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# Physics-2 for Engineering

(PHYS1211)

January, 2015

## Sameen Ahmed Khan

Diploma First Year
Department of Engineering
Salalah College of Technology
Salalah, Sultanate of Oman

http://www.sct.edu.om/

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Contents
Contents.........................................................................................................................................................................2
Outcomes.......................................................................................................................................................................3
Course Delivery Plan....................................................................................................................................................4
Chapter-1 Magnetism................................................................................................................................................20
References................................................................................................................................................................29
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................29
Subjective Questions...............................................................................................................................................30
Solved Numerical Problems...................................................................................................................................31
Multiple-choice questions.......................................................................................................................................34
Chapter:2 Electromagnetism....................................................................................................................................37
References................................................................................................................................................................49
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................49
Subjective Question................................................................................................................................................50
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................51
Multiple-choice questions.......................................................................................................................................54
Chapter-3 Wave Motion............................................................................................................................................57
References................................................................................................................................................................66
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................66
Subjective Questions...............................................................................................................................................66
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................67
Multiple-choice questions.......................................................................................................................................70
Chapter-4: Modern Physics......................................................................................................................................73
References................................................................................................................................................................80
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................80
Subjective Questions...............................................................................................................................................80
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................81
Multiple-choice questions.......................................................................................................................................84
Chapter-5 Heat and Thermodynamics.....................................................................................................................88
References................................................................................................................................................................97
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................97
Subjective Question................................................................................................................................................98
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................99
Multiple-choice questions.....................................................................................................................................104
Chapter-6: Optics.....................................................................................................................................................106
References..............................................................................................................................................................112
Formulae................................................................................................................................................................112
Subjective Questions.............................................................................................................................................113
Solved Numericals.................................................................................................................................................115
Multiple-choice questions.....................................................................................................................................117
Appendix-1: SI System of Units...............................................................................................................................121
Prefixes...................................................................................................................................................................122
Appendix-2: Physical Constants..............................................................................................................................123
Appendix-3: Greek Alphabet...................................................................................................................................124
Appendix-4: Mathematical Symbols.......................................................................................................................125
English-Arabic Glossary..........................................................................................................................................126
English-Arabic Phrase Glossary..............................................................................................................................130
References..................................................................................................................................................................134
Sample Question Paper: MidTerm......................................................................................................................135
Sample Question Paper: EndSem........................................................................................................................138

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Outcomes

Course Goals

## To equip the student with a strong understanding of the

fundamentals of physics to extend his/her knowledge and
To enable him/her to apply such understanding to his/her studies.

Course Objectives
Course Learning Outcomes
1. Explain the behavior of the physical world around
1. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate
him/her by constructing a logical structure of it magnetic forces and fields
2. Apply the concepts of physics in his/her field of study
2. Define, construct and analyze LR, LC, and LCR
and everyday life
circuits
3. Relate the concepts of physics to the advancement
3 Define
of
and perform some basic applications of
technology
Maxwells equations
4. Understand and relate the different phenomena in
4. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate the
the world
concept of sound, light and electromagnetic waves
5. Control the physical aspects of the world beneficially
5. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate
geometrical optics
6. Approach problems, predict their results in advance,
6. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate the
and solve them in quantitative and qualitative manners
concepts of heat
7. Gain a broader understanding of other sciences 7. Define and analyze the concepts of thermodynamics
8. Define and apply the kinetic theory of gases
9. Define and apply the concepts of superposition and
interference of waves
10. Define and apply the concepts of wave guides and
optical fibers
11. Discuss some topics in modern Physics
12. Recognize and present real life examples of the
aforementioned concepts and interrelate some of them
13. Describe the link between physics and other sciences
14. Identify technological applications of some of the
aforementioned concepts
15. Describe how he/she can harness the benefits of some
of the aforementioned concepts

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## Course Delivery Plan

Department: Engineering

## Course Code: PHYS1211

Course Name: Physics-2 for
Engineering

Theory: 3 hrs
Contact hours: 5

Semester: 1

## Passing Grade/Mark: C-/60

Sections: 1-14

Practical: 2 hrs.

Engineering

Schedule of
the course
lecture

Day

## Andrew M. Appaji: 10:00-12:00 (Wedsday)

Tel: Ext.084

12:00-14:00

PHYL2

14:00-16:00

PHYL1

8:00-10:00

MOML

12:00-13:00

PHYL2

Monday

Tuesday

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Place

Sunday

Coordinators
Time Table
Office hours

Time

MOML

12:00-14:00

PHCL
14:00-16:00

8:00-10:00

MOML

12:00-14:00

PHYL2

8:00-10:00

PHYL2

14:00-13:00

PHYL1

Wednesday
inquiries

am.appaji@sct.edu.om

Thursday

Page 5 of 110

## To equip the student with a strong understanding of the

fundamentals of physics to extend his/her knowledge and

Course Goals

## To enable him/her to apply such understanding to his/her studies.

Course Objectives

## 1. Explain the behavior of the physical world around him/her

by constructing a logical structure of it

## 1. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate magnetic

forces and fields

everyday life

technology

equations

world

## 4. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate the

concept of sound, light and electromagnetic waves

## 5. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate

geometrical optics

## 6. Approach problems, predict their results in advance, and

solve them in quantitative and qualitative manners

concepts of heat

## 7. Define and analyze the concepts of thermodynamics

8. Define and apply the kinetic theory of gases
9. Define and apply the concepts of superposition and
interference of waves
10. Define and apply the concepts of wave guides and optical
fibers
11. Discuss some topics in modern Physics

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## 12. Recognize and present real life examples of the

aforementioned concepts and interrelate some of them
13. Describe the link between physics and other sciences
14. Identify technological applications of some of the
aforementioned concepts
15. Describe how he/she can harness the benefits of some of
the aforementioned concepts

environment

## Gather and process knowledge from a variety of sources and communicate

effectively

Demonstrate and apply good interpersonal skills in team work and leadership roles

Covered by the Course

Page 7 of 110

Page 8 of 110

Assessment Plan
1 Credit hour = 1 Theory Contact hour = 2 Practical Contact hours
Assessment Procedures to be followed:
Mixed
Courses

Course Work
Courses

## Quizzes, Class tests, Course mini projects,

Assignments,
Structured
Assignments,
Case/Industrial/Field Studies, Presentation)

Theoretical part

Practical part

MidTerm

Final
Exam

Total

Theory

Practical

Note:
2:1

30 (2 Quizzes)

20

50

100

marks.

works, etc)

20

40

100

## 2. Assess practical part separately

out of 100 marks.

100%

100%

100%

## 3. For FINAL MARK assessment is based

on the following table given below

Total Marks

Type of Courses

Theory
contact hrs

Practical
contact hrs

## Contact Hours Ratio

Final Marks (based on credit hour ratio)
Theoretical

Practical

Page 9 of 110

No

Factors

Percentage

Procedure

## Data collection and analysis

10

Attendance

Submission on time

15

10

40

Total

100

Page 10 of 110

## Salalah College of Technology

Department: Engineering
Specialization: Diploma I year Academic Year: 2014 2054 Section: Dip. I year
Course Name: Physics-2 for Engineering
Course Code: PHYS1211
Semester: 1
Level: Dip. I year
Name of Course Lecturers:
Total No. of Outcomes
Mapping Sheet for Coverage of Course Outcomes
Delivery & Assessment Processes
Outcomes covered by the Delivery and Assessment Methods
Theory(Lectures)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
Practical (Lab./W.S)
*
Structured Assignment 1
*
Structured Assignment II
*
Mini Project
*
Group Assignment/ Industrial Visit/ Field
Visits, etc
*
Presentation
Others
Assignments/ Home Work I
Assignments/ Home Work II
Assignments/ Home Work III
Quiz -1 / Test - 1
Quiz -2 / Test - 2
Quiz -3 / Test - 3
Mid-Term Exam (Th/Pract)
Final Exams (Pract/W.S)
Final Exam (Theory)
*
= Student/Learner Centered Learning Methods Final Examination to cover ALL the Outcome of the Course.

Coverage of outcome

Outcome No/s.

Fully Covered

Partially Covered

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28

29

30

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Chapter-1
Magnetism

## Outcomes: 1 and 12-15

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Magnet: Magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. It attracts iron, cobalt and
nickel.
Magnetic field is invisible. Magnetic field is responsible for the most notable property of a
magnet: a force that attracts other materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets.
Every magnet has two poles: North Pole and a South Pole.

Properties of a magnet:
1. A freely suspended magnet shows the north and south direction of the earth.
2. Like (same) poles repel each other and unlike (opposite) poles attract each other.
3. Magnetic poles always exist in pairs. (i.e.,) isolated magnetic pole does not exist.
4. The magnetic length of a magnet is always less than its geometric length.
(This is because the poles are situated a little inwards from the free ends of the
magnet. But for the purpose of calculation the geometric length is always taken as
magnetic length).
5. The force of attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles is given by the
inverse square law.
Magnetic dipole: Two equal and opposite poles separated by a distance is called a magnetic
dipole.
Magnetic dipole moment (M): The magnetic dipole moment M is defined as the product of
the pole strength

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## M m(2l ) . The unit for the

Solved Example:
1. Calculate the magnetic moment of a magnet whose length is 9cm and pole strength is
12Am.
Solution: The magnetic moment, M m( 2l ) (12 Am)(0.09m) 0.108 Am 2 .

## Types of magnet: Magnets come in different shapes:

1. Rectangular Bar Magnet:
They have definite length,
breadth and height with a
regular area of cross section
Bar magnet

## 2. Cylindrical Bar magnet: They have definite length and

diameter with a regular area of cross section

3. Horse shoe magnet: They are in the form of the shoe of a horse.
They have a definite area of cross section

## 4. NIB-magnet: They are horse shoe magnets with a special fix

of Neodymium at the tips to increase the sensitivity.

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motors.

## Magnetic lines of force:

The imaginary lines that are drawn around the magnet are called the magnetic lines of force. This
indicates the region in which the force of the magnet is effective.
Properties of magnetic lines of force:
1. They are imaginary lines.
2. Outside the magnet they start from North Pole and end at the South Pole.
3. Inside the magnet they start from South Pole and end at the North Pole.
4. Outside the magnet they are curved.
5. Inside the magnet they are straight and parallel to the magnetic axis.
6. The lines of force never intersect each other.
7. They are closer at the poles and widely spread out at other places.
Magnetic Lines of Force between Two Magnets

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## Magnetic Flux ( ): The number of magnetic lines of force passing

through an area A is called magnetic flux.

## Its unit is Weber Tm 2 . It is a

scalar quantity.

B A BA cos

where is the angle which the normal to the surface makes with the

magnetic field B .

