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{irgitiirll**;*- lr:n*rfi**lrt

Contents
UNIT1

My Homeis my Castle

UNIT2

Whilethere'slife,there'shope

p.10

UNIT3

TravelBroad.ens
the Mind

p.16

UNIT4

Earthis Dearer
thanGold

p.22

UNIT5

Early
to Bed...

p. 28

UNIT6

BetterSafethan Sorry

p. 34

UNIT7

PennyWise,PoundFoolish

p.40

UNIT
8

YouAreWhatyou Eat

p.46

UNIT9

EveryManto hisTaste

p. 52

U N I T1 O

Spread
the News

p. 58

p.4

Grommor
UNIT1

Present
Simple,
Present
Continuous,
Present
Perfect,
Present
Perfect
Continuous,
StativeVerbs,Prepositions
of Place

p.64

UNIT2

PastSimple,
PastContinuous,
PastPerfect,
Pastperfect
Continuous,
Used
to

p.72

UNIT3

perfect,
Future
perfect
simple,
Begoingto, Future
continuous,
Future
Future
Continuous,
TimeClauses,
Type0/1Conditionals

p. 80

UNIT4

-ingForm,Comparisons,
- euite- Rather
- pretty,Too- Enough
Infinitive,
Fairly

p. 88

UNIT
5

ModalVerbs,
Tags.............
Question

p. 98

UNIT6

ThePassive,
Relative
Clauses

p.106

UNIT7

Causative
Form,Reported
Speech,
Say- Tell- Ask ...........

p.114

UNIT8

Reported
Commands,
Requests,
Suggestions,
Quantifiers

p.122

UNIT9

Type2 and3 Conditionals,


Wishes,
HadBetterAffould
Rather

p.130

U N I T1 O

FuturePerfect,
FuturePerfect
Continuous,
LinkingWords,Both/Neither
- Either
All/None

p.138

MyHomeis
myCastle

Matchthe character
adjectives
to theirmeanings.
Usethemto makeup sentences
aboutpeopleyou
know asin the example.
[TT*-ldynamic
l2Tl calm
l3Tl anxlous
lZTl talkative

Vocabulary

a i sw i l l i n gt o t a k er i s k sa n dt r y n e wt h i n g s
b getsangryveryeasily
c worriesabouteverythrng
d rarelygetsstressed
or angty
e likesto chata lot
f i sa l w a y sh a p p ya n d i n a g o o dm o o d
g i s f u l lo f e n e r g y
h alwaysthinksof new ideas,artistic

a. ldentifythe roomsandthenput the objectsin


the rightrooms.Someobjectscanbe used
morethanonce.Finally
describe
eachroom.
. sink . sofa. armchair
. bathtub. wardrobe
. cooker. basin. refrigerator
. coffeetable
o droc(inn t:hlo

o rr rnhn:rd

lSTl adventurous
16Tl creative
FTI aggressive
lETl cheerful

r hnnlzr:cp

o toilet dishwasher
. desk
. television
"
. chair. lamp. prcture. rug. kettle
r cabinet. fireplace
. four-poster
bed

My auntisverydynamic.Sheisalwaysfullof energy.

Completethe sentences
by filling in the correct
word from the list.

ffu*er*

. h a r s h. m o a t . a p p e a l. d r a u g h t. e x t e n s i o n
o airy . sculpture. barn . converted. convince

.-,r'-""'.' . -t
,t5f{?4:. r, :; ;, :!'..: ",

".

" t:1::

1 The artist made a beautiful


of an
queen
Egyptian
2 Living in the countrysidedoesn't really
to me.
We needed more space, so we built an
to ournouse
4 Thewintersin Russia
arevery
5 Thisold factoryis being
into a
blockof flats
Thereis a terrible
comingfrom
u n d e rt h e d o o r
Most ancientcastleshad a
h e l pk e e po u t e n e m i e s
O u r f l a t h a s l a r g ew i n d o w s ,s o i t i s l i g h t a n d
T h ec h i l d r e d
n e c i d e tdo s l e e pi n t h e
whenthey stayedat theirgrandparents'
farm
1 0 W e t r i e dt o
h e rt h a t s h es h o u l d
moveto a smallerflat

Match the itemswith the placewhere they are


stored,then makesentences,
as in the example.
sheetsand towels
d i r t yc l o t h e s
,f
biscuits/sugar ,t'
,-/
milk ---

cleanclothes
crockery
your
b . Usewordsfromthe listto describe
bedroom,
livingroomandkitchen.

Milkisstoredin thefridge.

*.

fridge
l i n e nc u p b o a r d
sideboard
warqrope
laundrybasket
tar0er

Replace
the adjectives
in boldwith theiropposites.

Replace
the phrases
in boldwith the correctform
of the phrasal
verbsfromthe list.

T h eh o u s et h a t i a n e l i v e si n h a s
got a veryspaciouslivingroom

. break
down . bringup
. breakin . bringsthout

2 Thisflat is verycheap
3 I d o n ' tt h i n kt h a t t h i sh o u s er s
impractical
4 Thatsofais rathercomfortable
5 We livein a veryquiet area
6 T h a tb u i l d i n gl o o k sa n c i e n t .

bringback

i
i

Deor Susie,
Thonks so much for your letter. Heoring from you
olwoys I) mokes me remember hoppy memoriesof the
''1
3 sun'lmerswe usedto spendtogether.
Well,now thot l'm 2) raising two childrenof my own,
Crossout the odd word. What aspectof housing
summers will never be the some again! The boys'school
does eachset of words refer to?
3) finished for the summer holidoys/osr week.I hod the
great ideo of taking them to see their fovourite bond in
- expensive
- economical
- secure
1 reasonable
concert/ost weekendbut it endedin disoster.
- three-storey
2 terraced- isolated- semi-detached
We were halfwoyto the concertwhen my cor suddenly
- tiny - cosy- huge
3 spacious
4) stopped working. I called for help, but the mechanic
4 s m a l-l a u y- s e c u r -e c o m f o r t a b l e
couldn't fix the problem,so he had to tow my cor to the
- c i t y- o v e r p r i c e- d s u b u r b s
5 village
gorage.Well,wemissedthe concertond when we gothome
we found thot sorneonehod 5) entered by force ond
stolenmyjewellery!
The boyswere upsetthot they didnt see their heroes,
Lookat the pictures.
pairs,
In
thinkof three
but
I told them thot I would buy them their new CD when
positive
andthreenegative
thingswhichyoucould
they
5) Put it on the morket. I'm reolly upset aboutmy
sayabouteachhouse.Thinkabout:cost,
11
jewellery,
but I don't supposel'll everseeir ogoin.
I
convenience,location,speci
aI features.Useyour ideas
i
Well,
I hope you're hoving a better week thon I om!
j,
to makesentences,
asin the example.
Write ogoin soon.
{r!
Love.
Aaire

:w

:'
'l

4
5

2
3

Matchthe wordsin columnA to the wordsin


columnB,thenusesomeof the phrases
to
complete
the sentences.

from
mow
0are
white
Positive:fs#fffryside,

B Positive:JcFi.f#ef
Sdfs,

B{iv#te,
Negative:is*l*ted,

lte
heating
money
kitchen

Negative:

House
Aislocated
in thecountrvside.

AF+^.

the burglary,we fitted o u r h o u s ew i t h a

2 T o n yb u i l th i sh o u s e
., all
byhimself.
3 H e i sv e r ys t r o n g H ec a nt e a ra p h o n eb o o ki n h a l f
with his

I am a little . .
s o I c a n ' tg o s h o p p i n g
It'< froozinn

10

in horo

this week.

preposition,
thenmakesentences
12 Tickthecorrect
usingthephrases,
asintheexample.

Tho

isn'tworking
I can't believe this radio is broken It is

Complete
the sentences
with two to fivewords,
including
the wordsin bold.Donot changethe
meaning
of the originalsentence.
1 James
hasdecided
to starthisownbusiness

up

Jameshasdecided

business
Sallyhasa problemwith hayfevereverysummer
from
Sally
. everysummer
A firestartedin the localmuseumlatelastnight
out
A fire
l o c am
l u s e u ml a t el a s tn i g h t
T h a t s o n galwaysremindsme of my first holiday
abroad
back
Thatsong
. .. my firstholidayabroad
I thinkthis houseis reallyattractiveand interesting
appeals
T h i sh o u s er e a l l y
me
My gasand electricity
don't costverymuch
fuel
My
.
verylow

to

for

from

of

tn

suitable
appeal

suffer
fear
convtnce
sb
absent
accu5e5D

approve
believe
oeg

party.
Thisdress
isn'tsuitablefor
a dinner

Speaking
A andcomplete
thedialogue,
13 a. Lookat picture

1 1 Circlethe correctresponses.
1 A: Excuse
me. ls thisseatfree?
B: a Yes,can I helpyou?
b Yes,it is
c l'm sorryto hearthat

A Wheredo you think pictureA wastaken?


B 1 ) . .. ..
A Canyou describe
the pictureto me?

B Yes I can see2)

A How muchisthe rent?


B : a No morethan f450
b Justtwo.
c lt'sf450 a month

3 A H e l l oM
, r sJ e n k i n sT.h i si sT o n yM a l l e t
B : a H e l l oM
, r M a l l e tW
. h a tc a nI d o f o r y o u ?
b M r sJ e n k i nssp e a k i n g
c T h i si s M r sJ e n k i n s
4

A GoodafternoonCanI helpyou?
B : a I hopeso.
b That'sfine
c N o ta t a l l
A Whencanwe viewthe house?
B : a How abouttomorrowat 1 o'clock?
b l'll seeyou tomorrow,then
c l'll sendsomeoneto lookat it rightaway

6 A : H o w m u c ha r ey o uw i l l i n gt o s p e n d ?
B : a N o ta t a l l .
b Justtwo
c No morethan f600

A : D o y o u l i k ew o r k i n gi n t h e g a r d e n ?
B: 3)
A: Haveyou got a big garden?
B: 4)
A: Do you llkelivingin a house/flat?
B: 5)
b. Lookat pictureB and in pairsact out a similar
dialogue.

Atlantis dining room, especiallydesignedto be the perfect


place for you to enjoy your fish and chips. Every detail in
every room of the hotel, even the bathrooms, has been
carefully chosento give it a fun and unique atmosphere.

14

1
In fact so much work has gone into making each of the
sixteenrooms special,it is difficult to believe that just one
year before it opened the hotel was a run-down building
with a huge hole in the roof. After replacing the roof and
planning a whole new interior, the owner, aptly named
Mrs Sparkle, began to totally transform the place. She
says, "It was really hard work redecorating each room,
making the curtains, painting the walls and restoring old
furniture; but it was fun as well." Now that the work is
finished and each room has its own make believe theme,
she has no doubts that it was definitelv worth the effort.
z

Mrs Sparklealwaysdreamt about living in a doll's house


and she is very happy that she has been able to turn this
fantasy into a reality. "Now I just want to be able to
provide a place where other people's dreams can come
true too," she says.
3
There are certainly some amazing rooms to pick from.
Guests can choose to stay in the Teddy Bear's Picnic
room, the Barbie room, the Ruined Castle room, the
Dinosaur den, the Chocolate room or even the African
den, which is designedto make you feel like you're deep
in the jungle complete with toy monkeys and animal
prints. All the rooms are stockedwith toys and books so
your children won't get bored, even if the English
weather lets you down.

A
B
i.

D
E

4
In addition to the fantastic guest rooms, Sparkles has
much more to offer its young visitors. Every time you
book a room you can be sure that entertainment,most of
which is organisedby Mrs Sparkleherself,is included in
the package. To give busy parents a break in the
morning, there is the gameshour in the Sparkle'sden, a
large play area, and in the evening, puppet shows and
story-tellingmean that there is never a dull moment.

5
Sparkleshotel offers a fantasyworld for the whole family
to enjoy.So if you want to give your children a holiday to
remember or even to relive your own childhood dreams,
Sparklesis the place for you.

ffi*q*&s=
Whtrntr*r*#ryt%

''...:..|:'....?..:.|.|.:..\.,.:q.:'..:|:.'|.ir,,,......r..a:q,.'|:e

The SparklesHotel in Blackpool, England is a family hotel


with a difference. What makes it stand out from all the
other hotels in town, is that each room has its own
individual theme. There is the Cinderella lounse. where

c. In pairs,askandanswerquestions
basedon the
text.
A: WhereisiheSparkles
Hotel?
B: InBlackpool
Whattypeof hotel ?

LOANAPPLI'CATI'OTI

Listening
1 5 (p,) Youwill heara manapplying
for a loan.Listento the
interviewandfill in the
application
form.Thenask
andanswelasin the
example.
What'syour
name?
JohnMichaels.
b. In pairs,takerolesandact
out a similar
dialogue.

PERSoNALPSAI::.

euer-oY|f$ion,
s)

)ccuP""- A\
5) " "
ErnploYer'-:-^i^vment:
'
Length
.eo9u"

oT
- Ltr'Y'-

5)
SalarY:
LOANDflAlLS

''
l,i,^llli*.*
an:
"r"r';
t; of nevr,,\o

lrr!tt".',T3,
ioi
of loan:
Amount

Communication:
Givinq
Directions
16

fromthe list.
a. Complete
the dialogue
with phrases
. go along/up/down
. aVonthecorner. on the lefVrig6l. (ust)past . opposite/across
from
r
. turnrighVleft. takethefirsVsecond
o
etcrighVleft between at thetrafficlights/stop
sign/junction/roundabout
. in themiddle
of theblock

A:
B:
A:
B:

Excuse
me,couldyou tell me how to get to the Parkside
restaurant?
Of course1)
LongStreetand 2) . . .
into MillsStreetat the 3)
qot
Yes.l've
that.
T h e n ,4 ) . . . .
M i l l sS t r e e ta n d t u r n l e f t a t 5 )
Y o u w i l l s e e t h e P a r k s i dree s t a u r a n t
6)
l t ' s7 ) . . . . . . . .
G i n o ' sP i z z a
T h a n ky o u ,

b. In pairs,askfor andgivedirections
for the followingsituations.
Youareat the museumand you want to go to the ParkHotel
Youareat the chemist's
and you want to go to the hospital.
Youareat the cinemaand vou want to qo to the Fronti6re
cafe

Writing*n aCvertiserneni

Advertisements
can be found in a newspaper/magazine
asclassified
ads, on the Internetor on notice ooaros
Advertisments
normallystartwith information
suchas:For
rent,For sale,Wantedand end with a name and/or a
telephonenumberfor contact A classified
ad contains
abbreviationsFull verb forms are not normallyused
Sometimesthey can includea picture An lnternetad
includesa detaileddescriptionlt is usuallycharacterised
by full sentences
and extensive
useof adjectives
to attract
the reader'sattention lt can also includepicturesand
music Advertisements
for noticeboardsare rathershort
a n di n c l u d e
o n l yt h e m a i ni n f o r m a t i o n

17

modelAWG320hardly
washer/dryer,
Whirlpool
50
condition-t1
gooO
useO,
ci'iriinu,After6Pm227-3905

b . Readthe advertisements
againand answerthe
followingquestions.
"l

a. Readthethreeadvertisements
below.Lookat
thestyleanddecide
whereyouwouldfindthem.
. OntheInternet
r Ina newsoaoer
o Ona noticeboard

For rent o..-..-...-..-..

What is beingadvertised
in eachcase?

2 Who is goingto readeachadvertisement?


3 lsthe styleusedformalor informal?
4 What informationdoesthe writer includein each
advertisement?

18

a. Lookat the followingabbreviations


andfill in
the blanks.
p/f
f/f
GCH
s/c
d/w

tr

{500 pcm, Mitcham, I'{orthLondon.


Lge ground lloor studio flat, plf, slc with bathroom,
spaciousliving area.Kitchenettehasfridge, mfw, wfm,
dlw and gas cooker. Secuity systemand GCH. Suit
proJ nls. Closeto bus routesand local shops.Available
immediately.

prof
n/s
pcm

Contact London PropertyManagementLtd at


020 8378 2439

furnished
fully
Gas
......Heating
self-contained
d ish
mtcro
machine
professional
SmoKer

p e rc a l e n d a r

tge

b. Rewriteadvertisement
A usingthe completed
expressions
above.

tr

acres of
Situated on 1'5
real
,n" *ott valuable

19

Yourflatmatehasjustmovedout andyou needto


findsomeone
to sharethe rent.Usethe
information
belowandwritethreedifferent
advertisements
for:the Internet,
the classified
sectionof yourlocalnewspaper
andthe notice
boardin youruniversity
cafeteria.
Location:
Type:
Special
features:

5610
For more intormatr.u"rniir^
*" at 0207$8
rro
Resort
Interndional

Large- viewof the park- closeto


university
and busto the town centre
2 bedroomflat
f u l l yf u r n i s h e dg,a sc e n t r ahl e a t i n g ,
cooker,washingmachine,dishwasher
f280 a month

Rent:
Special
requirements:non-smoker
Availability: April l st
Contact:
R o b e rJt o h n s o nt e. l :0 1 8 6 5 - 5516 8 8

While
there's
life,there's
hope

Usethe adjectives
to complete
the tables,thenuse
yourneighbours.
themto describe
. tall . broad-shouldered
. square. thick. long
. snub. wide . double. spiky. bushy. muscular
e- m
- e
l o -q:yns ou d o
pud e- h r r t t n n r : l m n n d - c hJ t. a
r r i il vdud
rE
u rrLrr h g
t un
P rau . l

. blond. oval. in hisearly/late


o rosy
teens/twenties
. short. grey. Curlyr dark. freckle6o plump
. gingero medium. hrgh. hooked. fair . overureight

Vocabulary
Matchthe descriptions
to the people.Write
descriptions
for the othertwo people.

Age:
Height/Build:
Hair:
Face:
Cheeks:
Eyebrows:

MrJones
isin hislatethirties.
Heistallandwell-built
with...

Matchthe phrases
to the peoplein the pictures,
then
usethe phrases
to talkabouttheirdailyroutines.

g e ru p e a n y
t u r no n t h e o v e n s
^"--+i-^,^,;+A
*,,.,-l ^^P r o L L r ) E V V r L Ir I I t U ) L ' d t t )

startwork at 4 am
performon stage
havebreakfast
at 1 pm
f i n i s hw o r k a t 1 p m
startwork at 9 pm
p r e p a r0
eo u g n
h a v el u n c ha t 8 a m
f i n i s hw o r k a t 3 a m
get up late
w r i t em u s i c aal r r a n g e m e n t s
b a k eb r e a d

[tTl ffris personis old with brown eyesand a wide


n o s e H e h a ss h o r t g
, r e yh a i ra n da m o u s t a c h e
ETI fnis personis a young adult with hazeleyes,
thick eyebrowsand full lips He hasan ovalface
a n dv e r ys h o r td a r kh a i r
l g T l r f i s p e r s o ni s a y o u n ga d u l tw i t h l o n gs t r a i g h t
b l o n d eh a i r S h e h a s a l o n g f a c e w i t h a r c h e d
greeneyes,a smallnoseand a square
eyebrows,
c hi n
ETI fnis personis a youngadultwith an ovalface,a
s q u a r ec h i n a n d a w i d e m o u t h H e h a s b r o w n
eyesand medium-length
wavybrownhair

10

Fillin the correctwordfromthe listbelow.

. visibleo basement
. resume. wasteo vibrations
' financially
. transmitted
. registered
. hearing
. electrical

1 She was so sad/nervous/angryabout her


interviewthat sheleft herpurseat home
2 Mum was depressed/miserable/furious
when she
sawwhat a messwe had madein the kitchen
3 He was delightful/excited/interested
when he
found out that his favouritebandwas cominqto
town
4 5he is sucha(n)expressive/easy-going/delighted
p e r s o nt h a t n o t h i n gs e e m st o a n n o yh e r
5 Everyone
was annoyed/irritated/shocked
by the
soundof the explosion

1 Whenthe children
wentto nursery,
shewasable
to
nercareer
2 The interviewwas
by satellite
a r o u n dt h e w o r l d .
3 Bellused.
speechto teachdeaf
muteshow to communicate
4 H e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n tw a s a
.
of time
5 The
wirescarriedthe currentro
the socket
6 The young boy lost his
as a
resultof an accident
7 He
the birth of his son at
Somerset
House
8 Sam livesin a
flat near the
centreof town
9 The
of the train made the
windowsshake
10 She has been having problems coping
.
sinceheraccident

Underline
thecorrect
word.

Lookat the situations


below.Explain
howyou
wouldfeelandwhy,usingthe adjectives
below.

' Upset' angry. wOrried


. excitedr irritated
. depressed
o satrsfied

Replacethe adjectivesin bold with their opposites.

. i n f l u e n t i a.l s t r o n g . h u g e . r e m a r k a b l e
. close . exciting. similar

a
a
a

1 After the accidentI noticed there was a tiny


scratchon the cardoor
2 Kathyand Henryhavedifferent tastesin music

a
a

3 A l e x a n d eG
r r a h a mB e l lw a s a ( n ) o r d i n a r y
4

yourpursewasstolen
yourfavourite
auntisill
yourparentsboughtyou a new car
someoneyou know told everyone
that you werea
liar
praisedyourwork
a colleague
you havebeenstuckin trafficfor an hour
you didn't get the job you wanted

lf mypursewasstolen,l'd feel...because
...

Therewas a faint smell of perfumein the air

5 That was the most tiresomeplav l've everseen

Hisfatherisa veryunimportantpersonin thistown.

| like to spendmy holidayswith distant friends

Howarethesepeoplerelatedto you?
o yoUfmother's
brother
andsister
.

yourfather'sbrother'ssonand daughter
yourgrandmother's
brotherand sister
y o u rh u s b a n d m
'sother

e louf mother'smotherand father


.

yourbrother'ssonand daughter

Matchthe words/phrases,
thenusethemto
complete
the sentences
below.
authonty
from
intheclouds
c h a l ka n dc h e e s e
heart
1 You would neverknow they are twins Thevare
He is Britain's
eatingdisorders
I heardthat Tomwas
hisjob yesterday
4 Janeis a daydreamer
Shealways
When I was at school,we had to learnpassages
from Shakespeare

11

Completethe sentences
with two to five words,
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e .
1 Shakespeare
is calledone of the greatestwritersof
a l lt i m e
known
Shakespeare
of the greatestwritersof all time
2

H e h a dt o l o s ew e i g h tb e c a u soef h i sh e a l t h
sake
He hadto loseweight
h i sh e a l t h

l t t o o k h i n a l o n gt i m et o g e t o v e rh i si l l n e s s
from
lt took him a longtime to
h i si l l n e s s

Samdoesn'twant to playfootballany more


interest
Samhas
,
footballanymore

f nmnrtprq.an

A : l t ' sb a dn e w sl ' m a f r a i dJ, i md i d n ' tg e t t h e j o b


B : a W o w ! T h a t ' sa m a z i n!g
b O h n o ! T h a t ' sa s h a m e !
c He mustbe veryexcited

Speaking
lookatthepicture
andcomplete
the
13 a. Inpairs,
dialogue.
Then,
readthedialogue
aloud.

nAt \/ifUSeS
ffOm Ihe lnlernet

transmitted Manycomputer
vi'uses
tne Internet

1 1 What did peopleuseto do/did not useto do a

hundredyearsago? Usethe promptsand make up


sentences,
as in the example.
o QroWtheirown vegetables
/ buy frozenvegetables
r lravelby steamboat/ travelby plane
. payin cash/ payby creditcard
. readbooks/ surfthe lnternet
. go to the theatre/ go to the cinema

yearsago,peopleusedto growtheirown
A hundred
vegetables.They
didn'tuseto buyfrozenvegetables.

thecorrect
response.
12 Circle
1

A l ' m a f r a i dI c a n ' t m a k e i t t o n i g h t ,I h a v et o
studyfor my test tomorrow
B a T h a t ' sa s h a m e l l t w o n ' t b e t h e s a m e
w r t h o u ty o u
b Wow! That'sterrificl
r

12

Yn r mrrct hp vorv ovrj{gl I

d y d r i v i n gt e s t !
A G u e sw
s h a t ! | j u s tp a s s e m
B a W h a ta s h a m e l
b Y o um u s tb e t h r i l l e !d
c That'stoo bad!

H a v ey o u h e a r d ?S a l l yb r o k eh e rl e gs k l i n g
B a O h n o ,h o w a w f u l l
b That'sterrific!
c S h em u s tb e r e a l l yp l e a s e d l

A: Wheredo you think the picturewas taken?


B : l t w a s1 )
What doesit show?Can you describe
the picture
to me?
2)
A : H o wd o y o ut h i n kt h e y o u n gm a nf e e l s ?
B : 3)
Do you think a degreeis necessary
to a successful
career?
4)
A : Are suchceremonies
heldin vourcountrv?
B : s)

b. Lookat the pictureandactout a similar


dialogue.

ttt'..tt"'t",tt:t'

14

Reading

Whichspeake(s):

a. Thepeoplein the pictures


havechanged
their
lifestyle.
Whatdo youthinktheyweredoing
before?Readandcheckif yourguesses
were
correct.

movedto a new area?


t u r n e da h o b b yi n t oa b u s i n e s s ?
t2-fl ITF
r - t l
gaveup financialsecurityto work for FTl lf=--r----l
rl I
t h e i rd r e a m T
hadto studyin orderto changecareer?| 6Tl

re-lA-l
irr

b. Readthearticle
againandfor questions
1-11,
choose
fromthe speakers
A-E.Thespeakers
maybe chosenmorethanonce.Theretsan
(0)at the beginning.
example

nrofor
YrrrLr

ru r<rl n
v rvavrso tr

nera
al
lJoLs ut

il il ftag) j

FTI FI

isplanning
to expand
theirbusiness?FT--l
hadto learna newlanguage?
rel--l
isstartingto become
successful? ftT_-l

l.:]-.-,':,]:.:''.:...:':..:..;.::i...'.;.;.';'."...,i.:]]l]]::1,i.

eu"*#f*#V*{ ffi#,eff}T
A

Bill: I was an accountantat a large accountingfirm in


the city. I spent all my time glued to the
computer screen, even at home.
That meant I rarely spent any
t i m e w i t h m y f a m i l y .T h e n .o n e
day it hit me that I was missing
out on the truly important
things in life. My kids were
growing up fast and I felt I
wasn't playing a large enough
,..!.i role in their lives. I knew that it
was time to give up the rat race and
get back to basics. So, we sold our town
house and moved to a cottage in the country, wherq
we have a small market garden. Gardening had been
a hobby of mine when I was younger but when I was
working, I just didn't havethe time. Now I have all the
time in the world. Financially, life is more difficult,
bu! I think it's safe to say that the whole family is
much happier now that we've escapedfrom the hectic
pace of citv life.
Jean: Ever sinceI can remember,
I've enjoyed making my own
clothes.My friends were always
commenting on my original
designs, so I often made
clothes for them as well. It
never occurred to me that I
could make a lMne at it until a
friend of a friend askedme to make her
wedding dressand offered to pay me. Suddenlymore
,and more people started approachingme and asking
me to rnake clothes for them. It soon reached the
;poin!,where I was spending all my spare time at the
fwing m4chine and my designs were bringing in
more money than my job! I handed in my notice at
'work
and rented a small shopwith a flat abovewhich I
turned into my workshop. I'm happy to say that
businessis booming: I now employ ten people and I'm
about to open a secondbranch!

C Ann: I used to work as a sales manager in a large


department store. It was quite a good job,
but not very rewarding.I knew I wanted
to changemy career:the troublewas,..,
I didn't know whar to do. Then my {
sister suggestedthat I become a

,.,:.,:. .:

,,

Sally: When I finished universigr I


decided to take a year off and work
abroad. It was a decision which
changedmy life. I got a job teaching
Engtish in Spain, so I packed my
clothes,_sloted everything else and
headedfor the Mediterranean.I didn't
speak a word of Spanish at first, so it
took a while to settle in. The pace of life
was different, toe:,much slower and more relaxed 'i i
than in England. Most of all, though, I noticed the
differencein climate and the way that aflectedmy
personality.Being under clear blue skiesand a trlazing
sun gave me more ener$/ than I'd ever had befofe.rI
I'elt positive and content. After a few months, I knew
that I didn't want to leave,so I decided to settle there
and sent for the rest of my belongings.I've been here
for three yearsnow; I'm fluent in Spanishand I have a
tan all year round!
Stewarh The most important lessonI've learnt in my
life is that you have to take risks. If there is something
you really want to do, you have to give it a try, evenif
rt means giving up the security of receiving a
monthly pay cheque.I had alwayswanted to
write, but with all my commitments, I
simply couldn't find the time. Finally, I
decided to follow my dream and that
meant the job had to go. It's been really
hard wo1k, but I'm managing to sell
enough storles and articles to pay the bills.
lrl-or;v;
ltherelq:a publisher interestgd in my',1i1s1
novel:Lrfe just Could9ltbe bet!9il ' :, I ' l' I

.:

''r.*r-,rr*n*,.**,;er,r;;'9',r?;;'"'3vs*:*ri'rYi*ir-';:tt**L*r'*-);i.i:;|

c. Readthearticleagainandsaywhyeachperson
changed
his/her
lifestyle.
Howdo youfeeltowards
theirdecisions?

13

lIt
Listening

Communication:
lntroductions
the dialogue
usingthe phrases
1 5 a. Complete
aloud.
below.Then,in pairs,readthe dialogue
. Please
callmeTony.
do . Thankyou. o Please,
. l'd liketo introduce
TonvBarton.

talking
abouttheir
1$, Qvou willhearfivepeople
jobs.Choose
whichof thestatements
A-Frefers
to
1-5.There
isoneextraletterthatyou
eachspeaker
donotneedto use.
A
B
C
D
E
F

A : GoodafternoonPlease,
sit down
B: 1)
A : Beforewe get down to business,
let me makethe
introductionsLisaEdwards,
2)
.
Tony'sthe CEOof BartonEnterprises
B : It'sgoodto meetyou at last,Mr Barton
C : 3)
A : And TonyBarton,this is Lisa EO*arOs,senio,

SpeakerFT-]
speakert2l-1
SpeakerEl--l

Consultant
at Unitech
It'sa pleasure
to meetyou May I callyou Lisa?
4)
Wonderful5o, now that we all know eachother,
let's talk about why we are here today Lisa,
p e r h a pyso uw o u l dl i k et o s t a r tt h e b a l lr o l l i n g
Yes,thankyou.

b. Nowusethe business
cardsbelowto actout
similar
dialogues.
fTC

fnternational

Stewen philips
^rvranagjrrg
Djrecfo.
fel:
rax:

(O9)
(O9r

477

B2a]i

427

B2aO

partner.
Thisspeakerhasa business
Thisspeaker
earnsa highsalary
Thisspeaker
workslong hours
Thisspeakerwearscostumes
to work
Thisspeakerhelpspeopleto loseweight
Thisspeakeris not happywith theirjob

speakerF-fl
Speakertsr-l

a biogr aphy

Whenwe write a shortbiography


of a person,we divideit
into four paragraphsIn the introduction,we write the
person'sname,date of birth (anddeath)and why he/she
is famousor important ln the secondparagraph,we
write about his/herfamily background,childhoodand
educationIn the third paragraph,we write abouthis/her:
careerand achievements
ln the conclusionwe write our
c o m m e n tas n d f e e l i n gas b o u tt h e p e r s o na n d t h e i rw o r k .
We usuallyuse pasttenseswhen we write a biography,

IPAC ComPuters
Janet Shaw
Design Consultant

1 7 Whichof the pointsbelowshouldbe includedin a


shortbiography
of a famousperson?

Ontario' Cdada
POBox 1921' Ottawa'
(613)723141u
Tei: (613)7281416 Fu:

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.
.
.
.
.
.
.

,,1
,.-,'','
., -'

NUTRICOM

Rachel Barker
Nutritionlst
'

zga2
t"l' (oz)oo3
Fax: (02)4632990

'

importantdates
physical
description
peoplewho influenced
his/herlife
people
how other
felt abouthim/her
f a m i l yb a c k g r o u n d
favouritefoods
achievements
schooltimetable

----.:vr*.f.?v.r.v,,,t'.t?a:a/at?":'r:it'tr'/:?:!t"'t':tt'i'r't*)t':

. Analysing
a ModelText

6dvec Markefing
Neil Mirchelt
MarketineManager
TeL (oil tSZZ4Z8
Fax; rcil BZ 2436

18

and
a. Readthe biography
of a famousmusician
put the paragraphs
in the correctorder.

F a m i l by a c k g r o u n d ,
c h i l d h o o ad n de d u c a t i o n

'&

George Harrison died of


tr
cancerat the age of 58. He will
alwaysbe remembered
asa talented

'''r''b"r"""'''":e:tv{'e"v'!'/.
Dateof birth/death, '.4
what

,?r
;19

musician as well as a caring and generousman who was


more interestedin making music than being a star.
t" the early 1960's,the band changed its name to
I
The Beatles. Their first single, 'Love Me Do' was a
success and 'Beatlemania' was born. In 1970, The
Beatles disbandedbut Harrison's solo career was only
lust beginning. George went on to releasemany songs,
sometimes combining his talents with other famous
musicians.He also started his own record and movie
companiesand was deeplyinvolved in charitywork.
FI" was born in Liverpool, England where his father
I
worked as a bus driver. When he was 12 years old, he
met and became good friends with a boy called Paul
McCartney who was a member of John Lennon's band,
The Quarrymen.In 1958,George, a gifted guitar player,
joined the band too.

..1\q71y11411'y7.e7.14..,",r._..*."r,:{*:.:_,.,-.-.,.,

""\
,,
j

"di, -1"if..:i
f e,L"r
"J f
Careerand achievements

:&
':&
|9,n,rtya*u*.ta'nry:%a*.

D e a t hc, o m m e n tas n d
f e e l i n gasb o u th i m

20

Read
therubric
below.
Whocouldyouwrite
about?
Whatinformation
willyouinclude?
# A popularliterarymagazineis going to publisha
$ specialedition of the magazine called Twentieth
'{, CenturyWriters.
You have been asked to write a
biography
of a famous
writerfor the special
i
edition.

GeorgeHarrison was born in 1943and died in 2001.


I
He was the youngest member of a famous pop group
called The Beatles.He was also well known for his sons
writing and guitar playing.

. Making
Com plex
Sentences

t :
b . W h i c hp a r a g r a p hisn c l u d et h e f o l l o w i n g ?

t :

:
i
r

he is famous for

j
t
l
!

C a r e ear n da c h i e v e m e n t s
F a m i l by a c k g r o u nadn dc h i l d h o o d
Name,dateof birth/death,
what he is famousfor
Comments/feelings
aboutthe person

l 1

21

1 He was born in South Africa His family moved


b a c kt o E n g l a n idn 18 9 6
(but)
2 Tolkienwent to Oxford UniversityHe studied
E n g l i sLha n g u a gaen d L i t e r a t u r e
(where)
3 He servedin the BritishArmy He worked on the
OxfordEnglishDictionary
(after)
4 He wrote manyshort stories He is most famous
f or TheLordof theRings
(although)

. B r a i n s t o r mil d
ne
gas
19

Readthe biographical
information
aboutTolkien
and
thenusetheinformation
to complete
thespidergram.

John Ronald ReuelTolkien


c 1892- 1973
. famousbooks,Ihe Hobbit andTheLordof theRings
. bornin SouthAfrica
. f a m i l ym o v e dt o E n g l a n idn 1 8 9 6
o !lew up in Birmingham
. studiedEnglishLanguage
and Literature
at Oxford
University
. workedon the OxfordEnglish
Dictionary
o becamea professor
at OxfordUniversity
. published
firstbook TheHobbitin1937
. publishedTheLordof theRings
++a
b e t w e e n19 5 4 a n d 19 5 5
o son Christopher
published
..* tr*'. *
Tolkien's
otherworksafter
h i sf a t h e rd i e d
o creatorof a magicalworld
in TheHobbitand TheLord
of theRings

Jointhe sentences
below,usingthe words in bold.

22

a. Useyouranswers
in Ex.19to answer
the
questions
plan.
inthe
.t.'.
:'rs)
i l -:;l i
lntroduction
(Paral)

Whoareyou goingtowritr about?Whenwas


he/she
bom?Whm did he/she
die?Whatis
he/she
f amousJor?

MainBody

(Para 2.) Wherewashelsheborn?'\Mhere


did he/shtgrow
up? Whercdid ht/shego to school?
(Para 3) '\Mhatwerehis/herearlyjobs? What was his
m a i nj o b ? W h a td i d h e a c h i e y e ?

