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Power Transformer Capacitance and Dissipation Factor Test


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Figure 1 Capacitance and Dissipation Factor Test connection diagram

Transformer insulation system


The capacitance and dissipation factor test is an AC low voltage maintenance test and is very similar to the
power factor test.
The test as it is termed, measures the capacitance and dissipation factor (or loss factor) of the transformer
insulation system. This test may be required to be performed during the acceptance testing stage to establish a
baseline reading for future test comparison.
While the transformer preparation is identical to the power factor test procedure, there is no requiremnts to
make connection changes once the initial test set connections are made. High-voltage winding and low-voltage
winding test set connection changes are made through a selector switch provided on the test set.
Winding capacitance and dissipation factor test values are obtained by balancing a null meter for each variable at
every the measured variable selector switch positions.

Capacitance and Dissipation Factor Test Procedure


(Two winding dry-type transformer)

Step 1.
Isolate the equipment, apply working grounds to all incoming and outgoing cables and disconnect all incoming
and outgoing cables from the transformer bushing terminals. Disconnected cables should have sufficient
clearance from the switchgear terminals greater that the phase spacing distance.

Use nylon rope to hold cable away from incoming and outgoing terminals as required.

Step 2.

MEGGER Semi-Automatic Capacitance and Dissipation


Factor Test Set (Direct readout of capacitance, dissipation

Isolate the neutral bushing connection if applicable from


the transformer grounding bar.

Step 3.
Short-circuit all high voltage bushing terminals together.

Step 4.
Short-circuit all low voltage bushing terminals and the neutral
bushing terminal together.

factor and watts dissipated)

Step 5.
Connect the capacitance and dissipation factor test set. Refer to Figure 1 above.

Step 6.
Record the capacitance and dissipation factor values once the null meter is balance for both phasing position.
Record values for the five test-variable selector switch position.

Power Transformer Testing Measuring capacitance and power factor or dissipation factor
The condition of the bushings and the overall insulation of power transformers can be investigated by measuring
the capacitance and dissipation factor, also known as the tangent delta, or power factor. Aging and decomposition
of the insulation, or the ingress of water, increases the losses and thus more energy is turned into heat in the
insulation.
The level of this dissipation is expressed by the dissipation factor or power factor.
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Reference: Substation Commissioning Course Raymond Lee, Technical Trainer