Magnetic Field ( B ):

## The space around the magnet where in the force of the

magnet is felt. It is a vector quantity.

## It is the force per unit pole strength.

B Force / Pole Strength .

Units:

## The SI unit for the Magnetic Field is Tesla and is denoted by T.

In base units Tesla N / Am .
Note: Tesla Wb / m 2 , where, Wb is Weber the unit for the magnetic flux. Tesla can be
expressed in terms of a smaller non SI unit, 1Gauss 10 4 Tesla or 1Tesla 10 4 Gauss .

Solved Example:
2. Calculate the magnetic field when the pole strength is 20Am and the force experienced is
0.6N.
Solution:

Force

0.6 N

## Earths Magnetic Field:

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Hang a bar magnet in air through a short string. The magnet swings, rotates and finally comes to
rest in a particular direction. This direction is the Earths magnetic field. The earths geographic
north pole is magnetic south pole and earths geographic south pole is magnetic north pole.
The Earths magnetic field near its surface is about 0.4Gauss 4 10 5 Tesla .

Magnetic Force (F): It is directly proportional to product of pole strengths of two magnets and
inversely proportional to square of distance between them.

F k

m1m2
,
d2

## where k r 0 / 4 . Here, 0 is the permeability of free space ( 0 4 10 7 N / A 2 ) and

r is the relative permeability. For air r 1 and k 10 7

## This is called Inverse Square Law.

Solved Example:
3. A bar magnet of N-pole strength 20Am and another bar magnet of S-pole strength 40Am are
placed at a distance of 2cm. Calculate the force between the two magnets.
Solution:
F k

m1 m2 r 0 m1 m2
(10 7 )(20)(40)
7 m1 m 2

(
10
)

0.2 N ( Attractive) .
4 d 2
d2
d2
0.02 2

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## Magnetic Classification of Materials: The materials are classified into ferromagnetic,

paramagnetic or diamagnetic.
The properties of the three types of magnetic materials are:

Ferromagnetic
Strongly attracted by

Paramagnetic

Diamagnetic

## Weakly attracted by magnets Not attracted by magnets

magnets
Easily magnetized

Weakly magnetized

Cannot be magnetized

materials

materials

materials

## Magnetic dipoles are

arranged regularly

arranged regularly

randomly arranged.

into paramagnets

diamagnets

## Curie temperature: Curie temperature ( Tc ), or Curie point, is the temperature at which a

ferromagnetic material becomes paramagnetic (and paramagnetic material becomes diamagnetic)
on heating. The effect is reversible on cooling.

References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
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## 2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training

(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
3. Some Animations using JAVA,
http://www.physics.purdue.edu/class/applets/phe/mfbar.htm
4. Interactive http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/index.html
Formulae
1. Magnetic Flux,

B A BA cos

m1m2
d2 .

Force

## 4. Magnetic field, B PoleStreng th m .

Subjective Questions
1. Write the properties of a magnet.
2. Write the properties of magnetic lines of force.
3. Draw the magnetic field lines of a bar magnet.
4. What is magnetic flux? What are its units?
Solution:
The number of magnetic lines of force passing through an area A is called magnetic flux.
It is denoted by . Its unit is Weber Tm 2 . It is a scalar quantity.
Formula:

B A BA cos

## 5. What is a magnetic dipole? Write its units.

Solution:
Two equal and opposite poles separated by a distance is called a magnetic dipole.

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## 6. What is a magnetic dipole moment? Write its units.

Solution: The magnetic dipole moment M is defined as the product of the pole strength

## M m( 2l ) .The unit for it is Am 2 . It is a

vector quantity along the axial line of a magnet from South Pole to the North Pole.
7. Write the properties of ferromagnetic materials with examples.
8. Write the properties of paramagnetic materials with examples.
9. Write the properties of diamagnetic materials with examples.
10. What is Curie temperature?
11. What are the differences between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic materials?

12. Give any two differences between Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials.

## 13. Express Tesla in base units.

Numerical Problems
1. If the magnetic dipole moment of a magnet of length 10cm is 2.4 Am 2 . What is the pole
strength of this magnet?
2. Calculate the force experienced by a magnet of pole strength 6 Am in a magnetic field of
200Gauss .

3. Calculate the magnetic field if there are 100 lines passing through an area of 2m 2 .

4. Find the magnitude of the force between two bar magnets of pole strengths 8Am and
6Am which are 5cm apart.
Solution:

## The force between the two magnets is given by

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F k

m1 m2 r 0 m1 m2

.
4 d 2
d2

m1 m2
(10 7 )(6)(8)
7 m1 m 2
F k
(10 )

1.92 10 3 N 0.00192 N
2
2
2
d
d
0.05

5. Two magnets of pole strengths 10Am and 20Am are separated by 4cm in air. Find the
force when their opposite poles are placed together. What is the nature of the force
between them?
6. If the distance between two poles with strength 5Am each is 10cm. Calculate the
magnetic force experienced, and the magnetic field acting by one of the poles.
Solution: F k

m1 m2 r 0 m1 m2
(10 7 )(5)(5)
7 m1 m 2

(
10
)

N 2.5 10 4 N .
2
2
2
2
4 d
d
d
0.1

Magnetic field,
B

Force
F
2.5 10 4 N

## Tesla 5 10 5 Tesla .00005Tesla

PoleStreng th m
5 Am

7. A force of 15 N acts between two magnetic dipoles. One has pole strength of 5Am.
Calculate the strength of the other pole if the distance between them is 4cm.
Solution: F k

m1 m2
Fd 2 (15)(.04 2 )

48,000 Am .
2
km1
d2
(10 7 )(5)

8. Two equal magnets have a force of 12.5N between them. Calculate the pole strength of
the magnets if the distance between them is 12cm.
Solution:

F k

m1 m2 km 2
Fd 2 (12.5)(.12 2 )
2

1.8 10 6 m 2 .
k
d2
d2
(10 7 )

1.8 10 6 1341Am .

Multiple-choice questions
1. The unit of magnetic pole strength is
a. A
b. Am
Page 22 of 110

c. Am2
d. Tesla
2. The unit of magnetic field is
a. A
b. Am
c. Am2
d. Tesla
3. A freely suspended magnet shows
a. North and South direction of the earth
b. East and West direction of the earth.
c. Only the North direction of the earth
d. All of the above.
4. The collection of magnetic lines of force has the other name
a. Magnetic current
b. Magnetic flux
c. Magnetic deflection
d. None of the above
5. Inside the magnet the magnetic lines of force go from
a. North to South
b. South to North
c. Both North to South and South to North
d. None of the above.
6. If you break a magnet, you will get
a. Iron bar
b. Two magnets
c. magnetism is lost
d. None of the above.
7. The magnetic field of a bar magnet is
a. More at the equator
Page 23 of 110

## b. Less at the poles

c. More at poles
d. Same at all places
8. The distance between two magnetic poles is doubled. Then the force between them
a. Decreases by four times
b. Decreases by two times
c. Increases by two time
d. Increases by four times
e. No change

## 9. The temperature at which the ferromagnetic material is converted to paramagnetic is

called
a. Curie Temperature
b. Magnetic Temperature
c. Einstein Temperature
d. None of the above.
10. Iron is
a. Diamagnetic
b. Ferromagnetic
c. Paramagnetic
d. None of the above.
11. Copper is
a. Diamagnetic
b. Ferromagnetic
c. Paramagnetic
d. None of the above.
Key for Multiple-choice Questions:
Page 24 of 110

1 (B), 2 (D), 3 (A), 4 (B), 5 (B), 6 (B), 7 (C), 8 (A), 9 (A), 10 (B), 11 (A).

Page 25 of 110

Chapter:2
Electromagnetism

## Outcomes: 1-3, and 12-15

Page 26 of 110

Principle of Electromagnetism: When electric current passes through a wire, a magnetic field is
created around the wire. This is the basic principle of electromagnetism.

## Differences between a bar magnet and an electromagnet.

Bar Magnet

Electromagnet

1. It is a permanent magnet.

1. It is a temporary magnet.

## 2. It produces strong magnetic force.

attraction.
3. The strength of magnetic field

## 3. The strength of magnetic field can

cannot be changed.

and current.

be changed.

4.

## Its polarities can be changed by

changing the direction of the
current.

Page 27 of 110

Biot-Savart Law: The Magnetic Field ( dB ) at any point ( P ) due to a current ( I ) flowing
through an elemental length ( dl ) of a conductor is directly proportional to the product of the
current, the elemental length and the sine of the angle and inversely proportional to the square of
the distance between dl and the point P .
Introducing the proportionality constant

dB k

IdlSin
,
r2

7
2
where k r 0 / 4 . Here, 0 is the permeability of free space ( 0 4 10 N / A ) and

## Applications of Biot-Savart Law:

1. Magnetic field at a point outside the conductor:
Consider a conductor carrying a current I . Let the point P be at a distance
conductor, then the magnetic field at the point P is
I
B

0 I
2 r

.
2. Magnetic field at point inside the circular coil:
Consider a circular ring or circular coil of

r.

n turns and

r

I

B

0 nI
2r
Page 28 of 110

from the

## 3. Magnetic field inside a solenoid

Consider a solenoid of length L and number of turns

## . When a current I passes through the solenoid, the

magnetic field produced at the axial line of the solenoid
is,

nI
B . 0
L

## The magnetic field outside the solenoid is zero.

Solved Example:
1. Calculate magnetic field at the centre of a circular loop with radius of 4cm and current of 20A.
Solution:
B

0 I (4 10 7 )( 20)

## 10 4 Tesla 0.00031Tesla Gauss 3.14Gauss.

2r
2(0.04)

2. A circular coil of radius 4cm and having 100 turns carries a current of 2A. What is the
magnitude of the magnetic field at the centre of the coil?
Solution:

0 nI (4 107 )(100)(2)

10 3 Tesla 0.0031Tesla .
2r
2(0.04)

3. A closely wound solenoid of length 20cm has 400 turns. If the current is 2A, estimate the
magnetic field inside the solenoid. What is the field outside the solenoid?
Solution:
B

0 nI ( 4 10 7 )(400)(2)

L
0.2

Page 29 of 110

## Force between a magnetic field and a current carrying conductor

Consider a magnetic field B and conductor carrying current I inclined in an angle , then
the force between the magnetic field and the conductor is,
I
F I L B ILBSin

Solved Example:
4. A straight conductor of length 15cm is kept in a uniform magnetic field of 2 Tesla. The angle
between the conductor and the field is 30 . A current of 3A is passing through the conductor. Find
the force on the conductor.
F ILBSin (3 A)(0.15m)(2T )(0.5) 0.45 Newtons .