Conclusion
(Para4)

\Mhendid he/she
die? How do yout'eelabout
the person?

b. Writeyourbiography
usingthe information
(120-180
above.
words)

15

il

TravelBroadens
t h eM i n d

snow-capped
narrow
unspoiled
expenSrve
ancLent
handmade

beaches
shops
r u rn s
Irs
souven
mountarns
SrreerS

b. Lookat the pictures


below.Matchthe items
fromEx.2ato the photographs,
thenmakeup
asin the example.
sentences,

Vocabulary
the
ldentifythe objectsbelow,thencomplete
sentences.

.I

a. Matchthe adjectives
to the nouns.

i;sf't+fE5ifl3fls

It'sexciting
to walkalongRome's
narrowstreets.

Complete
the sentences
with the correctwords
fromthe listbelow.
. restored
. self-contained
. conveniences
. award-winning
. moors aspiring
"
. handmade
. wander

1 lf you take some


with you when
you go on holiday,
you won't get bittenby insects
in the
You shouldalwayskeepa
carin caseof an emergency
D o n ' te v e rg o s u n b a t h i nwg i t h o u t
a n da g o o dp a i ro f
When you travel abroad you must take your
as identification
l f t h e y l o s ey o u r
, t h e a i r l i n ew i l l
payyou compensation
When you go to a nature reserve,don't forget
your
so you will be ableto seethe
a n i m a lm
s o r ec l e a r l y
Unfortunately
we forgot our
, so
w e c o u l d n 'tta k ea n yh o l i d a sy n a p s

16
itlliiltilLt'r
nrr uun,,.,.,o,,

1 He is a celehritvhecausehe has written three


, novels
2 W e b o u g h ta .
r u g a t t h e a r t sa n d
craftsfair
3 K e e pa n e y e o n t h e c h i l d r e nD o n ' t l e t t h e m
off
fl:f:hnvo
tha <hon
4 Weliveina...
n
a
n
n
l
o
n
a
i
l
n
ci nn iho
5 B e c a r e f u l !A l o t o f
at night
W e b o u g h ta n o l d r u n - d o w nV i c t o r i a n
h o u s ea n d
. . . i t t o i t so r i g i n acl o n d i t i o n
H es p e n d a
s l l h i sf r e et i m e p r a c t i s i nt gh e p i a n o H e
pianist
i sa ( n )
Our caravanhasall the
: a cooker,
a fridge,and evena microwave
oven.

Underline
the correctword(s),
thenmatchthe
sentences
to the meansof transportin the pictures
below.
Pleasemake sureyour seat belt is tied/fastened
d u r i n gt a k e - o faf n d l a n d i n g
b Don'tdrinkand drive/steer
Do not pull cord, exceptin caseof a(n) danger,
emergency
D o n o t t a l k t o / l o o ka t t h e d r i v e w
r h i l ev e h i c l e
i si n
motion
e Thelifeboats/lifeguards
areon the upperdeck
f It is illegal/wrongnot to weara helmet

b. Usethe wordsfromEx.5ato talkaboutthe


weatherin yourcountry.

Circle
thecorrect
response.
1 A: Wouldyou liketo cometo the cinemawith us
tonight?
B : a l ' m n o t s u r e i ' l l l e ty o u k n o wt o m o r r o w
b l ' d r a t h e rn o t , l ' m n o t k e e n o n C h i n e s e
food
c T h a n k sl ,' d l o v et o

!#*
:.1, -

*;
=:.,.*

A Haveyou got time for a coffee?


B a I'd loveto, but l'm just goingfor a coffee
b No thanks,I onlydrinkcoffee
c Yes,that'sa greatideaI

3 A : That new band is playingat The Palaisnext

+4a:

S a t u r d anyi g h t I w a sw o n d e r i n igf y o u ' dl i k et o


go
B : a T h a tw o u l db e g r e a t I l o v et h e b a l l e t l
b I d o n ' t r e a l l yf e e l u p t o i t l ' m a b i t t i r e d
today
c l ' d r a t h e rn o t l ' m n o t k e e no n p o p m u s t c

4 A: There'sa reallygood play on at the theatre


S h a lIl b u yt i c k e t s T
B : a S o r r yI ,c a n ' tb u yt h et i c k e t sl ' m w o r k i n ga l l
day
b T h a tw o u l db e g r e a t !
c l ' m n o t s u r ei f I c a nm a k ei t l ' v eg o t t o b u y
ticketsfor the theatre

a . Readthe sentencesbelow and replacethe


words in bold with their oppositesfrom the list.
. warmer . below . sheltered. wet
. freezingcold . dull . heavy. clear
I n t h e m o r n i n g ,n o r t h e r na r e a sw i l l e x p e r i e n c e
c l o u d ys k i e sw i t h t e m p e r a t u r easr o u n d1 O ' C
There may be some light showersin the early
evenrn9
F u r t h esro u t h ,i t s h o u l db e m u c hc o o l e rw i t h s o m e
c l o u d sl a t e ri n t h e d a y
Temperatures
are goingto remainabove freezing
a l ld a y
5 On Saturday
we canexpectit to be boilinghot
6 To summarise,
it's goingto be a cool and dry day
for mostof the country
T h e r ew i l l b e s p e l l so f b r i g h ts u n s h i nteh r o u g h o u t
theday
Temperatures
in exposedareaswill be about2"C
'l
2
3
4

Completethe sentences
with two to five words,
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e .
1 | enjoy eating in expensiverestaurants,
buying
expensive
clothesand travelling
firstclass
finer
I enjoy
r nl i f e
2 We stayedin a hotel that was very closeto the
0eacn
throw
We stayedin a hotelthat was
,
from the beach
3 Therewere a lot of peoplewe wantedto inviteto
o u rw e d d i n g
extensive We had an
for our wedding
4

| wantedto try all the localdishes


I d i d n ' tw a n t t o
a n yo f t h e l o c a dl i s h e s

mtSs

5
6
8

5 T h i sc l a yp o t w a sm a d ei n t h e m i d d l ea q e s
dates
Thisclaypot
t h e m i d d l ea g e s

17

W h e nI h e a rm y c h i l d r e nl a u g h i n ga, l l m y t r o u b l e s
areforgotten
washed All my troubles
w h e nI h e a rm y c h i l d r e n
laughing

"'

'

''n:t:-.,.,..

\.-.'.
,,.^"..,,

.-,,.''"';

t-

--.o,-.,.,,,:.:r.-.,.:),

" _.-_;

7 T h eh o t e li s i n t h e c e n t r apl a r to f L o n d o n
heart
Thehotelis
London
8

Be sure to make full use of the hotel facilities


d u r i n gy o u rs t a y
advantageBesurethat you
the hotelfacilities
duringyourstay

Readthe sentences.
Who would saythe following
in a hotel:a maid (/14)?
a guest(G)?the hotel
(HM)?
manager
W o u l dy o u l i k em e t o m a k eu p y o u r
room now?
C o u l dI b o o ka d o u b l er o o mf o r n e x t
Thursday?
l ' m a f r a i db r e a k f a si st n ' ti n c l u d e idn
theprice
a
S h a lIl c h a n g ey o u rt o w e l s ?
o
How do I dialroomservice?
o W h a tt i m ed o e st h e r e s t a u r a notp e n ?
. I w i l l c a l ls o m e o n teo h e l py o uw i t h
y o u rl u g g a g e
. I hopeyou will havea verypleasant
staywith us

Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences


usingthe phrases,as in the example.
from ,

of

with about

: ,,- -: ,,

Close your eyesand imagine the perfect beach. Soft white


sand,beautiful blue sea,and the temperature a constant30
degreesCelsius.But wait, there's more: no risk of sunburn,
no insects or bugs, no sharks or jel\.fish, and, at regular
intervals, the best surfing waves imaginable. Too good to
be true? Not anymore.Thanks to modern technology and
the miraclesof science,this beach really doesexist and it is
on the island of Kyushu in southernJapan.
1
In a resort complex called Seagaiayou will find the Ocean
Dome. The Ocean Dome contains,among other things,
the world's largestartificial seabesidethe biggestindoor
beach.It is roughly the size of six football fields and has
an 85-metre shoreline. The soft white sand is actually
made of crushed marble chips, which won't stick to your
skin, and the water is salt free and chlorinated. The
temperature of the water is kept at 28'C and the air is
kent at 30"C.

2
The Dome has everythingyou would expectto find on a
big tropical island: caves,waterfalls, small islands,palm
trees and that's just the beginning.There is a man-made
volcano that erupts at regular intervals, waterslides,a
wave pool and even a virtual reality raft ride where
passengersare tossed,shakenand splashedwith water.

Shehasbeenabsent
fromworkfor
fivedavs.

Reading
10

a. Thepictures
showa newtypeof resort.What
do youthinkit is?Howdo the pictures
relateto
the title of the article?
Readthe articleand
checkyouranswers.

There is plenty to do for the whole family in Seagaiaand,


if you want a break from the beach, you can visit the
'Lost
World' rainforest. This is a Jurassic Park style
jungle full of artificial creaturesand holographicpirates.
There is also a beach carnival held every afternoon with
dancers and musicians dressedin colourful Caribbean
costumesand in the eveningthere is a spectacularshow
put on by aquaticdancers.
4

b. Readthe articleagainandchoose
the most
suitableheading
fromthe listA-l for each
paragraph
1-7.Thereisoneextraheading
you
which
do not needto use.Thereis an
(0)at the beginning.
example

1B
L'llL'illlillLuutrruuuunmrrnxilrxrrnn!ilrnrxnil!ilnn!!n

In Seagaiayou don't even have to carry any money with


you. Visitors pay an admissionfee at the entrance and
are given colour coded barcode tags, which they use
instead of cash. This type of holiday is wonderful for
anyone who enjoys lying on the 'beach' or swimming in
the 'sea' without havins to check the weather forecast
.. ,.,:.t *?.b_,,,-.,,.,,,,.,,.....::ll:ll:l?7**..,-.,..,:::,:tzl?,,,t,t,t

tt%.rr,.a,o..,,,.,,,.a'ra

Lrsientng
11

Youwill hearpeopletalkingin fivedifferent


situations.
Forquestions
1-5,choose
the best
answer,
A B,or C.
Listento JoantellingPamabout her holiday.Why
didn't sheand her husbandenjoythemselves?
A S o m e o nh
e i t h e rh u s b a n d
B H e rh u s b a n w
d a si l l
C Thefood wasterrible
You are at the airport when you hear this
conversationbetween a memberof staff and a
passenger.
What is the woman'sproblem?
A S h ec a u g h t h e w r o n gp l a n e
B S h ec a n ' tf i n d h e rh a n d b a g
C S h eh a si o s th e rl u g g a g e
3 You overheara man talking to his friend. Why
d i d t h e m a n m i s sh i st r a i n ?
A T h ed e p a r t u rtei m e sh a db e e nc h a n g e d
B Hiswatchwaswrong
C Thestationwas verybusy
4

A Hisroomls not readyyet


B The hotelis full
C Thehotelhasdouble-booked
hisroom

Naturally, no island holiday is complete without hxury


hotels, boutiques and a wide variety of restaurantswith
everythingfrom fine dining to fast food, and Seagaiahas
them all. There are even several theatres,golf courses
and tennis courts. The Ocean Dome feels so real that
visitors to the resort still use suntan lotion and wear
sunhats even though the 'sunlight' is artificial and
harmless.

The Dome itself actually has a roof that opens but it is


only used when the weather outside is at the same
temperature as the weather inside the dome. It is also
quite ironic that the Ocean Dome was built only 300
metres away from the real ocean.Strangelyenough, the
real beach is usually quite empty even on hot and sunny
days becauseholidaymakersseem to prefer the safety,
comfort and predictabilityof the artificial beach.

5 You hear a woman describingher holidayto a


friend.What doesshe complainabout?
A Herhotelroom
B Thebadweather
C Thefood in the hotel

C o m m u n i c a t iB
on
u .y i nSgt a m p s
12

a. Matchcolumn
A to columnB,thenin pairsact
out thedialogue.
A

E]
ffi

lzl I

Nowadays,theme parks are springing up everywhereand


it looks like virtual reality holidays are going to be the
way of the future. After all, they are cleaner, safer and
far more convenientthan real holidays.However,can we
really compare the experienceof sitting on an artificial
beachwith man-madesandunder a fake sun to a day on
a real beach? Where is the challenge in surfing manmade waves when you know exactly how big they are
going to get and exactlywhen they are going to appear?
More importantly, where is the fun in coming back from
a seasideholiday without tan lines?
llgYt:t..,..
'zt2lryt&71?t?wv::.:,t?,a/7r..?&.
' ,.""tt''tttt:7v"?t'{"'t'':'ttl:"|t::lttttr\:t":l

You are in a hotelwhen you hearthis conversation


between a man and the receptionist.
What is the
problem?

Excuse
me Do
y o us e l ls t a m p s ?
O h ,w e l ll w a n t t o
s e n ds o m e
^^.+--"^lpu)Llot
u)

+^
LU

England
Letme see Ten,
Ithink
O h , l ' v eo n l yg o t a
t w e n t y - d o l l ab ri l l
IET_I Thankyou very
much
ffi

l5l

a T h a t ' lbl e f o u rd o l l a r s .
please
You'rewelcome
Havea niceday
H o w m a n yd o y o u
need?
No probleml'vegot
plentyof change
That'ssixteen
dollarsfor
youandten stamps
Yes,we do Whereare
theyfor?

19

b. Nowusethe promptsto actout similar


dialogues.

America/ Five/ Two


p o u n d s / A t ep
no u n d
note

b. Lookat the pictures


andin pairsactout a
similar
dialogue.

A u s t r a l i/aE i g h/t T h r e e
pounds/Afiftypound
note

5peaKrng
13

a. Lookat the picture


thedialogue.
andcomplete

Writing

4?.iE:
'.tt u

A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:

What'sthe p r o b l e m ?
It seemsto m et h a t 1 )
Wherearet h e yg o i n g ?
They2)
How arethey related?
I t h i n kt h e y3 )
W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e ya r e ?
Somewhere
4)
What time of the yearis it?
It's5)
How do you know?
6)

What do you t h i n kt h e ya r eg o i n gt o d o ?
B: Well,7)

A : W h a tw o u l dy o u d o i n a s i m i l asr i t u a t i o n ?
B:8)

20

When we write an articledescribing


a festival,eventor
celebration
we attended,
we usually
writefour paragraphs
I nt h e i n t r o d u c t i o n
g e n e r ai ln f o r m a t i oanb o u t
we include
t h e e v e n ts u c ha si t s n a m e w
, h e r ea n dw h e ni t i s h e l da n d
what the celebration
is for In the secondparagraphwe
write about the preparations
for the event ln the third
paragraphwe describethe aciual event itself In the
c o n c l u s i o nw
, e w r i t e o u r i m p r e s s i o n rse, a c t i o n sa n d
recommendations
We usuallyusepresenttensesto write
aboutsomethingthat happens
everyyearor continues
for
some time and past tenses to describeour actual
experiences
at the event We useadjectives
to makeour
description
moreinterestingWe can alsousethe passive

when
theu'out]
-0":"::lf'l,tl.:'n"'.l
l'':'"
. TopicSentences

14a

Readthe articleand fill in the blankswith the


correcttopic sentencefrom the list below.

A Thepreparations
take months
B T h ef e s t i v awl a sf u n ,e n t e r t a i n i nagn de d u c a t i o n a l
a T h eM i l w a u k e e
N a t i v eA m e r i c a nI n d i a nF e s t i v ai sl
t r u l ya n a m a z i n g
event
D The celebrations
began at 4pm and there was
plentyto seeand do

wffiw

ffi

%,

17a

for three days in September every year,


!
thousands gather in Milwaukee, USA, to
celebrateIndian culture. Last year, I was luclqi
enough to attend the festival and experience
it for myself.

. spicy. colourful. spectacular


o loud
' mouth-watering
r 6;3tt;.ul
. local. traditional
. lively. handmade
. culturalo delicious
. annual

Dance teamsfrom all over the country


!
practise to compete in the tribal Pow Wow
dancecontest.Indian craftsmenwork to produce the many
traditional items on display.Then, in the week before the
festival, the stalls are put up and the food is prepared, so
that eveq4hingwill be ready for the big day.
I uirlt"O a traditional Indian village, watched skilled
I
craftsmen carve totem poles, and even learned how to do
tribal Indian dancing. It was also a great opportunity to
sample some traditional native dishes,like corn bread and
buffalo burgers.
It was a wonderful way to learn about Native
I
American culture and celebratethe end of summer.

Usethe adjectives
in the listto definethe
nounsthat follow.Someadiectives
canbe used
morethanonce.

MUSIC

b. Complete
the paragraphs
with adjectives
from
Ex.17a.
The ChindoFestival
is a(n) 1)
festivalheldeveryyearin springThelocal
peoplewear 2)
costumesand
performfolk dancesand musicTheyeat
3)
Koreanfood and have a
greattime

b . Whatdid the writerthinkof the festival?


How
you
do
know?Underline
the words/phrases
whichshowthe writer'sopinion.

The VeniceCarnjvalis a(n)4)


festival
whichlastsfor ten daysin winter
everyyear Peoplewear 5)
m a s k sa n d p a r a d et h r o u g ht h e s t r e e t s
Thereare lotsof 6)
concerts
a n db a l l st o a t t e n d

Whattensesdoesthe writeruse?Whv?

. Pa r a g r a p
Plha n n i n g
1 5 a. Belowisthe planfor a festivaldescription.
Matchthe paragraphs
to the information.
Paragraphs
Para1
Para2
P a r a3
Para4

Information
A Description
of the actualevent
B l m p r e s s i o an ns d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s
C Nameof festival,
where/when/
why it takesplace
D Preparatlons
for festival

b. Readthe articleagainandmakenotesfor each


paragraph.
Then,talkaboutthe Milwaukee
NativeAmerican
IndianFestival.
16

Rewritethe followingparagraph,
puttingthe verbs
in boldin the passive.
Whichparagraph
fromthe
planin Ex.15is it?

festival
food
costumes

Thepeopleof Rotterdam,
Holland,hold :'rl r
%=.
'q&
a(n)7)
summerfestivalThere ,rr
:L
--.
is lois of 8)
musicand the :i#3
people put on 9)
. . costumes ..)
and dancein the streetsand squaresof
t
a.
the city.
18

a . R e a dt h e r u b r i cb e l o wa n d t h e n a n s w e rt h e
q u e s t i o n si n t h e p l a n .
S A travelmagazine
is goingto publish
a special
feature
andhasaskedits readers
to sendin articles
f on festivals
a festivalthey have attendedwhich is
f describing
important
in
theircountry.
I

t;t :::

lntroduction
(Paral)

'What
is theJestivalcalled?Where/When/Why
d o e si t t a k ep l a c e 2

Main Body
(Para2)
(Para3)

'What
preparations
take place?
What actuallyhappensat thef estival?

Conclusion
(Para4)

What areyour intpressions,


f edings,
recomm
endations?

b. Writeyourarticlein 120-180
words.Youcan
usethe articlein Ex.14aasa model.

21

-1':i''
!i1
il,l
!alj
..:...1.
.i

Earthis
Dearer
than
Gold

iri
j'":

:it

Vocabulary

Matchthe wordsin A andB to formcompound


nouns,thenusethemto complete
the sentences
below.
A

%
-qqrbd'

acid
g\oba\
fossr\ so\ar
endanqered
ener9Y
o\\
ozone

k4t
f ue\s
:rr'
sP\\\)

sPec\es
crists
po\!eI

b. Whichof the problems


belowdo the headlines
andoictures
referto?

raln
\aVer
warming

. airpollution
. deforestation
. drought
r waterpollution
c. Whichof the followingshouldwe do to fight
airpollution?
Canyouaddideasof yourown?

a
I

.
r sc a u s r nag risein oceanlevels
2 Aerosol sprays are helping f ^ d a < f r n r r t h o

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

We must find alternativesourcesof power to


avoida(n)
d a m a g e so u r l a k e s r, i v e r sa n d
forestsaswell as our buildings
Energyfrom the sun can be used to produce
p o l l u t eo u r s e a sa n d b e a c h e s
^^,1 t,;tl
dilu
KilrmanySeacteatures
7 Unfortunately,
whaleshavebecomea(n)
6

8 W e a r e r u n n i n go u t o f
h:va tn st:rt

22

rrsinn niher

, so
cnr rrroq nf nnrnior

(A-D)tothe pictures
(1-4).
Matchthe headlines

usepublictransport
moreoften
polluting
finecompanies
theair
reuse
an0recycte
stopproducing
andusingCFC's
develop
cleanenergy
cars
userenewable
sources
of energy
conserve
energy
at homeandat work

Underline
the correctword.
Solarbatteriescan captureand renew/storethe
s u n ' se n e r g y
Nuclearenergy/power stations are considered
d a n g e r o ubsy m a n yp e o p l e
5o manypeopleareswitchingto organicfood that
it isverydifficultfor the public/supply
to meetthe
demand/need
We will soonrun out of fossilfuelsso we mustfind
newer/alternative
formsof energy
Wind twirlings/turbinesdo not disturbcattle,so
wind farms provide good grazing/hunting
grounds
power plants/farmsmust take care
Hydroelectric
not to flood the neighbourhood/surrounding
area
lf we don't start usingreusable/renewable
forms
o f e n e r g ys o o n ,t h e p r i c eo f f u e l i s g o i n gt o g o
u p / s k yh i g h .

a. Whatcanwe do to becomemore
environmentally
aware?Usethe listof Dosand
Don'tsIomakeup sentences,
thenmatchthem
to the pictures.

A: Do you think you could be more careful


T U I UT E1

B: a
b
c

Of courseSorryaboutthat
l ' v eh a de n o u g h
I s h o u l dt h r n ks o ,t o o

A : H o wa b o u ts t a r t i n ga c l e a n - ucpa m p a i g n ?
B : a l ' d l o v et o g o
b That'snot a bad idea.
c R i g ht h e n
A: Thankyou verymuch
B : a W h yn o t ?
b Alright
c N o ta t a l l

Matchthe wordsin ColumnA to thosein Column


B,thenusethe phrases
to complete
the sentences
below.
A

the lion's
havebutterflies
t a k et h e b u l l
t a k em y h a t
lose
1 J o h nd e c i d e tdo

B
off to
i n h e rs t o m a c h
neart
share
bythe horns
and

^ . t . A ; - t - ^ - - r ^ . - ^pay
dsK
nrsDossror a - . , flse

I really
Cathy She
h a sm a d et h e g a r d e nl o o kb e a u t i f u l
T h ee x p l o r e rdsi d n ' t
evenwhen theirfood supplies
ranout
4 Sarahwasso nervousthat she
beforeher interview.
5 Ann workedveryhardon the projectso sheshould
get
of the bonusmoney

efi"{ut
o separate
and recycle
rubbish
o u s ea h a n d - h e lhdo s e
' t a k ep u b l i ct r a n s p o r t
u switchoff lightswhen
leaving
a room

" p u t a l lr u b b i s hi n t h e
sameilrn
o l e a v es p r i n k l e o
r sn a l ld a y
. useca[ everyday
' l e a v et h e l i g h t so n a l lt h e
time

putalltherubbish
Weshouldn't
in thesame
bin.Weshould
separate
andrecycle
it,(picture
B)
b. In pairs,suggest
otherwaysto helpthe
environment.

Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences


usingthe phrases,as in the example.

Circlethe correctresponse.
1 A: Areyoubusytonight,
Bob?
B: a lf youreally
wantto
b I don'tthinkso Why?
c Doyouthinkthat's
a goodidea?
2 A C a nI t a l k t o y o uf o r a m o m e n tp, l e a s e ?
B a That'stoo bad
b N o ta t a l l
c Yes,I supposeso

3 A : What'sthe matter?
B : a l ' m f e du p

Shewas gratefulto her teacherfor hisguidanceand


pattence.

b l'd loveto
c That'stoo bad

23

Lookat the pictures


andusethe promptsto
compare
andcontrast
them.

Reading
Which
you
of these
should
10 a. Lookat thepictures.
findout aboutbeforeyouvisita foreign
countrv?
Givereasons.

.
.
.

busy/quiet
healthy/unhealthy
clean/dirty

stressful/relaxing

nniqrr/noarofr rl

o safe/dangerous

TravelDiary

G u i d eB o o k s

Money

o . Youaregoingto readan articleabouttourism.


(1-7),choose
Forquestions
the correctanswer
A,B,CorD.

Picture
Ashows
a busytownwhereas
...

Speaking

a. Lookat the pictureandin pairs,complete


the
dialogue.

A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:

W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r es h o w s ?
1)
Wheredo you 2)
C e n t r aAl m e r i c a
How doesthe picturemakeyou feel?
Well,3)
W h yd o y o ut h i n ki h i si s h a p p e n i n g ?
I t m i g h t4 )
W h a td o y o ut h i n kn e e d st o b e d o n e ?
I t h i n k5 )

, c t o u t s i m i l a rd i a l o g u e as b o u tt h e
b . I n p a i r sa
picturesbelow.

I l l L :I L r t r r - . - - "

"-"--"-,

Many of us look forward to our summer holidays all


year. We can't wait to get awayfrom our everydaylives,to
visit new places,try new things,orjust to relax and lie in the
sun.But how many of us think about the effect our holidays
have on the placeswe visit?
Although tourism has many benefits, such as bringing
extra money into the local economy,there are alsonegative
effects. Tourism can do all sorts of damage to the
environment, the culture and the people of a country,
especially in places which aren't prepared for large
numbers of holidayrnakers.In recent years there has been
a large increase in the number of independent travellers
who want to get off the beaten track, and this has meant
that many remote destinationsare having to adjust to new
visitors.
It certainly isn't all bad news though. The last few years
have also seen a huge increase in 'eco-tourism'. This is 17
tourism where holidaymakerstry to have a positive effect
on the people and places that they visit. If you are really
committed to this idea, then you can spend your holidays
helping out on an organic farm in Britain, or taking part in
conservationprojects in Africa or the Amazon rainforest.
Don't worry, though, if this doesn't sound like your idea of
a holiday. Wherever you go and whatever you want to do,
there are still ways to make sure that you have the best
possibleimpact on your holiday destination.
If you are headingoff to a place for the first time, it is an
excellentidea to find out as much about it as you can. A
guidebookis a great placeto start.As well aslearning about
the local placesof interest,you can read about the wayyou
will be expectedto behave and dress.This can saveyou
from making embarrassingmistakes and means that you
are less likely to upset or offend your hosts.Don't stop at
the guideboo( though. If you can, listen to some music or

1 Tourismdoesthe most damagein countries


A where there has been an increasein ecotouilsm
B whicharen'treadyfor a lot of tourists
C w h e r et h e r ea r e a l o t o f p e o p l et r a v e l l i n og n
t h e i ro w n
D which havea stronglocaleconomy

Festiva
ls

History

2 W h a t i s m e a n tb y ' e c o - t o u r i s mi n' l i n e 1 7 ?
A Helping
o u t o n o r g a n i cf a r m s
B Helpingto conserve
the rainforests
C Havinga positiveeffecton the environment
D Helpingplacesto get usedto new visitors
3 What shouldyou do beforeyou take your ecoholidays?
A B u ya g u i d e b o o k
B Learnhow to dress
C Findout aboutthe localattractions
D L e a r na b o u ty o u rd e s t i n a t i o n

Music

T r a d i t i o nD
a li s h e s

:ead some literafure from your chosen destination.


Knowing a little about the place that you are visiting before
r ou leave can make your holiday much more enjoyable
,,r.hen
you arrive.
It is also important to think about how you spend your
inoneywhen you are on holiday. Whenever you can, try to
:ut it into the local people's hands. You can do this by
;ating and drinking local products rather than imported
"rrands,
stayingin locally owned accommodationand using
.ocal guides. In some parts of the world, you might be
:elatively well off compared to the local population. Even
n placeswhere you are expectedto haggle or bargain,you
should alwayspay a fair price for things. Remember that
'n'hatmight be a very small
amount of money to you, can 48
inake a big difference to somepeople.
Another important thing for the eco-touristis to have as
iittle effect on the local environment as possible.This is
easyto do if you follow some common-senseadvice.Don't
teave litter lying around and use biodegradable products
rr'heneverpossible. If resourceslike water or fuel are in
short supply, then use as little of these as you can, and of
course you should never buy products made from rare
plants or endangeredanimals. If you are luclcyenough to
risit a truly exotic destination such as a coral reef, remote
mountain or desert region, or a rainforest then you should
try to leave it exactlyas you found it, so that future visitors
can enjoy it just asyou did.
Eco-tourism organisations say that respecting the
culture and environment of the places that you visit will
lead to much more rewarding and enjoyableholidays.If we
try to encouragethe local economy,leave the environment
undamaged and are aware of the different laws and
attitudes in the placeswe visit, then all of us can enjoy our
'eco-holidays'
much better now and in the future. With
more and more of us planning holidays in new locations
everyyear, we should all do our bit to make sure that we are
alwayswelcomewhereverwe go.

How can a tourist help the economy of a


country?
A Bargainfor everything
they buy
B Buy the goods and servicesprovidedby the
r o c apr e o p l e
C Paya fair pricefor everything
D B u ye x p e n s i vi m
e p o r t e db r a n d s
W h a t i s m e a n tb y ' c a n m a k ea b i g d i f f e r e n c e
to
somepeople'in lines48 and 49?
A Youcanchangetheirlives
B Youcanhelpto preserve
theirlocalenvironment
C Youcan helpthem to havea betterlife
D Youcanbe fair
What do eco-touristorganisationssay about
tourism?
A lf we show consideration
for the placeand
people,we will havea moresatisfying
holiday
B l f w e v i s i t u n u s u a lp l a c e sw
, e s h o u l dl e a v e
themjust aswe foundthem
C lf we havea holidayin a new place,we should
makesurewe will be welcomethere
D lf we visita foreigncountry,we shouldtry to
supportthe localeconomy
The writer'sattitude to eco-tourismis
A hopeful
B disappointing
C interesting
D supportive

What was the writer'spurpose?How muchdo


you agreewith his/herpoints?

25

Complaining

Listening
11

i, .7You
aboutfiveevents.For
will hearinformation
questions
1-5,decidewhicheventA-F istaking
placeon eachday.Useeacheventonlyonce.There
is oneeventwhichyoudo not needto use.
A
B
C
D
E
F

Youcan planttrees
Y o uc a nc l e a nu p a l o c a l a k e
Youcanhelpcollectrubbish
You can cycleeverywhere
plant
Youcanvisita recycling

FI

13

r
.
.
.

vonday

ffi-

lz | | tuesoay

l3Tl wednesday
FTI thursday
FTI rriday

Sorry
to havebeena nuisance
O h .l a ms o r r y
Youare,asa matterof fact
lsanything
thematter?

A : H e l l o.,J o h nC o u l dI h a v ea q u i c kw o r d w i t h y o u ,
please?
B : S u r e 1)
A: Well,actually,l've beenmeaningto speakto you
aboutthe noisefrom yourhouse
B: NoiseA
? r ew e b e i n gt o o l o u d ?
A : W e l l ,y e s 2 )
We'vebeenhavingtroublesleeping
3)....
ldidn'trealise
y o u c o u l dh e a ra n y t h i n g
It's the musicyou play late at night that's the
pro0rem.
'Oh,
B:
OK We'lltry to keepit down 4)

You can learn how to be


energyefficient

Communication:
R e p o rti nagmi ssi nagn i ma l
12

below,then
a. Fillin the gapswith the sentences
in pairs,readthedialogue
aloud.

a. Matchthe exchanges,
then in pairs,readthe
d i a l o g u ea l o u d .
A
can I helpyou, madam?
ofr dear What kindof dog is it?
I see Hassheevergonemissingbefore?
t\ow, let me makea noteof yourdetails.
was shewearinga collar?
ETI can I haveyournameand telephoneplease?
FTI oon't get upsetMrsBrown l'm surewe'llfind her
[iTl
ETl
l3Tl
FTI
ETI

Don'tworryaboutit Thanks,
John
b. Nowusethe promptsto actout similar
dialogues.

B
a No l'm veryworried
b Yes she'soot a redonewith her nameand
address
on it
Y e s S h e i l aB r o w n A n d m y t e l e p h o n en u m b e ri s
2296188
q
Erm yes l'm afraidmy dog hasgonemissing
e O h ,t h a n ky o u
T
S h e ' sa L a b r a d o rS h e ' sg o t g o l d e nf u r a n d b i g
brown eyes
T h a n ky o u

Gary/ noise- motorbike


/
wakesme up everymorning/
a problemwith engine/ get
fixed

S u s a /n n o i s e- k i d s / c a n ' t
think/
hearourselves
s h o u t i n ga n ds c r e a m i n/ g
t e l lb e q u i e t

b . Now usethe promptsto act out similar


dialogues.

Writinganinfcrmal
ietter"of
advice

"+' : -?:ffi:
.'\\'l'''
. _ 1 .1 . , r
l i-:.i .

tabby- brownand blackg r e e ne y e s/ b l u ec o l l a -r


n a m ea n d p h o n en u m b e r

^ z_o

poodle- white- browneyes/


browncollar- address
and
p n o n en u m o e r

, When we write an informalletterof advice,we usually t


write four paragraphsIn the introductionwe express
the problemor !
1 sympathyand say that we understand
2 - 3), :
i that we thinkwe canhelp.Inthe mainbody(Paras
I
and give our reasonsWe write !
! we make suggestions
each
suggestion
in
a
separateparagraph.In the
.
we writeour closingremarks,
andsignoff.
i conclusion,
!
i.*

- .___",--_.-,
""_*. _.,.,.

14

a. Readthe letterof advice


belowandunderline
the correctverb.Thenanswerthe

to thecorrect
reasons.
16 Matchthesuggestions
Then,makecomplete
sentences,
asintheexample.
Suggestions
fjT-l Ouya toy bone for it
l2Tl tate it for a longwalkeverymorningandevening
[3Tl moveinto a housewith a garden
School
ETI take it to Dog Obedience
Reasons

I am so glad to hear that you 1) havi"t


deciding
to move to London, It'Il be great to have a friend
,
' trom home living here. We'll be able to do thingstogether
; like we 2) would/usedto. In your letter you 3) asked/were
' askingme to giveyou someadviceaboutfinding a flat; here
aresomesuggestions.
'
If I were you, I would start by 4) checks/checkingthe
: classified advertisementsin the London papers. For
i example,the 'Daily Mail' and the 'EveningStandard'have
:1argesectionswith housesand flats for rent. That way,you
; rvill be ableto seewhat is availablefor rent at the moment.
I Another good idea is to contact an estate agent.
: GoldshmidtandHowland5) have/arehavingofficesall over
i London.That way you can get a list of all the placesin the
i areayou want at a priceyou can afford.
.
I hope this 6) helps/ishelping. Pleaselet me know how
i thingsturn out. Ifyou needanythingelse,pleasecall.
,
Love,
Mandv
r
t*.

a l e a v ey o u rp u p p yo u t s i d ed u r i n gt h e d a y
b i t w o n ' t w a n t t o r u n a r o u n ds o m u c hd u r i n gt h e
day
c you won't haveto trainit yourself
d it won't chewyourfurnitureor shoes
1- d lf I wereyou,
I'dbuya toyboneforit.Thatwayitwont
your
chew
furniture
or shoes.

1 7 a . Readthe rubricbelow and then answerthe


q u e s t i o n si n t h e p l a n .

w
gt

Your friend hasjust written you a letter askingfor


advice.Readthe extractfrom the letter below,then
writea letterof advice
to vourfriend.

Howore you?I'msonyI hoven'twrittenfor so


longbut sinceI stortedmy new job I'vebeen
very busyActuolly,I'mwritingbecouseI need
yourcdvice.We hovejustgot o puppyond I'm

1 What isthe styleof the letter?Why?


2 What arethe suggestions
(andreasons)
given?
3 What advicewouldvou oiveto Fiona?

+ l!:l

b. Readthe letter againand fill in the reasons.


,t:a

Suggestion

checkclassified
advertisements

i
:

Reason

contactan estate
agent
15

Usethe expressions
in the box to give advicein the
followingsituations.
o Yourfrrendhaslosthis/herwalleVpurse
o Yourfriendwantsto go abroadfor the firsttime
r Yourfriendlosthis/heroassoort

'1
*i*:
.=r=F

Haveyou everthoughtof .. / lf I wereyou


A n o t h e rg o o di d e ai s / W h yd o n ' ty o u / T h e

lntroduction
Dear+ your friend's first name
(Para1) What is the problem?Canyou help?

MainBody
(Para2)
(Para3)

What is your first suggestion?


What is the
reason?
What is your secondsuggestion?'What
is the
reason?

Conclusion
(Para4) How canJou encourage
your t'riend?
Love/Good
luck, etc
YourJirst name

b. Useyouranswers
to writeyourletter.Youcan
usethe letterin Ex.14aasa model.

