra, Bhim Singh, B.N.Singh, and
Engineering, Guntur, AP. Currently
Kamal Al-Haddad, An Improved Control Algorithm of
he is pursuing M.Tech in Power
Shunt Active Filter for Voltage Regulation, Harmonic
Electronics and Electrical Drives
Elimination, Power-factor Correction, and Balancing of
(12U91D5408) from S.M.C.E. He
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completed B.Tech (E.E.E.) in
no.3, May 2000, pp. 495-507.
Chalapati Institute of Technology.
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His area of interests include Power Quality by Custom
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Mr.
SURESH.
KORNEPATI
Systems Conf. and Exp. 2004, PSCE 2004, vol. 3, pp.
presently working as Associate
1440-1443.
Professor & Head, Deportment of
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EEE in Sri Mittapalli College of
evaluation of two models of UPQC for suitable interface
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interests include renewable energy
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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.33, October-2014, Pages: 6565-6581