Solution:

## Force between two current carrying conductors

Consider two parallel conductors of length L carrying currents I1 and I 2 . If the distance
between the two conductors is

I1

## r , then the force between the two conductors is,

r

I2

0 I1 I 2
L
2 r

Nature of the Force: The force is attractive if the current is in the same direction. The force is
repulsive if the current is in the opposite direction.
Page 30 of 110

Solved Example:
5. Calculate the force between two long straight conductors of length 2m, separated by a distance
of 25cm and carrying currents 4A and 6A in same direction?
Solution:

0 I 1 I 2 L ( 4 10 7 )(4)(6)(2)

3.84 10 5 N ( Attractive) .
2 r
2 (0.25)

## Principle of Electromagnetic Induction:

Whenever is change in magnetic flux linked with a closed circuit, an induced current flows in the
circuit, which lasts as long as the change lasts.

This phenomenon is called electromagnetic induction and the emf produced is called induced
emf. Note: emf is the abbreviation for Motional Electromotive Force. Units of emf are Volts.
This was discovered by Faraday in 1831.

Page 31 of 110

## Faradays laws of Electromagnetic Induction:

1. Whenever there is a change in magnetic flux, an emf is induced in the conductor.
2. The magnitude of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of
magnetic flux.
emf

2 1
,
t

Transformer:

## A transformer is a device used to transform low voltage high

current to high voltage low current and vice versa. It is
based on the Faradays law of mutual induction.

## Transformers are of two types:

1. Step-Up Transformer: These are the transformers where the secondary voltage (output
voltage) is more than the primary voltage (input voltage). For this no. of turns in
secondary coil N s is more than the no. of turns in primary coil N p . Vs > Vp
Ns> Np
2. Step-Down Transformer: These are the transformers where the secondary voltage
(output voltage) is less than the primary voltage (input voltage). For this no. of turns in
secondary coil N s is less than the no. of turns in primary coil N p .

Vs < Vp
Ns < Np

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## Circuit Symbol of Transformer:

Primary

Secondary
Vs , I s , N s .

Vp , I p , N p .

Ns Ns

Ip
Vs
N
s
Vp
Np
Is

where

Vp

: Primary Voltage

Vs : Secondary Voltage
Ip

: Primary Current

I s : Secondary Current
Np

## N s : Number of Turns in the Secondary

Solved Example:
6. A power transmission line feeds input voltage of 2500V to a step-down transformer with

4000 turns in the primary and 400 turns in the secondary. What is the output voltage? If the
input current is 2A, calculate the output current.
Solution:

V
V
Vs
400 2500V
p Vs N s p
250V .
Ns N p
Np
4000
Is Ns I p Ns Is N p

Ip
Ns

4000 2 A
20 A .
400

Electric Motor:
Electric motor is a rotating device that converts electrical energy to
mechanical energy. Electric mortor is used as an important component in
electric fans, refrigerators mixers, washing machines, computers, etc.
Dynamo:

Page 33 of 110

Dynamo is a device that converts mechanical energy (rotational energy) into electrical energy. It
is also known as the electric generator. Mechanical energy is used to rotate a conductor in a
magnetic field to produce electricity.
Small dynamos can be found in the bicycles, used to provide small currents suffiecint for the
bicycle lights. Larger dynamos are driven by steam or water turbine systems, which provide
electricity to the cities.
Maxwells Equations:
Maxwell formulated a set of four equations involving electric and magnetic fields, and their
sources, the charge and current densities. The Maxwells equations contain all the known laws
of electromagnetism and form the basis of electrical engineering. Maxwell`s four equations
unified the two branches of Physics namely electricity and magnetism into Electromagnetism.
1.

E dA

## (Gauss Law for Electricity)

It states that total electric flux through any closed surface is always equal to 1/o times the
net charge enclosed by the surface.

2.

B dA 0

## (Gauss Law for Magnetism)

It states that the magnetic flux crossing any closed surface is always zero. This means
that monopoles do not exist in magnetism.

3.

E dl

d B
dt

This implies that the induced emf is (numerically) equal to the time rate of change of
magnetic flux through it.

4.

1 d E
B

d
l

0
c

c 2 dt

(Ampere-Maxwell Law)

This implies that line integral of magnetic field along a closed surface is equal to the total
current
(sum of displacement and conduction currents) passing through that surface.

Page 34 of 110

AC Circuits:

Alternating Current (AC): The electric current, whose magnitude (value) changes with time
and direction reverses in a periodic manner, is known as alternating current. The value of current
at any time is given as:
I I o sin t .

## where I o is the peak value of current in an AC circuit, and

alternating current. The angular frequency

## is related to the frequency f by the relation

2f . The value of emf (voltage) is also changing with time and is known as alternating emf

and is given by
V Vo sin t

## where Vo is the peak value of emf in an A.C. circuit

V is the value of alternating emf at any time and
is the angular frequency of the alternating current.

Unsolved Example:
6.

If the maximum emf supplied by an AC power supply is 200V with a frequency of 53 Hz.
Calculate emf and current at time 2.3 seconds. Also calculate maximum current, given that
the resistance if the circuit is 300Ohms.

Page 35 of 110

## LCR Series Circuits: In such circuits a resistor, an inductor

and a capacitor connected in series to an A.C. source. The
order of connection is not important. Value of alternating emf
at any time is V Vo sin t .

## The resistor, inductor and the capacitor each hinder or

oppose the flow of current.

## The opposition due to the capacitor is called capacitive reactance, X C

1
.
C

Unsolved Example:
7. Calculate the reactance of a 4F operating at a frequency of 50Hz.
8. At a frequency of 60Hz, calculate the reactance of an 2mH inductor.
The combined opposition of the resistor, inductor and the capacitor is called as
impedance ( Z ). The impedance for a series circuit is
1

2
Z R 2 X L X C R 2 L

## The current in a LCR circuit is given by I

V
Vo sin t
, Io o
Z
Z

Page 36 of 110

The maximum value of the current occurs for the minimum value of the impedance Z ,
which occurs for a particular frequency, f r

1
2 LC

## , which is called as the resonance

frequency.
Solved Example:
9. In the LRC circuit, (Vo = 220Volts, L = 20kH, C = 10 F, f = 50Hz, and R= 2000).
Calculate, Calculate, the resonant frequency (fr) and the Impedance (Z). Write the formula
for the AC current.

fr

Solution:

1
2

LC

1
2 ( 20 10 )(10 10
3

1
2 0.2

1
0.355 Hz
2.809

,
2 f 2 50 100Rad / s 314.15 Rad / s

X L L 2 f 2 (50)(20 10 3 ) 2 10 6 6283185.3 ,
XC

1
1
1

318.3 ,
C 2 fC (2 50)(10 10 6 )

R2 ( X L X C )2

## 2000 2 (6283185.3 318.3) 2

4,000,000 6282867 2

## V V0 Sin(t ) 220 Sin(100 t ) .

Z
Z
6282867

Page 37 of 110

References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
3. Some Animations using JAVA,
http://www.physics.purdue.edu/class/applets/phe/mfbar.htm
4. Interactive http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/index.html

Formulae

1. Biot-Savart Law: dB k

IdlSin
.
r2
I

0
2. Magnetic field of a straight conductor, B 2 r .

## 3. Magnetic field of a circular coil, B

4. Magnetic field of a solenoid, B

0 nI
.
2r

0 nI
.
L

## 5. Force between a magnetic field and a current carrying conductor

F I L B ILBSin

I I

0 1 2
6. Force between two straight current carrying conductors, F 2 r L

7. Transformer,

N
Vs
N
I
s and s p .
Vp
Np
Ip
Ns

## 8. Frequency f , angular frequency

2 f

9. Inductive reactance, X L L
10. Capacitive reactance, X c

1
C

Page 38 of 110

11. Impedance, Z R 2 ( X L X C ) 2 R 2 L

## 12. Resonance frequency, f r

1
2 LC

Subjective Question
1. What is the principle of electromagnetism?
2. What are the differences between a bar magnet and an electromagnet?
3. Explain the Biot-Savart law with a diagram and the formula.
4. Write the Maxwells equations with their interpretation.
5. Draw the solenoid and write its formula.
6. Explain the Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.
7. What is a transformer? Draw its diagram. Write its formula.
8. Write about the dynamo with a diagram.
9. Write about the electric motor with a diagram.
10. Explain any two technological applications of Electromagnets.
11. Write the Maxwells equations with their interpretations.

Page 39 of 110

Numerical Problems
1. A long straight wire carries a current of 3A. What is magnitude of the magnetic field at a
point 20cm away from the wire?
Solution:

0 I
( 4 10 7 )(3)

3 10 6 Tesla 0.000003Tesla .
2 r
2 (0.2)

2. Calculate the force between two long straight conductors carrying a current of 3A and 2A
in the same direction and separated by 20cm. The length of the conductors is 1m.
3. In a series LCR circuit, R 300 , C 2 F and L 0.9 H . The power supply has the
maximum voltage of 100V and a frequency of 1000Hz. Calculate the current and the
resonance frequency.

Multiple-choice questions
1. Bar magnet is a
a. Permanent magnet
b. Temporary magnet
c. Unipole magnet
d. All of the above
2. Magnetic poles can be interchanged in
a. Barr magnet
b. Electromagnet
c. Cannot be interchanged
d. None of the above.

## 3. If the current is increased in a coil, the magnetic field

Page 40 of 110

a. increases
b. decreases
c. remains same
d. None of the above.
4. Two straight conductors are carrying current in the same direction. The force between
them is
a. Attractive
b. Repulsive
c. Depends
d. None of the above.
5. The force experience by a straight conductor placed perpendicular to the magnetic field is
a. Zero
b. ILB
c. 2ILB
d. None of the above.
6. The force experience by a straight conductor placed parallel to the magnetic field is
a. Zero
b. ILB
c. 2ILB
d. None of the above.
7. Induced emf is produced when
a. Electric flux changes in a circuit
b. Magnetic flux changes in a circuit
c. When a current passes through a conductor
d. None of the above.
8. The principle of a transformer is
a. Mutual Inductance
b. Self inductance
Page 41 of 110

c. Mutual conductance
d. Conductance
9. The condition for step down transformer is
a. N p N s
b. N p N s
c. N p N s
d. None of the above.
10. The device which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy is
a. Motor
b. Dynamo
c. Magnet
d. None of the above.
11. The device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy is
a. Motor
b. Dynamo
c. Magnet
d. None of the above.
12. The basic equations of electromagnetism are known after
a. Newton
b. Maxwell
c. Einstein
d. None of the above.
Key for Multiple-choice Questions:
1 (A), 2 (B), 3 (A), 4 (A), 5 (B), 6 (A), 7 (B), 8 (A), 9 (A), 10 (B), 11 (A), 12 (B).