27

Earlyto
Bed
a

Matchthe verbsin ColumnA to the words/


phrases
B.Thenusethecompleted
in Column
phrases
to talkaboutyourdailyroutine.
A
go

+-1.^
tdNc

wash

Vocabulary

OTUSN
aAt

Whatisthe problemwith
a. Lookat the pictures.
person?
each

cdL

do
watch
il tccL

B
my hair/myface
my teeth
tnebus
to bed
unch/dinner
breakfasVl
to work/school
my friends
TV/avideo
my homework

my...
I usually
wakeupat.... First,lwash

Fillin the correctword.


. sensitive
. sociable
. optimrstic
. ambitious
. impatient
. cheerful
. easy-going
. reliable
1 W e n d yi s a l w a y s m i l i n gs;h e ' s u c ha
person
2 S a l l yn e v e rc o m p l a i nasb o u ta n y t h i n g5. h e i s v e r y

Laura

Max

Steve

person He goes out


3 Tom is a very
with friendsalmosteveryday
4 Stevealwayslookson the bright side He is very

fron (an)earache.
LittleBillyissuffering
shoulddo?
b. Whatdo youthinkeachperson
prompts.
the
Choose
from
o takento thedoctor. stayin bed
o putd plaster
on . takeanaspirin
. liedownandrest o putdn ice-pack
on it
gotanearache,
betakento thedoctor.
lf Billy's
heshould
2

CarolgetsupsetveryeasilyI think she is a bit too

G r e g w a n t s t o b e g e n e r a lm a n a g e ro f t h e
man
compano
y n ed a y H e ' sa v e r y. .
, 5 h e h a t e sw a i t i n g i n
8 J a n e tr s s o
qu e u e s
7

Whatarethe followingusedfor?Usethe prompts


asin the example.
to makeup sentences,
. taketemperature
. listento chestr weigh
. giveinjections

- -^t ^)Ldtc)

stethoscope

syrnge

28

5 YoucantrustTonyto do anythingHe is extremely

ourselves.
Scales
areused
toweigh

with the correctwords


Comolete
the sentences
fromthe list.
. hurtsr pain r bruise. aches. suffers. injury
was not
1 T h e d o c t o rs a i dt h a t J o h n ' s
senou5
z
I h i t m y h a n do n t h e d e s k l t r e a l l y
5
tn my chest I think I
I havegot a
shouldseea doctor
4 Sandra
from hayfevereverysummer
Haveyou got anytablets?
5 My head
o n h i sk n e e
6 A n d r e wh a da b i g p u r p l e
afterhe fell off hisbike

Readthe sentences
andmatchthemwith the
pictures.
Thenguessthe hobbies.

5 A : I'vedecidedto stop drinkingcoffee


B : a Haveyou?Why?
b O hn o l
c D i dy o u ?T h a t ' sg r e a t

thingsgrow . .
f tTl t lovewatching
ETI t feelgreatwhenl'mouton thewater
[:Tl t buyallthe latestbestsellers
lZT--]cettingout intonatureisveryrelaxing
catchanythingl
[5T_-]I rarely
ETI t lovetryingnewrecipes

A O h n o ! T h ep h o t o c o p i ei sr b r o k e na g a i n !
B a I d o n ' tb e l i e v iet l
b l t ' ss o u n f a i r !
c W h a td i d I d o ?

7 A : We don't know what to get Ben for his


birthday
B : a O h ,f o r g e ti t !
b R e a l l y ?l s h e h a v i n ga p a r t y ?
c W h y d o n ' ty o u a s kh i sw i f e ?

A l ' v ej u s tb o u g h ta n e w c a r
B : a I don't believe
it! | thoughtyouwerebrokel
b That'sa completewasteof timel
c R e a l l yW
? o u l dy o u l i k et h a t ?

n.

Thebosswantsto seeyou in hisoffice


B : a Thatsoundsinteresting
b lt'sa completewasteof time
c O h n o ! W h a td i d I d o ?

Complete
the sentences
belowwith two to five
words,including
thewordin bold.Donotchange
the meaning
of theoriginal
sentence.
I ate my lunchtoo fastand now l'vegot a stomach
ache
indigestion l'm

Circlethe correctresponse.
A: Thisnew dietisamazing,
l'velost5 kilosalready
B : a T h a t ' sg r e a t !
b Are you?
c That'snot fairl

A I t h i n k l ' m c o m i n gd o w nw i t h t h e f l u
B : a T h a ts o u n d si n t e r e s t i n g
b
c

Really?
Haveyou got a temperature?
I d o n ' tk n o ww h a tt o d o l

3 A : I would loveto livein Alaska


B : a R e a l l yW
? hy?
b I d o n ' tu n d e r s t a n! d
c That'sgood
4

A: You misseda greatpartylastnight


B : a W h a t m a k e sy o ut h i n kt h a t ?
b W h a t h a p p e n ende x t ?
c R e a l l yT?e l m
l e a l la b o u ti t

because
I ate my lunchtoo fast
A c c i d e n tj su s t s e e mt o h a p p e nt o h i m ,s o l ' m n o t
s u r p r i s ehde ' si n h o s p i t a l
prone
He'sreally
, so
l ' m n o t s u r p r i s ehde ' si n h o s p i t a l
W a t c h i n g d o c u m e n t a r i e sa b o u t e n d a n g e r e d
animalsalwaysmakesme feeisad
depressed I always
, watchdocumentaries
about
e n d a n g e r eadn i m a l s
Slmonwas latefor work because
therewasa train
S I TK
IE

account

S i m o nw a sl a t e
a t r a i ns t r i k e

A n n l i k e sc h o c o l a tae l o t
fond
Ann
chocolate
He did not intendto leavebeforehe finishedthe
report
intention
He
beforehe finishedthe report
Y o us h o u l ds t o ps m o k i n g
give
You
smoKrng
S t a nd i d n ' td o w h a t h e h a dp r o m i s eido d o
went
Stan
word

29

B:
A : H a v ev o u e v e re x o e r i e n c eads i m i l asr i t u a t i o n ?
B : 4)
A : W h a td i d y o u d o ?
B : ),

Matchthe following,thencomplete
the sentences.
muscle
nose
travel
heart
splitting
sore
high
food

SICKneSS

parn
h^-,1.-h^
I tcouoLt

tc

porsonrng
bleed

for the
b. In pairs,
actout similar
dialogues
pictures
below.

,.1;-^--^

th roat
temperalure

He was very worried about taking the ferry to


Francebecause
he alwavssuffersfrom
o n b o a t sa n dp l a n e s
2 Thedoctorsaidmv dadwas at riskof
s o h e s h o u l de a t a
healthierdiet and get moreexercise
You havegot a very
Youshouldstayin bedtoday
After overdoingit at the gym,Stevewas suffering
from
i n h i sl o w e rb a c k
Zoehad a reallybad caseof
.
aftereatingthat seafood
M a r t i nw a s h i t i n t h e f a c eb y a t e n n i sb a l l L u c k i l y
h e w a s n ' ts e r i o u s h
l yu r t b u t h e h a da s l i g h t
7
8

| didn'tgo to work yesterday


because
I hada really
, . . and had lostmy voice
Fredwants us to turn the musicdown because
he'sgota
.. ...

)peaKrng
'!0

a. Lookat the pictureandcomplete


the dialogue.

Reading
11

A:
B:
A:
B:
A:

30

W h e r e ' tsh e w o m a n ?
S h es e e m s1 )
What'swrongwith her?
I ' m n o t s u r e S h ec o u l d2 )
What advicewouldyou giveher?

a. Lookat the picture.


Wheredo youthinkthe
youngboyis?Whatiswrongwith him?Read
the articleto findout.
b. Readthe articleagain.Seven
sentences
have
beenremoved
fromthe article.Choose
from
the sentences
A-l the onewhichbestfitseach
gap 1-7.Thereisonesentence
whichyoudo
(0)at the
not needto use.Thereisan example
beginning.

tl

Becausehe was so young, the doctors


decidedthat Timothy should be given
the implant as soon as possible.

"I have to admit, I was very worried,"


saysSandra, "but only hours after he
came out of theatre, he was playing
with the other children on the ward
and I knew he was going to be fine! I
couldn't wait to find out whether or
not the operation had been
successful."

Cut Loud
Timothy Stevenshas lived most of his
,rJein a silent world. Until sir months
ago, he had never heard his mother's
-,oice, never
listened to music and
never heard the sound of birds singing
rr the laughter of his pla5.nnates.
;--f;t t - H i s m o t h e r .S a n d r a ,
|
knew
|

"{

-hat something was wrong with her


babyson,becausehe did not have the
:ame reactions as other babies. "If I
iidn't look into Tim's eyes,he didn't
:eem to know I was there," she says.
\l'hen he was eight months old,
Sandratook Timothy to the hospital
:nd explained why she was worried.
The doctors carried out hearing tests
.nd decided that Timothy must be a
_ ' . i l e D a c K \ ^ al rr d .|
,

children and that they always think


the worst," she smiles. "I knew I was
dght about Tim, but it took almost
two years before the doctors would
agreewith me."
However, even Sandra had not
imagined that Timothy's condition
could be as seriousas it was.
T;--r----r
Ir |
| D o c l o r st o l d S a n d r at h a t
there was no chancethat his hearing
would ever improve.

Sandrawas shockedto learn that the


Sandra insisted that the hospital only hope for Timothy was to have a
ihould send Timothy to a specialist bionic implant.
,rlr rtore tests.Unfortunately, it was a
The electrodeswould send
F-[l
-rng time before a specialistwould
electric signals to his brain, which
.ee him. Finally, when he was almost would allow him to hear them as
'ti
a:::
.,:,:. l.o years old, Timothy and his sounds.
nother went to a children's hospital
The implant would not allow Timothy
.r Manchester where the staff had
-'t:
to hear perfectly,but it would be the
:1enty of experiencein dealing with
only way for him to ever have a
:;af children.
chance
of overcoming his deafness.
---r--r
- |
| A t l a s t "s o m e o n eb e l i e v e dh e r After checking that there was no
',-,hen
she told them that her son was serious risk involved, Sandra put
ieaf. "Doctors often think that
Timothy's name on the waiting list for
nothers worry too much about their

''t""7t

'.',..,,r&--4.,

.tr...,.rb,-

The moment of truth came on


Timothy's third birthday, when the
doctors switchedon the implant for the
very first time. Timothy played with
toys in the doctor's surgery while a
speech therapist played different
sounds and checked his reactions.
When Sandra said, "Hello Timothy,"
and he Iooked into her eyes,she cried
tearsof happiness.
T i m o t h-y i-s n" o'w e n j o y i n ga l i t e f u l l o f
s o u n d .l 6 |
lHeisalsoarrending
the local nursery school where he
likes nothing more than to make as
much noise as possible as he plays
with his friends.
Timothy celebrated his fourth
birthday last week.
E--T---t
,,-' H e i sd r i v i n g
m e m a dw i r h
|7 |
|
the noise he makes," Iaughs Sandra,
"and that's something I never
imagined I would complain about!
For me, though, the greatestgift of all
is to hear my son talking and to know
that he can hear me when I soeak to
him."

.....','.?!...:"t"t':"t9ttk7s...:,.,:u,,..,
"

He has alreadylearntseveralwords and phrases


w h i c ha l l o wh i mt o c o m m u n i c a w
t ei t h h i sm o t h e r
H i s p r e s e n t si n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y o f m u s i c a l
i n s t r u m e nw
t sh i c hh e l o v e st o p l a yw i t h
Sandrawas relievedto find peoplewho would
l i s t e nt o h e r
D A full examination
s h o w e d t h a t T i m o t h yw a s
completely
deaf
However,
Sandraknewthat the problemwas more
s e r i o utsh a nt h a t
T i m o t h yi so n l ya b l et o c o m m u n i c a tbey u s i n gs i g n
language

Threemonthsbeforehis thrrd birthday,he went


i n t o h o s p i t atl o h a v et h e o p e r a t i o nt h a t w o u l d
c h a n g eh i sl i f e
H Timothywas borndeaf
I T h i sw o u l d m e a n h a v i n ga n o p e r a t i o nt o p u t a
specralreceiver
in Timothy'shead,with electrodes
connected
to the nervesin hisears

Answerthe questions.

1 W h e r ec o u l dy o u r e a ds u c ha n a r t i c l e ?
2 What do you thinkthe writer'spurposewas?
3 C a ny o us u g g e sat n a l t e r n a t i vt ei t l ef o r t h e a r t i c l e ?

31

12

lictoninn

Writing

You are going to listento a radiointerview


about robot surgeons.Forquestions1-7,mark the
sentencesas f (true)or F(false).

4'1're

1 T h e r ea r er o b o ts u r g e o nisn a l l h o s p i t a l s
2 Doctorsoperateby remotecontrol
3 C o m p u t e rcsa r r yo u Lv e r yo ' e c i s e
movements
4 Therobotslook likecranes
5 A camera
t a k e sp h o t o g r a p hosf t h e
patient
6
7

R o b o t cs a r r yo u t a l l k i n d so f o p e r a t i o n s
Doctorswill haveto learnmanynew
r nIn g s

Whenwe write a note we usuallyusea veryinformalstyle


and write in very short or incompletesentencesWe do
not alwaysuse definiteor indefinrtearticlesWhen we
write an e-mailwe usethe form of a letter We usuallyuse
an informalstylein personal
e-mailsand a formalstylefor
b u s i n e ses- m a i l sW e u s u a l luy s em e m o si n c o m p a n i easn d
officesto passon informationto employeesWe use a
formal,factualstyle

C o m m u n i c a t i volna:k i nagn

. Analysing
M odelTexts

a p p o rn l me n t

1 3 a.

phrases,
Fillin the missing
thenin pairs,
read
thedialogue
aloud.
.
.
.
.

yournameandadoress,
please
What's
Please
letusknowif youdecide
to cancel
Bookmein forWednesday
l'd liketo makeanappointment

:r u

:\

Lookat the pieces


of writing1-3.Whichis
a) a memo?b) an e-mail?
c) a note?

14

.., , ,

"'

e Ta; ##'.i#

i*gdrezibti?t

Sw*ttayt*si1

).,"Stiqnt*t

- j$,rp*rr*:*

inr$.-.nie"t-.

';'

S err:
ntbit'i

Dear Sally,
Thanks for inviting
us
loS ueeke'o, we boll- tacl o
I'm including
the photos
attactment.
There's a great
Jim in front of the pool.
v v .-

next

. L
l. - | ov

month

come. I'11
Take

Receptionist:
Hello CentralClinic Can I he p you?
Patient:Yes,1)
to see
D r E v a n sp,l e a s e
Receptionist:Wednesday
at 10amisthe firstappointment
available
Otherwise,
thereisnextMondayat noon
Patient:fhesoonerthe better,please2)
i f t h i si sp o s s i b l e
Receptionist:3)
Patient:
MaggieSmith;42 KnowleAvenue
Receptionist:
Right Seeyou on Wednesday,
at 1Oam
4)
the
appointment
Patient:
I will Thankyou verymuch

b. Now usethe promptsto act out similardialogues.


o Dr Barret/ Tuesday
4pm - nextFriday
9am
. Dr Sandford
/ Thursday
2pm- nextWednesday
1l am

32

- t^9

and
let

p a L tLtr

we'd
you

f a r

love

know the

to your party
g'ot r'm-.
we took in an
one of you and

t ; , ^ a V tc

it

if

details

n
! i r | r h r rt u- d y

you

could

later.

care,

Sharon

V)

$ill
llt, / ot c\ner\avrt\ dackre,backb5 11rtr
,1,:1,,,
,/ drnnef S \\ t\e ove\

/dont forgetto feed cat

. Discuss
& Write

tr

therubric
andanswer
thequestions
17 a. Read
below.
ICB

To:
From:
Date:
Subject:

All Employees
Arthur Jones, asst mgr
15 February, 2...
Use of mobile phones in the office

o Please be advised that all employees with


mobile phones are required to keep them
turned off during working hours.
o If you need to be contacted while at work,
you can be reached through the main
switchboardon 726742I.
o This number is to be used for emergencies
only.
We appreciateyour co-operation in this matter.
,t&

::::=ffiryir,!":ee+4t*iir:

. Style
of
1 5 a. Matchthestyleof writingto thepieces
writingin Ex.14.
A incomplete
sentences,
veryinformal
B informationgivenin an officeor business
setting;
formal
C informal,chatty
b. Readthe note to the secretaryand rewrite it in
the styleof an officememo.
Mise7hi7ys,
t tellDeyt ugre about
budSr,tmeehng-on
Mondal1am
o
.

allmvcta.ltendandbe onfime
ooffee anddouglnvt9eewed

fhanks,
Mr Jaoobg

:!: Thecompanywhereyou work is havinga retirement


of the company.
i partyfor the VicePresident
Theparty
will be heldat the RoyalHotel.Youhavebeenput in
: chargeof organising
the party.
Write
a
memo
to
all
staffmembers
informing
them
"
of the time, date and locationof the partyand
tellingthem that food and drinkswill be served.
Also, informthem that they can make a small
contributionto the Vice President'sretirement
present
andthattheyshouldgivethe moneyto you
or yoursecretary.
o Writea noteto yoursecretary,
tellinghim/herthat
you'rein a meetingand reminding
him/herto call
the catering
company
andarrange
a meetingwith
themfor the nextdayat 11am.
o Write an e-mailto your superviso;who is on
holiday,
andlet him/herknowaboutthe party.

thefollowing
ina noteform.
16 Rewrite

D e a rP a t r i c i a ,
l ' m g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m aw i t h S h e i l aI b o r r o w e d
your
redscarf l'veleft the carkeysin the firstdrawerof your
d e s ki n c a s ey o u n e e dt h e m J a m e sc a l l e dH e s a i dh e
m i g h t c o m e b y H e ' l lc a l l b a c kl a t e r l f y o u ' r eh u n g r y
there are chickensandwiches
in the fridge I won't be
late- around10 o'clockat the latest
LCUIO

1 Whoareyouwriting
to?
2 Whatstylewillyouusefor eachpieceof writing?

Whv?
Whatinformation
willyouneedto include
in each
piece
of writing?
Writethe memo,noteande-mailusingthe
information
in Ex.17a,aswellasyourown
ideas.

33

Better
Safe
thanSorcy

A : I r e a l l yl i k et h a t s o n g l
B : 5 od o I l ' l l

theradio

A: l'veneveruseda laptopcomputerbefore
the same
B : O h , i t ' s e a s yJ u s t
way you do with your regularPC

3
Vocabulary

Crossout the oddword(s)in eachgroup.Then,use


wordsto makeup sentences
the remaining
describing
eachobject,asin the example.
1 cooker:

oven- rlngs- knobs- jd{

- femotecontfolmorqtr- Screen
Key0oar0
p l u g- c o r d- t e m p e r a t u rceo n t r o-l
3 iron:
door
lens- cover- shutter- tray
4 camera:
l i d- h a n d l e- s p o u t- a e r i a l
5 kettle:
- drawers
- screens
6 refrioerator:door- shelves
7 blender:
switch lid blades light
7 rnmnrrtar

Lookat the pictures.Whichof thesedo you have


in yourkitchen?
Whatdo you useeachof the
objectsfor?

A cookerhasgotan oven,ringson topandknobsthatare


usedto controltemperature.

and identifythe type of crime


Readthe sentences
in
the
example.
described,
as
1 S h e c o p i e ds o m e o n ee l s e ' ss i g n a t u r eo n t o t h e
cheque {{*rqeryJ
T h e a r m e dm e n s t o r m e di n t o t h e b a n ka n d t r i e d
to steala largeamountof money
The customsofficer calledthe police after he
f o u n d a b a g o f d i a m o n d si n t h e m a n ' sl u g g a g e
T h e yh e l dt h e p i l o ta t g u n p o i nat n do r d e r e dh i mt o
fly to the locationtheywanted
H e t h r e w a l i t m a t c ht h r o u g ht h e w i n d o w a n d
then ran off
Themanwas caughttryingto stealtwo CD-ROMs

1- A A blenderis usedto blend/mixfood.

Usethe phrasalverbsto completethe exchanges,


asin the example.
r t u r no n . t u r nd o w n . t u r no f f . t u r n u p
. p l u gi n . l o go n . l o g o f f
1 A: I can'tconcentrateTheTV istoo loud
B: All right,l'll fui'rit d*n'r
2

r satellite
. fingerprints
. preserve
o automatically
. proof . fined . privacy
it

A : I t h i n k l ' l l s t a yu p a n d w a t c h t h e e n d o f t h i s
film
all the
B: OK Don't forget to
lightsbeforeyou go to bed

5 A: Hurry up We're supposedto be there at 7


o'clock!
B : O K J u s tg i v em e a m t n u t et o

34

the lnternet

moneyfor the safereturnof the


8 Theydemanded
twochildren
usingthe wordsbelow.
Complete
the sentences

A : D i dy o u h e a ra b o u tt h e h i j a c k i n g ?
the radio
B: No Let's

3 A: Why isn'tthe toasterworking?


B : O h ,s i l l ym e ! | f o r g o tt o

Whenwe got home,we were horrifiedto find the


window brokenand all our valuables tolen

the policetake your


1 When you get arrested,
keep
them
on file
.
and
2
3

f 2 O 0f o r p a r k i n gi l l e g a l l y
H ew a s
lawand
I t i s a p o l i c e m a nj 'osb t o
order

4 Someoeonlethinkthat hiddencameras
invade
our
5 Whenyou usean ATM,your bankaccountis
updated

6 Theyhadto let the suspectgo because


they could
find no
that he had committed

Lastsummerwas so hot that we decidedto nave


a i r c o n d i t i o n i npgu t i n
installed We had
lastsummerbecause
it was so hot
5 The escapedprisonersjumped onto a bus and
madethe drivertakethem acrossthe border
hijacked The
busto get across
the border
6 Car rentalcompaniescan use specialtechnology
to find out wheretheircarsare
locate
C a rr e n t acl o m p a n i ecsa n
t h e i rc a r s

thecrime
7 We can now get up-to-the-minute
newsfrom
around
theworldvia

Complete
the headlines
usingthe wordsbelow.
. charged. robbed. accused
. sentenced
o < tt q n o r t < . r h o : t a . l

Supermarket bandit
et4e,
*eett,e,

t4
@4r:
&P.e.M&d.

b*&

't ?.?e?.?a i*&.:r%w


W
u4.8p1'@
W.{.,'tqp
.&.*da*,&:*WW.

I I I I r | | f
I t:

f rt:

W6qry;:r

7*71*,1:;t!f;1,::::,:y:

ilpl0yee ....*r........*......Of afSOn.

f {':::"r 3:i;::"
i:-::::: :Ti^i-,::',-"
*
,]

r:

'-"-if
ltarn8ll

rtrr.lttlrrrl

$Ql$hbaur

""*

stoaltnghef car'
'w*,*,*i)-*-).*:::,.Y3:*',#:;'iffi

;'"*.*"
l g u t h

"*"*"*- *-'i-i^'

-7:K;kg"ry

t ! . r " " ' r *

.,,,,,,....,,a..,..,".,
l|llruod
dryllghl.
7

UT

v
't0

ie

Completeeachof the sentences


with two to five
words, includingthe word in bold. Do not change
t h e m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e .
1 L a s tn i g h ts o m e o n e
h i t h e ro v e rt h e h e a da n ds t o l e
h e rh a n d b a g
mugged She
l a s tn i g h t
2 P e t e cr o p i e dt h e P i c a s saon ds o l di t a sa n o r i g i n a l
forged
Peter
a n ds o l di t a sa n o r i g i n a l
3 The policegot a descriptionof the thief from
someonewho saw him escape
witness Thepolicegot a description
of the thief
.

Circlethe correctresponse.
A : W h e r ed i dt h e a c c i d e nht a p p e n ?
B: a lt'sdifficultto say
b About fifteenminutesago
c A t E l ma n d D i x o n

Pofiticlan's son
*I

A : C a ny o u t e l l m e h o w t o g e t t o t h e M c l a u g h l i n
Gallery?
B : a l ' m g o l n gn o w
b Sorry?Canyou repeatthat?
c l ' m s o r r yt,h e l i n ei se n g a g e d
A: Didyou likethe outfit I wore yesterday?
B : a T h a t ' sa n i n t e r e s t i nqgu e s t i o n
b Let me see
c To be honest,I can'treallyrememberit
A : H e l l oc, a nI s p e a kt o J e n n yp l e a s e ?
B : a W o u l dy o u l i k et o l e a v ea m e s s a g e ?
b l'm sorry,you must havedialledthe wrong
number
c Thankyou for waiting
A: What'sSarah's
sister's
name?
B: a lcan'trememberl
b I d o n ' tt h i n ks o
c W h a td o y o u m e a n ?
A : H o wc o u l dy o u l o s et h e t i c k e t s !
B : a W h a t ' st h e p r o b l e m ?
b l t w a s n ' tm e ! | g a v et h e mt o S a m !
c l ' l lt h i n ko f i t i n a m i n u t e
A: What can I do for you?
B: a I want to reporta robbery
b Can I take a message?
c Okay l'vedonethat
8 A : D i da n y o n ew i t n e s st h e b u r g l a r y ?
B: a No,that'snot what I mean
b l ' l lt h i n ko f i t i n a m i n u t e .
c I d o n ' tt h i n ks o

hj;n o<r:no

IS

35

in the two columns.


Matchthe words/phrases
below.
the sentences
Then,usethemto complete
a n ds o u n d
inmind
a o l u em o o n
a n dt i d y
mattersworse

o n c er n
to make
clean
koon

safe

B : I cansee2)

, nd
1 I d i d n ' th a v ee n o u g hm o n e yt o p a yf o r l u n c h a
I had forgotten
my creditcard
2 We hardlyevergo to the cinemaWe go

A W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e w o m a nb o u g h t ?
B : S h em i g h t3 )
A H o wi ss h ep a y i n g ?
B : 4)
A H o wo f t e nd o y o u g o s h o p p i n g ?
B

s)

A Where?
B b)

3 Themissingboywas found
t o h i sP a r e n t s
a n dr e t u r n e d
.
W h i l ey o ua r ed r i v i n g ,
that you are beingwatchedby CCTVcamerason
the motorway
Carolisveryneat Herhomeis always

10

A : W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r ew a st a k e n ?
B : I t h i n k1 )
A : C a ny o u d e s c r i bteh e p i c t u r e ?

A
B

Howdo youpay?
7)

andactout similar
b . Lookat the pictures
dialogues.

thenmakesentences
Tickthe correctpreposition,
asin the example.
usingthe phrases,

of

about

to

-+

for

aware
nervouS
married
raugn
notoIouS

pay
keeptrack

worry
in
Hewasn't
awareof thefactthatshehada degree
psychology.
Qo:r..,|
inn
I rY
I \LUV

Speaking
11

12a

thedialogue.
andcomplete
a. Lookat the picture

Whichare the three most importantfactorswe


shouldconsiderwhen buyinga car?Choose,
then compareyour list to your partner's.
It should:

o
I
o
a
a
o
o
I

b e e c o n o m i c taol r u n
b e e n v i r o n m e n t aflrliye n d l y
be fast
be efficient
b e c h e a pt o b u y
havea powerfulengine
havelotsof accessories
r u no n p e t r o l

0 . Lookat the title of the article.What couldthe

articlebe about?Readand checkyour answers.

36

'13 Read
thearticle
again.
Forquestions
1-7,choose
thecorrect
answer,
A, B,Cor D.

',a:#w#qr*

ffimwffi
Many of the world's cities lie under a permanent
blanket of smog. People are conceffled about global
rvarming,and fuel pricesjust keep going up and up. It's no
surprisetherefore, that in recent years,car manufacturers
have been put under pressure to invent a vehicle that is
both cheaper to run and better for the environment.
Finally, after much trial and error, it seemsas though they
might be making progress, and the future of the car
industry is beginning to look a little 'greener'.
One of the first ideas which car manufacturerstried,
rvas to replace engines which run on fossil fuels with
electric motors. Unfortunately, these vehicles had several
drawbacks and they didn't sell very well. The problems
were that the batteries of these electric cars ran out very
quickly and took a long time to recharge. Also, the
replacementenergypackswere very expensive.
However, the idea of electric cars has not been
scrappedaltogether.Car manufacturershave improved the
concept so that environmentally friendly cars can now be
efficient and economical as well. This is where the hybrid
car, which has both an electric motor and a traditional
petrol engine,comesin. The electric motor never needsto
be recharged and it is much better for the planet than a
traditionalcar.
In a hybrid car, the engine is controlled by a computer
which determines whether the car runs on petrol,
electricity; or both. When the car needs maximum power,
for example,if it is acceleratingor climbing a steep hill, it
uses all of its resources,whereas at steady speedsit runs
only on petro'I.When slowing down or braking, the electric
motor recharges
its batteries.
Hybrid cars are better for the environment because
the electric motor can help out whenever it is needed and
they have a much smaller engine than a traditional car.
Also, hybrid cars on the market are made using materials
such as aluminium and carbon fibre, which makes them
extremely light. Both of these factors mean that they use
far less petrol than normal cars, so they produce less
pollution.
Of course,hybrid cars aren't perfect; they still run on
fossil fuel and so pollute the environment to some extent.
However, they may be the first step along the road to
cleaner, 'greener' cars. Car manufacturers are already
working on vehicles which run on hydrogen. The only
emissionfrom these cars is harmlesswater vapour. These
are still some way in the future, though, as designersneed
to think of cheap and safeways of producing, transporting
and storing hydrogen,but at last, it looks like we might be
headingin the right direction.

1 Car manufacturersare trying to invent a new


vehiclebecause
A today'scarsproducetoo muchpoisonous
gas
B it is difficultto drivein cities.
C today'scarsusetoo muchfuel
D t h e c a ri n d u s t r iys i n t r o u b l e
Vehicleswhich ran on electricmotors
A movedveryfast
B were madeof piecesof scrap
C were not verypopular
D h a dt o h a v et h e i re n g i n e rse p l a c e d .
The electricmotor in hybridcars
A doesn'tneedto recharge
its batteries
B hasits own petrolengine
C takesa longtime to be recharged.
D needsreplacement
energypacks
The computerin a hybridcar
A p o w e r st h e e n g i n e
B h e l p st h e c a rt o g o u p h i l l s
C keepsthe carrunningat a steadyspeed
D decideshow the carshouldbe poweredat any
g r v e nt i m e
Hybridcarsare better for the planetbecause
A they usedifferentfuelto normalcars
B they are madeof specialmaterials
C t h e e l e c t r im
c o t o ri ss m a l l etrh a na n o r m a l
engrne
D they producelessharmfulgases
Hybridcarsare not the idealsolutionbecause
A they producecarbonfibre
B they do not makethe roadscleaner.
C they alsousepetrol.
D t h e ya r em a d ef r o ma l u m i n i u m
7

Carswhich run on hydrogenare not available


yet because
A it is hardto drivethem in the rightdirection.
B it is difficultto storehydrogen
C they producetoo muchwatervapour
D thereis no futurefor them

thequestions.
14 Answer
a What was the writer's nrrrnoseTWas he/she
successfu
|?
C a ny o u n a m ea n ye n v i r o n m e n t aflrliye n d l ym e a n s
of transport?
Whichdo you use?
I n p a i r s ,t h i n k o f a n e w e n v i r o n m e n t afl rl yi e n d l y
meansof transportDrawa pictureand preparean
advertisement
for it, statingits good points

37

A : A n d t h e r e ' sq u i t ea b i t o f 3 )
In
i t l ' m s u r et h e o w n e rw i l l b e l o o k i n gf o r i t
B : S o , y o u ' v es e a r c h e tdh e c o n t e n t sh, a v ey o u ,
s ir ?
A : E r ,w e l l ,I h a d a q u i c kl o o k ,b u t I d i d n ' tt o u c h
a n y t h i n!g
B: Ah,here'a
s n a m e- o n t h e 4 )
A : G r e a t D o y o u n e e dm e t o s i g na n y t h i n g ?
B: Yes,you can signthis form And you'd better
leaveyour number,in casea rewardis offered
A : G o o di d e a !

I ictpninn
15

Listento the conversation


betweenAdamand
questions
Lisa.For
1-7,choose
the bestanswer,
A,BorC.
Why doesn'tAdam like usingcomputers?
A H ec u t sh i m s e l f
B H ed o e s n ' ut n d e r s t a nt d
hem
C He alwaysdropsthem
In the future, life will be easierbecause
A everything
will be computerised
B p e o p l ew i l ls u r v i vw
e i t h o u tc o m p u t e ' s
C p e o p l ew o n ' t n o t i c ec o m p u t e r s

b . N o w u s et h e p r o m p t st o a c t o u t s i m i l a r
dialogues.

Adam thinks he won't get a job in the future


oecauSe
A he hasa negativeattitude
B i t w i l lt a k eh i my e a r st o u p g r a d eh i ss k i l l s
C h e w o n ' t b e a b l et o u s et h e n e wt e c h n o l o g y
Peoplewill be able to earn more money in the
future because
A theywill work fewerhours
B t h e yw i l l b e a b l et o d o m o r et h a no n ej o b a t a
time
C c o m p u t e rws i l l d o t h e i rw o r k f o r t h e m

b r i e f c a s-et h e s t a t i o n/ n o
wallet/ palmtopcomputer/
n a m eo n a b u s i n e scsa r d

Televisions
will be better in the future because
A t h e yw i l l b e m o r ef r i e n d l y
B theywill havebuttons
C theywill be controlledby voice

17

h a n d b a -g b u ss t o p/ n o
identification
/ jewellery
/
n a m eo n a n e n v e l o n p

At thegarage
a. Putthe exchanges
in the correctordetthen,in
pairs,
readthedialogue
aloud.

How doesAdam feel when he readsabout the


futu re?
A extremely
worried
B veryhappy
(-

trttarlv mi<arrhlo

Lisabelievesthat people
A w i l l c h a n g ei n t h e f u t u r e
B w i l l l e a r nn e ww a y so f d o i n gt h i n g s
C arescaredof the future

C o m m u n i c a t iHoann:d i n g
i n a mi ssi nigte m
1 6 a . F i llinth eg a p s

with drive*
licence,creditcard,
wollet,money
Then,in pairs,
readthe dialogue
aloud.

38

A: Good evening, officer I just found this


1)
o n t h e p a v e m e not u t s i d e
the cafe
Ah Let'shavea l o o k i n s i d eO h d e a r T h e r e ' s
n o t h i n gw i t h t h e person'sname and address,
not evena 2)

A
c
o
o
d
m
o r n i n gm a d a m
FTI
W h a tc a nI d o f o r y o u ?
ET--lot courseWhat'sthe
problem?

ETI umr

you're
Yes,

rightl'lljustpumpthem
up foryou
youare You're
th"ru
FTI
ready
to go
it! Drive
ETI oon'tmention
safely
!

B
a O h ,t h a t w o u l db e
great
O h ,l w i l l
Goodbye!
WonderfulThanks
everso much
I t h i n kt h e ym a y
needa bit moreair
i nt h e m
C o u l dy o u c h e c k
tho trrroc nlo:co7

Nowusetheprompts
to actouta similar
dialogue.
a

check
theoil/ mightneedchanging
/ change
it
foryou

t
\vAv/ rr ii tLi n| n
tg

b. Rewritethe pointsin Ex.19ain a paragraph,


usingappropriate
linkingwords/phrases.

.a G..Sll
:','.ri!