Page 42 of 110

Chapter-3
Wave Motion

Page 43 of 110

## Properties of a wave motion

1. It is a disturbance in the medium.
2. The energy is transmitted from place to place, but the medium does not travel between
two places.
Two types of waves:
1. Transverse waves
2. Longitudinal waves
Transverse Waves

## 1. In a transverse wave the particle displacement is perpendicular to the direction of

wave propagation.
2. The particles simply jump up and down about the equilibrium positions.
3. They can travel through vacuum. (they do not need material medium for propagation)
For example: Electromagnetic waves (light, X-Rays, radio waves and gamma rays)

## Crest: The maximum positive displacement from the equilibrium

Trough: The maximum negative displacement from the equilibrium

Page 44 of 110

Wavelength: The distance traveled by the wave between two crests or troughs
Wavelength ( ): The distance traveled by a wave during which a particle of the medium
completes one cycle of vibration is called wavelength. [Units: metres].
Frequency ( f or

## Alternately, Number of vibrations per second

1
T

[Units: s 1 Hertz ].

Time Period ( T ): The time period of a wave is the time taken by the wave to travel a distance
equal to (one cycle of vibration) its wavelength. [Units: seconds].
Speed of the wave: Speed is distance/time ( v / T ) So we have
v

f
T

The speed of the wave is given by the product of the frequency and the wavelength.
Examples:
1. A sound wave has a frequency of 5kHz. Find its wavelength.

Solution:

v
340m / s

0.068m
f
5000 Hz

## 2. A vibrating source sends waves of frequency 10kHz of wavelength 51.3 m through

iron material. Find the velocity of sound in iron.
Solution: v f (10000 Hz )(51.3m) 513000m / s
3. If the angular frequency

Page 45 of 110

## Equation of Transverse wave:

y A sin( t ) A sin( 2f t )

Where y = displacement
A = amplitude
Where the angular frequency, 2 f , where f is the frequency.

Solved Examples:
4. If the wave equation is y 20 sin(50t ) , find the amplitude frequency and the time

period.
Solution:

y A sin( t ) ,

we obtain

## The amplitude A = 20.

The frequency, f is obtained from
2 f f
T

50 25

7.95 Hz
2 2

1
1

## 0.125 sec onds

f
7.95 Hz

5. A wave has the amplitude of 25cm and time period of 2ms. Write its equation.
Solution:

## The amplitude A = 25cm = 0.25m

T 2ms 2 10 3 s 0.002 s
f

1
1

500 Hz
T 0.002 s

2 f ( 2 )500 Hz 1000Hz

## The equation is:

y A sin( t ) 0.25 sin(1000 t ) 0.25 sin(3141 t )

Page 46 of 110

Limiting Visibility of Human Eye: Human eye can see in the range 4000 to 7000.
Examples of Electromagnetic Waves: Light (visible to human in the range 4000 to 7000,
different wavelength have different colours); X-Rays (0.01 to 100); Gamma Rays; Radio,
Television and Mobile phones use specific wavelengths. The FM-range is about 100m. Lasers
are also EM waves but with additional properties.
Properties of electromagnetic waves:
1. The electromagnetic waves contain electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each
other and also perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.
2. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.
3. Electromagnetic waves can travel in vacuum.
4. The speed of the electromagnetic waves in vacuum is given by c= 3X108 m/s
5. The energy of the electromagnetic waves is given by the Planks relation
E=hf
6. Electromagnetic waves are not deflected by electric and magnetic fields.
7. Electromagnetic waves in the visible range (4000 to 7000) are called light.

Longitudinal Waves

## 1. In a longitudinal wave the particle displacement is parallel to the direction of

wave propagation.
2. The particles simply oscillate back and forth about the equilibrium positions.
3. They cannot travel through vacuum. (they need material medium for propagation)

## Example : Sound, ultrasound, movement of a spring.

Page 47 of 110

Condensation or Compression: The high density area of the particles of the medium
Rarefactions: The low density area of the particles of the medium
Sound Waves: Sound waves are longitudinal mechanical waves that can travel though gases,
liquids and solids. They cannot travel through vacuum. The speed of sound is more in solids
than in liquids and gases.. The speed of sound depends on temperature and pressure.
Air (at 0C )

330 m/s

Water (at 0C )

1402 m/s

Aluminum

6420 m/s

## Air (at room temperature) 340 m/s

Speed of sound in air and gases depends on the temperature by the relation
v2
v
1
T2
T1

## Note: The temperature in the above relation is in Kelvin.

Page 48 of 110

Solved Examples:
6. Express 30C in Kelvin.
Solution:

## So, 30C 303K .

7. The speed of sound in air at 27C is 347m/s. Calculate its speed in air at 51C
Solution:

## First we have to express the temperatures in Kelvin.

T1 27C ( 273 27) K 300 K and
T2 51C ( 273 51) K 324 K .

v2
v
v
1 v2 T2 1
T2
T1
T1

## 324 347 18(347)

360.6m / s .
17.32
300

Limiting Audibility of Human Ear: The limiting audibility of the human ear is 20Hz to 20kHz. The
frequencies below the lower limit are called Infra sound waves and above the higher limit are called
ultrasound waves.

## Properties of sound waves:

1. Sound is produced by a vibrating body.
2. Sound waves are longitudinal waves.
3. Sound always requires a material medium (gas, liquid or solid) for its propagation.
4. Sound does not travel through vacuum.
5. Speed of sound depends on the material of the medium.
6. Speed of sound depends on the temperature and pressure.
7. Speed of sound is more in solids than is liquids and gases.

Page 49 of 110

Superposition of Waves:
The principle of superposition
When two waves meet, the resulting wave is found by adding together the displacements of both
the waves at that same location.

Page 50 of 110

Displacement of
Wave-1

Displacement of
Wave-2

+1

+1

Resulting Displacement

+2

-1

-1
-2

+1

-1
0

+1

-2
-1

Page 51 of 110

## Definition of Interference of Waves

Interference is the superposition of two waves coming from two coherent sources.

Definition of Coherent Sources of waves: They produce waves of the same frequency
(f), amplitude (A) and in phase.

Constructive Interference: If two waves having the same frequency and amplitude and
are in same phase, the resultant wave has same frequency as that of each wave but two
times their amplitude.

## Destructive Interference: If two waves having the same

frequency and amplitude and are 180 out of phase, the
resultant wave has zero amplitude (complete cancellation).

## Interference Pattern: A pattern consisting of a series of parallel and alternating bright

and dark fringes (band)

The bright fringes (band) are regions where constructive interference occurs, whereas the
dark fringes (band) are regions of destructive interference.

Page 52 of 110

References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
Formulae

1. Frequency, f

1
.
T

2. Speed of a wave, , v

f .
T

## 3. Equation of Transverse wave,

y A sin( t ) A sin( 2 f t ) .

v2
v
1 .
T2
T1

## 5. Conversion of temperature, TK 273 TC .

6. Equation of Transverse wave:

y A sin( t ) A sin( 2 f t )

Subjective Questions
1. Define wave length and frequency for a wave?
2. Draw the transverse wave and indicate the Crest, trough and wavelength?
3.

4.

5.

## Write the differences between sound waves and electromagnetic waves.

Page 53 of 110

Solved Numericals
1. A saxophone is playing a steady note of frequency 266 Hz. Find its wavelength.
2. A hospital uses an ultrasonic scanner to locate tumors. What is the wavelength of sound
in a tissue in which the speed of sound is 1.7km/s. The operating frequency of the
scanner is 4.2MHz.
3. The limiting audibility of the human ear is 20Hz to 20kHz. Express them in terms of
the wavelength.
Solution:

1

v
340m / s

17 m
f1
20 Hz

v
340m / s

0.017m
f 2 20000 Hz

## What is the corresponding

frequency?
Solution:

c
3 10 8

4.76 10 14 Hz
10
6300 10

5. The human eyes can sense the wavelengths from 4000. to 7000. Express these in
frequencies.
Solution:

## The speed of light is 340m/s. c 3 10 8 m / s

f1

c
3 10 8 m / s

7.5 10 14 Hz
1 4000 10 10 m

f2

c
3 10 8 m / s

4.28 10 14 Hz
2 7000 10 10 m

Page 54 of 110

6. The speed of sound in some gas at 25C is 340 m/s. Calculate its speed at 40C .
7. A transverse sinusoidal wave is represented by the equation y = 0.2 sin(20t). Find the
amplitude and the frequency of the wave.
8. Write the general wave equation of a sound wave propagating with 100Hz and 20cm
of amplitude.
Solution:

f 100 Hz

The equation is

## 9. A wave is described by the equation,

y 20 sin(50 t ) .

Solution:

## The displacement is 9.35

Note: Use radians in such calculations.

Page 55 of 110

Multiple-choice questions
1. The unit of frequency is
a. Hertz
b. m/s
c. s
d. None of the above.
2. The distance between two neighbouring crests in a wave is called
a. Amplitude
b. Frequency
c. Wavelength
d. Time Period
e. None of the above.
3.

The time taken by a wave to travel a distance equal to its wavelength (one cycle of vibration) is
a. Time Period
b. Frequency
c. Wavelength
d. Amplitude
e. None of the above.

## 4. Sound waves are

a. Longitudinal
b. Transverse
c. Longitudinal and transverse
d. None of the above.

Page 56 of 110

## 5. Electromagnetic waves are

a. Longitudinal
b. Transverse
c. Longitudinal and transverse
d. None of the above.
6. In the electromagnetic waves the electric and magnetic fields are
a. Parallel
b. Perpendicular
c. Any direction
d. All of the above.
7. Light is a
b. Electromagnetic wave
c. Transverse wave
d. All the above
8. The waves between two mobile phones are
a. Electromagnetic waves
b. Light waves
c. Sound waves
d. None of the above.
9. The audible frequency range is
a. Less than 20Hz
b. More than 20kHz
c. Between 20Hz and 20kHz
d. None of the above

Page 57 of 110

## 10. The minimum audible wavelength for the human ear is

a. 0.017m
b. 0.17m
c. 1.7m
d. 17m
e. None of the above
11. The visible wavelength is
a. Below 4000
b. Above 7000
c. Between 4000 and 7000
d. None of the above.
12. When the temperature increases the speed of sound in air
a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Remains the same
d. None of the above.
13. The limiting audibility of the human ear is ________ to ________.
14. The limiting visibility of the human eyes is ________ to ________.
Key for Multiple-choice Questions:
1 (A), 2 (C), 3 (A), 4 (A), 5 (B), 6 (B), 7 (D), 8 (A), 9 (C), 10 (A), 11 (C), 12 (A).

Page 58 of 110

Chapter-4:
Modern Physics

## Outcomes: 11 and 12-15

Page 59 of 110

Introduction:
Modern Physics broadly refers to the physics developed in the early 20 th century. Modern
physics often deals with very small distances (of the order of an angstrom and lower) and high
velocities (comparable to the velocity of light,

## 20th Century covering topics such as

X-rays

Matter waves

Photoelectric effect

Enlisted here are some of the commonly used terms in the study of Modern Physics
1. Speed of light in vacuum, c 3 108 m / s . Speed of light is maximum in vacuum.
2. Relation between frequency (denoted by the Greek letter nu, ) and the wavelength ( )
and the speed of propagation is c .
3. ngstrom () and Nanometer (nm): They both are the units of length, used for particles
of small sizes. For example size of an atom, size of nucleus, wavelength etc.
Their conversion relation is:
1 = 10 10 m 0.1nm

1nm= 10-9 m = 10

4. Charge of electron, e 1.6 10 19 C . The charge of proton has the same magnitude
but positive sign.
5. Electron Volt ( eV ) is a unit of energy, used in the study of atomic and subatomic
particles.
Its relation with Joule (J), the SI unit of energy is:

1eV 1.6 10 19 J .

## 6. Plancks Constant is denoted by h and has the value h 6.626 1034 Js .

It is named after Max Planck, the father of Modern Physics.
7. Mass of electron. m=9.1 X 10-31 kg.

Page 60 of 110

## The fundamental particles:

There are three fundamental particles:
1. Electrons are negatively charged.
2. Protons are positively charged.
3. Neutrons are electrically neutral.
Protons and Neutrons are in the nucleus.
Electrons move in different orbits around the nucleus.
Matter waves (De Broglie Relation): The matter has a dual nature. This means the matter can
behave both like a particle and like a wave.

h
h

,
p mv

## Where p mv is the momentum, m is the mass and v is the velocity of particle.

Solved Example
1. Calculate the De-Broglie wavelength of an electron moving with a speed of 5x105m/s.
Solution:

h
h
6.6 10 34

1.448 10 9 m
31
5
p mv (9.11 10 )(5 10 )

Page 61 of 110

X-Rays

X-Rays: X-Rays are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths in the range, 0.01 to 100. Xrays were discovered by Roentgen in 1895.
Production of X-rays:
The current heats the filament and electrons are emitted by it. These freed electrons are
accelerated under a high potential difference in a highly evacuated tube (called as the Coolidge
tube). The high speed electrons collide with the anode made of a hard metal like tungsten and
produce X-Rays.

X-Ray formula: The formula for the minimum wavelength of the X-Rays produced when
electrons are accelerated through a potential difference of V Volts is

min

hc
(6.6 10 34 )(3 10 8 ) 1.23 10 6
12400

m
.
19
eV
V [Volts ]
V [Volts ]
(1.6 10 )V

Properties of X-Rays:
1. X-rays are electromagnetic waves and travel at the speed of light.
2. The wavelength lies between 0.01 to 100
3. They cause ionization of gases.

Page 62 of 110

## 4. They have penetrating power to pass through materials.

5. They are not deflected by Electric and Magnetic fields.
6. They show the phenomenon like, reflection and refraction, diffraction, interference and
polarization.
7. They travel at the speed of light.
Uses of X-Rays:
1. X-Rays are used in medicine for seeing inside the body, particularly
the bones.
2. X-Rays are used for security.
3. X-Rays are used for research to study the structure of substances.
An X-Ray Image of
Hands

Solved Example
2.Write the X-Ray formula. What is the wavelength of the X-Rays produced when the
potential difference is 10kV?
Solution: min

12400
12400
[]
[] 1.24
V [Volts ]
10000[Volts ]

## 3. An X-Ray machine produces X-Rays of wavelength 1.24. Calculate the applied

potential difference.
Solution:
min

12400
12400
12400
[] V
[Volts ]
Volts 10000Volts 10kV .
V [Volts ]
min [ ]
1.24

Page 63 of 110

Photo-Electric Effect:
Photoelectric Effect
When light of a specific frequency falls on certain metallic surfaces,
electrons are emitted from the surface. This process of ejection of
electrons is called as the photoelectric effect

## Equation of Photoelectric Effect:

Ei= Eo + Ek
Emission Mechanism: In the photoemission process, if an electron within some material
absorbs the energy of one photon and acquires more energy than the work function (the electron
binding energy) of the material, it is ejected. The energy of the emitted electrons does not depend
on the intensity of the incoming light, but only on the energy or frequency of the individual
photons.
It is an interaction between the incident photon and the outermost electron.

Threshold frequency ( f 0 ):
For a given metal, there exists a certain minimum frequency of incident radiation below which
no photoelectrons are emitted. This frequency is called the threshold frequency.

## Kinetic energy of the electron emitted

If f 0 is is the threshold frequency for the metal, h is the Plancks constant and f i is the
frequency of the incident photon, then the maximum kinetic energy of an ejected electron is
Ek h ( f i f 0 )

For low speeds ( v c ) and the expression for the kinetic energy is Ek

Page 64 of 110

1
mv 2 .
2

Solved Example
4.The energy of incident radiations is 10eV fall on Sodium material surface (work
function is 2eV). Find the energy of photoelectrons and the velocity of photoelectrons.
Solution:
E i E 0 E k E k Ei E 0 10eV 2eV 8eV 8(1.6 10 19 ) J 1.28 10 18 J

2 E k 2(1.28 10 18 )
1 2
2
E k mv v

31
2
m
9.11 10

## Radioactivity: In 1906, Henri Becquerel discovered that Uranium (92U238)

element emits spontaneous emission without any excitations.
Definition: The spontaneous emission of radiations from certain
elements is called radio activity.
1. The radioactive elements are (atomic weight > 208) Uranium,
Radium and Thorium etc.,
2. The radioactive radiations are alpha (), beta () and gamma ().

The alpha () are the nuclei of helium atoms and hence made of two protons and two
neutrons. So, they are positive.

## The beta () are electrons (so negative).

The gamma (() are energetic electromagnetic waves. They do not carry any charge.

Page 65 of 110

## Comparison between Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays

Alpha
They are fast moving

Beta
They are fast moving

Gamma
Gamma rays are energetic

helium nuclei.

electrons.

photons.

Not electromagnetic.

Not electromagnetic.

## They are not as heavy as

waves.
They are the lightest among

## among the three.

They have the lowest

alpha particles.
They have penetration

the three.
They have the highest

penetration power.
They have the highest

## between alpha and beta.

Beta rays have a moderate

penetrating power.
Gamma rays have almost

ionizing power.
They travel at about 1/20th

ionizing power.
They travel at almost the

no ionizing power.
Gamma rays travel at the

## of the speed of light.

Can be stopped by paper.

speed of light.
Can be stopped by

speed of light.
Can be stopped by

aluminum.

concrete.

Nuclear Fission:
The process of division of one nucleus into two or more nuclei is
called Nuclear Fission .
For example: Atom Bomb and in Nuclear Reactor and in reaction

U235 + n

## Ba139 +Kr94 + 3n + Energy

Page 66 of 110

Nuclear Fusion:
The process of addition (fusing together) of two or more lighter nuclei into a single heavier
nuclei is called Nuclear Fusion. Example: fusing of Deuterium and Tritium to form Helium with
a large amount of energy is shown in the figure below. For Example:
in Sun and in reaction:

H2 + H3

He 4 + n + Energy

References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm

Formulae
1. Plancks formula, E hf

hc
.

2. De Broglie Wavelength, p mv .
3. X-Ray formula, min

hc
(6.6 10 34 )(3 10 8 ) 1.23 10 6
12400

m
.
19
eV
V [Volts ]
V [Volts ]
(1.6 10 )V

## 4. Equation of Photoelectric effect, Ei E0 Ek .

Subjective Questions
1. Write the Plancks formula.
2. Write the De Broglie relation.
Page 67 of 110

## 3. Explain the production of X-Rays with a diagram.

4. Write the properties of X-Rays.
5. Write uses of X-Rays.
6.

Derive the formula for the minimum wavelength of the X-Rays produced when electrons
are accelerated through a potential difference of V Volts.

7.

8.

## 9. What is photoelectric effect?

10. What are nuclear fission and nuclear fusion? Give examples.

Numerical Problems
1. What is the wavelength of the X-Rays produced when the potential difference is 20kV?
2. TV stations broadcast at a wavelength of about 3m.

## Calculate the energy of the

corresponding photons.

## Calculate the energy of the

corresponding photons.
Solution:

f

v 3 10 8 m / s

3 10 6 Hz

100

## E hf (6.6 10 34 )(3 10 6 ) 1.98 10 27 J .

Page 68 of 110

4. Yellow sodium light from a sodium vapour lamp has the wavelength 5890. What is the
energy of the corresponding photons? Express your answer in electron volts.
Solution:
E hf

hc (6.6 10 34 )(3 10 8 )
( 3.36 10 19 )
19

3
.
36

10
J

eV 2.1eV .

5890 10 10
1.6 10 19

5. Mr. Ahmed has a laser diode that emits radiations of wavelength 5500. Mr. Salim bought
another laser with a wavelength 8800. The light from which laser is visible for humans?
6. The photoelectrons are emitted with a speed of 7 10 5 m / s from the surface when light of
time period 1.25 10 15 seconds falls on it. What is the threshold frequency of the surface?
fi

1
1

8 1014 Hz
T 1.25 10 15 sec

## E i hf i (6.6 10 34 )(8 1014 ) J 5.28 10 19 J

Ek

1
1
mv 2 (9.11 10 31 )(7 10 5 ) 2 2.3195 10 19 J
2
2

E i E 0 E k E 0 E i E k 2.960 10 19 J

f0

E0
4.48 1014 Hz
h

7. The photoelectrons are emitted with a speed of 6 10 5 m / s from the surface when light of
frequency of 7x1014 Hz falls on it. What is the threshold frequency of the surface?

Page 69 of 110

Multiple-choice questions

## 1. Hertz when expressed in the SI base units is

a. s
b. m/s
c. 1/s
d. None of the above.
2. The electromagnetic radiations are
a. Alpha, beta and gamma
b. Gamma, X-rays and alpha
c. Gamma rays, light and X-rays
d. None of the above.
3. The energy of the electromagnetic waves is
a. hf
b. h / f
c.

f /h

## d. None of the above.

4. Shorter wavelengths have
a. High frequency and high energy
b. Low frequency and low energy
c. Low frequency and high energy
d. None of the above.

Page 70 of 110

## 5. The energy of the X-rays increases when

a. Potential difference is increased
b. Potential difference is decreased
c. Not affected
d. None of the above.
6. Alpha Rays are attracted by
a. Positive plate
b. Negative plate
c. Deflected by both the plates
d. Not deflected by both plates
7. Beta Rays are attracted by
a. Negative plate
b. Positive plate
c. Deflected by both the plates
d. Not deflected by both plates
8. Electromagnetic Rays are deflected by
a. Positive plate
b. Negative plate
c. Deflected by both the plates
d. Not deflected by both plates
9. Choose the correct answer
a. Velocity of is greater than and
b. Velocity of is greater than and
c. Velocity of is greater than and
d. None of the above.