--.i

-.".'.\:

Wewrite instructions,
we usethe imperative
form
-"hen
i t h e v e r ba n d w e u s u a l l yl e a v eo u t a r t i c l e sT h e p o i n t s
rust alwaysbe written ln the correctorderone afterthe :
:ther We can use numbers or bullets before each r
lstruction We usuallyuse linkingwords/phrases
(first,
:fter that, then, next,finallyetc)to organise
the pointsor :
: - o w t h e o r d e ro f e v e n t s

'l

20

a. Lookat the instructions


for takinga picture
with a digitalcamera
andfill in the verbs.
o Download. Hold . press
(X2) . Lineup
. Look. Wait

below.Insert
themissing
8 Lookat theinstructions
wordsthentryandguess
whattheobjectis.
o allow o first r when r then
To chargebattery:
1

i n s e r ct h a r g epr l u gi n t o b a s ew i t h
arrowfacingup
p l u g c h a r g i n gu n i t j n t o a p o w e r

socket

it to chargefor 6-8 hours(youcan


u s ei t w h i l ei t i sc h a r g i n g )
f u l l yc h a r g e di ,t w i l l p r o v i d eu p t o
1 0 0 h o u r ss t a n d b yo r 5 h o u r st a l k i n g

instructions
explain
howto
19 a. Thefollowing
withdraw
cashfromanATM(automatic
teller
machine).
Putthepointsintothecorrect
order.

button halfwaywhen
s h u t t e ra l l t h e w a y w h e n t h e

5
6

thecamera
s t i l lu n t i li t b e e p s
u n t i l t h e l i g h t changesback to
t h e i m a g ef r o mt h e c a m e r a

b. Lookat the instructionsfor downloadinga


pictureonto a computer.Make the sentences
shorte4then put the pointsinto the correct
or0er.
I
f
I

rh. screenwill ask you if you want a n o t h e r


transaction'yes/No,

Wt.r"nthe 'menu,screenappears,
choosethe option
'withdraw
cash,
I fn" nextscreenwill askyou how muchyou wanr to
withdfaw
I P u ty o u rc a r di n t ot h e m a c h i n e
I r f , u m a c h i n ew i l l g r v e y o u y o u r m o n e y a n d a
withdrawalslipshowinga recordof yourtransactron.
_
the arrowkeyon the sideof the screennexrro
! Press
t h e a m o u n ty o u n e e d
t U O "i n y o u rp e r s o n ai dl e n t i f i c a t i onnu m b e (r p l N )
!
I C h o o r "' N o ' a n d t h e s c r e e n
w i l l t e l ly o u t o t a k ey o u r
card

I
I

Yo, haveto select'download'


Sauethe picturein a file
Vo, must clickthe cameraicon on the computer
screen
Y o , m u s tt u r n o n t h e c o m p u t e r
Vo, mustconnectthe camerato the computer

"'"etitt8'11"a*.4ta.r.

therubric
andanswer
thequestions.
21 a. Read
Youhavebeentakingphotography
lessons.
Nowyour
teacher
hasaskedyouto writeinstructions
on howto
takethe perfectpicture.
1 What adverbswill you useto put the instructions
inorder?
2 W h a tv e r bt e n s e w
s i l ly o u u s e ?
b. Write the instructionsin 40-80words.

:'v"4t:::*,6.,,ttu?.,f*t*qr,t
,.*r76rr.,.%,.1i.,?:,.*.a..,,,.,, .*'
r.,,.r".r.pr<*_

39

Wise,
Penny
Foolish 3
Pound

Crossout the odd word. Which group of goodsdo


the restof the words belongto?
t
2
3
4
5

\/^--1,-.' 'l-r',
v u L d t _ . / ut o t y

Wherewould
a. ldentifythe shopsin the pictures.
youexpectto hearthe following?
o
.
.
.
.
.
.

b. Wherecan you buy eachof theseitems?What


canyou do with eachof theseitems?

lstherea bracelet
to match?
Twoloaves
of rye,please
Haveyougotthisin a large?
CanI tryontheotherone?
please?
Couldyoucutit intoportions,
Doyoudeliver?
included
in theprice?
Aretheframes

hammer,screwdriver,
n@d{t, Oritt
table,book,chair,dresser
d ,r e s s
r i n g ,e a r r i n g sn,e c k l a c e
screwdriver,
bread,meat,pasta
washingpowder,bleach,flowers,
polish
furniture

hardware

6 towel,deodorant,shampoo,
toothpaste
paper,ribbons
7 pen,envelopes,
8 j u m p e ru, m b r e l l ac,o a t ,s h i r t
9 lipstick,CD player,cooker,fridge

Completethe sentences
with the correctword
from the list.
. delightedo conservative
. dedicated. bear
. w o v e n . b u d g e t . i m p o r t e d. a m b i t i o u s
. s e n t i m e n t a. l g e n u i n e l y
1 Unfortunately,
I can't afford it becausel'm on a
tiqht
2 Thisring might not be expensive,
but it's of great
, , v a l u et o m e
3 He'sdeterminedto succeedbecausehe's a very
,
man
4 Tonyis really
to hiscareer
i n m i n dt h a t t h e s h o p sw i l l
5 Please
b e c l o s e do n S u n d a y
6 S a l l yw a s
w i t h t h e b o u q u e to f
flowersshereceived
7 Anita was
surprisedwhen she
won firstprize
rug at the
8 He boughta colourful
fleamarket
personwho doesn't
9 He'sa very
l i k en e w i d e a sa t a l l
1 0 S h ec o u l d n ' tf i n d w h a t s h e w a n t e dh e r e ,s o s h e
h a dt o h a v ei t s p e c i a l l y

b. Whatcanyoubuyin
eachshop?

lettersto form
a. Fillin the missing
compound
nouns,
asin theexample.
,w'ssti!ng
: h i. q-h -t .
llow-

rh
4

,,
roiler

I 004r0

m a c hr n e
milk
spray
gel
scarf

5 lce

40

6 I comPuter

tre
5

00rt|e0
mineral

:
9 ,
:
10 '

norcnn:l

laptop
pierced
9!lP-:9ll
linen
leather

Replacethe adjectivesin bold with their opposites.


. modern . expensive. boring . local . fresh
. cool . fantastic. tight
1 Thatwas one of the most interestingfilmsI have
everseen
2 We got a very warm welcomewhen we finally
arrived
3 This restaurantis great,if you like international
c ur S r n e
4 | t h i n kh e rn e w d r e s sl o o k sd r e a d f u l
5 Shealwaysbuyscheapclothes
6 T h i sd i s h t a k e sh a l f a n h o u r t o c o o k i f y o u u s e
frozenvegetables

7
8

p r e f e ras n t i q u ef u r n i t u r e
Myhusband
My trousersaretoo loose

5 A : W h i c hb l o u s ed o y o u t h i n k I
the
r e do r t h e p i n ko n e ?
B: a I thinkthe redone looksbetteron you
b Anyhow,pinkdoesn'tsuityou

a. Matchthe description
of the clothes
to the
pictures
below.

6 A : F r a n k ' rse a l l yu p s e tw i t h m e , I s h o u l d n 'ht a v e


b e e ns o r u d et o h i m
B : a H o wa b o u ta s k i n gF r a n ka b o u ti t ?
b Y o us h o u l da p o l o g i steo h i m

short-sleeved,
yellowcotton
dress
with

w h i t ec o l l a r
b l a c ks u i t
t 5 t I checked
shirt
t i g h tw h i t e
T-shirt
TET-I stripedcotton
shorts
f;-f-socks
r v t
I
l-T_l
tra Iners

7 A: Shall I make reservations


at that new Thai
restau
rant?
B : a Y o us h o u l dc a l lt h e r e s t a u r a nf itr s t
b Troubleis,it'sa littleexpensive

ta2n<

8 A: l'vedecidedto take Frenchlessons.


B : a l t h i n k t h a t ' sa g r e a ti d e a !
b Anyway,you aregood at languages

Completethe sentences
with two to five words,
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
meaningof the originalsentence.
1 Janewill take careof the babywhilewe'reaway
after
Jane
whilewe'reaway
Yournew trouserslook great,they are exactlythe
r i g h ts i z e
glove
Yournew trousers
..;
. they lookgreat

b. Talkabouteachperson's
clothes.
A - George
iswearing
a blueTshirt,
striped
cottonshorts,
...

7
8

Writedownfiveitemsof clothingyouhavein
yourwardrobeanddescribe
them.
Circlethe correctresponse.
1 A: Do youthinkI should
get Marya CDfor her
birthday?
a H o wa b o u tt h a t o n e ?
b Y e sb
, u t m a k es u r ei t i s n ' to n es h e ' sa l r e a d y
got

2 A . Let'shavethe partytomorrownight
B : a Troubleis, most people will have made
b

o t h e rp l a n sb y n o w
I t h i n ky o us h o u l d

A T h es a l e s m asna i dI c o u l d n 'et x c h a n gteh e s h i r t


you boughtfor me

B a Y o u s h o u l d g o b a c k a n d s p e a kt o t h e
b
4

manager
How aboutwaitinguntiltomorrow?

A'. I thought you wanted to go to the cinema


tonight
B: a Anyway,it doesn'tmatterto me
b I d i d ,b u t t h e r ei s n ' ta n y t h i n g o o do n

Thepoliceareinvestigating
the case
l o o k i n g T h ep o l i c e
. the case
I r e a l l ya p p r e c i a tael ly o u rh e l p
grateful l'm really
a l ly o u rh e l p
I a s k e dC a r oal n ds h es a i dw e c o u l dw e a rj e a n sa n d
trainersto the party
casual
Carolsaidwe
. to the party
J i mt o o k h i ss u i tt o t h e d r yc l e a n e r ' s
had
Jim
.
at the dry cleaner's
S h ec a nt h i n ka b o u tn o t h i n ge l s eb u t h e rc a r e e r
obsessed She .
..

n e rc a r e e r

I r e t u r n e dt h e b l o u s eb e c a u s et h e r e w a s a b i g
m a r ko n t h e b a c k
stain
I took the blouseback to the shop
because
it
on the back
9 The managerrefusedto giveme my moneyback,
eventhouqhthe mirrorwascracked
refund
I couldn't
for the crackedmirror
10 Mostwomenwear m?ke-upbecause
theywant to
look better
e n h a n c e W o m e nu s u a l lw
y e a rm a k e - u p
appearance

41

Matchthe words/ohrases
in columnA to thosein
columnB.Then,usethe phrases
to complete
the
sentences.
A

8 A f t e r t h e e a r t h q u a k ew, e h a d a n e n g i n e elro o k
t h e b u i l d i n gt o m a k es u r et h a t t h e r e
w a sn o s e r i o udsa m a g e

Speaking

u n d e ry o u rh a t
h i ss h o e s
duty
h i ss h i r t
n o rt h e r e
the record

be off
lose
n e i t h e hr e r e
off
be In
keepit

13

l f h e k e e p si n v e s t i n g
a l l h i s m o n e yi n t h e s t o c k
m a r k e th, e ' sg o i n gt o
H e a g r e e dt o t h e i n t e r v i e w
o n l y i f e v e r y t h i n hg e
s a i dw a s
l ' m a f r a i dP o l i c C
e o n s t a b lH
earrison
rgnt now
I t h i n kM a r c i ai sg o i n gt o b e p r o m o t e db, u t n o o n e
et5eKnows,50
I w o u i d n ' tw a n t t o
w h e n h i sf a t h e rf i n d so u t t h a t h e c r a s h etdh e c a r
S h e h a s t o s n e n dm o r e [ i m e o n h e r h o m e w o r k
Whethershewantsto or not, is

11

A : W h a tcanyou seein the picture?


B: 1)
A:
B:
A:
B:

to

WIIN

from

W h a ta r et h e yd o i n g ?
2)
W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e yh a v eb e e nd o i n g ?

3)
A : W h a tc o u l dt h e yh a v eb o u g h t ?
B : 4)
A : How do they feel?Why?
B : s)
A : What arethey goingio do next?

Tickthe correctpreposition,
thenmakesentences
usingthe phrases,
in
as theexample.

of

a. Lookat the picture


andcomplete
the dialogue.

tn

proud

B : 6)
A : How often d o y o ug o s h o p p i n gW
? h ow i t h ?
B : 7)

dedicated
object
part
prorecr
t a k ep r i d e

b. Lookat the pictures


andin pairsactout similar
dialogues.

OCCUT

delighted
prease0

l'mproudofmydaughter.
She's
thebestinherclass.

thephrasal
verbs.
12 Complete
1 | havepromised
to look
myneighbour's
c a tw h i l es h ei so n h o l i d a y
2 T h ep o l i c el e t h i m
with a warning
3 They looked
him becausehe wasn't
interested
in poetry
4 D o n ' tr e l yo n L a r r yh, e ' l lo n l yl e t y o u
5 Mary hireda privatedetectiveto look
h e rhu s b a n d 'dsi s a p p e a r a n c e
6 S h el e t
, a l o u ds c r e a m
w h e nt h e m o u s e
ran over her foot
7 Mary had to let
. h e rs k i r tb e c a u sseh e ' d
g a i n e dw e i g h t

42

Reading
14

a. Lookat thetitleof thearticle


on p. 43.What
do youexpectto readin it?
b. Lookat thestarsignsandin pairssuggest
an
gift for each.Readthe articleto see
appropriate
if yourguesses
werecorrect.

15

a. Readthe articleagain.Forquestions
1-14,
choosefromthe starsignsA-F.Someof the
starsignsmaybe chosenmorethanonce.
Whenmorethanoneansweris required,
these
maybe givenin anyorder.
People
who werebornunderthisstarsign:
get boredveryquickly
wouldappreciate
beinggivena book
do notlikeoldthings
don'treally
mindwhatyougivethem
enjoyplaying
withnewmachines

fTIDI
FI
t2-fl
FI
FTI FTl
reTl

want to be famous
do not appreciate
fakejewellery
do not likereceiving
giftsfor their
nome
enjoykeepingin touchwith others
liketo be secretive
areusuallyartistic
would liketo be giventickets

FI
Fl-l
toT_l
t - |

FT|l
FIT-I
ETI
F3T_-l
[4t_l

b. Wherecouldyou readsuchan article?


Doyou
agreewith the writer?

licteninn
16

At the Bank

Youwill heara radiointerview


aboutcredit
cards.Forquestions
1-8, complete
the noteswhich
summarise
whatthe speakers
say.Youwill needto
writea wordor a shortphrasein eachbox.

phrases,
thenin pairs,
read
18 a. Fillinthemissing
thedialogue
aloud.
oThat's
fine.. That's
right.o Certainly,
sir
. Thank
you,sir
A: l'd liketo depositthis chequeinto my savings

Peonleoften oet a lot of offers for credit cardsas soon as

:rrnrrnf

theyaref
It isa goodideato geta creditcardfrom

m
m

Somepeopleapplyfor creditcardsbecause
theyare
D e l a y i ntgh e p a y m e not f c r e d i ct a r db i l l sm e a n st h a t y o u p a y
mininterest
C r e d i ct o m p a n i em
s a k eF

B: 2)
from

Now,if you couldjust fill out this depositslip


A : O K D o l s i g nh e r e ?
B: 3)

p e o p l ew h o c a n ' ta f f o r dt o p a yt h e i rb i l s
C r e d i ct a r d sa r eu s e f uw
l h e ny o u d o n ' th a v ea n y

And

monyou

item
of every

b. Now usethe promptsbelow to act out a similar


dialogue.

you buywith yourcreditcard


: :: r.:,.'r

r.:r. !i'::a1.r:11.i!i,::ir

Communication:
Applying
fora
credit
card
17

a. Fillin the gapswith: passport,information,pay


slip,opplicotion,licence.
Then,in pairs,readthe
dialogue
aloud.

Customer:
l'd liketo applyfor a creditcard,please
BankClerkRight.l'll needsomedetailsbeforeI can process
y o u r1 ) . . .
C u s t o m e r : O h , l s eWeh a t d o y o u n e e d t, h e n ?
BankClerk
l'll needto seetwo differentformsof photo lD
Customer:
OK l've got my driving2)
and
mv 3)
BankClerkfhat's
fine l'lljust makea copyof them
Customer:
Do you needanyother4)
. . .. .. . .?
BankClerk:Yes
I needyour most recent5)
Customer:
Oh, l've got that here
BankClerk
Great Well,yourcardshouldbe with us in about
ten days.We'llcallyou as soonas it arrives
you
CustomerThank
b. Now usethe promptsbelow to act out similar
dialogues.
.

44

a p p l yf o r a l o a n/ a f o r mo f l D a n da b a n k
statement/ threemostrecentpayslips/ loan
shouldbe grantedin abouttwo weeks
applyfor a secondmortgage/ a form of lD and
tax statement/ documentshowingproofof
ownershipof house/ mortgageshouldbe
approvedin aboutfifteendays

haro'c r roraint

A : O h ,t h a n k s
B : 4 ) . . . . . ... .

a r p d i t r : r d c h o l n v n r I t n n a v f n . e x n p r ^ s i v et h i . r n s o v e r a

moftime
Youshould
always
ffi

nlo:<o

B : 1 )
Do you haveyourbankbookwith you?
A : O h ,n o I d i d n ' tt h i n kI w o u l dn e e di t
B: Well,do you havesomethingwith youraccount
n u m b e ro n i t ?
A: Erm Let me see Oh yes,l'vegot a bank
statementhere

withdrawtwenty pounds/ forgottenbankbook/


formof photolD/ passport
/ fill out withdrawalslip

Writinga firstperson
narrative
n ' 4

/4f-trtlI
*-;\\_\i"'#

\\
"'
WhenwEwritea firstperson
narrative,
we beginwith an
introductionto set the scenewith informationabout
who/where/whenand why The main body has two or
more paragraphs
describing
the eventsin chronological
order The conclusiontellswhat happenedat the end of
the story and includesfeelingsand comments We
normally
writethe storyusingthe pasttensesand a variety
of adjectives
and adverbs
to makeit moreinteresting

' Analysing
A ModelText
19

a. Readthestoryon p. 45 andunderline
the
correcttense.

' B e g i n n i n/gEsn d i n g s
b. Readthe storyagainanddecidewhich
techniques
havebeenusedby the writerto
starVfinish
the story.
o USI'rg
the senses
... . .
. usingdirectspeech
. askinga rhetorical
question
. addressing
the readerdirectly. . . ..
. referringto one'sfeelingsor moods
. d e s c r i b i npge o p l e 'rse a c t i o n s / f e e l i n.g.s. ...

Ar:f,*nrfo*rr***ir:q
fxptrri*r?*e
Have you ever been really
embarrassed?
Well, I have. It was
last week. I was at an expensive
restaurant and I l) finished/had
just finisheda deliciousmealwith a
neu clientW
. h i l em y g u e s rw a si n
t h e F o y e rm a k i n g a n i m p o r r a n t
phone call, I decided to pay the
bil.

Mr Lewiswas very relievedthat I had fornO f,ii:ii


briefcaseHiscreditcardsand personal
identification
wereinside
oecause
5 | gave it to my daughter.She said it was wnat
she'dalwayswanted
ano

. Discuss
& Write
22

Readthe newspaper
articlebelow,thenput the
sentences
that followin the correctorder.
;f,;

t
.t'-'

I 2) reached/wasreaching into

,aittF;

p#rl::Yli"n#H:fffilll,ljil
itwasn,r,r,...

Llt my purse but it wasn'tin there either. I emptie-dmv


;rocketsonto the table,but I couldn't find mv cr'edircard
..nylyhere.I 4) didn't know/hadn'tknown whar tu do.
checkingmy purseto see
__lvhgnmy gxest returned,I rn'as
.'I had enoughmoneyto pay rhebill in cash.Unfortunately,
- didn't evenhaveenoughfoi the taxi home.So,I wentto the
- )\,erto callmy boss.When he heardmy problem,he 5) had
oeenlaughing/laughedand told me to wair for a driver to
.flng me the companycreditcard.
A littie while later a driver 6) arrived/wasarriving at rhe
testaurantand gave me the card. "Thank you, sir. you've
.aled the day!"I saidgratefullyasI went ro pay rhebili.

&S*W"

a mistake
andgave
#tt fiNffH
rtlfril$nemade
thewrong
bag"shetolcl
0urepofer.
Davidcrey,the
fltyflnfifff
rjfiL|lmanager
of the jelvellery

LastSaturdayattemaon shop,was $o grateful


MrsSmithbaught
a ilO
whensherelumedtheril
silver bracelettot her
fhat he gaveher a {5W

ilirce's birthday and gold bracelof.FIerniece,


walked
away
witha{5,WA Jenny
Potfer,
saidit was
pair
galrl
o{
andrlianand thebestpre$ent
$hehad
I,tl
earilngs.
gttl
"The
salcs
evethad!
il

. Adjectives
20

I
Ll
LJ
I
E
I
f

Fillin the missing


adjectives
fromthe listbelow.
. delicious
o urgent. embarrassing
. best o expensive
1 My mosi
. experience
waswhenI
forgotto wearmy shoesandwentto workwith
myslrppers
onI

2 | hadt:

'ti"ri:i:orthe rirm
tomake
an
|"uu:

That was the most


mealI have
everhad.I wish I couldcookaswell asyou do
My husband
b o u g h tm e a n
pair
of earringsfor my birthday
I t h i n k t h a t a o n e y e a rm e m b e r s h iapt t h a t n e w
g y m i st h e
presentfor Angela

:,,;+..'

23

fhe salesgirl madea mistake


Themanagergavehera goldbraceletworth f 5OO
MrsSmith'sniecehada wonderfulbirthdaypresent
Vrr Smithleftthe storewith a f 5,000pairof earrings
V r r S m i t hw e n t t o t h e j e w e l l e rsyh o p .
HrtoSmithreturnedthe earrings
Virr Smithboughta braceletworth f 1O

a. Read
therubric
andanswer
thequestions
inthe
plan.
Yourlocalnewspaper
isholdinga shortstory
competition
you
and
have
decidedto enter.yourstory
*
muststartwith thewords"Haveyoueverhada really
wonderful
surprise?"

1f
1i:!
q*

lntroduction

. Linkers
below
using
thewords
inbold.
21 Jointhesentences
My guestwas makinga phonecall I decidedto
p a yt h e b i l l
white
H e h e a r dm y p r o b l e mH
. e l a u g h e da n dt o l d m e t o
wait for him
wnen
Luckily,
the shopswere still open I took the bus
into town and went backto the shop
so

(Para l)

Who/Whatis the storyabout?Where/'Whn


d i d i t t a k ep l a c e ?

MainBody
(Paras2-3) What happened
Jirst/nextetc?What wasthe
climax?

Conclusion
lPara4)

'Whathappmed
in the end?How did you
Jeel?What dreyour commentsor reactions?

b. Writeyourstoryin 120-180
words.
Usethe
storyin Ex.19asa model.

45

YouAreWhat
youEat

a. Fillin the tablebelowto showhow thesefoods


canbe cooked.
Then,askandanswer,
asin the
example.

I
"'t--Vocabulary
ldentifythe
a. Whatcanyouseein the picture?
foodsandcomplete
the table.

A: Howdoyoulikeyourchicken
cookedT
B: lpreferit grilled.
A: Doyou?I don't.I preferroasted
chicken.
b . Whatdo you liketo put on yourfood?Askand
answerasin the example.
. salt. pepper
o mustard
r ketchup
. oil . vinegar

tr

A: I liketoputketchup
onmychips.
B: Metoo,butsometimes
I Itkesaltandvineqar
instead.

::'

Replace
the wordsin boldwith wordsfrombelow,
asin the example.
Somewordscanbe usedmore
thanonce.
. slice. jar . piece. cUp. 162fo packet
o tube r bottle
1
2
3
4
5

Can I havesomebread?aslice/lsaf
a{
Wouldyou likesomecake? .
Do you haveany toothpaste?
Can I get you somecoffee?
Couldyouget somespaghettifromthe supermarket?
I thoughtwe hadsomecokein the fridge

7 D o w e n e e da n yj a m ?
8 W o u l dy o u l i k es o m ec h e e s ien y o u rs a n d w i c h ?

Completethe sentencesusingthe words below.


. a c c o m p a n i e.da l e r t . g u a r a n t e e. p e a k . f l e x i b l e
. boost . absorb. unprocessed
o vital e stockup

meat & poultry:


dairyproducts:
f i sh :
shellfish:
fruit:
vegetables:cauliflower
o t h e r :. . . . . . . . . ... . . .

b. Add threemorefoodsto eachcategory.


c. Howoften do you eatthesefoods?

46

1 lt is
t o e a t a b a l a n c e dd i e t a n d
exerciseregularlyif you want to stay fit and
healthy
2 Benlikesto eat somethingsweetto
hisenergylevelsin the lateafternoon
3 A good review will
that the
restaurant
will be a success
4 S h el i k e st o h a v ea c u p o f m i l k
b ya
pieceof cakewhen shecomeshomefromschoor
5 Make surethat you
with enough
you
for
food
the trip betore
set sail
6 lt's bestto exercise
when yourenergylevelis at its

t
7 The body can
quickly

certarnsugarsvery

A: Goodafternoon.
MayI takeyourorder?
please.
B: Yes
l'dlikethetortillachipsanddip,followed
by

. carbohydrates
containedin fruit
a n dg r a i n sa r ee s s e n t i taol a h e a l t h yd i e t
Some people drink coffee to help them sta,

thespaghetti,
A: Andwhatwouldyou likefordessert?
B: I thinkl'll try theicecreamsundae.

10 lf youwarmup beforeyouexercise,
yourmuscles
willbemore

(1-9)to the Starters,


a. Matchthe pictures
Main
(A-l)in the menubelow.
Courses
andDesserts
Thenactout dialogues,
asin the example.

b. Whichof thesefoods are:sweet?salty?sour?


bitter?spicy?creamy?juicy?

Circlethe correctresponse.
1 A : W e a r eg o i n gc a m p i n gi n t h e S o u t ho f F r a n c e
W o u l dy o u l i k et o j o i n u s ?
B : a T h a n k sf o r a s k i n gb, u t l ' m n o t v e r yk e e no n
camprng
b lt'sa greatway to get closerto nature
2 A. Hey, welcome back How was your trip to
Singapore?
B : a l t w a st e r r i b l yd i s a p p o i n t i n g
b I wouldn'twastemy time
3 A : M y s i s t e ri s c o m i n go v e r f o r d i n n e rt o n i g h t
W h y d o n ' ty o uj o i n u s ?
a I s u p p o sseo
b l ' d l o v et o , b u t l ' m a f r a i dI c a n ' t
4

A W h a t d i dy o ut h i n ko f t h e n e w B r a dP i t tf i l m ?
B : a You'vegot to seeitl
b l t ' sw e l lw o r t h a v i s i t l

5 A: We are all going out afterwork. Do you fancy


coming?
B : a N o ,I d o n ' tw a n t t o d o t h a t
b Why not?
6 A : We're thinkingof getting a microwaveoven
Do you think it'sworth it?
B : a You musttry it lt'sso easy
b lt'sgreatfor cookingmealsquickly.
7

you can
8 A: Why don't you comeoveron Sunday?
h e l pm e c l e a no u t t h e a t t i c
B : a T h a n k sb, u t l ' d r a t h e rn o t
b l'd loveto, thank you verymuchfor inviting
mel

Starters
H

A Are you goingto Tony'sNewYear'sEvepartyT


B : a I s u p p o sseo
b Sorry,I can'tremember

rortiliachipsand
dip

peasoup
!+gi

I lClChef,ssaiad

MainCourse
,
I-Tp]
Borosnese
bread
f-fEl i::l:,1 steakwith andsarirc

riceandsreen
beans

:_1T:r
i-rFr >reak
with bakedpotato

and broccoli

Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences


usingthe phrases,as in the example.

rely
recover
reply
rich
readv
refrain

, on
{

to

: from

In

for

Youcanrelyon mefor thehelpyou need.

47

1 He'sa professional
chef, so preparingeverything
f o r t h e d i n n e rp a r t yw i l l b e
for him
Don't
t e l l i n gy o u rp a r e n t tsh a t y o u
b r o k et h e w i n d o w ; t h e y a r e g o i n g t o f i n d o u t
sooneror later
keepgoingon
I don't know why my grandparents
I t h i n kl i f ei s a l o t e a s i e r
a b o u t. .
now than it was 60 yearsago
4 T h e p o l i c ea r r i v e da n d s o o n h a d t h e s i t u a t i o n

with two to five words,


Completethe sentences
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n a sl e n t e n c e .
'l

I fell asleephalfwaythrough the film becauseit


w a ss o b o r i n g
Thefilmwasso boringthat
nodded
halfwaythrough
2 | t h o u g h tT i n aw a sm a r r j e d
lwas ,
under
t h a t T i n aw a s m a r r i e d
It is very importantto make sure that you are
g e t t i n gt h e n e c e s s avr yi t a m i n a
s n d m i n e r a lw
s hen
y o u a r eo n a 0 r e r
M a k i n gs u r e y o u a r e g e t t i n gt h e
vital
n e c e s s a rvyi t a m i n sa n d m i n e r a l s
on a diet
,
v
;
i
l
r x e r c i s e l h e l py o u
A h e a l t h yd i e t a n d r e g u l a e
stayfit and loseweight
accompanieA
d h e a l t h yd i e t
. w i l l h e l py o u s t a y
f i t a n d l o s ew e i g h t
Watch out f o r p i c k p o c k e twsh e n y o u u s e p u b l i c
transport
alert

5 T h ec h i l d r e n
were
a f t e rt h e i r l o n g
sreep
6 H i s d o n a t i o ni s
c o m p a r e dt o t h e
amountthat is neededto feedthe poor
7 Whenthe lawyersawthat herclientwas not to be
t r u s t e ds, h ed r o p p e dh i m l i k e
8 .....
. , n e m a n a g e ot o f i n i s h h i s n e w
novel

>peaKlng
10

a. Lookat the picture


andcomplete
thedialogue.

Youshouldalwaysbe
whenyou use

publictransport
6 T h e p h o n erangjust as I was about to leavethe
house
point
lwas
t h e h o u s ew h e nt h e p h o n er a n g
7 Y o u rn e i g h b o u rasr e s o n o i s y !| d o n ' t k n o w h o w
you canlivehere
put
I d o n ' t k n o wh o w y o u c a n
n o i s yn e i g h b o u r s
,
R

Tn ho : nnnd drricr vnrr shnrld rnn.pnl',r'e

On

w h a t y o u a r ed o i n ga n d b e a b l et o r e a c tq u i c k l yi f
<nmaihinn

, y r- n, a, -v .n.aYa i-E- - - r 0 n a p p e n S

reflexes

You needfast
o)

9lcd

-^^-^^+"-+;^^ tO be a

LUI lLEr rLro Lrur I

g o o dd r i v e r

A : W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r ew a st a k e n ?
B: 1)
A : C a ny o u d e s c r i biet ?
B"2).
A : W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e ya r ec e l e b r a t i n g ?
B: 3)
A : W h a ta r et h e ye a t i n g ?
B: 4)
yourbirthday?
A: How do you celebrate
R.
9 .

q\
J ,

A: Whatfooddoyouusually
serve?
B: 6)

in the two columns.


Matchthe words/phrases
Then,usethe phrases
to complete
the sentences.
the good
pur
under
o uruP

f u l lo f
a hot
ovqil

48

r)L

vv rq LU

of cake
a l lo d d s
beans
control
intheocean
old days
off

b. Lookat the pictures


andin pairs,actout similar
dialogues.

Reading
Whatdoyouexpect
to readin
1"1 a. Readthetitleof thearticle.
the article?
Whatillnesses
isanovenrueight
personlikelyto
sufferfrom?
b. Youaregoingto readanarticleabouta womannamed
Kathy.Fiveparagraphs
havebeenremoved
fromthe article.
Choose
fromthe paragraphs
A-G the onewhichbestfits
eachgap1-5.Thereisoneparagraph
whichyoudo not
needto use.Thereisanexample
(0)at the beginning.
Kathyis on a specialdiet. ShewCighs45kgand
her targetweight is 50kg.Very few peopletry
to put on weight,but Kathy has a very good
as anore&a.
Kathy took thosewords to heart and begana diet which would last for
the next twenty years of her life. She quickly lost a lot of weight and
beganto look too thin. Her mother was very worried and took her to
seethe doctor. "In those days,anorexiawasnot taken seriously,"says
Kathy. "The doctor just told me to go home and eat plenty of big
dinners!"

and soon her friends beganto ask her if shewas i11."I thought they
werejealous of me for being so thin," she smilessadly,',butactually
I looked awful."
she was twenty-three, Kathy married an engineer
Steven. They had two children, David, who is now twelve, and
Christine,who is ten. "I ate normally while I was pregnant,"Kathy
says,'but as soon as the babieswere born, I started starvingmyself

Iife. It was about a young woman who had died of cancer. "I
suddenlyrealisedthat I had everythingI could ask for and I was
throwing it all away. While other people were fighting for their

her that many teenagersseem to believe that it is attractive to be


dangerouslythin. The fascination with celebrities and their weight
is one issuethat she feels very strongly about. "I believe that there is
a link between media images and eating disorders.It makes me
angry that the media only showsthe positive side of thinness."

'i

'-J i

g+
a:
-:.--

Kathy and her family are relieved


and happy that she has managed
to overcome her problem and
now her main ambition is to
prevent others from going
through the same nightmare. "I
am very lucky," she says. "A lot
of people never recover from
anorexia. Now, if I can savejust
one person from the horrors of
eating disorders, it will make my
experienceseem worthwhile. "

A When Kathyleft schoollaterthat year,she


b e g a n a m o d e l l i n gc o u r s e U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,
this only made her problem worse
"Modelling
w a s p o s s i b ltyh e w o r s t c a r e e rI
c o u l d h a v e c h o s e n , "s h e a d m i t s " I w a s
s u r r o u n d ebdy g i r l sw h o w e r ee v e nt h i n n e r
t h a n m e ,a n d i t m a d em e f e e lt e r r i b l e"
Kathywasstilllivingat homewith herfamily,
so she found it difficultto go without food
lnstead,
shewouldeat andthen makeherself
"l realised
sickstraightafteru,rards
that it was
wrong," she says I didn't know what
anorexia
or bulimia
were,but I knewthat I had
a problemThetroublewasI couldn'tstop"
She feelsthat magazinesnot only fail to
inform their readersabout how celebrities
s t a ys o f a s h i o n a b sl yl i mb u t a l s oa b o u tt h e
risksof excessive
dieting " I want childrento
u n d e r s t a n dt h a t t h e i r h e a l t h i s m o r e
important than trying to conform to a
c e r t a i ni m a g e , "s a i dK a t h y
" A l l I e v e ra t e w a ss a l a da n d a p p l e s ,K
" athy
admits "l drankwaterand blackcoffeeand I
usedto run up and down the stairstryingto
burnoff the few calories
I gained" But even
t h o u g hh e r b o n e ss h o w e dt h r o u g hh e rs k i n
and she was dangerouslyunderweight,
Kathystillbelieved
that shewasfat
Kathy'sproblemsbeganwhen shewassixteen
yearsold Shehad alwaysbeenconscious
of
her figure,but had neverthoughtof dieting
until one summer's
day at schoolAs shesat
on a lowwallin the playground
enjoying
an ice
creamfrom the schoolcanteen,a teacher
jokinglytold herthat shewouldget fat if she
atetoo manysweets
Thanksto the good adviceher doctorgave
her, Kathy was able to recoverfrom her
illnessShebeganeatinghealthymealsand
stoppedweighingherselfSoonshe had put
on ten kilosandwas beginning
to looklikea
h e a l t h hy u m a nb e i n ga g a i n .
At that verymoment,Kathymadeup hermind
to get overher illnessShegaveup exercising,
stoppedmakingherselfsickandstartedwriting
a bookabouther experiences.
Shealsogavea
talk on eatingdisorders
at herchildren's
school
It wassucha success
that shewasinvitedto visit
otherschools
aroundthe country
c. Readthe articleagain.What role did
advertisingand careerplay in Kathy's
obsessionwith her weight? What
advice would you give to those
sufferingfrom anorexia?

49

b . Now usethe promptsto act out a similar

Listening

dialogue.

12

with a scientist
Youwill heara radiointerview
food.
engineered
who istalkingaboutgenetically
(true)
questions
f
or
as
For
1-6, markthe sentences
F(false).

a
o
a

Booking
a cater ing
company

1 D r S t e v e ntsh i n k st h a t g e n e t i c a l l y
enoineered
foodshaveseveral
advantages
2 I n t h e U 5 ,5 0 %o f a l lc o r nc r o p sa r e
nonotir:llv

14

anninoorofl

Corncan be alteredto producea poison


w h i c hk i l l sc a t e r p i l l a r s
4 K i l l i n gc a t e r p i l l acr o
s u l dp u t o t h e ra n i m a l s
in danger
5 T h eo n l ya d v a n t a goef g e n e t i ce n g i n e e r i n g
i st h a t i t m a k e sf a r m e r rsi c h e r
6 G e n e t ie
c n g i n e e r i ncgo u l ds t o pp e o o l e
g
o
f r o m i n gh u n g r y
3

menlL
a. Fillin the gapswith: snacks,services,
bookings.Then in pairs,readthe dialogue
aloud.

Caterer:
Hello,Cathy'sCaterersHow canI helpyou?
W o m a nO: h , h e l l o l ' d l i k et o b o o ky o u r 1 )
party
my daughter's
Caterer:When
will you be holdingthe party?

for

W o m a n : O2n5 t hJ u n e
fine We don't haveanyother2)
Caterer:fhat's
f o r t h a t d a y N o w ,h o w m a n yg u e s t sw i l l b e a t t e n d i n g ?
Woman:Around 50, I think Most of them will be quite
y o u n g W e ' v eh i r e da m a g i c i atno k e e pt h e c h i l d r e a
nm u s e d
Caterer:Sounds
liketheywon't want to sit down to eat
Woman:It'sa smallparty;3)
on traysis what I
h a di n m i n d
Caterer:
OK, l'm sure we can come up with something
t o d a ya n d t h e n y o u
s p e c i a lI ' l l s e n dy o u a 4 )
pop
in nextweekto discuss
the details
can
great Thanks
Woman:Ihal's

C o m mn
ui c a t i o S
n :h o p p i n g
13

m i n c e/ h a l fa k i l o/ f 2 1 0 a k i l o
lambchops/ a kilo/ f3 50 a kilo
steak/ two kilos/ f4 70 a kilo

Thenin pairs,readthe
a. Matchthe exchanges.
dialogue
aloud.