## 10. The penetrating power is highest in

a. Alpha particle
b. Beta particle
Page 71 of 110

c. Gamma particle
d. None of the above.
11. The condition for the production of the photoelectrons is
a.

fi f0

b.

fi f0

c.

fi f0

## d. None of the above.

12. In nuclear fission the
a. Two or more smaller nuclei combine to form a larger nuclei
b. Nucleus splits into two or more smaller nuclei
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above.
13. Atom Bomb works on
a. Nuclear Fusion
b. Nuclear Fission
c. Nuclear Omission
d. Nuclear Reaction
14. In nuclear fusion the
a. Two or more smaller nuclei combine to form a larger nuclei
b. Nucleus splits into two or more smaller nuclei
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above.

a. a
b. b
c. c
Page 72 of 110

## d. None of the above.

16. The speed of light is ________.
17. The charge of electron is ________.
18. The charge of proton is ________.
19. The value of the Plancks constant is ________.
20. One electron volt (eV) is ________.
Key for Multiple-choice Questions:
1 (C), 2 (C), 3 (A), 4 (A), 5 (A), 6 (B), 7 (B), 8 (D), 9 (C), 10 (C), 11 (C), 12 (B), 13 (B),
14 (A), 15 (A).

Page 73 of 110

Chapter-5
Heat and Thermodynamics

## Outcomes: 6-8, and 12-15

Page 74 of 110

Heat: Heat is a form of energy, which causes change in state of matter. It melts a solid and
evaporates a liquid. SI unit of heat is Joule (J).
Temperature: It is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body.
Unit of Temperature: The SI unit for temperature is Kelvin (denoted by K). The conversion of
one scale to the other is given by
TC
T 32 TK 273
F

.
100
180
100

## Fahrenheit is used mostly in the hospitals.

Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are used at homes to know the ambient temperatures.

Solved examples
1. Express 104 F in Celsius and Kelvin.
Solution:
Express 104 F in Celsius and Kelvin.
TC TF 32
T 32
104 32
72
TC TT
32 F
TF 32
104 32 40
72

100
100
100
F
C

T180
100
40
Solution:
C 100
100
180
180
180 100
100
180
180
180
180
T T 273 40 273 313
TK KTC C273 40 273 313

## So, 104 F 40C 313K .

So, 104 F 40C 313K .
Thermometer: Temperature is measured by a device called thermometer.
Some Important Temperatures:

Page 75 of 110

## Specific Heat Capacity

Heat required to heat a substance: Let the change in temperature be T (T2 T1 ) , mass be

m (in grams) and the specific heat be s . Then the required heat,
Q msT

is:

Solved examples
2.Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 300g of water from
30C to 70C . Express your answer in Joules.

Solution:
Q msT 0.300 1000 (70 30) 0.2 40 12kcal 12 4180 J 50160 J .

Definition of Specific Heat Capacity ( s ): It is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of substance through 1 degree temperature. SI Unit of s is J/kg.K.
Another unit is kcal/kgoC.
s of water = 1kcal/kgoC or s of water = 4186 /kg K
Kilo Calorie (Kcal): It is a unit of energy. It is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of water through 1 degree temperature.
1kcal= 4186Joules
Thermal Expansion

Thermal Expansion of Solids: When substances are heated they generally expand. Their
dimensions (length, breadth, height, radius, etc) increase. Since the dimensions increase, the area
and volume also increase.

Page 76 of 110

## Linear Expansion: Increase in length of substance on heating.

The coefficient of linear expansion ( ) is increase in length of unit length of the solid during a
rise in temperature by 1C (or 1K )
and the increased Length is given by the relation
L2 L1[1 T ] L1[1 (T2 T1 )] .
T (T2 T1 )

Solved examples
3.A steel rod has length 2m at 30C . What is its length at 50C ? The coefficient of linear
expansion of steel is 12 10 6 / C
.
Solution:

## L2 2[1 (12 10 6 )(50 30)] 2[1 (12 10 6 )(20)] 2[1 2.4 10 4 ]

Solved
2[examples
1.00024] 2.00048m

## Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases
The kinetic theory of gases is based on the fact that substances are made up of atoms and
molecules. It enables us to understand the bulk properties of matter using microscopic and
molecular structure of matter. By bulk properties, we mean, specific heat, pressure, temperature
and other quantities.
Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases:
1.

2.

3.

## All collisions are perfectly elastic,

(molecules do not lose energy in collisions).
Page 77 of 110

4.

## The distance between gas particles are relatively large.

5. The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends only on the temperature of the gas.
6.

7.

## Attractive forces between gas particles are assumed to be zero.

Thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics:
1. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Two systems which are individually in thermal
equilibrium with a third one also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
2. First Law of Thermodynamics: The amount of heat energy supplied to a system is equal
to the sum of the change in internal energy of the system and the work done by the
system.
3. Second Law of Thermodynamics: It is impossible for a self acting machine unaided by
any external agency to transfer heat from a body at lower temperature to another body at
higher temperature.
4. Third Law of Thermodynamics: It is impossible for any substance to reach the absolute
zero of the temperature.

Adiabatic Process: The process in which pressure, volume and temperature changes but no heat
enters or leaves the system is called adiabatic process.
Thus in adiabatic process, the total heat of the system remains constant.
Isothermal Process: The expansion or compression of gas at constant temperature, is called
isothermal process.

Page 78 of 110

Carnot Cycle: According to the second law of thermodynamics no heat engine can have 100%
efficiency. The maximum efficiency,

## e of two heat reservoirs kept at the temperatures

Thot

(also called source) and Tcold (also called as sink) is given by the relation
e

Thot Tcold
T
1 cold .
Thot
Thot

In the above relation the temperatures need to be expressed in the Kelvin scale.

SOURC
E

SIN
K

Solved examples
4.A Carnot engine has an efficiency of 40% with the heat sink at 27 C . Calculate the
temperature at which the engine is operating.
Solution:

27C 300 K

Thot Tcold
T
40
300
300
1 cold
0 .4 1
Thot
500 K .
Thot
Thot
100
Thot
1 0 .4

## 500 K (500 273)C 227C

References

1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
Page 79 of 110

Formulae

1. Temperature conversion,

TC
T 32 TK 273
F

.
100
180
100

## 2. Amount of heat, Q msT .

3. Linear expansion, L2 L1[1 T ] L1[1 (T2 T1 )] .
4. Coefficient of linear expansion,
5. Efficiency of a Carnot Engine, e

L2 L1
L

.
L1 (T2 T1 ) L1T

Thot Tcold
T
1 cold .
Thot
Thot

Subjective Question

1. Define temperature.

## 2. Define heat. Define specific heat.

3.

Draw a thermometer and label its parts. Explain the working of alcohol thermometer
and mercury thermometer?

## 4. Explain the three temperature scales.

5. Define calorie.

Page 80 of 110

## 14. What is an isothermal process?

Numerical problems

## 1. Express room temperature in Fahrenheit and Kelvin.

2. On a day when Mr. Ahmed was down with fever, the doctor measured his body
temperature and found that it is 101.5F. Express this temperature in Celsius and Kelvin
scales.
3. 500g of water at 20C is heated using 30KiloCalories. What is the final temperature of
the water? Express you answer in Kelvin.

4. A surveyor uses a steel tape, which has a length 20.00m at 10C. What will be the length
of this tape on a day when the temperature is 35C. (Coefficient of linear thermal
expansion of steel = 1110-6 /C).
Page 81 of 110

5. Calculate the efficiency of a Carnot cycle working between the two temperatures 100 C
and 0 C .

Multiple-choice questions

## 1. The liquid used in the clinical (hospital) thermometer is

a. Alcohol
b. Mercury
c. Water
d. None of the above.

## 2. The temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid is called

a. Melting Point
b. Boiling Point
c. Cooling Point
d. None of the above.

## 3. The temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to gas is called

a. Melting Point
b. Boiling Point
c. Heating Point
d. None of the above.

Page 82 of 110

## a. Length of the rod is increased

b. Length of the rod is decreased
c. Length of the rod remains the same
d. None of the above.

## 5. The absolute zero is equal to

a. 0C
b. 0 F
c. 0 K
d. All the above
e. None of the above.

Page 83 of 110

Chapter-6:
Optics

## Outcomes: 5, 10, and 12-15

Page 84 of 110

We shall consider two phenomenon in optics, namely the reflection of light and the refraction of
light.
Reflection of Light: Turning back of light in the same medium is called Reflection of light.

Laws of Reflection:
1. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal drawn to the reflecting surface at the
point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.

## Refraction of Light: Bending of light when it passes

from one medium to another is called refraction.

i=r

air

r
Page 85 of 110

gla
ss

Laws of Refraction:
1. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the
same plane.
2. The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a
constant for a pair of media

Sin(i )

Sin(r )

This law is known as the Snells law. The constant is called the refractive index. It is
also customary to use the symbol

n.

Refractive index: It is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum (or air) to the speed of light in a
given medium.
1, 2

## speed of light in first medium

speed of light in sec ond medium

or

c
v

## Refractive index of some important materials:

Air:

1.0003 ~ 1

Water:

1.33

Glass:

1.5 to 1.8

Diamond:

2.42

Solved examples
1.Light is incident on a glass surface of refractive index 1.5. If the angle of incidence is 30 ,
what is the angle of refraction reflection?
Solution:

Sin(i )
Sin(i ) sin(30) 0.5
sin( r )

0.3333
Sin(r )

1.5
1.5

## The angle of reflection is 30 .

Page 86 ofReflection
110
Total Internal

## Total Internal Reflection: When light travels from an

optically denser medium (medium with higher refractive
index,) to an optically rarer medium (medium with lower
refractive index,), at an angle more than critical angle, ( c ) the
light is reflected back in the same medium This phenomenon is
known as total internal reflection.

Critical Angle

c : The angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction is 90 o, when going

## from denser to rarer medium.

The critical angle is calculated from the relation

Sin( c )

rarer
.
denser

Solved examples
2. Calculate the critical angle for glass .
Solution:

Sin ( c )

## 0.666 c Sin 1 (0.666) 41o .81 .

1 .5

Page 87 of 110

Optical Fibres: The total internal reflection is the basic principle of working of optical fibre.

Optical fibres are cylindrical waveguides made of two concentric layers of very pure glass. The
core (the interior layer) with higher refractive index , while the cladding (the exterior layer) has a
lower refractive index
Optical fibers are used in medical and optical examination. They are also used to transmit
communication signals.

## Dispersion of Light: It is the splitting of white light into

its constituent 7 colours.
This band of colours of light is called its spectrum.