0 . Now usethe promptsto act out a similar

dialogue.
g o l d e na n n i v e r s apr a
y r t y/ 3 O t hM a y/ a r o u n d1 0 0
g u e s t /s a l la g e s/ h i r e da b a n d/ l o t so f d a n c i n g
/
<t:nd-rrn hrrffpt mp:l

Writing

Goodafternoon
What canI get
you?

fnTl

Ef-

I2 |

ETI

ETI
FTI
ETI

I W O K i l O SH e r e y O U

are AnythingelseT
Yes,thesewere
broughtin fresh
j u s tt h i sm o r n i n g

of course
tstharall?
That'llbe{3 40
then, please

Yes,haveyou got
anygreenpeppers?
O h ,a n da k i l oo f
ontonS
l ' d l i k et w o k i l o so f
^^+-+^^PULdLUE),

^l^--^
PIEOJC

d Y e s ,I t h i n ks o
e Hereyouare Thank
youverymuch
Oh,lovelyCouldI
heva

fnr rr nle:<o?

t
1:

50

we usea formalstyle
Whenwe writea letterof complaint,
We begin the letterwith Dear Sir/Madam In the first
paragraph,we stateour reasonfor writing In the second,
we stateour complaints
and
third and fourth paragraphs,
givejustifications.
for eachpoint
We starta new paragraph
we
we want to complainabout In the last paragraph,
the actionwhichwe thinkshouldbe taken We end
suggest
the letterwith Yoursfaithfullv.andour full name

' An a l V s ran lqVo d e l T e xt


^

the correctlinking
1 5 a. Readthe letterandunderline
words.Then,statethetopicof eachparagraph.

.:.. : :..'

1 I feelI mustcomplainabout
2 | suggestthat you improveyourstandards
3 A l l i n a l l , t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n cwe a s s o m e w n a t
unsatisfactory
4 l'm afraidto saythat the service
was not as good
as might be expected
5 lf thingsdo not improvein the future,l,m afraidI
maybe forcedto take my business
elsewhere

I i:.:::.?..

) e a r5 i r / M a d a m ,
in
I received
service
the
about
complain
I am writingto

uo,"uot'*uirt"1lttt"J;;rrwasunabre
to findthepeti

1) Firstly/Furthermot''
tv '
one of your
-'ight5tdrr
food section,so I asked
he simply:plut"'
io tf'u
lnsteadof showrngn't
awaY
shruggedandwalked
at the I
standingin a queue
2) Then/However'after
the end only '
minutes't ieached
checkoutfor overlfteJn
and I l
that her shift was over
to be told by the cashier
queue
would haveto lotn another

. Analysing
theRubr ic
17

A s i f t h a t w a s n o t O t O " * ' n n ' w h e n l f i n a l l y mme


a n a'g e d '
the cashierovercharged
to pay for my groceries'
mistake'she
*fttn I pointedout her
3) However/D"'plt"'
but was rudeand unfriendly
no, apologise
, O1O
upset by the
I was extremely,
As you tun '*untt'
be shopptngtn
and I will certainlynot
: treatmentI recetved
wili improveyour
again I hopethat you
: yoursupermarket
your staffwill be more
': staff trainingmethods'and that
from now on
to customers
t O"fit. anOtretptut
-,Youtt faithfullY'
-.MavisEdwards
+a t .

-.1.n-

t:,!.::.'....t:a

Complaints
FT-] Satadwas not fresh Vegetables
had not been
wa5ne0
l2Tl npple piewasstateand dry
FTI Steakwastough and chewy

. Discuss
& Write

a . S t u d yt h e c o m p l a i n t b
s e l o wa n d m a t c ht h e m i l d
complaintsto the strongoneswith the same
meantng.

18
F-fl t am writingin connection
with
l2Tl I believeI maybe entited to a
ETI rne treatmentwe received
was a little
disappointing
IZT--It nopethat you will try ro
ETI tn additionto this,
ETI t am afraidthat I probabty
wiil not

b. Readthe table and matchthe complaintsto the


justifications.

A WhenI complained,
the waiterbroughtme another
steakwhichwasas badasthe firstone
B Waiterclaimedthat it had beenfreshlymadethat
mornrng
C Foundpiecesof dirt on the lettuceleaves

. Style

Mildcomplaints

Youhada mealin a restaurant.


you did not
Howeveq
enjoyyourmealdueto a numberof problems.
Writea
: letterof complaint
to the manager
of the restaurant.

Justifications

':-,
'

b. Readthe letteragainandreplace
the highlighted
phrases
with alternative
ones.

16

a . R e a dt h e r u b r i cb e l o wa n d u n d e r l i n et h e k e y
wor0s.

Usethe information
in Ex.17, aswellasthe plan
below,to writeyourletterof complaint
(120-1g0
words).Youcanusethe letterin Ex.15aasa
model.

*l r

)): 't

Dear Sir/Madam

lntroduction

S t r o n gc o m p l a i n t s

( P a r al )

a I was extremely
upsetby the service
we received
b To makemattersworse,
c I am writingto express
my strongdissaiisfaction
with
d I c a na s s u r yeo ut h a t I w i l l n o t
e I d e m a n da
f I stronglyrecommend
that you

MainBody

W h y a r ey o u w r i t i n g t h e l e t t e r ?

(Paras2.-4) WhaLareyour contplaintsand justiJicotions?

Conclusion
(Para5)

'What
actiondo yotr suggestshouldbt tahen?

Yoursfaith [ully
Y o u rJ u l l n a m e

51

EveryMan
to hisTaste

S h eh a sn e v e b
r e e na t s u c ha h i g h
b e f o r eI; t h i n ks h e ' sg o i n gt o f a i n t
I feel a senseof
wheneverI do
s o m e t h i nw
g ell
8 His
o f t h e p r o b l e mi s q u i t e
differentto mine
He
h i m s e laf t t h e t o p o f t h e s k i
p
u
s
h
i
n
g
s l o p eb e f o r e
h i m s e lof f f
1 0 Extremekayakingis a
sport

Vocabulary
a. Lookat the pictures
andlabelthe sports/
activities,
asin the example.

Labelthe pictures,
thenusethe promptsto make
up sentences
asin the example.
r how r Arro\^/
. racoreto shuttlecock
. clubs. ball
. skateboard
. bat . bal,

)
Cqtieqry'

c-::)

g
S

Youneeda bowand
arrowtodoarchery.

4
b. Howdo youfeelaboutthe activities
above?
I
Usethe expressions:
I omkeenon,I don'tfoncy,
hoteetc,asin the example.
Youcanaddyour
own ideas.

1 A : E x c u sm
e e ,w a i t e r C o u l dy o u b r i n gu s t h e b i l l ,
please?
B : a C e r t a i n l sy i,r
b Let me see

I don'tfancycollecting
stamps.

2 A: Wouldit be OK if Sharonstayedfor dinner?


B : a T h a tw o u l db e r i g h t
b Of course

Complete
the sentences
usingthe wordsin the list.
. lunacy. nerve-racking
. instincto elation
. altitude. interpretation
. steadied
. torrents
. paddles
. high-risk
1 He always
his canoecarefully
alongthedangerous
rrver
2 Somepeoplethinkthat doingextreme
sportsis
sheer
3 Hissurvival
keepshimsafeeven
in themostdangerous
situations
4
, . . . . of watergushed
intothe river
5 lt wasthe most
l've
experience
everhadl

52

Circle
thecorrect
response.

3 A : W o u l dy o u m i n di f I c a m ei n l a t et o m o r r o w ?|
haveto go to the bank
B : a l ' d r a t h e yr o uw e n t
b Actually,I needyou to comein early
4

A : W o u l dy o u m i n di f I o p e n e dt h e w i n d o w ?
B : a l ' d r a t h e yr o u d i d n ' t
b Actually,I did

5 A: Would it be OK if I borrowedyour new CD


player?
B : a S o r r yl ,' l lb e u s i n gi t
b l ' m a f r a i dl ' m n o t

a. ldentifythe sportsin the pictures.


Thenmatch
themto the speech
bubbles.

MatchcolumnA to columnB,thenusethe
completed
phrases
to complete
the sentences.
A
run
come
second
close
hit

B
r a i no r s h i n e
t h e w i n do u t o f o n e ' ss a i l s
shave
off one'sfeet
theroad
to none

+-l-^
TqNE

We'd better
soon if we want
to get thereon time
Therewere so many customersin the shop that
the salesassistants
were
3 W h e nJ a n el o s th e rj o b , i t r e a l l y. .
4
frustrating,when
b u s ho r a p o n d
relaxingway to

Yourmum makesthe bestdesserts.


her lemontart
IS

I had a really
on the way over
here;a car nearlyran me overas I was crossing
the
road

u,.

When thingsget difficultyou haveto focuson the


s u m m i ta n d p i c t u r ey o u r s e lsf t a n d i n gt h e r e T h e n
a n y t h i n gi s p o s s i b l e

It'sall aboutteamwork There's


no pointin having
the bestgoal-scorer
in the leagueif the defence
isn'tplaying
well lf we'regoingto win a big match,
theneveryplayerneedsto do theirbit .

tzl-l

I ' m t a l l a n d l ' m a g o o dj u m p e ra n d s h o o t e rb u t
that isn't enoughfor me I don't want to be a
good player,I want to be the best, the next

o ambitious
o determined
. co-operative
. patient
Youneedto beco-operative
toplayfootball.
Tickthe correctpreposition,
thenmakesentences
usingthe phrases,
asin the example.

of

I with ;
i

I find that I get more tired looking after the


childrenthan I do workingin an office
exhaustingI find lookingafter the childrena lot

Youmustn'tgiveup, thingswill get bettersoon


towel
Don't
thingswill get bettersoon

b. Usethe adjectives
belowto makeup sentences,
asin theexample.

Complete
the sentences
with two to fivewords.
including
thewordsin bold.Donot change
the
meaning
of theoriginal
sentence.

in an office

M i c h a eJl o r d a nn, o t h i n ge l s ew i l l d o

EverySundaywe go to the beach,

-...'.-':."-..--.-.
in i at i

l
r
1

:
,,.

t
':

.
-._":
!- :
- - " ' ,,

"".' "*"-"":'""
:-:
.' -." ". '. . : t " " " " " 1 " 'i

':

L i n d ad i d n ' tt a k el o n gt o g e t u s e dt o h e rn e wj o b .
ropes
l t d i d n ' tt a k eL i n d al o n g
a t h e rn e wj o b .
Visitingthe EiffelTowerwasthe mostexcitingpart
of my trip to Paris
highlight The
to Pariswas visitingthe EiffelTower
Most of my relativeswere in the entertainment
b u s i n e ssso, a c t i n gc a m en a t u r a l ltyo m e
blood
Actingwas

necause
mostof myrelatives
wereinthe
entertainmentbusiness
6 Joealwayscheersme up wheneverI get depressed
got
as
d
) ihe's
lc 5 g
u L ssuch
o5rLtve d
ULr d
a ppositive
attitude
LULuue.

o p t i m i s tJi o
ceisso
uPtlllllsLlc JOel55o

managesto cheerme up wheneverI


,:

Setdepressed

Hewassentenced
totwomonths
in prison.

53

Speaking
!

. soundtrack. classico stars . performances


. novel . screen. office . character

13

a. Lookat the picture


andcomplete
the dialogue.

Next weekend, the Rex is giving you another


opportunlty to catch HighFidelity.This witty film is
based on the best-selling.l)
by Nick
H o r n b ya n d2 )
J o h nC u s a c k
Cusack's
3)
, Rob,is a recordshopowner
who spendsmost of his time discussing
lists of his
favouriterecords lt is impossiblenot to enjoy this
touching film. Excellent4)
from the
whole cast and, as would be expected,a fantastic
5)
make High Fidelity a mooern
6)

A:

lf you missedit first time around,or you just want ro


e n j o yi t o n t h e b i g 7 )
a g a i n ,t h e n y o u
can book tickets in advance by calling our box
8)
on 0168 350 467 There will be
s h o w i n g sa t 8 3 O p ma n d 11 O O p mo n b o t h S a t u r d a y
a n dS u n d a y

'l)

l - l a ' < n l n i n n : -h-r,r,n, n. -o o i


,UffiP

A:
B:
A:
B:

2)
l f I w e r eh i m ,l ' d f e e l3 )
Haveyou 4)
N o ,n e v e r

\ A / h , a st n o r l s d o v o r r l i k e ?

A 5 )
-"'-'-'

''''1"

------\,_.__*
,...-.

10

\"-4-

b. Lookat the pictures


andin pairsactout similar
dialogues.

Fillin the missing


verbsto complete
the sentences.
1 We all went to the airport so that we could
Joeoff
p
o
l
i
c
e
2 The
c a u g h t h e b a n kr o b b e r s
away from the sceneof the crime
3 John
. u p h i so w n b u s i n e swsh e n h e
was 30
Many birdsfly south beforewinter . .
In
Thpv'vp dcridad

tn

aside

Some

moneyso that they can buya new car


We . . . .,
i n t o G o r d o na t t h e s h o p p i n g
matl

Itl

Fillin the correctword,thenmakesentences


using
the ohrases.
. sporting
. smash_hit
. natjonal
r phone. present
. ma0tc
1
2 t o
prize
3 .....

message
a

4
5
6

t un e s
trick
event

anthem

12 Fillin:win,goinoreorn.
1 ..
aprize;2
a n e l e c t i o n4;
6
. c o n t r o l ;7
living

54

e x p e r i e n c3e ;
w e i g h t ;5
awar,
p r a i s e8; . . . .
a

Reading
14

a. Lookat the title of the articleandthe picture.


WhatdoesTonydo?Whatkindof treasure
do
youthinkhe seeks?
Readthe articleandcheck
yourguesses.
b. Readthe articleagain.Seven
sentences
have
beenremoved
fromthe article.Choose
from
the sentences
A-H the onewhichbestfitseach
gap1-6.Thereisonesentence
whichyoudo
(0)at the
not needto use.Thereisan example
beginning.

T#ru&'
T$g
Kffig&$ffiffitr
ffitrffiKtrffi

up, but I felt sure it must be valuable."

T:--'t------1

Tony McKenzie has a rather unusual hobby. Every


Saturday and Sunday, he gets up at six o'clock in the
morning, packs some sandwichesand a flask of tea into a
backpackand headsout to the fields behind his housewith
his favourite toy - a metal detector.
"We bought him the metal detector for his fortieth
birthday," sayshis wife Carol. "He had alwayswanted one,
but we never realisedhe would use it as much ashe does!"

Many of us find it difficult to understand how wandering


around in a muddy field for hours on end can possiblybe
enjoyable,but Tony saysthat there is nothing he would
rather do. He doesn't like football or fishing, but when he
is out and about with his metal detector,he feels asthough
nothing elsematters.
T:T-

II I
| "He usually finds silly little things, like tin cans
and pieces of machinery," Iaughs Carol. "Whatever he
finds, he brings home, cleans,and keeps in a special box
which he has in the garage.The children think he is crazy."
However, Tony's family may now have to admit that his
pastime is not quite so silly after all. After years of
uncovering worthless items, Tony has finally achieved
everytreasureseeker'sdream and found somethingrather
special buried in the ground. His great discoverywas a
little figure of a horse which may be worth thousandsof
pounds.
"I'll never forget the day I found my first piece of real
treasure,"smilesTony. "I was in a field I'd never been to
before. t-tl
Then, just as I was about to give up and
go home, I picked up a signal."
Tony immediately felt very excited and began digging in
the damp earth. Suddenly, he saw a tiny metal shape,
covered in mud. "When I scrapedoff the dirt, I could see
that it was a tiny horse," says Tony. "It was beautifully
made and looked very old. I didn't want to get my hopes

A I e n d e du p w i t h a b o u tf 3 0 , 0 0 0w
, h i c hi ss t i l la b i g
w i n d f a lflo r m e
Even Tony's wildest dreams could not have
p r e p a r ehdi m f o r t h e t r u t h ,t h o u g h
So,what kind of 'treasure'doesTonyfind on his
e x p e d i t i o nt os t h e l o c a cl o u n t r y s i d e ?
He spendseveryweekendsearchingfor buried
treasure,
whateverthe weather
Tony'schildrenusedto wish that their dad would
g i v eu p h i ss t r a n g eh o b b y
l ' d b e e ns e a r c h i nagl l d a y ,b u t t h e o n l yt h i n g sl ' o
managedto dig up werea few bitsof rubbish

IJ I
| "When I took it to the museum to have it valued,
I got a huge surprise," he laughs. 'I would have been
overjoyed if the figure had been worth a hundred pounds
or so.I never imagined for a minute that it would be valued
at over f60,000. That's hke a lottery win! It's unbelievable!"

Nothing as old or aswell-preservedhasbeen


Fl-l
found in Britain before, becausemost statuesfrom around
that time were destroyedback in the 16th century.
Tony took the statue to the British Museum in London,
where historianswere amazedto seesuch a rare artefact in
such good condition. The British Museum decided to
purchasethe statuefrom Tony and displayit to the public.
What does Tony plan to do with his new-found wealth?
"Well, actually, I'm not as rich as you might think," he
chuckles."When a piece of treasure is dug up on someone
else'sland, half of the value goesto the person who found
it, and the other half goesto the landowner. ll-J--l
I'planning to buy Carol a new car and take tne?hdon
a
wonderful holiday."
Will Tonybe taking the metal detector awaywith him? "No
way!" saysCarol. "We won't be teasinghim as much about
his hobby anymore,but I will insist that we have a holiday
from it for a while and spend some time together as a
family. Mind you, I think the children will be more keen to
keep Tony company on his weekend
treasure hunts now that they've seen
that they can be fruitfull"
Tony doesn't think that he will ever find
anything as amazing as the little horse
again, but this hasn't stopped him from
enjoying Saturdays and Sundayswith
his metal detector. "It's not about
money for me," he says." 6l-l
i
|
I'll never give up my hobby
,;i,
because it gives me hours
of pleasure. You can't
put a price on that!"

I j u s t l o v e f i n d i n gt h i n g s ,n o m a t t e rw h a t t h e i r
v a l u em i g h tb e
The expertswho valuedTony'sfind, told him that
it was a very precious12th centurystatuewhich
had greathistorical
importance

Answerthe questions.
'l
2

How doesTonyfeelabout hishobby?Why?


W h a t d o y o u t h i n k a b o u t h i s h o b b y ?H o w m u c h
doesit matchyour personality?
N a m es o m eo t h e ru n u s u ahl o b b i e s .

55

Listening
15

Youwillhearfivepeople
talkingaboutextreme
sports.
Forspeakers
1-5,choose
fromthelistA-F
whichstatement
applies
to whichspeaker.
There
is
oneextraletterwhichvoudonotneedto use.
Which speaker:
A prefersnot to be part of a
team?
B h a sb e e ni n l u r e d ?
C n o l o n g e rp a r t i c i p a t e s ?
D h a sb e e nf i l m e dd o i n ga n
extremesport?
E l i k e st o e n t e rc o m n e t i t i o n s ?
F onlyasksclosefriendsto be on
t h e i rt e a m ?

S p e a k e rFTI
S p e a k e rt t | |
Speaker t?a_-]
t - t l
Speaker
Speaker Fl_-]
ffi

tr-rl

Communication:
AttheDocto/s
16

a. MatchcolumnA to columnB,thenin pairsact


out thedialogue.
A

Now,then What
seemsto be the
problem?

t-;T--l
tzt I

Hmm let'shave
a lookat you Yes,
I thinkyou'reright
W e c a n ' tb e s u r e
untilwe get it Xr a y e dl ' l la s kt h e
nurseto takeyou
down to the X-ray
room now
W e l l ,t h e ny o u ' l l
comebackhere
a n d l ' l lp u t y o u r
arm in plasterfor
you

tiT_l

tt

a I si t a b a db r e a k ?
b O K T h a n ky o u
doctor
My arm hurtsterribly
I t h i n kl ' v eb r o k e ni t
O h ,a l r i g h tA n d w h a t
will happenafter
that?

Man: Nello We'reinterested


in joiningthe golf club Can
you tell us what we haveto do, please?
Receptionist:
Well,you paya joiningfee and then thereis
a n a d d i t i o n aaln n u acl h a r g e
Man:1)
Receptionist:
plus
Dailyaccess
to the club,yourown locker,
t h e u s eo f t h e o t h e rf a c i l i t i essu c ha ss p a .s a u n aa n dc a f e
Man:2\
Receptionist:
lt'sall in this brochureWhy don't you have
a l o o ka n dt h i n ka b o u ti t ?
Man:Thankyou,that'sa good idea 3)
Neitherof
us haveeverplayedgolf before
Receptionist:
We do have tutors, but there is an extra
charcrefor lessonsYou can read about that in the
brochure,
too
Man:Grea|Thankyou for your help

b . U s et h e p r o m p t st o a c t o u t a s i m i l a rd i a l o g u e .
l o i ng y m/ p a yj o i n i n gf e e/ a d d i t i o n aml o n t h l yf e e/ a c c e s s
t o a l lt h e e q u i p m e n it n, c l u d i npgo o la n d) a c u z z/ i t r a i n e r s/ ?
e x t r ac h a r g ef o r t r a i n i n gs e s s i o n s
\vAv t/ trLi tt ti nt Yn

b. Now usethe promptsto act out similar


dialogues.
.
r

a n k l e/ s p r a i n eidt
wrist/ fracturedit

J o i n i nagC l u b
17

a. Fillin the missing


sentences,
thenin pairs,
read
the dialogue
aloud.
.
.
.

56

Bytheway,do youhavea professional


available
for lessons?
Andhowmuchdoesmembership
cost?
Andwhatdoesthatinclude?

q#a
Whenwe write a news report,we alwaysgiveit a short,
e y e - c a t c h i n gh e a d l i n e I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n ,w h i c h
s u m m a r i s et sh e e v e n t ,w e g i v e i n f o r m a t i o na b o u t t h e
t i m e , p l a c ea n d p e o p l ei n v o l v e d I n t h e m a i n b o d y ,
consistingof two or more paragraphs,
we describethe
e v e n t i n m o r e d e t a i l ,i n c l u d i n gi n f o r m a t i o na b o u t t h e
i n c i d e n tasn dp e o p l ei n v o l v e dI n t h e c o n c l u s i o nw,e w r i t e
people'scommentson the event and/oraction(s)to be
taken The languagewe usein newsreportsis descriptive
r n r i t h f r o n r r o n i r r < o n f t,h,,o- p a s s r vveo r c e

. A n a l y s i nag l V o d e l T e x t
thenewsreportbelowandputthe
18 Read
paragraphs
inthecorrect
order.

. Headlines
21

Read
theextracts
fromthenewsreports
andmatch
themto theheadlines.
There
isoneextraheadline
whichyoudo notneedto use.

1 FactoryGoesUp In Flames
A I lTony Morris. 34. was driving a blue Ford Escort
2
M i s s i n Jge w e l F
rvhen he turned the corner and crashed into a mini6iiii :,,, :.
s ound
travellingintheoppositedirection.Apasser-bywho
3 LocalShopkeeper
WinsLottery
witnessed the accident said that the minibus had been
4 CleverBurglars
Arrestedat Last
,",":',":,,
at almost twice the legal speedlimit.
gglg
] B I lA policeman at the scene commented that the ,:,
A|] Clive Warner, 57, was celebratinglast
nrght after
street lighting in the area was not up to standard and that lt.
winningover f6O,OOO
I
in the NatiJnalLott.ry dru*
the council should expect more accidentsin future if they
i1.'j
yr Warner,who runs Warner,sHardwarein
did not make improvements.
Field
-=-i----.
Road,Barton,was stunned
when his numberscame
(rl
man
was
seriously
injured
in
a
collision
at
the
| lA
lll .
u p o n t n e s c r e e n. . .
'"'
'''t"
corner of Main Street and Green Road in Riverton late !:.
t'
"" ',';,,rr,..,,
.- .
, ,,.:r,t,,,,':""':""',:::...yesterdayevening.
lil
--=-t-----ght at a factorYin DraYford'
l) | lMr Morris was on his way to meet friends in a
td Poundsworth of damage
il1,
restaurant when the accident happened. He is said to be $i.;l.l
to have started when an
making a quick recoveryat Riverton County Hospital. The t*:,
set light to a Pileof
achinerY
driver of the minibus escapedunharmed, but has been p, ' \ .
r u b b i s h. .
,,
chargedwith dangerousdriving.
$;,
:.,,;::.,Sll:.
.i'.,",'"':.\:".r..,,,,,....,,.,:..:.-..,_.,,,,..-.
e e l o n g i n gt o L a d y
l C| | A d i a m o n dn e c k l a c b
WrexhamManorwas recovered
1
yesterday
Now
read
the
news
report
again
and
choose
the
y
o
u
n
q
two
c h i l d r e nJ. a m i e H a r p e r , 6 ,
19
I
,
most suitableheadline.
Newton,7, were playingin a field near
,l
:t
''\
the f 5,000pieceof
'tr..
".whenthey uncovered
" ttn.-2.,-.,,.,,:*aq,_
A Dangerous
DriverInjured
B Accidentat Mainand Green

. Discuss
& Write

C PoorStreetLighting

22

. Direct/Reported
Speech
thereported
speech
inthenews
20 a. Underline
report in Ex.18,then rewritethe sentences
as
directspeech.

a. Readthe rubricandanswer
the questions
in the
plan.
at yourlocalnewspaper.
Youhave
ff Youarea reporter
been
asked
to
write
a
news
report
for
the
missing
ff
inEx21.
? headline
. .'..:...:
i'

Ftr[ii

b. Changethe directspeechbelow into reported


speech.
1
2
3
4

5
6

"Theboysare luckyto be alive Theybehavedvery


" saidthe policeman
bravely,
Thefirecouldhavebeenprevented.
People
should
be muchmorecareful,"saidthe firefighter
" l a m v e r yg r a t e f utlo t h e p o l i c ef o r a l l t h e i rh e l p
T h e yh a v eb e e nw o n d e r f u"l ,s a i dM r sW i l l i s
" l w o u l d l l k e t o g i v e t h e c h i l d r e na r e w a r d I
t h o u g h tI w o u l dn e v e sr e em y c a ta g a i n", s a i dM i s s
Carter
"Thatnecklaceis worth a fortune I am so glad it
w a sf o u n di n o n e p i e c e", s a i dL a d yH a m i l t o n
"Thesemen belongbehindbars Theyhavecaused
a n u n b e l i e v a b laem o u n t o f d a m a g e , "s a i d t h e
policeman

;t*."4;

Headline

Introduction
(Paral)

Whathappened?
Whenand wheredid it
happen?

MainBody

(Paras2-3) 'WhatotherinJormationshouldyou tell the


readeraboutthe incident/people
involted?

Conclusion
(Para4)

What commentsweremadeaboutthe
incident?'What
Jutureactionwill be taken?

b. Writea newsreportfor the missing


headline
in
120-180
wordsusingthe planandthe text in
Ex.18asa model.

57
I

Spread
the
News

a. Thepeoplebelowarereadingthe newspaper.
Whatsectionaretheyreading:
entertainment?
business?
sports?
localnews?horoscopes?
international
news?

f -

i;:?

Vocabulary
a. Complete
the headlines
with the correctword

20 peoPle feared rnissing


or dead after massive
in LA.

j,i

f h e W o r l dH e a l t h -,a,-;:.
''::
will holda
.t,i"Organisation
::1, meetingto discuss
the
. . .a t t a a. i < n f i n h r . . ^

''. I ne recent
Increase
i n o i l p r i c e sh a sh a d
negaliveeffecton the
stockmarket

t o B r e n t w o osdh o p p i n g
centre.
;
*"

"'-t',.,.:,::,::.:.:,;::,:.ri:;:;Ll4tl'',.t,,
Gemini:Nota

#urff'cgffg causs severe

'7

good day to makea


''.$,,,,',
,,.,1'
:.',......
..
financialinvestmentYouwill ::,.

damage to coaslal areas

-i'

in Hawaii.

hearfrom an old friend,but .,:


United ::r :.'a.,.
:' Manchester
do not mistakefriendship,.,t:,r'
,,..won the FACup. 'ri
'"'l:a,,;.
.
for romance.
La:
"' t:t:.ll:: :.:: :..:,: :,:,.,.:l
:,:: :; ::a

b. Namethreemorenewspaper
sections.

.fff:#ffTniTfi:,;

Localresidentsforced to
abandontheir homesas
erupts on
Montserrat.

. ending. scriptr plot r enjoyable


. cast
1 The written versionof the film was excellent
2 T h ef i l m h a da p o o rf i n i s h
3 The people who acted in the film gave great
performances

%**r**r**"^-^*qw____

b. In pairs,
usethe headlines
to askandanswer,
as
in theexample.
A: Didyouhearaboutthehurricane
inHawaii?
B: No,whathappened?
A: Thepapersaysit causedsevere
damageto coastal
areas.

Crossout the oddword

Replace
the wordsin boldwith the wordsbelow.

Thestorywas rathercomplicated
and hardto follow

5 T h e f i l m w a s c e r t a i n l ys o m e t h i n gw e a l l l i k e d

Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences


u s i n gt h e p h r a s e sa,s i n t h e e x a m p l e .

. 9 b 9 ' , ! .t o I
r VOte

rWOrrY

1 flood: bank- fire- river- rain


- water2 volcano:eruption- evacuation
mountain
- winds- pile-up
- motorway
3 caraccident:
collide
4 arson:flamesfire waves smoke

-L O- ^P -OrU.TtE^
not r r<erl

r valid

oYan2nfla

Willyouvoteformein themeeting?

58

"l

for

Fillin the correctword

3 A : D i dy o u h e a rt h a t F r a n ki s m o v i n gt o C a n a d a ?
B: a Are you sure?
b That'sfine
4 A: Guesswhat! lt'sa holidaytomorrow so we don't
haveschool
B: a That'sfine
b No, really?

. vouch. after . download. ears. bring. 6u1


. vote . showed. compromise
. valid
1 | don't know who to
for in the next
electton
2 H e rc h i l d r e n
o u t t h e b e s ti n h e r
3 He takes
his father Theyare both
t a l e n t e dm u s i c i a n s
4 Management
was forcedto take a .
r np a y
5 We waited for over an hour but Janet never
.
...up
6 This ticket is . . . .. . .
for six matinee
performances
7 | need to
these files onto my
laptop
8 The peacetalkswent on for three daysbeforea
couldbe reached
9 | have known Bill for many years, so I can
for hishonesty
1 0 W h e nl t o l d h i m a b o u tm y i d e at o s t a r ta b u s i n e s s ,
h e w a sa l l

5 A : D o n ' tt e l la n y o n eI t o l dy o u ,b u t J i mi s g o i n gt o
askLizto marryhim
B : a l w o n ' t t e lal s o u l .
b No problem
6 A : l ' m s o r r yl ' m s o l a t e
B : a T e lm
l e
b No problem
7 A : W e ' l lm e e to u t s i d et h e c i n e m a
B: a Okay.Seeyou there
b That'sfine Where?
8 A : l ' m c a l l i n ga b o u tt h e p a r t yo n S a t u r d a y
B: a GreatW
! h e r es h a lw
l e go?
b l'm sorryI can'tmakeit

Underlinethe correctword.

A
special
latest
get
there'smoreto it
on

1 He was offered a job at the local fast food


restaurant,
but he turnedhisnoseup/down at it
2 She had only beenworkingat the hotel for two
days,so shewasstillwet behindthe eyes/ears
3 Sheinsisted
on buyinga designer
weddingdress,so
herfatherhadto paythrough/inthe nosefor it
4 Shewas walkingpast the jeweller's
shopwhen a
s t u n n l n gd i a m o n db r a c e l ect a u g h t / g l i m p s ehde r
My passportis only valid/correctfor ten years,
then I haveto get it renewed
6 | would likea job whichinvolves
travelbut, on the
other hand/side,I wouldn'twant to be awayfrom
m yc h i l d r e n
7 That was especially/undoubtedly
the best film
we'veeverseen
8 Just becausehe graduatedfrom university,he
thinkshe can look/seedown his noseat the rest
of us

Circlethe correctresponse.
1 A: l'vegot the mostamazingnews l'vejust been
accentedinto medicalschool!
B: a Are you sure?
b Really?
That'swonderfull
2 A: You'llneverbelieve
who cameroundyesterday!
B: a Telm
l e
b I won't tell a soul

B
usedto
than meetsthe eye
the market
new5
effects

1 T h en e w c o m p u t egr a m ew i l l b e . . . . . .
I nJ u n e
2 The
in StarWars
wereamazing
3 l ' m a f r a i dy o u ' l jl u s t h a v et o
. . .. . the
new layout
4 | alwaysreadthe morningpaperto keepup with
the
5 ThewholestoryisverystrangeI think

Matchthe words in columnA to the words in


columnB, then usethe expressions
to complete
the sentences.

10

Complete
the sentences
with two to fivewords,
including
thewordin bold.Donot change
the
meaning
of the originalsentence.
1 Manyexpertssaythat electronic
bookswill be
usedmuchmorein thefuture
predicting Experts
more and more people will use
electronic
booksin the future
2 ln the future, the Internetwill providefor the
needsof moreusersthan everbefore
cater
ln the future,the Internetwill
. than everbefore

3 They will have to think of a way to solvethe


p r o 0 l e m5 o o n ,

b. Lookat the picture


andin pairsactout a similar
dialogue.

come

T h e yw i l l h a v e
a way to solvethe problemsoon
4 T h e n u m b e ro f p e o p l ew o r k i n ga t t h e c o m p a n y
h a sb e e nc u t i n h a l fs i n c eF e b r u a r y
halved
T h e n u m b e ro f p e o p l ew o r k i n ga t
thecompany
s i n c eF e b r u a r y
5 To many people,this meansthat a new type of
rnmnrtpr

n:me

i < rrn- ', n r n g

T om a n yp e o p l et,h i sm e a n s
a new type of
g
a
m
e
computer
E l e c t r o npi cu b l i s h i nigs a n i n d u s t r tyh a t i s g r o w i n g
veryfastat the moment
booming Electronicpublishing
a t t h e p r e s e nt ti m e
W o u l dy o u l i k et o r e p l a c yeo u r n e w s p a p ewr i t h a
computerscreen?
e x c h a n g e W o u l dy o u l i k et o
arrival

Reading

2 anmnrrtor qrroenT

12

b. Lookat the subheadings


andthinkof two
questions
youwouldliketo askabouteach
circus.
Readthe articleandseeif voucan
answer
them.

Speaking
11

a. ln pairs,
thinkof wordsrelated
to the circus.
yourlistto thatof anotherpair.
Compare

a. Lookat thepicture
the dialoEue.
andcomplete

13

a. Readthe article
again.Forquestions
1-13,
choosefromthe circuses
A-D. Eachcircusmay
be chosenmorethanonce.Whenmorethan
oneansweris required,
thesemaybe givenin
anyorder.
According
to the articlewhichcircus(es):

i n c l u d ecsu l t u r ael l e m e n tfsr o mi t s h o m e


countryin its shows?

ffi

h a sb e e nr u n b y t h e s a m ef a m i l yf o r m a n y
years?

tlTl

hasperformers
whichcanbe hiredfor
cnaai:l n..r<innc7

A
B:
A
B:
A
B:
A
B:

W h e r e1 )
I t m i g h tb e i n 2 )
W h a t3 )
I canseetrees Onetree4)
H o wd i d i t 5 )
6)
Haveyou everexperienced
7)
8)

FTI Ft-t

organises
manydifferentcircusshows
at once?

FTI

performers?
doesn'thaveprofessional

?
?

a r er u n f o r a g o o dc a u s e T

l-7-1-l

l o l I

include
c o m e d yi n t h e i rs h o w s ?

tiT-tFTt

hastouredthreedifferent
continents?

tgTl

includes
trained
animals
in itsshows?

[=Of]

hasencouraged
othergroups
to copyits
success?

tl={__l

hasmusicspecially
writtenfor itsshows?

R2T_-]

doesn't
charge
for entrance
to thecircus? Ff-l

60

Ringling
Bros.and Barnumand Bailey
The RinglingBros. and Barnumand Bailey circus is
you would expecta circusto be, with all the
everything
clowns,acrobats,and performinganimalsthat you could
imagine.This is hardlysurprisingsince the circus is a
familybusinessthat datesback more than130years.The
computerised
lightand soundshow might be right up to
date but otheraspectsof the show havehardlychanged
at all for morethana century.Audiences
todayarejust as
impressedas ever by Sara and her trainedtigers,the
troop of eight performingelephants,and the gravity
defyingtricks of the high wire artists.And if all this isn't
enough,then there are the clownswho alwayshave the
audienceroaringwith laughterat theircomedyroutines.
A
visit to the RinglingBros.and Barnumand Baileycircus
certainlymakesfor a nightto remember.
After all,it is, as
'The
the organisers
describeit,
GreatestShowOn Earth@.'
Cirquedu Soleil
Cirquedu Soleilwas foundedby a groupof friendsin
Canadain 1984,and sincethen it has gonefrom strength
to strength.This is not a traditionalcircusas there are
no animalsinvolvedin the show,just a uniquemix of
breathtakingacrobatics,tumbling gymnastic displays,
masterfuljugglingand impressivecontortionists.
Cirque
du Soleilstartedas a smallshow which touredeuebec
in Canada,but due to its hugepopularity
it has grown
tremendously.
Todaythe companyorganisesup to eight
shows at any one time all around the world, and
employs 2400 people. They have three permanent
crrcusesin speciallydesignedbuildings,two in Las
Vegasand one in DisneyWorld in Florida,and their
other shows tour the US, Asra and Europe. The
organisation
employsthe best composersand costume
designers,so that each of the shows has its own
dramaticmusical score and fantasticcostumeswhich
bring peopleback to see the shows againand agarn.
Sincethat humblebeginningin 1984,almost30 million
peoplehave enjoyedone of Cirquedu Soleil'soriginal
and entertaining
shows.
The Big Apple Circus
The Big Apple Circusis a non-profitorganisation
based
in New Yorkand dedicatedto raisingmoneyand working
with sick children.The circus organisesa traditional
show undera big top in New york. They have also put
on showsin US citiessuchas Bostonand Washinqton.

What's
more,
you can
evenhire
performers
from the Big
Apple Circusto perform
at yourschool,business
or party.The organisation
also
puts on a specialshow each year for deaf and blind
childrencalled 'Circus of the Senses@.'
However,the
foundersPaul Binderand MichaelChristensen
are mosl
proud of their 'Big Apple CircusClown Care Unit@.'
In
this programme, specially trained clowns entertain
criticallyill childrenin twenty-one
hospitalsaroundthe
United States.As Christensensays, "A child's natural
need to laughcan get lost in the tangleof hospital
procedures."With their shows,which includereo nose
transplantsand chocolate milk transfusions,the Big
Appleclownstry to bringlaughterbackto thesechildren.
CircusEthiopia
The first show that CircusEthiopiaput on in Addis
Ababa in 1991was a very simple affair. A few ropes
were tied togetherto form the ring and a car stereo
providedthe sound.However,the free show which was
put on by a group of school children,who performed
jugglingand tight rope walking,was a
some acrobatics,
huge success.Now,the free Sundayshow has become
a traditionin Ethiopra's
capitaland can attractup to 5000
spectators.Marc La Chance,a Canadianteachingin
Addis Ababa,wantedto give the childrenthat he worked
with a brighterfuture. He came up with the idea of
Circus Ethiopiaafter teachingsome childrenrn his
neighbourhood
basic circusskills.Sincethen,the idea
has spreadand spreadand now nine other cities in
Ethiopiahave their own versionof the circus,which are
supported
by international
charities.
Thousands
of school
childrenare involvedwith the circus,where they are
providedwith food and tutors to make sure they don't
missout on theireducation.
Theyare alsoencouraged
to
teach at a crrcusschool,which allowsthem to earn an
income.The shows that they put on have developed
over the years, and now many traditionalEthiopian
dancesand songs are includedin their routineqivino
CircusEthiopiaits own uniquecircusstyle.

b. Arethereanycircuses
in yourcountry?
Choose
oneandtalkaboutit.

61

At the library

Lrsrenrn9
aboutan
14 \,,llistento a manmakinga statement
just
questions
1-9
For
witnessed.
he has
accident
the notes.
complete
NameofWitness:
W
- ess:
Aooressotvvltn
lll

16

a. Fillin the gapswith:duefine,owe,overdue,


aloud.
then,in pairs,readthedialogue

lVineStreet.

Occupation
of Witness
At the time of the accidenthe was

3
S a wt o u r b u sp u l l i n go u t o f
Sawredcarspeeding

A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:

Redcarcrashedinto
Driverof redcar F

at the

b u sd r i v e r
to
Witnessis prepared
to makea statement
Policecancallwitness 9

Hello l'm returningthesebooks


a bit 1)
R i g h tO h d e a rT h e y ' r e
I know I was on holidayand I forgot about them
W e l l ,y o u ' l lh a v et o p a ya s m a l2l )
?
Alright How muchdo | 3)
Letme see.Fourbooks...that'll be f2
OK Hereyou are And l'd liketo take this book
out, please.
. . . b a c ko n t h e 2 7 t h
R i g h tT h i so n ei s4 )
of this month
T h a n ky o u

Atthenewsaqent's
Communtcation:

o . Now usethe promptsbelow to act out o similar


15

dialogue.

a. Matchthe
then,
exchanges,
in pairs,readthe
dialogue
aloud.

videos/ was ill- forgotaboutthem/ two videosf6 / takethisvideoout / due backin a week

Writinga rcvicw
-"+F,Tf

+r.1 .,."t':,i
1-'

fl

Excuse
me. Do you haveanyTV magazines?

haveboughtone
lzT-l otr dearI knewI should
yesterday

then
l'lltakea newspaper,
lSTl On,really?
Mailwillbefine
lZT-l or',theDaily
A C e r t a i n l sy i,r W h i c ho n ew o u l dy o u l i k e ?
B No, l'm sorryWe'vesoldout
c Hereyou are,then That's50 pence,please
D Well,there'sa W guidein mostof the newspapers,

: Whenwe write a reviewof a book,film or play,we usually


write four paragraphs In the first paragraph, we
summarise
b a c k g r o u n di n f o r m a t i o ns u c h a s t h e t i t l e ,
type, setting,etc In the
name of the author/director,
the mainpointsof the
secondparagraph,we summarise
,e
p l o t i n c h r o n o l o g i coarl d e r I n t h e t h i r d p a r a g r a p hw
p
l
o
t
,
m
a
in
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
o
n
t
h
e
c
o
m
m
e
n
t
s
u s u a l l yi n c l u d e
in the
etc Finally,
the acting/directing/writing,
characters,
positive
last paragraph,we write our recommendation,

if that'sanyuse

D . Now usethe promptsto act out o similar

dialogue.
puzzlebooks/ Crosswords
in someof
Crossword
/ Takea Break/ 60 pence
the magazines

62

' Analysr ng
a ModelText
17

to
Readthe bookreviewandmatchthe paragraphs
the topics.
[Tl Recommendation
information
ETI gackground
l:T_-]vain pointsof plot
lZTl ceneralcomments

19

a. Usethe adjectives
belowto complete
the table.
. brilliant
. fantastic
r pleasant
. fine . dull
. nice. wonderful
. superb. marvellous
' unexciting
o uninteresting

@ tlarry Potter and the Cobtet


of Fire, by lK Rowling, is an
excellent story which takes
place in Britain.This thrilling
book is about Harry Potter,the teenagewizard, and is
the fourth book in the famousHarry potterseries.
@ fne magic begins as Harry is about to return to
Hogwarts school for his fourth year of educationas a
wizard.Thisyear,there is a new interestfor the students.
Headmaster,Albus Dumbledore,announcesthat the
excitingbut dangerousTriwizardTournament- a series
of tasksfor three chosenwizardsto complete- will take
placeat Hogwarts.Harry hasto take part, eventhough it
may meanriskinghis life.
The book is well-written,with realisticand
tr
entertainingdialogue.Its rangeof characters,
from the
funny to the frightening,are so believablethat you will
feel as thoughyou are at Harry'ssideas he experiences
greateradventuresthan ever before.
Don't miss the chance to read this fascinating
E
and imaginativestory. lts plot is guaranteedto keepyou
turning the pages.Harry Potter and the Coblet of Fire
hasto be readto be believed!

Whichphrases
referto
18 a. Lookat thelistbelow.
books?
films?
both?
Background
. Thefilm/bookis set in
o Thefilm/booktellsthe storyof
o Thebook/novel
waswrittenby
o lt is a comedy/horror
film/lovestory ,
o Thefilm is directedby
M a i n P o i n t so f t h e p l o t
n Thestoryconcerns/is
abouVbegins
n T h ep l o t i s( r a t h e rb) o r i n g / t h r r l l i n g
u Theplot hasan unexpected
twist
G e n e r aC
l omments
o It is beautifully/poorly/
badlywritten
c Thescriptis dull/exciting
. Thecastisexcellent
. Theheroof the storyis playedby
. T h ef i l m i sf u l lo f b r e a t h t a k i nsgc e n e s ,

b. Usethe adjectivesfrom Ex.19aand phrases


from Ex.18ato write a positiveor negative
recommendation
for the followingfilms.
1 D r D o l i t t l e( C o m e d y*)* *
Dr Dolittleisa fantasticcomedy.
Don't missit!
2 G h o s tT r a i n( T h r i l l e*r*) *
3 C h a i no f F o o l s( C o m e d y*)*
4 S t a rW a r s( S c i e n cFei c t i o n*)* *
**
5 TheStoryof Us(Romance)
*
6 FearCity(Horror)

. Discuss
& Write
20

a. Readthe rubricbelowand answerthe questions


in theplan.
.., Yourteacherhasaskedyouto writea reviewabouta
.,i.filmyou haverecently
seenfor yourschoolmagazrne.
iil write yourreview,givinga briefsummary
of the plot
i andsaying
whyyouthinkothersmightenjoyit.
..v

i!{;"
}J-r "--

lntroduction
(Paral)

Backgroundinformati on
W h a ti s t h e t i t l e o f t h eJ i l n ?
Who plays tht heroof the story?
What type of filn is it?
Whereis it set?

M ainBody
(Pam 2)

Main points of the plot


How doesthe storybegin?
Who are the leadingcharacters?
W h a to r et h em o s ti m p o r t d n p
t o i n t so Jt h e
story?
GeneralCommenrs
Whot canlou sa)tabotttthe castlspeciol
efJects/scenes?

Recommendation
o D o n ' tm i s si t l t i sw e l lw o r t hs e e i n g
o I w o u l d n ' tr e c o m m e nidt b e c a u s e
. I highly/thorough
r el yc o m m e nidt
' It'sboundto be a box-officehit
" l t i sa h i g h l ye n t e r t a i n i nr ge a d
o lt'sa boreto read

(Para3)

b. Readthe reviewin Ex,'17againand replacethe


phrasesin bold with appropriatephrasesfrom
the list.

b. Writeyourreviewin 120-180
words.youcanuse
the planandthe reviewin Ex.17asa model.

Conclusion
(Para4)

Recommendatron
W h yd i d y o u l i h t t h ef i l m ?
Wouldyou recommend
it to otherpeople?

63

E= L=E-#=
Presen
Sti m p l e
We usethe presentsimple:
a
a
a
a
a

for permanentstates Tomworksfora construction


company.
for dailyroutines,repeatedand habitualactionsHeplaystennistwiceaweek.
for generaltruthsand lawsof nature,Thesunsetsin thewest.
for ti metablesand programmes Thefirstflight to London Ieavesat 9 am.
for sportingcommentaries,
reviewsand narrationsGerrardinterceptsandpassesittoHeskey.

Timeexpressions
usedwith the presentsimple:
usually,
often,always,everyday/week/month/year
etc, in the morning/afternoon/evening,
at nighVtheweekend,
on Fridays
etc

Present
Continuous
We usethe presentcontinuous:
.

foractionstakingplaceatoraroundthemomentofspe
Tai nkai ni sgd o i n g h e r h o m e w o r k a t t h e m o m e n t .

for fixedarrangements
in the nearfuture l'mgoingtothedentisttomorrow.(l'vealreadybookedanappointment.)

for currentlychangingand developing


situationsThenumberof
burglariesisincreasing.

with adverbssuchas alwaysto expressangeror irritationat a repeatedaclton You'realwaysforgettingtoclose


thedoor.

Timeexpressions
usedwith the presentcontinuous:
now,at the moment,at present,thesedays,nowadays,
still,today,tonightetc
Note:
.

Always+ presentsimple r " everytime"


I alwayshovebreakfast
beforeI go to work.

Always+ presentcontinuous+ "all the time" - "too/veryoften"


You'realwayscomploining!

W e c a n n o tu s en e v e r. . .a g a i nw i t h t h e p r e s e nst i m p l e .
I'm nevergoingcampingwithyouagain (NOT@in.)

Present
Perfect
We use the presentperfect:
.

for an actionwhichstartedin the pastand continuesup to the present,especially


with stativeverbssuchas be,
have,like,know,etc I haveknownDaveforyears.

for a recentlycompletedactionwhoseresultisvisiblein the present AnewFrenchrestauranthasjustopenedin


BridgeStreet.We'regoingtherefor dinnertomorrow.

f o r a n a c t i o nt h a t h a p p e n eadt a n u n s t a t e tdi m e i n t h e p a s t T h ee m p h a s i s o n t h e a c t i o nT h et i m et h a t i t
occurredis unimportantor unknown I haveonlyvisited
Portugal
once.(When?Unstatedtime )

Timeexpressions
usedwith the presentperfect:
just,ever,never,so far,today,thisweek/monthetc, how long,lately,recently,
for,since,already,
always,
still(in negations),
etc

64

#
ffirmffi}ffiffitr
3=
#=

Present
Perfect
Contin
uous
We usethe presentperfectcontinuous:
o

'
o
n

t o p u t e m p h a s iosn t h e d u r a t i o no f a n a c t i o nw h i c h
s t a r t e di n t h e p a s ta n d c o n t i n u eusp t o t h e p r e s e n t ,
especiallywith
wordsand expressions
suchas for, since,all morning/day/yearetc Theboyshavebeenplaying
footballforhours.
f o r a n a c t i o nw h i c hs t a r t e di n t h e p a s ta n dw h i c hl a s t e df o r
s o m et i m e T h ea c t i o nm a ys t i l lb e c o n t r n u i nogr
havefinishedalreadywith the resultvrsiblein the present Ken
isreallytired.He hasbeenworkinghardall week.
to express
anger,irritation,or annoyan
ce Theyhovebeenlistening
to thatloudmusic
all night.
for repeatedactionsin the pastcontinuingto the presentI have
been
takingspanishlessons
at niqhtschool.

Note:with the verbslive,work, teachand feel we can usethe presentperfect


or the presentperfect
continuous
with no difference
in meaningHehastaught/hasbeenteachingattheschool
formorethan
twenryyears
Timeexpressions
usedwith the presentperfectcontinuous:
for,since,how long,lately,recently
Note:
' alreadyis usedin statements
afterthe

auxiliary
verband in questions
afterthe mainverb
I havealreadyfinished.
Haveyou finishedalready?

'
'

yet is usedin negativesentences


aftera negativecontracted
auxiliary
verbor at the end of the sentence
Shehasn'tyet finishedthereport.Shehasn,tfinishedthereportyet.
s t i l li s u s e d i n s t a t e m e n t s a n d q u e s t i o n s a f t e r t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b o r b e f o r e t h e m a i n v e r b
I a m s t ip
l ta i n t i n g t h e
house'Hestilllivesin HongKong However,still comesbeforethe auxiliaryverb
rn negatrons shestil hasn,tfinished
herhomework.

Stative
Verbs
stativeverbsare verbswhich describea stateratherthan an action,and
so they do not havea contrnuous
tense
Theseverbsare:
'
'
'
'

verbsof the senses(see,hear,taste, feel, look, sound erc);t canhear the


trainapproaching.
verbsof perception
(know believe.understand,realise,remember,forget etc);
lunderstand
whatvouare
saytng.
v e r b s w h i c h e x p r e s s l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e sl o( vl i ek ,eh, a t e , e n j o y , p r e f e r e t cT)h; e c h i l d r e n e n j o y r e a d i n g
and someotherverbs(be,contain,include,belong,fit, need,matter,cost,
own, want, weigh,wish, have.
keep etc) ThatcarbelongstoJoe.

65

r|lffir

c* #=#

tenseswhen they describe


actionsratherthan states
Someof theseverbsareusedin continuous
PresentContinuous

PresentSimple
- permanentstate)
(= character
Sheis verypatient.
I thinkit'sa wonderful
film.(= I believe)
pool.(= they possess)
Theyhave(got)a swimming

Heis beingverygood.(= he is behaving)


g)
l'm thinking ofbuyinga newhouse.(= l'm considerin
(= they areenjoying
They're
havinga wonderful
holrday.
themselves)

(= sheappearsto be)
Yourmotherlooksverytired

Thearchitect
islookingat thep/ans.(= hs ischecking/

I canseeyourhousefromhere.(= I usemy eyes)


I seewhatyou
mean(= | understand)

examining)
(= areyou meeting?)
Areyouseeingthedentisttomorrow?
You're
isno onethere.(= you are
seeingthings.There

Thisblousefeels
likesilk.(= it hasthe textureof)
(= it hasa delicious
flavour)
Thischickentastesdelicious.

ing)
Mum isfeelingTim'sforehead.(= she is Louch
Thechefis tastingthesoupto seerfit isalright(= he is

imagining)

testingthe flavour)
These
flowers
smellnice.(= they havea nicesmell)
Sheappearsto beveryangry.(= sheseemsto be)

(= sheis sniffing)
She's
smellingtheroses.

(= they arethe rightsize)


Theseshoesfitneperfectly.

Peterisfittingnewlocks
on all thedoors.(= he rsattaching)

(= vvg3t.
Weareappearingat CentralParknextweekend.
performing)

Note:
n

tensesto express
a specificpreference
Theverbenjoycan be usedin continuous
(general
(specific
going
preference)
preference)
BUf
I
enjoy
sailrng
lh enjoyingthisfilma lot.

feel (= experrence
a particular
emotion),hurt and achecan
Theverbslook (whenwe referto sb'sappearance),
w
i
t
h
n
o
i
n
m
e
a
n
i
n
g
difference
b e u s e di n t h e c o n t i n u o uosr t h e s i m p l et e n s e s
Youlookwonderfultoday.or Youarelookingwonderfultoday.
Shefeelssick.or Shersfeelinqsick.

P r e o o s i t i oonf P
s lace
r sn i c hd e s c br e w h e e s o m e [ h i nogr s o m e o n ies T h e s ep r e p o s i t i o rasr e :
P r e p o s i t i o nosf P l a c ea " ep r e p o s i t i o w
'#s*

.*u':;-.

* - :-'

"-"-*-:

in/inside

outside

below

66

behind

nextto/by/beside

opposite

through

uncter

in front of

a00ve

along

between

Underlinethe correcttense.

1 Vicky looks/is looking for a new flat at the


moment.
2 Shewants/iswanting to decoratethe kitchentnts

Putthe verbsin brackets


intothe correctpresent
tense.
.

WCCK

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

. come . decorate. like . work . do . study


r P l 6 Yr r e a d . w a i t . t h i n k

A : What 8)
B : Macbeth | 9)

10)

(the story/
..

( o i n ) h i sf a m i l y
(move)to Africa

A: We 7) .
(have) dinner at
G i a n n i 'tso n i g h tw o u l dy o u l i k et o c o m e ?
B: Sorry,but | 8)
. (visit)Sally

A: | 9) .
(not/understand)this
c o u r s ea t a l l . l t 1 0 )
(be)
reallydifficult
B: Why 11)
(you/not/ask) for
help?

.
.
o
.

tomorrow?
t h e l i v i n gr o o m , I
i t w i l lt a k ea l ld a y

A : Hurryup! We 6) . .
B : oK,oK| 7)

A: 5o, how 4) .
end)?
B : I n t h e e n d ,R o g e 5
r)
and they 6)

buy/new
home
putdown/carpets
move/furniture
unpack/crockery

A: Havetheyboughta newhome?

for you

B: Yes,
theyhave.Havethey...etc

t::
l,i

'

?
.
Macbethand we
. i t i n m y E n g l i schl a s s

Matchthe columns
andthen usefor/sinceto
write
complete
sentences
by puttingthe verbin brackets
intothe correcttense.
(work)here
lTTdl James
(9o)
He
Cornwall
l2T_l
every
summer
you
[:T_-] t (noVsee)
lZT_l lt (rain)
ETI We(only/wait)
lGT__loiane(not/visit)us

Lookat the picture


thenaskandanswer
usingthe prompts,
as
in theexample.

A: We1)
footballlater,would you
l i k et o c o m e ?
B: Sorry,I can't | 2)
at the petrol
stationon Saturday
afternoons
A: What 3) .
B: | 4)
5)

(think)aboutmoving

B: | 2)
(know) he 3)
(not like) the place he's living in
moment,doeshe?

How longhaveyou beenwaiting/youwaited for


him?
| am going/goto the gym thisafternoon.
H e h a sb e e nl i v i n g / i sl i v i n gi n L o n d o na l l h i sl i f e .
Stevethinks/isthinkingabout buyinga new car
Sarahhas worked/isworking there for a couple
of yearsnow
Kellygoes/isgoing to Romeeveryyear
Theplaystarts/hasstartedat nineo'clock.
The Webbershave bought/havebeen buying a
new housein the countrv

Completethe dialoguesusingthe verbsbelow in


either the presentsimpleor the presentcontinuous
tense.

A: Phil1)
house.

a Paul'spartylast
month

b
c
d
e
f

shegot hernewjob
a few minutes
thelastthreemonths
hewasa youngboy
hours

/-d Jameshas beenworkingherefor the lastthree


months.

Putthe verbsin brackets


intothe correcttense.
1 A : Wherehaveyou been?|
(stand)herefor an hour
B : l ' m s o r r yI ' m n o t u s u a l ltyh i sl a t e
2 A Why areyou in sucha hurry?
B : Because
my train
(leave)in ten minutes
You ..
(always/borrow)my clothesI
B : Yes,but I
(always/give)
them backt
4 A lsJane
(still/look)for a job?
B : Yes,unfortunately,
she
(not/find)oneyet
5 A : What'sthe matter?
B:
. (lose)my keys

67

==

ci:: E=l=#j

6
7

A
B:
A
B:
A
B:

9 A:
B:

Why'sTimwet)
(wash)the car
He,,
W h a t ' st h a t t e r r i b l en o i s e ?
(rehearse)
It'sJane,she
h e rs o n gf o r t h e s c h o opl l a ya l la f t e r n o oIn
D i dy o us e eh o w m u c hJ i ma t ea t l u n c h ?
I know,I
(never/see)anyone eat a whole chicken
before!
W h a tt i m es h a l Il p i c ky o u u p ?
A r o u n d7 , b e c a u steh e p l a y
(start)at 7:30

1 0 A : l s M r S a u n d e rsst i l lh e r e ?
B: Yes He
y o u f o r o v e ra n h o u r !

Lookat the weekendactivities


andmaketrue
sentences
aboutyoursellasin the example.
,l((iyr,1.:t..-*l

never

I x****

''
a

rarely
sometimes
often
usuaily
always

(wait)to see

,-pbt ba;el;dl-'

Lookat the pictures.


to
In pairs,usethe adjectives
questions,
askandanswer
asin theexample.

i"., with friends

. hannv
. hored. srrpssed
. tired . relaxed
,,-YY/

g;lrioppng

':

,.'-Jiad;ii**"

iili"" i^ -i,.il

'

!. playing uitar

gotothebeach
I sometimes
at theweekend.

Lookat the changes


in Paul's
diaryfor Monday.
ln
pairsaskandanswer,
asin the example.

MondayNovember
4

3
4
5
6
8
9

A: Howdoes
Simone
feel?
problems
B: She
feels
stressed.
I thinksheishaving
at work.

6B

09:0a breakfast
meetingwith A;d@renFaffiffifr
(personnel
manager)
10:00 i@(Tuesday
afternoon)
posruon
11:00 interview
applicants
forsales
12:00 lunchwithwifeandmotheiln-law
(Wednesday
13:A0
morning)
| 4:00 seedentist(GP)
reade-mail(10:00)
@
| 6:00 meettng
withdesigndepartment
| 7:A0 flay squashwithJg{ryGatph)

1 A: ls Paulhavinga breakfast
meetingwith the
department
managers
at 9:00?
B: No,he isn't.He is havinga meetingwith the
personnel
manager.

:f= li===
1 0 Readthe postcardandput theverbsin brackets
intothe correcttense.

thenin pairs
makeupas
12 Lookat thepictures,
manysentences
aspossible
foreachoneusing
prepositions
of place,
asintheexample.

ot:.;=
,,

"t..
:i\
..

"*i.

Deor Ann,
How ore you?I l)
.
(write) to you
The
hotel
2)
(b.)
from lomoica.
mognificent.
It's very hot here.We 3)
(get) o
greattonlThe kids4)
.
(hove) a greot
time. They 5)
(spend) most of the
doy by the seo. Right now they 5)
(build) o sondcostle.
(So) fishingwithTim.They
John,7)
8)
(go) ftshingolmosteverydoy. We
9)
(notldo) much srghtseeingyeq
but tomorrowwe | 0)
(go) on o trip
round the islond.We I I) .
(look
to)
it
We
12)
. (come)
forward
bock on I 5th August.
Hope you are OK.
Seeyou soon.
Love,
Suson

A Thetableisin frontof thesofa.


Thelampisonthewall,nextto theflowers.

l .

U S eO T-F"nv n
" -l't s n
11

Fillin goneto,beentoor beenin.

. Error
Correction

2
5

4
5
6
7
8

Tony has
the post office to 0 u y
s o m es t a m p sH e ' l lb e b a c ks o o n
Louisehasnever
Spainbefore
I h a v e n ' st e e nM i k ea l l w e e k H e ' s
NewYorkon business
lt's the first time that l've
r e s t a u r a nbtu t l ' l ld e f i n i t e lbye c o m i n gb a c ka g a i n
| thought MissStephens
was in her office Do you
know whereshe's
Haveyou
t h e n e w c i n e m ay e t ?
Sorry I couldn't call you back earlier
a meetingall afternoon
We've
J i m ' sf l a t t w i c e s i n c eh e
move0In

outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
13 Cross
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Jameshasbeenworkedherefor morethan a year


Thebookshopis overtherenearto the bakery
| believe
what shedoessays
S h eh a sb e e nt o l i v i n gi n L o n d o nf o r t h e l a s tt w o
years
We haven'tbeento that restaurant
for sincea long
time
L a u r ai s b e e n v i s i t i n gh e r g r a n d p a r e n tast t h e
weeKeno
Sallyhasfounda beautifulnew flat yet
W h a ta r ey o u b e d o i n gt o m o r r o wn i g h t ?

69

|llilt

EffiU5*
' WordFormation

-al: (nation + national)


-ic: (artist ) arti stic)
-ous: (fame--+famous)
-y'.(thirst t thirsty)

. KeyWordTransformations

)y: (day : i6ily1


-ful: (peace--+peaceful)
-less:(hope--+hopeless)
-ive: (effect + effective)

Thesuffixes-ful, -lessand -ive can be addedto both


nounsand verbsto form adiectives

14

Studythe examples.
In eachcasethe secondsentencehas
a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.

Paulstartedworkingheretwo yearsago
been
Paulhasbeenworking herefor two years

| havenevervisitedGermanybefore
first
This is the first time I have ever visited
Germany

lt's morethan a monthsinceI saw her


seen
I haven'tseenher for morethan a month

Formthe correctadjective
fromthe wordin bold.

It'sa large
northof the country

city in the

INDUSTRY

I d i d n ' tl i k et h e f o o d ,I t h o u g h ti t w a s
a bit too
Sam

always buys the


. newspaper

yourlivingroom?
Whendid you redecorate
yourliving
ago
How long ago did you redecorate
room?

SALT
I haven'tbeenshoppingfor threeweeks

local
WEEK

last
;
{.,

I lastwentshopping
threeweeksago

"4'*trxxr:;iai;**:r:;*y?*ii&aattst*.r?ri.:8ae,teF.*x#.ti'i,*7#,t;lwtye**:*a*r,a4@

Jane is such an
person,she'salwaysrunningaround
d o i n gs o m e t h i n g

ENERGY

Followinga
diet and
gettingplentyof exercise
is the best
way to loseweight

HEALTH

He reallywantedto buythe carbut it


was too

15

L, .+

uut

i+

tt

may
;-

^l-^

finished
EXPENSE

t) dt)u

HERO

vcty

'10

a coupleof weeks
.

BEAUTY

young

The dentistpromisedthat the whole


procedure would be completely

PAIN
1 ' l He's a
.
lawyer
Everyone
in town knowshim

12 It's

Shernovedto NewYorkfour yearsago.


living
She
in New Yorkfor four years

DANGER

exgiting
Shewasa
woman

Jason
writingthat reportyet.

I lastphonedJoea coupleof weeksago

be
,,^-,,

Completethe sentences
with two to fivewords,
including
the wordin bold.Do not changethe
meaning
of the originalsentence.
1 Jason
isstillwritinothatreoort

Jumpinginto the riverto savethe


younggirlwas sucha
t h i n gt o d o
White-water rafting

to argue with
him He alwaysdoeswhat he wants
anyway

SUCCESS
POINT

Whendid you movehouse?


ago
How
you movehouse?
Cathystartedlearningltalianfiveyearsago.
been
Cathy
fiveyears
Tomalwaysgetsto work on time
late
Tom
for work.
I haven'ttalkedto him for a week
since
lt'sa week
him.
Shehasn'ttidiedherroomsinceMonday
last
She
Monday

70

ti

i 1 Evehasn'tfounda new flat yet.


looking Eveis still lookingfor a new flat

:-==:ij:i:=
' O p e nC l o z e
16

Choice
" \,4ultiple
Cloze

Readthe text belowandthinkof the


wordwhichbestfrtseachsoace.
Use
onlyonewordin eachspace.
Thereisan
(0)at thebeginning.
example

' :a":'

::'
i',,:.:.:

| ...,,1..,,
,,:.,,11::,:l

ArchitectFrank Lloyd Wright 0) ft+: designed


s e v e r aul n u s u aal n d e y e - c a t c h i nbgu i l d i n g sb,u t
Fallingwater,
in Pennsylvania,
USA, is probably
oneof 1)
m o s ta m a z i n gd e s i g n sW h e n
y o u t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i ot hna t t h i s b u i l d r n g
'1
wasbuilt2)
936 when the architectwas
nearlyseventy
yearsold, it isevenmoreamazing
At 3)
glance,the structuremay look a
little brt 4)
a pile of concreLb
elocks,
which is about 5)
fall into the stream
below However,the house is a lot safer
6)
it looks The large stone slabsare
s e c u r e l ya n c h o r e dt o t h e h r l l s i d ea, n d t h e
h e a v i e s te c t i o ni s a c t u a l lby u i l to n s o l i dg r o u n d
7)
thoughthe front sectionof the house
hangs8)
the water,it is in no dangerof
c o l l a p s i n ga,s e a c h f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n gh a s
9)
own supportsystemThe front door of
t h e h o u s ei s s e t b a c k1 0 )
t h e o u t e rw a l l
As 11)
a s v i s i t o rw
s a l kt h r o u g ht h i sd o o r ,
theynoticea balconyin the far corner12)
offersa magnificent
view of the waterfallThe
g r o u n df l o o r 1 3 )
c o n t a r nas d i n i n ga r e a
and fireplace,
aswell ascomfortable
placesto sit
14)
admire the spectacularscenery
s u r r o u n d i nt g
h e h o u s eF a l l i n g w a t iesrt h e e n v y

t arrary*7t?/t?.W.tft1,'/4

??s..,.:'.

17

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA,B,Cor D which


bestfitseachspace.
(0)at the beginning.
Thereisan example

Renovating
Yourhouse
Houseprices,0) ririg taxes,very rarelygo down, so if you find
1)
i n a p o s i t i o nw h e r ey o u n e e dm o r el i v i n gs p a c e2, )
r e n o v a t i n gM a n yf a m i l i e sn o w a d a yas r e f i n d i n gt h a t t h e i r h o m e sa r e
too 3)
Whether they 4)
a secondbathroom,more
storagespaceor an extra bedroom,a lot of peopleare 5)
to
r e n o v a tteh e i rh o m e si n s t e a d
o f b u y i n gs o m e t h i n bg i g g e r
The6)
for thistrendare,for the mostpart,financialThecost
o f b u y i n ga n e w h o m ea n d t h e p r o b l e mosf m o v i n gh o u s ea r ee n o u g h
to makeanybodythink twice beforedecidingto relocate Renovating
a l l o w sy o u t o s t a yi n y o u r o w n n e i g h b o u r h o oadn d i n y o u r 7 )
h o m ew h i l em a k i n gi t m o r ep r a c t i c aaln dc o m f o r t a b lteo l i v ei n
A l t h o u g h i t i s t e m p t i n gt o 8 )
and do the renovations
yoursef, it is alwaysa good ideato 9)
a professionalTherewill
b e t h i n g sy o u h a v e n ' t h o u g h ta b o u t o r l u s t m i g h t n o t b e a w a r eo f ,
s u c ha s s u p p o r t i n sgt r u c t u r e sg ,o v e r n m e nzto n i n gr e g u l a t i o nos r, h o w
t h e s er e n o v a t i o nmsi g h ta f f e c ta n y1 0 )
c h a n g eyso u m i g h tw a n t
t o m a k e A p r o f e s s i o nwaill l a l s ob e a b l et o h e l py o u w o r k w i t h i ny o u r
you11)
b u d g e ta n da d v i s e
i n s u r a n cree q u i r e m e n t s
A n o t h e ra d v a n t a goef r e n o v a t i nigs t h a t w h i l et h e w o r k i s g o i n go n
y o u c a n u p g r a d e y o u r p l u m b i n g a n d e l e c t r i c acl o n n e c t i o n sa s
12)
a sa d d i n gi n s u l a t i o nl t ' sa l s oa g o o dt r m et o 1 3 )
alr
c o n d i t i o n i n cge, n t r ahl e a t i n go r a h o m es e c u r i tsyy s t e m
S o ,w h e t h e ry o u w a n t a ' h o m eo f f i c e ' a
, ' g r a n n yf l a t ' o r j u s t m o r e
storage
s p a c e1, 4 )
a g o o dl o o ka r o u n dy o u rh o u s et,h e s o l u t i o n
y o ui n t h e f a c e
m i g h tb e 1 5 )

0 A such
1 A oneself
2 A consider
? A cosy
4 A have
5 A thinking
6 A reasons
7 A real
8 A make
9 A hire
1 0 A past
11 A o n
t z A long
1 3 A input
1 4 A make
1 5 A seeing

f:

like
themselves
think
spacrous
buy

B
B
B
B
B ehnn<inn
B m e a nnr9 5
ts n e w
B try
P
rent
B fut ure
E to
B much
B install
B rry
B staring

D
D
D
D
D
D
f
^,,"^^-^L
D
Pur PU)c)
C own
D
C frnd
D
C buy
D
C old
D
C over
D
C soon
D
C build
D
L 0 0
D
C punching D
C
C
C
C
C

yourself
remember
expensive
use
wanting

s o
your
d o
cramped
need
needing
findings
only
attempt
borrow
added
for
well
fix
take
falling

71

ffi?ffifr'

&T38^3%ffi

W e u s et h e p a s tc o n t i n u o u s :
'
.

.
.

for an actionwhichwas in progress


at a statedtime in the past We don't mentionwhen the actionstartedor
finishedAt 8 o'clockthis
morninglwasgettinEreadyforwork.
f o r a n a c t i o nw h i c hw a si n p r o g r e swsh e na n o t h e ar c t i o ni n t e r r u p t eidt W e u s et h e p a s tc o n t i n u o ufso r t h e
(longeraction)and the pastsimplefor the actionwhich interruptedit (shorteraction)They
actionin progress
werewalkingto thestationwhentheysawtheaccident
for two or moresimultaneous
actionsin the past Thechildrenwereplayinginthegardenwhiletheirmotherwas
trimmingthehedges.
t o d e s c r i b e t h e a t m o s p h e r e , s e t t i n g e t c a n d t o g i v e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t iW
o nhteonalswt o rkye u p l f o u n d
thesunwasshiningand thetemperature
wasrisingfast.Lizwasmakingbreakfast
in thekitchenwhile.JohnandSarah
weredrinkingcoffeeon thebalcony.