In the visible region of spectrum, the spectral lines are seen in the order from violet to red. The
colours are given by the word VIBGYOR (Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and
Red).

Optical
Page 88Lens
of 110

## Optical Lenses: There are two basic types of lenses: the

convex lens (or converging lens) and the concave lens (or
diverging lens). Due to refraction, light rays bend as they
pass into and out of the lens Convex lenses are shaped so
that the rays converge together; concave lenses are
shaped to spread rays apart.

## Lenses Equation: The lens equation is given by

1 1 1
,
f
u v

where

OR

uv
,
uv

u is the distance of the object from the lens, v is the distance of the image from the lens

## and f is the focal length of the lens.

The magnification (m) is given by m

v
u

Let AB represent an object placed at right angles to the principal axis at a distance greater than
the focal length f of the convex lens. The image A1B1 is formed which is real and inverted.
OA = Object distance = u
Page 89 of 110

## OA1 = Image distance = v

OF2 = Focal length = f
1

Focal length is f u v

Solved examples
3. If an object is at 20cm from the lens and the image is formed on the screen kept at 30cm
from the lens. What is the focal length of the convex lens? Calculate the magnification.
Solution:

1 1 1
uv
20cm 30cm 600
f

cm 12cm
f
u v
u v 20cm 30cm
50

Magnification, m

v 30cm

1.5 .
u 20cm

References

1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm

Formulae
1. Refractive index of light,
2. Snells formula,

1, 2

## speed of light in first medium

speed of light in sec ond medium

Sin(i )
.
Sin( r )

## 3. The critical angle, Sin( c ) .

Page 90 of 110

or

c
.
v

uv
4. Lens Equation, f u v or f
.
uv

5. The magnification, m

v
.
u

Subjective Questions

## 5. Write the Snells law with the formula.

6. What is the formula used in the lab, for calculating the refractive index of the glass slab?

Page 91 of 110

## 11. Define Dispersion? Draw its diagram?

12. Describe an optical fibre. Explain how light travels in an optical fibre.

## 13. What are the uses of optical fibres?

Solved Numericals

1. The refractive index of glass is 1.5. Calculate the speed of light in glass.
Solution:

c
c 3 108 m / s
v
2 108 m / s
v

1 .5

2. The refractive index of diamond is 2.42. Calculate the speed of light in diamond.

3. A ray of light takes 5 10 10 s to pass through a glass slab. Calculate the Thickness of
the glass slab?

4. What is the time taken by light to travel through a glass slab of length 10cm and refractive
index 1.5?
Solution:

c
c 3 108 m / s
v
2 108 m / s
v

1 .5

time

dis tan ce
0.1m

5 1010 s
speed
2 108 m / s

Page 92 of 110

5. Light is incident on a diamond surface (refractive index 2.42). If the angle of incidence is
30 , what is the angle of refraction and reflection?

Solution:

Sin( c )

## 0.413 c Sin 1 (0.413) 24 o .4 .

2.42

7. If an object is at 30cm from the lens and the image is formed on the screen kept at 60cm
from the lens. What is the focal length of the convex lens? Calculate the magnification.
Multiple-choice questions

## 1. The speed of light in vacuum is

a. 8 10 3 m / s
b. 3 10 8 m / s
c. 3 10 7 m / s
d. None of the above.

## 2. The speed of light is maximum in

a. Vacuum
b. Solid
c. Liquids
d. Gases
e. None of the above.

## 3. In the phenomenon of reflection the light rays

b. Go to the other side
c. Are absorbed by the medium
d. None of the above.

Page 93 of 110

4. Light is slowest is
a. air
b. water
c. glass
d. diamond

## 5. In rarer medium the speed of light is

a. Less
b. More
c. Same
d. None of the above.

## 6. In denser medium the refractive index is

a. Less
b. More
c. Same
d. None of the above.

## 7. The light passing through a glass window undergoes

a. Reflection
b. Refraction
c. Dispersion
d. None of the above.
8. The device used for seeing the distant objects is
a. Camera
b. Microscope
c. Telescope
d. None of the above.

Page 94 of 110

## 9. The device used for seeing very small objects is

a. Camera
b. Microscope
c. Telescope
d. None of the above.

## 10. The rear view mirror in the cars is

a. Concave mirror
b. Convex mirror
c. Both concave and convex mirrors
d. None of the above.

## 11. Mirror used by the dentist is

a. Concave mirror
b. Convex mirror
c. Both concave and convex mirrors
d. None of the above.

## 12. The splitting of white light into seven colours is called

a. Reflection
b. Refraction
c. Total internal reflection
d. Dispersion

## 13. The white light consists of

a. Blue, green and violet
b. Red, blue and green
c. Green, red and yellow
d. Seven Colours

Page 95 of 110

## 14. The rainbow is formed due to

a. Reflection
b. Refraction
c. Total internal reflection
d. Dispersion

## 15. The optical fibers are based on

a. Reflection
b. Refraction
c. Total internal reflection
d. Dispersion
e. Electromagnetic induction

## Key for Multiple-choice Questions:

1 (B), 2 (A), 3 (A), 4 (D), 5 (B), 6 (B), 7 (B), 8 (C), 9 (B), 10 (B), 11 (A), 12 (D), 13 (D),
14 (C), 15 (C).

Page 96 of 110

S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

## The Seven Base Units

Quantity
Name
Length
meter
Mass
kilogram
Time
second
Electric Current
ampere
Thermodynamic Temperature kelvin
Amount of substance
mole
Luminous Intensity
candela

Symbol
m
kg
s
A
K
mol
cd

Derived Units
S. No.

Derived Quantity

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

area
volume
speed
acceleration
mass density
surface density
current density
momentum

impulse

10

frequency

11
12
13
14
15

force
pressure
energy, work
power
electric Charge

16

electric field

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

## electric potential (emf)

capacitance
electrical resistance
magnetic flux
magnetic field intensity
magnetic pole strength
inductance
entropy

Symbol
A
V

square metre
cubic metre
metre per second
metre per second squared
kilogram per cubic metre
kilogram per square metre
ampere per square metre
kilogram metre per second
kilogram metre per second
OR
Newton second

v
a

A
j
p

,n
f

F
P
W
C
E
V
C
R

B
m

Name

or

Expression in terms
of base units
m2
m3
m/s
m/s2
kg/m3
kg/m2
A/m2
kg.m.s-1
kg.m.s-1

Hertz

s-1

Newton
Pascal
Joule
Watt
Coulomb
Newtons/Coulomb
OR
Volts/metre
Volt
Ohm
Weber
Tesla
Ampere.metre
Henry
Joule/Kelvin

kg.m.s-2
kg.m-1.s-2
kg.m2.s-2
kg.m2.s-3
A.s

Page 97 of 110

kg .m.s 3 . A 1
kg .m 2 .s 3 . A 1
kg 1 .m 2 .s 4 . A 2 .
kg .m 2 .s 3 . A 2
kg .m 2 .s 2 . A 1
kg .s 2 . A 1

A.m
kg .m 2 .s 2 . A 2
kg.m 2 .s 2 K 1

Prefixes
The International System of Units specifies the following SI prefixes
S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Length
1cm = 10mm
1m = 100cm
1km = 1000m
1inch = 2.54cm
1feet = 12inches

Factor
1024
1021
1018
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
101
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
10-15
10-18
10-21
10-24

Name
yotta
zetta
exa
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto
zepto
yocto

Symbol
Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m

n
p
f
a
z
y

Volume
cc = cubic centimeter
ml = milliliter
L = Litres

Energy
1eV 1.6 10 19 J

1cc = 1ml
1Litre = 1000ml = 1000cc
1m 3 1000 L 10 6 cc .

1Calorie 4.184 J

1 = 10 10 m 0.1nm

Pressure

Miscellaneous

180

1Pascal 1N / m 2

## 1Atm. One Atmosphere 1.013 10 5 N / m 2 76cm of Hg

1Tesla 10 4 Gauss

Page 98 of 110

## Appendix-2: Physical Constants

S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Name
Speed of Light in
vacuum
Planck constant
Planck hbar
Gravitation
constant
Boltzmann
constant
Molar gas constant
number
Charge of electron
Permeability of
vacuum
Permittivity of
vacuum
Coulomb constant
Mass of electron
Mass of proton
Mass of neutron
Atomic mass unit
Stefan-Boltzmann
constant
Rydberg constant
Bohr magneton
Flux quantum
Standard
atmosphere
Wien displacement
constant

Symbol

Value
(in SI Units)

2.99792458 10 8 m / s

6.6260755 10 34 J .s
1.0545727 10 34 J .s

h / 2

Value
(in eV or MeV)
1eV 1.602 10 19 J
4.1356692 10 15 eV .s
6.582121 10 15 eV .s

6.67259 10 11 Nm 2 / kg 2

1.380658 10 23 J / K

8.617385 10 5 eV / K

8.3144621J / mol.K

## 5.196 1019 eV / mol.K

NA

6.0221 10 23 mol 1

1.60217733 10 19 C

4 10 7 H / m

8.85 10 12 F / m

k 1 / 4 0

8.987552 10 9 Nm 2 / C 2
96485.309C / mol
9.1093897 10 31 kg

me
mp

1.6726231 10 27 kg

mn

1.6749286 10 27 kg

uB
0

a0

atm
b

1.6605402 10 27 kg

0.51099906 MeV / c 2
938.27231MeV / c 2
939.56563MeV / c 2
931.49432 MeV / c 2

5.67051 10 8 W / m 2 K 2
10973731.534m 1
9.2740154 10 24 J / T
2.067834 10 15 T / m 2
0.529177249 10 10 m
101325 Pa
2.897756 10 3 mK

Page 99 of 110

5.788382 10 5 eV / T

## Appendix-3: Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BC.
Besides writing modern Greek, today its letters are widely used as mathematical symbols in physics and all other
sciences.
Capital

Alpha

English
a

Beta

Gamma

Delta

Epsilon

Zeta

Eta

Theta

th

Iota

Kappa

Lambda

Mu

Nu

Xi

Omicron

Pi

Rho

Sigma

Tau

Upsilon

Phi

ph

Chi

ch

Psi

ps

Omega

## Appendix-4: Mathematical Symbols

S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Symbol
=

Meaning
is equal to
is not equal to
is defined as

or

>
<

||

equivalent to
is proportional to
is greater than
is less than
is approximately equal to
is on the order of magnitude of
is greater or equal to
less than or equal to
much less than
much greater than
congruence
infinity
parallel
perpendicular
implies

## Page 101 of 110

English-Arabic Glossary1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

The term

Absolute
Acceleration
Acids
Action
Aim
Amount
Angular acceleration
Angular motion
Angular displacement
Angular velocity
apparatus
Applications
Ascent
Atom
Atomic mass
Atomic number
Attraction
Balancing
Base
Basic unit
Calculation
Catalyst
Charge
Chemical bonding
Chemical kinetics

26

Circuit Diagram

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

Combination
Compound
Concentration
Configuration
Constant or uniform
Coordinate system
Current
Decomposition
Density
Derived unit
Determinate
Direction

S. No.

The Meaning

Transliteration

Mutlaq
Tasaru'a
Hemdh
Fe'al
Kemmeyah
Tasaru'a Zawwi
Harakah Zawweyyah
Ezaha Zawweyyah
Sur'aa Zawweyyah
Al-Tatbeeqat Al-Amlyiah
Su'aood
Dharah
Al-Kutlah Al-dharreyyah
Mowaznah
Qa'aedah
Wehdat Qeyas
Hesab
A'amil Muhafez
Shohnah Kahrbaeyah
AlRabetah Al-Kemyaeah
AlKeemyia Al-Harkeyah
Mukhatat l'dda'erah alkahraba'eiah
Morakab
Al tarkeez
Tawzeea
Thabit / Mustamer
Nizam Ehdatheyyat
Tayyar
Tafakuk
Kathafah
Wehdat Qeyas Mushtaqqah
Ettijah

This Glossary was translated into Arabic by the Physics Lecturers, Ms. Zakiya Said Mahad Al-Amri (now
pursuing PhD at the University of Bristol, http://www.bris.ac.uk/physics/people/zakiya-s-al-amri/index.html) and
Ms. Ghadah Mohammed Shujaib.

## Page 102 of 110

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84

Directly Proportional
Displacement
Dissent
Dissolve
Distance
Elasticity
Electrical Field
Electrolysis
Electrolytes
Elements
Energy
Equation
Estimation
Experiment
Extraction
Figure
Final
Force
Formula
Functional group
Funnel
Graph
Gravity
Horizontal
Horse Power
Impulse
Inert
Inference
Initial
Inversely Proportional
Ion
Isomerism
Isotope
Kinematics
Kinetic energy
Linear motion
Macroscopic system
Magnetic Field
Magnitude
Mass
Mean or Average
Measure
Measurement
Metals
Microscopic system
Mixture

85

Molarity

86
87

Mole
Molecular formula

Tanasub Tardi
Ezaha
Hoboot
Yuhalel / Yudheeb
Masafah
Muroonah
Majal Kahraba'ai
Tahleel Kahraba'ai
Mahlool Electroliti
Onsur
Taqah
Taqdeer / tahdeed
Tajrubah
Fasal / Estikhlas
Mukhatat
Niha'ai
Quwwah
Al-Seeghah
Qoma
Rasm Biani
Ufuqi
Qudrat Al-hisan
Quwwat Al-Daf'a
Khamel
Estidlal
Ebtida'ai / Awwali
Tanasub Aksi
Ayoon
Al-Motashakelat
Elm Al-harakah
Taqat Al-harakah
Harakah Khattia
Nidham Ayani
Majal Magnatisi
Kutlah
Mutawasit
Yaqees
qeyas
AlAnaser Al-Felyziah
Nidham Mijhari
Makhloot
Al-Moolariah ( Tarkeez Al()
Mahlool)
Moal
Al-Saiqah Al-Juzaieah

## Page 103 of 110

88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137

Molecular mass
Molecule
Momentum
Nature
Noble
Nonelectrolytes
Nonmetals
Observations
Order
Organic chemistry
Orthogonal
Oxidation
Parallel
Particle
Periodic table
Perpendicular
Polymerization
Potential Difference
Potential energy
Power
Practical
Precautions
prefixes
Preparation
Pressure
Principle
Procedure
Process
Projectile motion
Properties
Qualitative
Quantitative
Reaction
Reduction
Refining
Repulsion
Resistance
Resistivity
Result
Retardation
Revolution or rotation
Rule
Scalar
Series
Solubility
Solution
Space-Time
Standard solution
Strong electrolytes

( )

-

( )

## Page 104 of 110

Al-Kotalah Al-jozayiah
Jozay
Kemeyat Al-taharuk
Tabee'ah
Nabeel
Al-Anaser Allafelyziah
Tarteeb
Al-Kemya Al-Oodweeah
Muta'amid / Amoodi
Ta'aksud
Mutawazi
Josaim
Muta'amid / Amoodi
Balmarah
Farq Al-juhd
Qudrah
Amali
Ehtiatat
Lawahiq
Tahdheer
Aldhghd
Mabda'a
Khotowat al amal
Aaleyah
Harakat Al-Maqdhofat
Khasa'es
naw'ee
Kammi
Gather hur
Ekhtezaal
Tanqeaih / Tasfeyah
Tanafur
Muqawamah
Alnatejah
Tabatu'a
Dawrah Kamilah
Qanoon
Kammeyah Gai Muttajaha
Tasalsul
Aldhaebaih
Mahlool
Mohllol Maloom AlTarkeez

138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160

Symbol
System
Temperature
Tetrahedron
Theory
Titration
Unit
Uses
Valency
Vector
Velocity
Vertical
Volume
Weak electrolytes
Work

( )

## Page 105 of 110

Ramz
Nidham
Darajat Alhararah
Haram Robai
Mo'aayarah
Wehdat Qeyas
Estekhdamat
Al-Takaafu'a
Kemmeyah Muttajaha
Sur'aa Muttajaha
Amoodi
Alhajam
Shugl

## English-Arabic Phrase Glossary2

Following is the list of words and phrases which occur frequently in the subjective and numerical questions:

S.
No.

The Word/Phrase

The Meaning

Transliteration

Analyze/Analysis

\ Hallel/ tahleel

Applications of

Axioms

## Balance the equation

Calculate

Characteristics of

10

Compare

11

## Complete the following

Akmil attali

12

Conclude/Conclusions

\ Estantij/ estentajat

13

Deduce ...

14

Define

15

Derive

\ Eshtaq/ Athbit

16

Athbit al-qanoon

17

Describe

18

Determine

19

## Ajeb an Jameea al-aselah

....... Ajeb an Ayyin min al-aselah
Tatbeeqat
\ Zin/ Uktub waz al-muaadalah
Awjez an
Ehsib
\ Khasaes/ sifat
Qarin

\ Estantij/ estakhlis
Arrif

Siff
..... Qarin bayn wa..

This Glossary was compiled by Sameen Ahmed Khan with inputs from all the Physics and
Chemistry Staff of Diploma First Year. It was rendered into Arabic by the Physics Lecturer,
Ms. Ghadah Mohammed Shujaib.

20

## Differentiate with respect to

Eshtaq bennisbah le

21

Discuss

22

Distinguish between

23

Draw

24

Estimate

25

Explain

26

Eshrah amaleyyat

27

Eshrah intaj

28

29

Express

30

Emlaa al-faragh

31

Awjed al-meqdar

32

Formula/Formulae

33

34

Give reasons

35

## \ Aati/ uktub tafaul

36

Give/Write examples

37

How many/much

38

Illustrate

39

Infer

40

Law/Laws

\ Qanoon/ Qwaneen

41

42

Mention

43

44

## None of the above

45

Numerical Questions

46

Objective Question

47

Principle

48

Production of

Naqish
\ Farreq/ qarin bayn
Ursum
Eshrah

Abber an

\ Seeghah/seyagh

kam

## \ \ Sil/ nasseq/ kafea bayn attali

La shay min assabiq
Masael Hisabeyyah
Aselah mawdooeyyah
\ Mabdaa / Qanoon
Natij

49

Properties of

Khasaes

50

Prove that

51

Reduce

52

Represent

53

Rules

54

Select

55

Show that

56

State

\Uktub/ Sarrih

57

## State the laws of

Uktub qanoon

58

Subjective Question

Aselah maqaleyyah

59

True or False

Sah aw khata

60

What are

\ Ma/ matha

61

between and

62

Ma estekhdamat

63

Ma al-maqsood be

64

65

and

66

67

68

69

Write in detail

70

71

72

## Write the properties of

Athbit ann
\ \ Anqis/ekhtazil/ qallil
mathel
Qawaed
Ekhter
\ Athbit/ bayyen ann

differences

## Uktub al-seeghah al-mustakhdamah

\ ... le./fi.
..... Ma al-elaqah baynwa..
Ayyun min al-aati
Uktub mulahadah qaseerah an
Uktub bekhtisar an
Uktub bettafseel
Uktub qanoon
\ Uktub faradeyyah/ musallamah
Uktub Khasaes

## Drawing Related Words

Axis

Mehwar

Diagram

Draw

Ursum

Figure

\ Shakl/ soorah

Image

Soorah

Map

Khareetah

Origin

Photograph

Picture

10

Plot

11

Range

12

Scale

Meqyas

13

Schematic Diagram

Rasm tawdeehi

14

Sketch

Rasm tawdeehi

Mukhatat tawdeehi

Noqtat al-asil
Soorah Fotoghrafeyyah
\ Soorah/ Rasm
Ursum bayaneyyan

## Page 109 of 110

References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm,
http://www.ncert.nic.in/
3. Online
encyclopedia
of
physics
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/

terms

and

formulas,

## 4. Sameen Ahmed Khan, Microsoft Excel in the Physics Classroom, in Proceedings of

The Third Annual Conference for Middle East Teachers of Mathematics, Science
and Computing (METSMaC 2007), The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Emirates, 17-19 March 2007. Editors: Sen M. Stewart, Janet E. Olearski, Peter Rodgers,
Douglas Thompson and Emer A. Hayes, pp. 171-175 (2007).
5. Sameen Ahmed Khan, Data Analysis Using Microsoft Excel in the Physics
Laboratory, Bulletin of the IAPT, 24 (6), 184-186 (June 2007). (IAPT: Indian
Association of Physics Teachers). http://www.iapt.org.in/
6. Sameen Ahmed Khan, Floating Ring Magnets, Bulletin of the IAPT, 4 (6), 145 (June
2012). (IAPT: Indian Association of Physics Teachers). http://www.iapt.org.in/
7. Hajira Khan and Sameen Ahmed Khan, Floating Magnets, BaKhabar, Vol 7, Issue 06,
pp 7-8 (June 2014). Published by Bihar Anjuman, http://bakhabar.biharanjuman.org/.
8. Sameen Ahmed Khan, Speed of Sound in Air at varying Temperatures, Bulletin of the
IAPT, 4 (5), 116-117 (May 2012). (IAPT: Indian Association of Physics Teachers).
http://www.iapt.org.in/
9. Salalah Collge of Technology, E-Learning Website: http://www.sct.edu.om/
10. Websites
of
one
of
the
authors,
Sameen
Ahmed
Khan,
http://SameenAhmedKhan.webs.com/ http://inspirehep.net/author/S.A.Khan.5/ and