PastPerfect

&ffir*gffiffiffir
&mffi%ffi

,l,i
l,;l l

We use usedto + infinitiveto refer to past habits or states.


I n s u c hc a s e u
s s e dt o c a nb e r e p l a c ebdy t h e p a s ts i m p l ew i t h n o c h a n g ei n m e a n i n g
I usedto go to Waleson holidayeveryyear.
WhenI wasyounger,
WhenI wasyounger,
I wentto Waleson holidayeveryyear.

given.Use
usingthe timeexpressions
complete
eachof the sentences
Tony,Lyn,SteveandSally,
Foreachperson,
eachexpression
onlyonce.
1 o at the time o sincehe was a youngboy
. b y t h e t i m e h e w a s3 0 . a b o u ts i xm o n t h sa g o
a
b
c
d
J_

=
1...
>l

-l

I first met Tony


H ew a sw o r k i n gi n a n l t a l i a nr e s t a u r a n t
H eh a dd r e a m e o
d f b e i n ga c h e f . .
He plannedto openhisown restaurant

. by the time shearrived. for ages


. a coupleof daysago . until9 o'clock
Lynand I arrangedto go to the cinema
b We had beentalkingabout seeingthe latest
EthanHawkefilm
c Unfortunately,
her busdidn'tarrive
d T h ef i l m h a da l r e a dsyt a r t e d. . ,

a Stevecrashedhiscarinto a wall ..
b H ew a sd r i v i n gh o m e
becauseit had
c The roadswereverydangerous
b e e ns n o w t n g
how slipperyit was
d Hesaidhe didn't realise
. when shewasyounger. for hours
. a coupleof timesa week . lastweek
a
b
c
d

I saw Sallyat the gym


S h es a i ds h eh a db e e ng o i n g.
Sheusedto be veryactive ..
lt wasgoodto seeherandwe talked

73

;:2

E*n*ffi
2

Fillin the correctpasttenseof the verbsin brackets.

Underline
word.
thecorrect

(you/do)yesterday?
(play)squashwith Pete

1 A: What
B: |

(you/speak)
to Kate?
( s l e e pw
) h e nI c a l l e d

2 A.
B : N o ,s h e

3 A : 5 u el o o k e dr e a l l yt i r e dy e s t e r d adyi,d n ' ts h e ?
(study)all
B: Yes,she
n i g h tf o r t h e e x a m
( y o u / m e e tP) h i l ?
4 A: When
B : A c o u p l eo f y e a r sa g o ,w e
(not/ live)hereverylongat the time

(you/be)ill lastweek?
(have)a really

5 A:
B: Yes,|
b a dc o l da l lw e e k

8
9

6 A : l ' m r e a l l yh a p p yT o mg o t t h a tj o b
( l o o k )f o r a g e s
B : I know,he
7 4 . Why wereyou late?
B : O h ,J e n n y
(still/get)readyat 9 o'clock
'1
the film at 1 o'clock?
B : N o .i t

Usethe promptsbelowto askandanswer


questions,
asin the example.
Youmayuseyour
own ideasaswell.

(finish)by then

Completethe sentences
about yourself.
1
2
3
4
5

6
(you/still/watch)

8 A :

10

W e h a d j u s t / l a t e l yf i n i s h e de a rn g w i e n l h e y
arrived
Were you watching the French film on TV
earlier/before?
He had beenworkingthere since/fortwo and a
h a l fy e a r s
She had already/yetwritten the letter when he
c a l l e dh e r
The companywas previously/beforehand
run by
thegovernment
T h et e a mh a d n ' tl o s ta g a m eu n t i l / y e tl a s tw e e k
Shelately/recently
movedto London
We had never/everbeentherebefore
Hewasalways/stilllivingat homewith hisparents
t h i st i m e l a s ty e a r
H e m a d e d i n n e ra f t e r / f o l l o w i n gh e g o t h o m e
fromwork

T w om o n t h sa g o ,w h i l eI
W h e nI w a sa y o u n gc h i l d I,
D u r i n gm y l a s th o l i d a yI ,
On my firstdayat school,I
LastSaturday,
afterI

pierlastnight.
Thelntercity
Ferrycroshedintothe
Lookat the pictureandput the verbsin the list
intothe pastcontinuous
to describe
whateach
personwasdoingat the time,asin the example.
r look r climb. readr holdo wofk . search

@
@

a
a

M r J o h n s o/na t t h e w a t e r
Mrs Smith/ the stalrs
S h e i l a/ a b o o k
A m a n/ o n h i sl a P t o P
comPuter
Mr Smith/ in hisbriefcase
/ a newspaper
.loyce

WhenthelntercityFerry
rrn<hpd infn fhp nipr Alr

waslooking
at the
Johnson
water.

t h e r a i ns t a r t- d r i v et o M u n i c h- p u l lo v e r- w a i t
ro srop
A: Whatwereyou
doingwhentherainstarted?
B: lwasdrivingto
Munich.
A: Whatdidyoudo?
B: I pulledoverandwaitedforit to stop.
the storm hlt - watch TV/livingroom - close/
shutters
t h e a c c i d e nht a p p e n e-d d r i n ka c u po f c o f f e e / ian
c a f e- r rr n o r r f s i dteo h e l o
the President arrived - wait outside the
- wave/myflag
Presidential
Palace
the fire broke out - work/in my office- run to/
emergency
exit
- r e a da b o o k - h i d e
t h e e a r t h q u a k he a p p e n e d
u n d e rt h e t a b l e

Lookat the pictures'and


the prompts,
thenmake
up sentences
usingpasttenses,
asin theexample.

Puttheverbsin b'ackets
intothecorrect
past
tense.
1 W h i l eI
( p u t )r h e c h i l d r e n
t o b e d ,t h e p h o n e
( r ing )
2 S h ew a sn e r v o ubs e c a u sseh e
(wait) a weekto hearif she
(get)the tob
( b e )a t r i e c : s
3 Yesterday,
I
(drive)
s t o pw h e n a f r i e n d
(offer)me a lii
by and
(see)the film lastweekero
4 We
(not/enjoy)it at aril
but I
(not/see)her since she
5 l
(move)to her new flai
(you/be)lastnight?
6 Where
(stand) outside the
theatrefor two hours!
|
. (know)she
(cry)because
hereyeswerered,
(work) as a waiter
8 After he
i n a n l t a l i a nr e s t a u r a nf ot r t e n y e a r sh e q u i t h i sj o b
(open)a coffeeshop
and

Eve/deliver
newsoaoers/her
dad/leave/for
work
Evewasdelivering
newspapers
whenherdadleftforwork.
Whrle
Evewasdelivering
newspapers,
herdadleftforwork.
AsEvewasdeliverrng
newspapers,
herdadleftforwork.

9
Tony/wor[</h
is sister/cal
I him

Compare
the pictures.
Whatdid peopleuseto have
in the past?Whatdo we havenowadays?
Usethe
promptsandthe pictures
to makesentences,
asin
theexamole.
o olortriritrr r rlnthp< r fr rrnit'rro . rnmnr rforc
r d e c o r a t i o n so t p l p n h o n e s

Thegirls/row/the
boys/play
rugby

People
didn'tusetohaveelectricity
inthepast.They
used
tohaveoil
lamps.
Nowadays,
wehave
electricity.

Steve/shop/Sa
ndralprepare/di
nner

10

Whatdidyouuseto do/didn't
useto do during
yoursummer
holiday
lastyear?Choose
fromthe
listandmakeup sentences.
Youcanuseyourown
ideas.
o getup late. spend
timewithyourfriends
. go swimming
. sunbathe
. readbooks
. eatout at restaurants

Emma/plant/a
tree/herdad/build/the
fence

I usedtogetuplate.

75

&mm%ffi

(0).
thecorrect
tense,
asintheexample
11 Circle

12

Matchthetwo halves
of thesentences
in columns
A andB.Then,makesentences
byjoiningthem
usingthe wordswhen/while/so/asor
because/
since/for.
llT-] Janewasworkingon thecomputer
beenskiing
l2Tl I haven't
in Cuba
FTI Hehasbeenliving
ETI Shewastryingto bakea cake
ETI ttookmyumbrella
ETI we weretoo tiredto qo out

tho nvon r:lnht

firo

b we stayedin and orderedpizza


c

T i mw a sm a k i n gd i n n e r

i t L o o k eldi k ei t w a sg o i n gt o r a i n

6 months

I w a s 1 8 y e a r so l d

U s eo'f 'F" Jn" ' o l i s h


and therewasn'ta cloudin the sky Evenbetter,it was
t h e f i r s td a yo f t h e s u m m e rh o l i d a yasn d I 2 )
forwardto it for weeks Everyyear,on the first day of
t h e h o l i d a y s| 3 )
to the beachwith my
f r i e n d sb, u t t h a t w a s l a t e ra n d t h e r ew a s n o r u s h F o r
t h e t i m e b e i n gI j u s t4 )
t h e c h a n c et o h a v e
a i i ei n A f t e rl g o t u p a n da s| 5 )
c o f f e et,h e
t e i e p h o n rea n g l t w a sm y f r i e n dA m y ,s h e6 )
thatthe weathew
r a s g o i n gt o b e b a dt h a t a f t e r n o o n
We 7)
i i t h o u g hb e c a u s e
i t w a s s u c ha
perfectday, so we arrarged to rneet an hour later
However,JUstas I left the housea huge blackcloud
8)
o n t h e h o r i z o na n d f i v em i n u t e sl a t e ri t
9)
w i t h r a i n I c o u l d n 'b
t elieve
m y l u c k ,t h e
w e a t h e r1 0 )
f a n t a s t iac l l m o n t ha n d t h e n
o n t h a t d a yo f a l ld a y si,t r a i n e d

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

76

Awas being S)was


C u s e dt o b e
A w a ss h i n i n g B s h o n e
C h a ds h o n e
A looked
B h a db e e nl o o k i n gC w a sl o o k i n g
A h a dg o n e
B w a sg o i n g
C went
A hadenjoyed B enjoyed
C hadbeenenloying
A w a sm a k i n g B h a db e e nm a k i n gC h a dm a d e
A w a sh e a r i n g B h e a r d
C h a dh e a r d
A d i d n ' tb e l i e v eB w e r e n ' tb e l i e v i nC
g h a d n ' tb e l i e v e d
A w a sa p p e a r i nBg h a da p p e a r e d C a p p e a r e d
A h a dp o u r e d B w a sp o u r i n g
C u s e dt o p o u r
A h a db e e n
B was
C w a sb e i n g

. KeyWordTransformations
Studythe examples.
In eachcasethe second
sentence
hasa similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.
!1)t!ii!r!.rlHEfilrldsFsrN:.iiiElt

i:ij,iirlr!aiiilr.;i'qlttlfr+f,111i1ii.!1r-d:Erii;1ri!in,i+iiri,;Yi
1 J o h n. l o i n etdh e c o m p a n sy i xm o n t h sa g o .
has
J o h nh a sb e e nw o r k i n gf o r t h e c o m p a n y
for sixmonths
2 W h e nw e w e r ec h i l d r e nD, a dw o u l dt a k e u s t o t h e
p a r ko n S u n d a ay f t e r n o o n s
used
Dad used to take u s t o t h e p a r k o n
Sunday afternoons, when we were
children,
3 When I went to Francelastsummer,it was the first
time I hadeverbeenabroad
never
I had neverbeen abroaduntil I went to
F r a n c lea s ts u m m e r
4

H o w l o n gi s i t s i n c ew e w e n t t o t h e c i n e m a ?
last
W h e nd i d w e l a s tg o t o t h e c i n e m a ?

| d r d n ' ct a l lh e ru n t i lI h a ds p o k e nt o S t e v e
before
I spoketo StevebeforeI calledher

I had neverbeento that restaurant


before
first
It was the first time I had beento that
restaurant

'ir.,
'\,i

,f
sr;,1!,rlul4r,rrr',,-':,f;iiirtrj:,rrl:irf\;!-f;fr411

rirrli+ii:!r't::Bir,llLf{lrF,i:F,R

&
$rgrt}ffiur
Kmw%ffi
thesentences
withtwoto fivewords,
13 Complete
including
thewordsin bold.Donotchange
the
meaning
of theoriginalsentence.
Davidstartedstudyingheretwo yearsago
been
David
two years
We didn't leavethe houseuntil everybodyWAS
ready
before We waited until evervonewas ready

8 Johnwasworkingveryhardlatelyat that time.


9 I was left the buildingafter everybodyelse had
gone
1 0 The kitchenwas being redecorated
for yesterday
afternoon

' WordFormation

the house.
WhenJasonwasyoungerhe workedin NewYork
used
Jason
in NewYorkwhen he wasyounger
We had neverbeento that cinemabefore
time
lt
h a db e e nt o t h a t c i n e m a
Rosehasn'tpaidher rentyet.
still
Rose

l'd neverseensucha closerace


ever
lt wasthe
s e en .
It'sthreeyearssinceI went awayon holiday
have
I
on holidayfor threeyears
It was the first time she had given a speechin
public
She
a speechin publicbefore

. LrrorLorrection
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
14 Cross
1 He hadalwaysbeenwantedto be a singer
2 Laurahad beenworkingtherefor a coupleof years
ago.
3 We were trying to be quiet becauseSarahwas
beingasleep
4 | haven'tneverboughtanynew CDsrecently
5 | would usedto go therewhen I was younger
6 We were hungryso we had decidedto phonefor a
ptzza.
7 They movedto the countryside
sincethree years
490

agarnst,preventing(antibacterial)
two (bilingua9
with, together,mutual (co-educational)
between,among (intercontinental)
wrongly,badly,not (misinformed)
one(monolingual)
many(multicultural)

. . .. renr

Whendid you leaveschool?


since
How long is it
school?

never

antl-:
bi-:
co-:
inter-:
mis-:
mono-:
multi-:

thecorrect
adjective
fromthewordin bold.
1 5 Form
1 After the earthquake,the
governmentaskedfor helpfrom
the ..
..
community,
lt is a(n) .
event,
held in May and November
eachyear.
3 T h e yb u i l ta n e w
throughthe centreof town
4 Natashawas wearinga bright
2

NATIONAL
ANNUAL

RAIL

COLOURED
Jumper
Makeyourselfclearso that you
canavoidany
UNDERSTANDING
Therunners
sprinted
aroundthe
track in a(n,)
CLOCKWISE
direction.
Hethankedeverybody
andsaid
that they had all been very
OPERATIVE
The governmenthas decided
to start a(n)
SMOKING
c a m p a t g nt o m a k e p e o p l e
aware of the danger of
smoking
Most collegenewslettersare
published
WEEKLY

10 The Mayor has been accused


of
of public
funds

USE

77

*E

&

4--3%ffi,
&Y-a
{ tr\an
vvLtr

16

M u l t i p lC
e h o i cC
e loze

- l

I tr\-76
!tv4L

Readthetextbelowandthinkof the
wordwhichbestfitseachspace.
Use
onlyoneword in eachspace.There
is an
(0)at the beginning.
example

17

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA,B,Cor D which


(0)at the beginning.
bestfitseachspace.
Thereisan example

C..o en"nel
Vakingthe riqhl rrtove
M o v i n gh o u s e0 ) l S a nu p s e t t i n eg x p e r i e n c e
W h e n y o u m o v ey o u a r e 1 ) , . . . , . . . o n l y
l e a v i n gy o u r h o m e b u t y o u a r e a l s o l e a v i n g
your neighbourhood, friends, familiar
s u r r o u n d i n gasn d , 2 )
s o m ec a s e s ,
your family You 3)
be well
organized The best way to do this is
4) ..
m a k i n gl i s t s :l i s t so f t h i n g sy o u
w a n t t o k e e p s, e l lo r t h r o w 5 ) . . .
, a n dl i s t s
of thingsyou haveto do, suchas6)
v n r r r r r t i l i i i a qr r r t n f f

As difficult7)
movingis for you,
it is just as bad, 8)
not worse,for
y o u r c h i l d r e na n d p e t s l t i s a 9 )
harderfor them to understand
why they have
t o m o v ea n d t h e y 1 0 )
not know
w h a t t o e x p e c t1 1 )
i s a g o o di d e a
to take them to their new neighbourhood
before you move and show 12)
t h e i rn e w h o m e
When you first moveinto your new home,
makean effortto 13)
to know your
n e i g h b o u ras n d e n c o u r a g e
y o u r c h i l d r e nt o
b r i n gt h e i r n e w c l a s s m a t ehso m e O n c ey o u
havestarted14)
makefriends,you
w t l lf e e lm o r e1 5 )
h o m ea n d ,b e f o r e
y o u k n o w i i , y o u ' l lh a v ef o u n d a n o t h e rp l a c e
t h a t y o uw i l l b e s a dt o l e a v eb e h i n d l

l l r l l l l l L l l ] ]i i l i l l [ ] r i i r [ ] r L i i r L D I r i ' I L : i r r r 4 l ' , N r n r ! , , , ! , , .

Gabrielle"Coco" Chanel 0) kvdr$


born in Saumur, Southern
F r a n c e a n d w a s 1 ) . . . . . . . . . .u. p i n a F r e n c h o r p h a n a g e .S h e
b e c a m e a n i n n o v a t i v ed r e s s d e s i g n e r2 l . . . . . . . . . .r.u l e d o v e r
Parisianhigh fashion for almost six decades.At age 30 she
. . t i n y h a t s h o p a n d q u i c k l ya d d e d s w e a t e r ss, h i r t s
3) .........a
and accessories.Withinfive years her simple and comfortable
designs attractedthe 4) ...........of influentialwealthy women.
H e r s t y l ew a s a r e f r e s h i n g
c h a n g e5 ) . . . . . . . . .t.h. e c o n f i n i n ga n d
tight-fittingcorsetsand long dresseswith petticoatsof the time.
jersey dresses, bell-bottomtrousers, trench
She 6)
coats, turtlenecksweatersand the classic "littleblack dress".
Costume jewelleryas well as bobbed hair are also credited
7 ) . . . . . . . . . . .C h a n e l . T r a d i t i o n a lC h a n e l a c c e s s o r i e si n c l u d e
m u l t i p l es t r a n d s 8 ) . . . . . . . . . .p. e a r l s a n d g o l d c h a i n s , q u i l t e d
handbagsand sling-backpumps in ivorywith blacktoes.At the
9 ) . . . . . . . . . o. .f h e r c a r e e r ,C h a n e l1 0 ) . . . . . . . . . 3
. ., 5 0 0p e o p l e ,T h e
e m p i r e 1 1 ) . . . . . . . . . .a. f a s h i o n h o u s e , a t e x t i l e b u s i n e s s ,a
costumejewelleryworkshop,and perfume laboratorieswhere
t h e f a m o u s p e r f u m eC h a n e l N o . 5 w a s 1 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . C h a n e l
r e t i r e di n 1 9 3 8 b u t 1 3 ) . . . . . . . . . .i .n 1 9 5 4 t o i n t r o d u c ea n o t h e r
c l a s s i ct,h e c a r d i g a ns u i t .T o d a y ,C h a n e l1 4 ) . . . . . . . . .t.o. b e o n e
o f t h e m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s1 5 ) . . . . . . . . . .i.n t h e w o r l d o f f a s h i o n ,
fragrances,and cosmetics.

Offiwas
B is
C have
D be
lAgrown
Braised
Clived
Dbrought
2Awhich
Bwhom
Dwhose
Cwho
3 A s t a r t e d B b e g a n C r e p l a c e d D o p e n e d
4 A attention B affectlon C aid
D assistance
5Ainto
Bfrom
Cwith
Dfor
6 A f o r m e d B s h a p e d C l n t r o d u c e d D a n n o u n c e d
T
{
f
o
r
B
b
y
C
t
o
D
o
f
S A a b o u t B o f C f o r D a c r o s s
9 Atop
B height
C head
D point
10 A employed B worked
C used
D bossed
11 Aincluded Bembraced Cgrouped
Dsurrounded
12 A forged
B imagined C created
D revised
13 A returned B reviewed C restored
D repLaced
14 A persists B continues C maintains D proceeds
15 A types
B kinds
C names
D forms

ffirmruffiffin'
@
emw%

(Units'l-2)
Revision

13 He'sthe mostboringpersonwe've
. . met
A never
C sometimes
B yet
D ever

thecorrect
item.
18 Circle

'14

I
what you mean but there must be an
easierway to dealwith the situation
A amseeing
C haveseen
B see
D havebeenseeing
2

Sandra
for a new flat for ages,but shestill
h a s n ' ft o u n da n y t h i n g
A looks
C haslooked
B i sl o o k i n g
D h a sb e e nl o o k i n g

3 At thistime lastyear,they
in Liverpool
A h a ds t u d i e d
C study
B werestudying
D arestudying
4

In thosedayshe usually
to college,but on
that occasion
he took the bus
A i sw a l k i n g
C w a sw a l k i n g
B walks
D walked

5 A s m a l ls t r e a mr u n s
village
A across
B over
6

t h e m i d d l eo f t h e
through
D among

My houseis on West Road, .


groun0
A opposite
B along

the football

C over
D against

7 Where
on holidaylastyear?
A wereyou going
C d i dy o u g o
B haveyou been
D d i dy o u u s e dt o g o
8

Recently,
we
A went
B weregoing

'10

1 1 N o b o d yh a s .
accident
A never
B still

h e rh u s b a n cda l r e o
C when
D after

1 6 H o wl o n g
A are
B have

C were
D will

C h a v eb e e ng o i n g
D h a dg o n e

. . eachothersincetheywere
C haveknown
D usedto know
t o l d m e t h e t r u t h a b o u tt h e
C ever
D yet

12 He hasbeenstudyingFrench
i999
A from
C in
B since
D just

y o u b e e nw a i t i n gf o r t h e b u s ?

word.
19 Fillinthemissing
1 T h i sm o r n i n gj,u s t a s I
leaving
the
h o u s et,h e t e l e p h o n rea n g
2 WhenPaulwasyounger,he
to play
rugbyfor the countyteam
3 How
. haveyou beenworkingin the
caf6?
4
monththeytravelledto praguefor
5
6
7
8
9

| was . ., . eatingbreakfastwhen the postman


delivered
a parcel.
A already
C before
B yet
D still
Charlieand Stan.
children.
A know
B were knowing

1 5 S h ew a s h a v i n gd i n n e r
A since
B while

. to the gym everynight after

WOTK

Shehad neverbeento poland ..


A yet
C already
B still
D before

10

the weekend
S h eh a d
j o g g i n gi n t h e p a r ks o s h e
wasexhausted
I didn't see Sam at the gym, he must have left
. we arrived
| haven'theardfrom her
she left
thecompany
S h ew a s n ' th u n g r yb e c a u sseh eh a d.
..
eaten.
Theywaited . .
everyonehad arrived
b e f o r et h e ya n n o u n c etdh e i re n g a g e m e n t
l-'lewas drivingto work
he ran out
of petrol

11
.
y o u c o m i n gw i t h u st o n i g h t ?
1 2 Haveyou ever
to France?
1 3 Theirproductionincreases
day
1 4 Thejourneyhad beenverypleasant
a womansittingbehindme startedto shout
1 5 It'sa month
sheleft for ltaly
1 6 What have you been doing
morning?
1 7 I w a sb a k i n ga p i e
T o mw a ss e t t i n g
t h et a b l e
18 He has
travelledby boatonce
19 Theyhave
. repaired
the roof.
20 IsMary
workingfor BTXMotors?

79

ffi!$r

emffi%ffi

:r..,.
We usethe future continuous:
.
.
.

for acttonswhichwill be in progress


at a statedfuturetime I'mgoingonholidaytoSpain.Thistimenextweekl'll
be
Iyingin thesun.
f o r a c t i o nw
s h i c hw i l l d e f i n i t e lhya p p e ni n t h e f u t u r ea st h e r e s u lot f a routine
rc
or arrangementlwill beplaying
tenniswithAndytomorrowmornrng.
when we askpolitelyaboutsomeone's
plansfor the nearfuture Willyoubedrivingto thepartytonight?
Would
you beableto givemea lift?
l:',, . r:

Theywill havearrivedin Londonby5 o'clock.

Note:until/tillareonly usedin negativesentences:


Shewill
nothavefinishedthereportuntil/till
6o'clock.
(NOT
Shewillhavefrnished
thereportby 6.30.
w+'i$lt4#e#)

80

&ffirmmffilffr
#ffim%ffi
Future Perfect ContinuoUS(wirhavebeen+ present
participre)
We usethe future perfectcontinuous:
o

to emphasise
the durationof an actionup to a certaintime in the fuiure ByJune,
hewillhavebeenteaching
in
thisschoolfor fifteenyears.

Note
\U LC
'

The
perfect
s future
ruLurv p
t r rr c L L L
continuous
U t t L t I l u u u 5 tis
5u
usecl
5 e u with
wlLIl D
by
y ..".
". T
for
or
',
,l,

a. Putthe verbsin brackets


intothe correcttense
to describe
the future.
Tomorrownight my friendSophieis comingto visitme. Her
train 1)
... (arrive)at sixo,clockand sinceI
2)
(still/work) at that time, we
3)
. .. (meet)in the citycentreat sevenl'm
sure that we 4)
(have) dinner at
Gianni'sbecausewe alwaysseemto end up there.By the
time we have finished eating I guess that Sophie
5)...... ...
.. (persuade
m)e t o t a k e h e r t o t h e
cinemabecause
there'sa film that shewantsto see

i:
. .':
..1:_. .'..,r,
.

b. Whichtenseformwasusedin parta to talk


about:
a timetables/programmes ...
o actionswhich will have finishedbeforea stateo
futuretime
a fixedarrangement
in the nearfuture
d an action which will be in progressat a stated
futuretime .
e prediction
basedon what we know

81

Gremffiffi$
w%w
2

Complete
eachexchange
by fillingin willor be
goingto.

Underline
the correcttenseform.

1 A: Whatareyoudoingthisafternoon?
B: I
meetJessfor a coffee.
Would
y o u l i k et o c o m e ?
2

A Didyou remembermy book?


B : Oh no, sorry |
. give it to you
tomorrow

3 A : We haven'tgot anybread
B : O K ,I
g o a n dg e t a l o a f
4

A M e l i ss t u d y i n g
m e d i c i n ei s, n ' ts h e ?
B : Yes,she
be a doctorwhen she
f i n i s h ecso l l e g e

5 A : What
......(you)
to the party?
B : I don't know,probablymy blackdress
6 A : It'sverycoldtoday,isn'tit?
B : Yes,l'm sureit
7

wear

Putthe verbsin brackets


into the futuresimple,
futurecontinuous
or futureperfecf,
asin the
exampres.
a

By Monday morning, Kelly will have written


(write)her Historyessay
b Kellycan't come with us on Sundaybecause
shevylllbewriting(write) her Historyessay

snow

A It turnsout that I cancomeafterall.


B : Oh excellent,| . .
see you on
Fridaythen

8 A : I don't want to missthe startof the play.


B : It'sOK lf we leavenow,we
be
t h e r eo n t i m e
9 A : Watchoutl You .
burnyourself
B : O h ,I d i d n ' tr e a l i steh e o v e nw a ss t i l lo n
1 0 A : l s S u ed r i v i n gi n t ot o w n ?
B : Yes,I'm sureshe
if you askher.

We will start the meetingas soon as everyone


arrives/willarrive
I expectwe are being/will be there in another
n o u ro r s o
If you need/willneedanymorehelp,just askBob.
Joycewon't be able to come unlessshe has
finished/willhavefinishedheressay
I doubt whetheryou are/will be ableto find it if
you don't askherto drawyou a map.
Do you thinkyou'llseeKeithwhenyou are/willbe
at work?

giveyou a lift

a. Dr Saunders
isthe headof the politics
department
at a smallcollege.
Lookat the
calendar
whichshowshisarrangements
for the
nextfew months,thenmakeup sentences,
as
in theexamole.

l ' m s u r ew e
this afternoon
b lf we do, thenwe . . .. . .
fivegames.

(win) the match

(work)all dayon Saturday


(work) therefor

a He . .
b ByJanuaryhe
threeyears

a lf Angela can get some time off work, we


.. (fly)to Parisfor the weekend
p
lf Angelagets time off work, at this time on
(fly)to Parrs
Fridaywe

(clean)the housebefore
She
J a c ka n dS a l l ya r r i v e
b She
. . . (clean)for ages because
it's reallyuntidy

Do you think we
reporttoday?
b Definitely,
if we work hardwe
(finish)it by threeo' clock

6 a
h a v ea m e e t i n gw i t h o t h e r
lecturers
in the department
fly to New Yorkfor a conference
finishwriting articlefor Politics
l e a v ef o r c l i m b i n gh o l i d a iyn i h e
LakeDistrict
h o s td i n n e rp a r t yt o w e l c o m e

He's
havinga meeting
withtheotherlecturers
in the
department
onJune17th.
b. Nowmakeyourown calendar
for the nextfew
months,andtellthe class.

82

(win) our last

(finish)the

Choose
thecorrect
itemA, B,Cor D.
I d o n ' tk n o ww h e nh e
A comes
C i sc o m i n g
B w i l lc o m e
D will havecome
B yA u g u s t N
, i n a.
A i ss t u d y i n g
B will study

E n g l i sfho r s i xy e a r s
C is goingto study
D w i l l h a v eb e e ns t u d y i n g

&2u'"?,
m%ffi

l ' v eg o t p l a n sf o r t h i sw e e k e n d| . . t o D u b l i n
A w i l lb e g o i n g
C w i l l9 o
B g o
D amgoing
4

Putthe verbsin brackets


intothe correcttense

Youcan'tgo out in thisweatheryou


a colo
A w i l lc a t c h
C a r ec a t c h i n g
B catch
D aregoingto catch
B y t h i st i m e n e x tm o n t h ,h e
. i n t h i sa r e af o r
ten years
A w i i l h a v eb e e nl i v i n g C w i l l l i v e
B w i l lb e l i v i n g
D lives
C a n y o u h e l p m e t i d y t h e l i v i n gr o o m ?J i l l
o v e rt h i se v e n i n g
A i sc o m i n g
C w i l lc o m e
B comes
D is goingto come
He
hisprojectby Monday
A flnishes
C w i l lb ef i n i s h i n g
B i sf i n i s h i n g
D w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
I think I
a partynextweekendWho shallI
invite?
A am having
C have
B am to have
D will have

9 You'dbettertakeyour raincoatlt
A w i l lr a i n
C w i l l h a v er a i n e d
B i s g o i n gt o r a i n
D rains
10 We mustfinishpackingWe
earlytomorrow
morntng
A leave
C w i l ll e a v e
B a r el e a v i n g
D a r eg o i n gt o l e a v e

9
7

a. lmagineit is NewYear's
Eve.Writedownfive
resolutions
for the comingyear.

Usean appropriatefuture tenseto completethe


sentences
that Anna might actuallysay,as in the
examples.
1 Shehearsa weatherreportpredicting
sunshine
" lts goingta bea be.autiful
day "
2 Herfriendsayshe feelshot
"l'!lapenawinrlaw
"
3 Herbossasksherwhen shewill finishthe report
"l
4

S h ei sc a t c h i n tgh e 8 o ' c l o c kt r a i nt o M a n c h e s t e r .
"My train

5 S h e h a s a r r a n g e dt o h a v el u n c hw i t h h e r f r r e n d
Amy tomorrowafternoon
" A m ya n dI
6 Someone
asksheraboutherplansfor the weekeno
"At thistime on Saturday,

lh goingtosave
money.
b. In pairs,try to guesseachother,sresolutions.
A:Areyougoingtocutdownonsweets?
B;lVo. etc

5 h ei s g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m ab u t s h ei s l a t ea n ds h e
isworriedthat she'llmissthe startof the film
"Bythe time I get there,
S o m e o n ae s k sh e rh o w l o n gs h eh a sb e e nl i v i n gi n
London
"By nextAugust,| . .

83

&{3e.3%ffi,
tense.
10 Fillinthecorrect

12

ll

tt youanswer
a question
correctly,
I tT-e-l
ETI tt it rainstomorrow,
l:Tl [tt go to themarketbeforework
herexams,
ETI trshepasses
ETI yougeta t O%discount
lGTl Jounwillgetyoua ticket
DTI Hecan'tsleep
ETI tt youthrowsomething
in thealr,

DearAnn,
t'm writinEto tell you all
aboutmy plansf or the
summer.|m very excited!t
(be) the
think it 1)
bestsummerever!
rhis July,I 2)
(travel) to Mexico.As soon
ds | 3)
(receive)
pay
this month's
check,t
(bool<) my tickets and I
4) . . .
s)
. . (alsolbuy) somenew
summerclothes.uopefully,t
(have) enoughmoneyleft
6)
over to buy a new cameraas well,
' because
I am sure I 7)
. . (see)lots
of interesting
thingsduringmy trip.
on 4th August,I 8) .
(have) a big
party at my house,because
it is my 30th birthday.
It 9)
(be) great,with lots of brilliant
musicand tasty food. I hopeyou 10)..
(come)t
Well, t've got a lot to do, so t 11)
(say)
goodbyef or now. I 12) . .
(write) again
when t 13)
.. .(get back) f rom ntexicoto tell
you all about it!

Formcomplete
sentences
by matching
the items
below,asin the example.

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

if I getupearly
enough
shewillgoto college
in September
if yougiveherthemoney
gravity
bringsit backdownto Earth
yougettwo polnts
if youpayin cash
thegamewillbecancelled
if hedrinkscoffeein theafternoon

yougettwopoints.
lfyouanswer
a question
correctly,
13

a. Rickisambitious
andismakingplansfor the
future.Lookat the thingsthat hesayshewill
bedoingor will havedoneby thetimehe is35.
Makesentences,
asin the example.

,, . workasa senior
manager
fora large
company
,i." .becomeamulti-millionaire
. marry
hisgirlfriend,
Sarah
o liveina large
house
inthesuburbs
of London

with love,
Lucy

l'llbeworking
manager
fora largecompany.
asasenior
b. Writefivesentences
describing
whatyouwill
havedoneor will be doingin ten years'time.

14

11 Fillinif or unless.
1 Youwiil catcha cold
you weara warm
coattoday
2
it's nice and warm, we will go for a
p r c nr c
3
sheworks harder,shewon't passthe
examS
4 | w i l l i n v i t eJ o h nt o t h e p a r t y
. . . I s e eh i m
5 l ' m n o t g o i n gt o s p e a kt o h e r.
s h es a y s
sherssorry
a i A

6+
l i . l i r l li ll l j l i l r r r i L r r r : l

Matchthe itemsin Column


A with the itemsin
ColumnB in orderto makecorrectType0
conditional
sentences,
asin theexample.
C o l u m nA
FTFI
ETI
l3Tl
lZTl
iSTl
ETI

boilwater
add four and two
m i xb l u ea n dy e l l o wp a i n t
put water in the freezer
leaveicecreamin the sun
dropa brlckin water

C o l u m nB
a
b
c
d
e
f

1- b lf youboilwater,
it evaporates.

it becomesice
it evaporates
it melts
it sinks
you get green
you get six

ffim.mrc#ffiffi
w
Kmw%ffi
thesentences
using
Type0 orType1
1 5 Complete

1 If you haven'tgot enoughmoney,


4

2
3
4
5
6

l f y o us e eC a r l a ,
W e ' l lm i s st h e p l a n e
lcemelts
lf the weatheris good,
Theywill be havinga party

lf we leaverightaway,I cangiveyou a lift

provided
' ':: n'u" '.'
1": ll

conditionals.

,isr,t
u*uy

He has arrangedto leavework at four o'clock


tomorrowafternoon
ts
He
at four o'clocktomorrowafternoon

5 Takea coatwith you, it mightbe coldlater


Takea coatwith you
. . coldlater

. ErrorCorrection

Useof English
. KeyWordTransformations
Studythe examples.
In eachcase,the secondsenrence
hasa similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.
My parentssaidI couldgo to the partybut I hadto be
h o m eb y m i d n i g h t
long
My parentssaidi couldgo to the partyas
l o n ga s l w a s h o m eb y m i d n i g h t
T a k ey o u rm o b i l ep h o n ew i t h y o u I m i g h tn e e dt o c a l l
you rarer
case

Takeyour mobilephonewith you in caseI


needto callyou later

N/umwill be homesoon,so we'd bettercleanup this


MCSS

is

We'd better clean up this messbecause


m u m i s g o i n gt o b e h o m es o o n

Youcanborrowmy dictionary
tonightbut I will needit
b a c kt o m o r r o wm o r n i n g
provided You can borrow my dictionarytonight
providedyou give it backto me tomorrow
morntng
lf you don't studyharder,you won't passthe exam
unless Youwon't passthe examunlessyou study

outtheincorrect
wordineachsentence.
17 Cross
1 I'm goingto moveinto my new flat the nextweek.
2 Takesomeextramoneyin the caseyou needit.
3 Unlessyou do your homework,you will not be in
trouble
4 She'sgoingto stayin, in caseher parentswill call
5 lf you dropa coinin water,it will sinks
6 Beforewe will leave,I want to changemy shirt
7 By the end of the week, I will havebeingstarted
my newJob
8 A s l o n ga s y o u w i l l b r i n gi t b a c k
you can
borrowthe car
9 Thistime nextmonth,I will havebe relaxing
on the
beach
1 0 | w o n d e rw h e t h e rH e l e nw i l l h a v ec o m e t o t h e
prcntctomorrow

' WordFormation

interest- interested
fascinate- fascinating
accept- acceptable
- sensible
sense

hal,der

1 8 Formthe correctadjectivefromthe wordin bold.


16

Complete
the sentences
with two to fiveworos,
including
the wordsin bold.Do not changethe
meaning
of theoriginal
sentence.
1 lf youdon'ttelluswhatthe problem
is,thenwe
can'thelpyou
unless Wecan'thelpvou
what the problemis.
I canlendyou the moneybut you mustgiveit back
to me by the weekend
long
I c a nl e n dy o ut h e m o n e y
.
it backto me by the weekend

1 He'snot a goodteacherHislessons
arevery
Art expertsargueabouthow
. . t h e p a i n t i n gi s .
I c o u l dh e a rt h e .
voices
of thechildrep
n l a y i n gi n t h e p a r k
Billwill takecareof it; he'svery
5 T h ei s l a n di s
6 Thatwas a really
experience
I
D i dy o u k n o wt h a t M r J a c k s oinsa
policeofficer?

BORE
VALUE
EXCITE

DEPEND
ACCESS
FRIGHTEN

RETIRE

=r-

t i ", i,.tlirii':
. OpenCloze
19

Readthetextbelowandthinkof the
wordwhichbestfitseachspace.
Use
onlyoneword in eachspace.
Thereis an
(0)at the beginning.
example

. M ultiple
Choice
Cioze
Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which
bestfitseachspace.
(0)at the beginning.
Thereisan example

20

Advice
and
0)bcfure

thanever
abroad
traver

,^re^.";pre

n*"'#tn":::1"^,:;",;"'
orusnow
many
; ;fl[$:*f:l: and
;";;'"
::;J::;;'i
P*
i:*"s'iic'iime
place'a long
H[:I':;J"J 2)'""""" "'beingin a strange
J u s th e a r i n g
the name
p
e
o
p
l
e
many
t o c o n j u r eu p i m a g e so f a t r o p i c a l
p a r a d i s ew i t h c o c o n u t p a l m s , w h i t e s a n d y
b e a c h e sa,n dt h e b e a u t i f ubl l u e s e a T a h i tiist h e
l a r g e s ti s l a n d 1 )
F r e n c hP oy n e s i a ,a
g r o u po f 11 8 i s l a n disn t h e S o u t hP a cf r cO c e a n
which attractsvisitorsfrom 2)
overthe
wono
There is never a bad time 3)
v r sr t
Tahiti,but most touristscome between.June
4) . .
October,when the weatheris slightly
c o o l ea
r n dd r i e r5 )
. i t i s d u r i n gt h e r e s to f
t h e y e a r A n e x c e l l e nr te a s o nf o r v i s i t i n gd u r i n g
J u l y i s t h e m o n t h - l o n gH e i v ai T a h i t if e s t i v a l
w h i c h i n c l u d e sm u s i c ,d a n c i n ga n d s p o r t i n g
competitions Another event 6)
the
whoie of FrenchPolynesiagets very excited
7)
, i s t h e H a w a i kN
i u tc a n o er a c e w
, hich
placeeachNovemberUp to sixtysix8)
m a nt e a m sc o m p e t ei n t h e r a c ew h i c hv i s i t sf o u r
d i f f e r e n ti s l a n d sa l o n g a c o u r s et h a t i s m o r e
than116km9)
l\4osttouristshavesomethingmore reiaxing
rn 10)
, a n d t h e y c a n e n j o ys h o p p i n gi n
s t y l i s hb o u t i q u e sa n d t r a d i t i o n a m
l a r k e t so r
w a l k i n ga n dc l i m b i n gi n t h e v o l c a n im
c ountains
H o w e v eirt 1 1 )
h a r d l ys u r p r i s i nt g
h a tt h e
main reasonspeopletravelto Frenchpolynesia
a r et o r e l a xo n t h e a m a z i n gb e a c h eosr t o t a k e
12)
in water sports Scuba diving,
s u r f i n ga n d s a i l i n ga r ev e r yp o p u l a ri n t h i s p a r t
13) ..
t h e w o r l d W h a t e v eyr o u r r e a s o n s
14)
c o m i n gt o T a h i t yi o u a f e b o u n dt o
b e c h a r m e db y t h i s s t u n n i n gi s l a n da n d i t s
u n i q u e m i x t u r eo f F r e n c ha n d 5 o u t h p a c i f i c
c u l t u r e sM o s tt o u r i s t fsi n dt h a t o n ev i s i ti sn e v e r
polynesia
e n o u g ha n da r ed r a w nb a c kt o F r e n c h
15)
a n dr i m ea g a i n

no maiorproblems'
our'health'Thereare
o" OuO3) """"""'
wherever
way from home'can
knowabout'so that
tftut
things
for all
some
memorable
"u"'yo"nJti"id
fravea holidaythat is
wrt-t
they
going,
they are
'
the
' -tfrightA)""""""
+habeaten
heatentrackyou should
' the
': Ul
destination
may neeo
iour
you sei 6) """" ":: '
Oefore
doctor
your
"ou
to
talk
with you on
or to t"n" certainmedications
vaccinations
suffer
some
diseasethat travellers
'drlnk
your trip. The 7)
only
areas'
"otton
,
p"it""i"S' ln high+isk
not
from though,is {ooo
includes
This
J*" 0"""0 or sterilised'
8)
your
that
water
waterto brush
o'*nt anOusing safe
meat
havingice in your
;;tpecrallv carerulwith
'
t)
"':;";J'
*
ts
"""
teeth.when
eat any food that
'u'ud'' and never
hot'
and seafood,avoid
10)""" " "'
ratherthan
o""'u"llun"*u'*'
undercooked
on holidaycan
unywhere'bxl:::ele
nuoJ"n
at
Accidents
"* so'don'tteaveyour common11)""""""'
ritx'
be at higher
on motorbikesnever
*"u' u seatbelt'and
always
cars
ln
home.
poolwithyoung
you u'" by the sea^orlhe
ri
helmet
your
forget
An aduli'who is a
' - to take extracare'
12)
you
all
children,
watchingthe kids 13) """"""'
be
'*;"iJ
strongswimm"''
sun' Buildup vourexposure
Ol'ig"t':
:1" ' ' ' of the day' whenthe
times.Anothe'rtorlou:V
in the 14)
'
a hat ano
slowlyand stayinOoors
you ur" outside'wear
*n""
,vong""ri.
it.
factorfor
sun is at
' the rightprotection
lt;;
"
always,." tun'"'"1"n
yOUrSkin'
,,,rffi nrB r"ruiir\tinirilIili\\lliP

O A
1 A
2 A
3 A
4 A
5 A
6 A
7 A
8 A
9 A
1 0 A
11 A
1 2 A
1 3 A
1 4 A
1 5 A

ago
tflp
flowever

by
cau5es
away
off
more
have
does
frying
mrnd
need
through
middle
to

r'!f r" :
.,.4,.i'.r,i,FrrrLi:*i'!are:rrrrrrrlqr:1'!j{\rlritsx\\\\l{\'rilrer{i!r\li!|191f \illlilrrr!4\liFf llisi]l-!r't\[ry]\lHrN\fi'

ffi before
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

travel
Beca
use
to
grounds

off
up
many
has
comes
baking
reason
rnust
during
centre
-+

O L

C since
C visit
a
L

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

\At.L^.^-VVIIgItrd)

for
motives
along
t o
much
had
has
piping
brain
require

C medium
C for

D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

yet
holiday
Despite
o f
reasons
u p
down
most
having
goes

n
u

-.,^.-^^
dvtrrogq

smoking
sense
can
for

D with

wffiggffiE$?Effi
&mm%

Revision(Unitsl-3)
21

1 4 W i l ly o u
y o u rc a rt o n i g h t ?
A haveused
C used
B be using
D use

Circle
thecorrect
item.
Oil .
on water
A is floating
B hasbeenfloating

15 Thefilm. .. at6o,clock
A will start
C is starting
B starts
D wjll be starting

C hasfloated
D floats

|.
to Joe'sflat oncebefore
A o n l yg o
C haveonlybeen
B a m o n l yg o i n g
D haveonlybeengoing

1 6 D o n ' tw o r r y. . . . . B i l li s l a t et o n i g h t H e , l b
l ew r t n
me.
A when
C if
B unless
D a s l o n ga s

She
playing
c o m p u t egr a m e s
A is loving
C loves
B hasloved
D hasbeenloving

1 7 O h d e a r |; .
. . h i sn a m e
A will forget
C had forgotten
B haveforgotten
D forgotten

E m i l yr e m e m b e r s
month
A seeing
B to see

C haveseen
D seen

1 8 Theyhavebeenmarried
sixteenyears
A since
C through
B during
D for

R o bg o t r nt h e c a ra n d
A drove
B was driving

. away
C had driven
D drives

Ben at the party last

They
for about twenty minutes when
Murphyscoredthe firstgoal
A played
C had beenplaying
B wereplaying
D usedto play
Hewon't havecome
A when
B while

sixo,clock.
C until
D before

WhenI wasa child,we


A weregoing
B u s e dt o g o

. swimmingeveryday
C had gone
D h a db e e ng o i n g

I d o u b tw h e t h e w
r e
A a r ef i n i s h i n g
B finish

t h e w o r kt h i sm o r n i n g
C w i l lf i n i s h
D havefinished

10 Did you know that Hannah


forty next
October?
A i sg o i n gt o b e
C w i l lb e
B will havebeen
D n a 5D e e n
1 1 l f s h es e e sM a r k ,s h e
A tells
B willteli

him the good news


i st e l l i n g
D w i l lb e t e l l i n g

1 2 | d o n ' tt h i n kw e ' l lb e a b l et o l i f t i t
someone
e l s eh e l p su s
A i f
C unless
B when
D because
1 3 I ' l ld r o py o u a l i n e
A until
B as soonas

. l'mon holiday
C when
D i f

1 9 H e.
. . o f b u y i n ga s e c o n d - h a nc da r
A thinks
C i st h i n k i n g
B w i l lt h i n k
D w i l jb et h i n k i n g

22

Fillinthemissing
word.

1 D o n ' tc a l lm e o n S u n d a yb e c a u sIe
.. oe
studyingfor my exam
2 | wonder
John will be at the party
tonight
3 We are .
. . . . t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t W h y
don't you comewith us?
4
t h e e n d o f t h i s m o n t h ,l , l l h a v eb e e n
workingherefor two years
5 Will you be able
helpme paintmy
a p a r t m e nt th i sw e e k e n d ?
6 This
. next week, we will be flyingto
Madrid
7 P i c km e u p a t 7 p m ,I w i l l
. f i n i s h e dm y
homeworkby then.
8 We
havinglunchwith Colintoday.
9 | won't
going away on holidaythis
year I can'taffordit
1 0 | c a n ' t b e l i e v et h a t m y D a d w i l l .
72
yearsold thisyear
1 1 S h e ' s. .
, forgetting
t o t u r n h e rc o m p u t e r
off
12 How
haveyou knownpamfor?
13 |
seeyourhousefrom here
'14
Bythe time theycalledwe had ..
arrived
home.
15 When I was a studentI
to worK as a
waiter

87

lnff

= Li5#
Infinitive

Formsof the infinitive

Present
PresentCont.
Perfect
PerfectCont.

ACTIVE
(to) repair
( t o )b e r e p a i r i n g
(to) haverepaired
(to) havebeenrepairing

PASSIVE
(to) be repaired
(to) havebeenrepaired

Theverbtensescorresponding
to the tensesof the infinitiveareas follows:
Verb Tenses
Infinitive
p r e s e nst i m p l e( h ev i s i t s )
to visit
f u t u r es i m p l e( h ew i l lv i s i t )
p r e s e nct o n t i n u o u(sh ei sv i s i t i n g )
t o b ev i s i t i n g
f u t u r ec o n t i n u o u(sh ew i l l b e v i s i t i n q )
p a s ts i m p l e( h ev i s i t e d )
presentperfect(hehasvisited)
to havevisited
pastperfect(hehadvisited)
futureperfect(hewill havevisited)
p a s tc o n t i n u o u(sh ew a sv i s i t i n g )
presentperfectcontinuous
(hehasbeenvisiting)
to havebeenvisiting
p a s tp e r f e cct o n t i n u o u(sh eh a db e e nv i s i t i n g )
(hewill havebeenvisiting)
futureperfectcontinuous
Thepresentinfinitiverefersto the presentor future
I expectto findoutmyexamresults
soon(active)
I hopeto beaccepted
lJniversity.
t
at Leeds
rpassive
T h ep r e s e n ct o n t i n u o u si n f i n i t i v er e f e r tso a n a c t i o nh a p p e n i nagi t h e t i m e o f s p e a k i n g
Daveappears
to bestudyingat themoment.
Theperfectinfinitiverefersto the past lt showsthat the actionof the infiniiivehappenedbeforethe action
of the verb
Theboysclaimto havefinishedtheirhomework(active)
Theirhomeworkappearsto havebeenfinished.(passive)
Theperfectcontinuousinfinitiverefersto the past lt emphasises
the durationof the actionof the infinitive
which happenedbeforethe actionof the verb Heseems
to havebeenworkingconstantly
forthelastcoupleof
weeks.
Note:the perfectinfinitiveand the perfectcontinuousinfinitiveareusedwith modalverbsandverossucnas
seem,claim,expect,believe,and appear
Theto-infinitiveis used:
.
o
'

purposeCarlwenttotheshoptobuy
to express
somebread.
aftercertainverbs(agree,appear,decide,expect,hope,plan,promise,refuse,etc) Sheishopingtogeta
promotion.
(happy,sad,glad,etc);express
afteradjectives
whichdescribe
feelings/emotions
willingness/unwillingness
(willing,eager,reluctantetc),referto a person's
(clever,kind etc)and the adjectives
character
luckyand
fortunate, I wasveryluckyto win therace

&

:::

o
a
o
a
o

..i=:-=

Note:with adjectives
that referto character
we canalsousean impersonal
construction
It waskindofyou to giveJohna lift.
aftercertainnounsand pronouns(somethinE,
anyoneetc)to showthat somethingis necessary
or possible,
Wasthereanyonethereta helpyou?
after too/enough Vanessa
istoo impatientto waitin a queue.
Mikeisn'toldenoughto vote.
to talk aboutan unexpected
eventusuallywith only lgothomeonlytofindthatlhadforgottenmykeys.
with it + be + adjective/nounltwasdifficulttasolvetheproblem.
after be + first/second/next/lastetc 5hewasthelastpersonto finishtheexam.
afterverbsand expressions
suchas ask.learn,explain,decide,find out, want, want to know etc when they
arefollowedby a questionword Sheexplainedwhatwehadtoda.
BUT:wonder why is followedby a clause(NOTan infinitive)
/wonder why she didn't tell us.
afterwould like,would prefer,would love etc to express
a specificpreference
lwould loveto visitlndiaoneday.
in the expressions
to tell you the truth. to be honest,to sum up, to beginwith etc
Tobehonest,I'drathernotgo.

N o t ei:f t w o t o - i n f i n i t i v e s a r e l i n k e d b y a n d o r o r , t h e t o o f t h e s e c o n d i n f i n i t i v e c a n b eSohmeipt treodm i s e d t o c a l l


and tellmewhatwashappening.
Theinfinitivewithout to is used:
.
o

.
.

after modalverbs Gregcanplaythepiano.


after the verbslet, make,see, hear,and feel Herbossmadeherworkovertime.
B U t w e u s e t h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e a f t e r b e m a d e , b e h e a r d , b e s e e n e t c ( p a s s iS
v ehfeowr m
a s) m a d e t o w o r k
overttme.
Note:when see,hearandwatch arefollowedby an -ing form thereis no changein the passive
Hesawmetalkingto Anna.- | wasseentalkingto Anna.
afterhad better and would ralher Wehadbetterleavesoon.
H e l p c a n b e f o l l o w e d b y e i t h e r t h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e o r t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o uStht oe h e l p e d m e ( t o ) p a i n t m y f l a t .

- i n gF o r m
Formsof the -ing form
ACTIVE
v
i
s
i
t
i
n
g
!
! havingvisited
:
I Present
! Perfect

I
a

I
!
!

PASSIVE
b e i n gv i s i t e d
havingbeenvlsited

:
i
i

Thepresent-ing form refersto the presentor future Hehateswalkingtowork.HehatesbeingvisitedonSundays.


Theperfect-ing form showsthat the actionof the -ing form happenedbeforethe actionof the verb We can
usethe simple-ing form insteadof the perfect-ing form with no changein meaning Sheadmitted
visiting/
havingvisitedJamie.

The-ing form is used:


.
r
.

as a noun Swimmingisa greatwayto getfit.


aftercertainverbs(admit,appreciate,avoid,confess,continue,deny,fancy,go (for activities),
imagine,
mind, miss,quit, save,suggest,practise,consider,prevent)Jackwantstoquitsmoking.
generalpreferenceTomhatesworkingatthebank.
afterlove,like,enjoy,prefer,dislike,hate to express
BUT:for a specificpreference(wouldlike/wouldprefer/wouldlove)we
usea to-infinitive. l'dlovetocome.

lRflt

reLJ=#
T h e- i n g f o r m i s u s e d :
'
.
.
o
'

afterexpressions
suchas be busy,it's no use,it's (no) good, it's (not) worth. what's the useof, can't help,
there's no point in, can't stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble elc I am busywritinga report.
afterspend,waste,or lose(time,money,eIc) Wewastedalotof
timefixingthecomputer.
afterverbsand expressions
suchas look forward to, be usedto, in additionto, objectto, prefer(doingsth
to sth else) Heisn'tusedto livingalone.
after prepositionsElaine
isscared
of flying.
afterthe verbshear,listento, notice.see,watch, and feel to describe
an incompleteacliontheardSamantha
talkingon thephone(l onlyheardpartof theconversation)
BUT:we usethe infinitivewithout to with hear,listento, notice,see,watch, and feel to describe
the
completeaction I heardSamantha
tellthestory.(lheardthewholestory)

Differencein meaningbetweenthe to-infinitiveand the -ing form:


S o m ev e r b sc a nt a k ee i t h e rt h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e
o r t h e - i n g f o r m b u t w i t h a c h a n g ei n m e a n l n g
= not remember
forget+ to-infinitive
Heforgotto buymilk.
forget+ -ingform= not recall
l'll neverforgetvisitingEgypt.

= intendto
mean+ to-infinitive
Henevermeantto upsether.
mean+ -ingform= involve
Beinga firefightermeanstakingrisks.

= not forget
remember
+ to-infinitive
Didyouremember
to callLucy?
remember
+ -ingform= recall

= be sorryto (normally
regret+ to-infinitive
usedin the
presentsimplewith verbssuchas say,tell, inform)
I regretto informyouthatyourphonehasbeencutoff.
regret+ -ingform= feelsorryabout
Heisgoingto regretsellinghisrecordcollection.

lremember
comingherebefore.

LOmpansons
Use
' W e u s e t h e c o m p a r a t i v ef o r m t o c o m p a r et w o p e o p l e ,t h i n g s ,p l a c e s e, t c W e u s u a l l ru7s e t h a n w i t h
c o m p a r a t i vaed l e c t i v e s
Mary rsyoungerthanJane
' We usethe superlativeform to compareone person/thing/etc
with more than one person/thing/etc
in the
s a m eg r o u p W e u s et h e . , . o f l i n w i t h s u p e r l a t i vaed j e c t r v eW
s e u s ei n w i t h t h e s u p e r l a t i vweh e nw e t a l ka b o u t
places
It's themostexpensive
necklacein the shop (NOT@
Spelling
' With one-syllable
adjectives
endingin -e, we add-r in the comparative
and-st in the superlative
form
ntce-ntcer-nrcest
' W i t h o n e - s y l l a b laed j e c t t v eesn d i n gi n a v o w e l + a c o n s o n a n tw, e d o u b l et h e l a s tc o n s o n a nat n d a d d - e r l est
thin - thinner- thinnest
o with two-syllabla
e d j e c t i v eesn d i n gi n - l y o r - y , w e c h a n g et h e - y t o i a n d a d d- e r l - e s t
easy-easier-easiest

90

i i= ij:=i:=

Adjective C o m p a r a t i v eS u p e r l a t i v e
short
ad 1 e c t i v e s

5mail

bigger
5mailer

thebiggest lrregular
t h e s m a l l e s t forms

-v adiectives

NOISV

l0rsrer

the noisiest

brg

longer
beautiful
a0iectrve5

'

more
b e au t if uI

the most
b e au t i fuI

Adjective C o m p a r a t i v eS u p e r l a t i v e
good
bad
little
many
much

better
worse
less
more
more

the best
theworst
the least
the most
the most

We useadjectives
or theircomparative
and superlative
formsto makecomparisons

Adjectives
.
'

very + adjective (emphasises


adjective)George
isa verygoodstudent.
as + adjective+ as ( to showthat two peopleor thingsaresimilarin someway In neqattve
senrences
we use
not as/so ... as) l'm sureBian isascleveraspolly.

'

less+ adjective+ than (expresses


the difference
betweentwo peopleor things Theoppositeof more ...
than) Thesequelwaslesssuccessful
than theoriginal.
t h e l e a s t + a d j e c t i+v oe f l i n ( c o m p a r e s o n e p e r s o n o r t h i n g t o t w o o r m o r e p e o p l e o r t h i n g s i n t h e s a m e
group Theoppositeof most ... oflin) lt'stheleastexpensiverestaurantinthecitv.

'

Comparatives
'

'
'

much/alot/farla little/a bitislightly/even+ comparative(expresses


the degreeof differenceberweentwo
peopleor things)AnnersmuchyoungerthanSteve.
- Ridinga motorbike
isa lotmoredangerous
thandrivinga car.- She
wasfar happierwhensheonlyworkedpart time.- t think it'sa littlewarmerthan it wasyesterday.
- lt wasa bit more
expensive
thanI thoughtit wouldbe.- Shesaidthatthesecond
examwasslightlyeasierthan thefirstone.- Sincehis
operation,
hehasbeenwalkingevenmoreslowly
BUT:many more + uncountablenoun romatemanymorebiscuits
thanpaul.
comparative+ comparativeshowsthat somethingis increasing
or decreasing
Weseemto startlaterand latereveryday.
t h e + c o m p a r a t i v.e. . ,t h e + c o m p a r a t i v(es h o w tsh a t t w o t h i n g sc h a n g et o g e t h eor r t h a t o n et h i n gd e p e n d s
on anotherlhing) Thelongerthejourneywenton,themorebeautifulthescenerv
became.

Superlatives
'

by far + the + superlative


(emphasises
the difference
betweenone personor thingandtwo or morepeopleor
thingsin the samegroup)Helsbyfarthebestplayerintheteam

- Quite- Rather
- Pretty
Fairly
a
a
a

!
a
a

a + fairly Thisisa fairlycheapdressbutl'm sureyoucanfindsomething


cheaper
youshoutd
quite a/an = enoughThisisquitea cheapdress.
buyit.
q u i t e+ a d j e c t i v essu c ha s h o r r i b l er,i d i c u l o u b
s ,r i l l i a n ta, m a z i n ge,x t r a o r d i n a irm
y ,p o s s i b lter u
, e ,c e r t a r ne,t c

i=

completely,
totally)Getting
thisfinished
by5 o'clock
isquiteimpossible.
rather+ a(n)or a rather(= morethan usual/wanted
gotrathera/a rathergoodpointsayingso.
etc)She,s
rather+ comparativeform + than He'srathertallerthanI expected.
a pretty (quitecommonin everydayEnglish)
He'sgota prettynastycuton hisarm.

91

T o o- E n o u g h
.

Too hasa negativemeaninglt showsthat somethingis morethan enough,necessary


or wanted We usetoo
inthefollowing
ways:
. too + adjective/adverb
+ to-infinitive /trstoocoldformetoswim.
a
too ... for somebody/something Thiscoffee
istoostrongfor me.
a
too ... for somebody/something+ to-infinitive Thelakeistoopollutedfor fishto livein.
W e a l s ou s et o o + m u c hw i t h u n c o u n t a b n
l eo u n sa n dt o o + m a n yw i t h c o u n t a b l ne o u n si n t h e p l u r a l
Thereistoo muchrubbishin thebin.-Therearetoo manycarson theroad.
B u t : B e f o r e a d j e c t i v e s n o t f o l l o w e d b y a n o u n o r a d v e r b s , w e u s e o nTl e
y tror yoi s t o o s h o r t t o p l a y b a s k e t b a l l .
(NOTtee msehshe+!)

'

e e a n i n gi t s h o w st h a t t h e r el sj u s ta s m u c ho f s o m e t h i nagsi sw a n t e do r n e e d e dW e
E n o u g hh a sa p o s i t i v m
useenoughin the followingways:
. adjective/adverb
+ enough+ to-infinitive ltiswarmenaughtoswim.
BUT:not + adjective/adverb
+ enough+ to-infinitive(negative
meaning)ltisn'twarmenoughtoswim.
. enough + noun + to-infinitive I'vegotenoughtimeto havea coffee.

Fillin the correctformof the verbin brackets


(to -infinitive
or -ingform),asin the examples.

Heatherbroughtthat CDso that we canlistento it


H e a t h ebr r o u g h t. . . .
3 The exercise
was easy Everyone
could do it
Theexercise
was easyenough
4 Kevinshouldn'tdriveso quickly,its dangerous
It'sdangerous
5 T i n as a i ds h ew o u l dc a l lm e b u t l ' m s t i l lw a i t i n g
I ' m s t i l lw a i t i n g. . . ..

1 Hegoesto eveningclasses
to lecrn(learn)ltalian
(learil a languagecanhelpyouto get a job
2 Learning
3 Oh no! | forgot
(buy) eggs

6
7
8
9
10

when I was at the supermarket


The governmentis determined
(solve)someof the environmental
problems
facing
Ine area
(cook)at hometo
Dan prefers
eatingout
There'sno point in
(buy) a
computerif you arenot goingto useit.
(decorate)
They have decided
the livingroom
The childrenlove
(9o) to the
swimmingpool
(tell) Alice what Sean
| regret
hadsaid
Hydroelectricity
and wind turbines can be used
(provide)environmentallyfriendly
..
ener9y.

Rewritethe sentencesusingfor, asin the example.


1 | mustfinishthiswork today
It's importantfarmeta finishthisworktoday.

Write the correctform of the verb in brackets.


(watch) TV at the
I like
weeKen0S
l'd like
... (So) to the cinema
tonrght
l'll neverforget
(meet) Davio
Beckham
4 Don'tforget
(lock)the door.
(leave) school so
5 He regrets
eafly
I regret
. . (inform) you that you
haven'tbeenacceptedfor the job
7 Doyou remember. .
.. . .. (visit)Paris?
(call)
8 Remember
..
me tonight.
9 She stopped
(work) when she
wassixty-five
't0 H e s t o p p e d
(fix)thepuncture
....

3g- ei=#

Lookat pictures
andin pairsmakeup dialogues,
as
in theexample.

you fancy/meeVcoffee/after
work?
Sorry/ca
n'V agree/do/overti
me
tonight
:
Do you fancy meeting for a eoffee
afterwork?
SorryIcant. ...

3 O n ed a yI h o p et o
4 l w o u l dl o v e
5 I had better

Complete
the tableby fillingin the adjectives,
comparatives
andsuperlatives,
asin the exampre.

nljectiyg

Comparative :
'' -- ---

,"--a -

1 i
2.

bright

3 l

expenslve

hrinhrar

briElitest

t al l e r

4a

easrest

5 l

mnrp

6.
A We/decide/give/you/job
B that be/fantastidwhen/
you likeme/start?

latest

8;

t-^-+

q l

brg
worse

Yes/can't
waiVsee/old
friendsagain

B
g o i n gt o S p a i nt h i ss u m m e r
watchingold movies
u s ea c o m p u t e r

l'mthinking
about
I can

to goawayfortheweekend
beingin crowded
places

Usethe phrases
to makeup sentences
about
yourself.
1 | c a n ' th e l p
2 l,m not usedto

Putthe adjectives
in brackets
intothe comparative
or superlative
form,addinganynecessary
words.

you look/forwardtolgo/
partytonight?

A
I can'tstand
i tove
rd tike

srmple

t0:

Matchthe phrases
in ColumnA to thosein Column
B to makecomplete
sentences,
thenmakesimilar
sentences
usingthe phrases
in ColumnA andyour
own ideas.

tntaracirn^

a ;

Superlative

A: Theweather'sbeautifultoday,isn'tit?
B: Yes,they said on the radio that it was lilg
ftelrtesf(hot)
day of the yearso far
A : I t h i n kl ' d p r e f e trh e b l a c ks k i r t
B : I k n o wb u t t h i so n e i s
(cheap)
A : T h ef i l ml a s t e df o r m o r et h a nt h r e eh o u r s l
B: Yes, it was much
(long) |
expected
A : C h r i si st h e b e s tp l a y eor n t h e t e a m ,i s n , th e ?
B: Actually,I think Stevets even
(good)

5 A: Markisveryclever,isn'the?
B: Yes,he's
(intelligent)personI
know
6 A: We havea lot of work to do at the moment
B: This is always
(busy)time of
year
7
A: I wasverysurprised
when I met Maggie
B: Why? Did you think she would be
(young)?
g A : It'sabouta two-hourdrive
B : R e a l l y|?t h o u g h ti t w a s m u c h
(far)awaythan that
9 A: Didyou readthat book?
B: Yes,it was excellent,
(interest)
t h i n gI h a v er e a di o r a g e s
10 A: Are you goingto the hairdresser,s
today?
B: No I phoned, but
(early)
appointment
they hadwas at two o'clockand I
haveto be at work at one

93

t!

!:=tj=#
I

Write the correctform of the comparativeor


superlativeand then completethe sentences
with
your own ideas.
(difficult)scnoor
1 | find that ;#sil;sis f&emcsiCjffic;;fr
subject
(frightening)
2 l n m yo p i n i o n
a n i m aol f a l li s
(good)holidayI everhadwas
3
(healthy)than

Salads
are

l ' m s u r et h a t
(interesting)
job than

i t h i n kt h a t
I h a v es e e ni n a l o n gt r m e

(funny)film
( b i g )e n v i r o n m e n t a l

7
8

problemfacingmy country
Gold

1 I quite/pretty enjoyedthe concertbut it could


havebeenbetter
2 lf l were you, I would take the bus; it's
fairly/rathera longway to walk
3 S h e ' sa r a t h e r / q u i t fea s tr u n n e rl ' m s u r es h e ' lw
l in
the race
4 I know you don't believeme, but it's fairly/quite
true
5 I think this examwas fairly/quitea lot easierthan
lastyear's
6 The restaurantwas rather/prettymore crowded
than I expected
7 lt's a verynicehousebut it will needquite/pretty
a lot of work beforeanyonecanlivethere
8 lt was a quite/prettygood film,you shouldseeit

(expensive)
than

(happy)personI know

9
1 0 | w o u l ds a yt h a t
(fast)than

thecorrect
word.
11 Underline

12 Fillintoo/enough.
1 Davidis tootiredto go to the party

belowandtheprompts
to
10 Usetheinformation
makeupsentences
usingmuch,
more,
monyor
abit,
asintheexamples.

S a mi s o l d
own

to go into town on his

He arrivedat the cinema


watchthe film

late to

4 J a n e h a s n ' ts t u d i e d
exam

t o p a s sh e r

5 T h i ss o u pi s
6

hot to eat

P a u lh a s n ' tg o t
new car

l '

m o n e yt o b u y a

t , s e o T 'F" Yn"o- 'i l q n

' Error
Correction
''::..:4. -+

| 1.

outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
1 3 Cross
Delaysper week:
CabinCrew per flight:

.
.

r
.
.
.
.

94

be/old
AirTropicana
isa bit olderthanTrans-European
Airways.
fly/far
Air Tropicana
fliesnuch furtherthanTrans-European
Airways.
aircrafVold
have/accidents
flylinteresting
places
planes/reliable
service/good

1 l ' m g o i n gf o r s h o p p i n o
g n S a t u r d aw
y ,o u l dy o u l i k e
to comewith me?
2 Let'stake my car,it'smorebiggerthan yours
3 The exam is too difficult,so you'd better study
nar0
4 I hateto watchingold movies
5 | c a n ' ts t a n dt o b e i n gi g n o r e d
6 Youshouldbe mostcarefulwhenyoucrossthe road
7 We will get thereon time if we will leavenow
8 T h i ss m a lTl Vc o s t sa sm o r et h a nt h a t b i go n e !
9 | h a v e n 'gt o t v e r ye n o u g hm o n e yt o g o o n h o l i d a y
th isyear
1 0 T h em o r eo l d e rh e o e t s .t h e l a z i ehr e b e c o m e s

ffirmr$xffiffitr
#
3re
#-

. KeyWordTransformations

l ' m g l a dI d o n ' tl i v ei n a c o l dc o u n t r y
hate
I would
a coldcountry
6 C h r i sw o u l dr a t h e rn o t g o t o t h e c i n e m at o n i q h t
feel
Chris

Studythe examples.
Ineachcasethe second
sentence
has
a similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.

7
I couldn't move the washing
because
it was so heavy
too
The washingmachinewas too heavy
for me to moveby myself

I wanted to get two ticketsfor the concertbut r


couldonlyaffordone
enough
I didn't haveenough money for two

Yourbrother
cookI haveevermet
9 WheneverI eat snails,I remembermy first trip to
Paris
without I can'teat snarls

I alwaysworryabout my familywhen I go awayon a


b u s i n e st rsi p
help
I can't help worrying about my family

1 0 Thecake
wastoosmall
sonoteveryone
,"J: ;il::

when I go awayon a business


trip

enough

Therewasn't
everyone
to havea piece
1 1 It was dlfficultto persuadeRobertto take the
courSe
difficulty I

l'm reallyexcitedaboutstartinguniversity
forward
l'm reallylooking forward to starting
untverstty.
I could never be happy working in a fast food
restau
rant.
hate
I would hate to work in a fast food
restau
rant

12

Robertto takethe course


Jane's
carisasold as Lisa's
same
Lisa's
caris
Jane's

I alwaysget depressed
when I see peopletreating
a n i m a lcsr u e l l y
without
I can't see people treating animals

. WordFormation

cruellywithout gettingdepressed
My fatherinsists
that I waterthe plantson Saturdays.
makes
My father makesme water the plants
on Saturdays

broad- broaden
p o p u l a-r p o p u l a r i s e
false- falsify
r i c h- e n r i c h

8 | haveneverhadsucha tastymealbefore
best
Thisisthe best mealI haveeverhad. j
\-

I can'taffordto buythoseboots
expensiveThose
me to buy.
2 lt's not her fault that she,slazy as her mother
alwaysdoeseverything
for her
help
S h ec a n ' t
because her mother always does
everything
for her
3 Please
remindme to callthe plumbertomorrow
forget
Don'tiet me
t h e p l u m b etro m o r r o w
I can'twait to meetyourbrother
forward I'm
y o u rb r o t h e r

homeworkbeforethey let me watchW'


| havenevermet anyonewho cooksas badlyas
yourbrotherdoes
worst

ticketsfor the concert

thesentences
withtwoto fivewords,
14 Complete
including
thewordin bold.Donotchange
the
meaning
of theoriginal
sentence.

t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t
My parentswon't let me watchTV until I finishmy
homework
make
My parents
my

15

Formthe correctverb from the word in bold.


1 T h et e a c h esr h o u l d
the informationso that evervbodv
understands
it
Thesetrousersaretoo long,l'll have
ro
them
T h e ya r ep l a n n i n g
to
the factoryand buy new machinery
They boiledthe water in order to
. i t
I t h i n ky o u s h o u l d
s o m eo f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s
T h ec o u n c ihl a sd e c i d e tdo
t h e m a i nr o a di n t o

SIMPLE

SHORT
MODERN

PURE
LARGE

WIDE

the citycentre

95

J;
:=

=i- i,4-+*
. OpenCloze
16

. Multiple
Choice
Cloze

Readthe text belowandthinkof the


wordwhichbestfitseachspace.
Use
onlyoneword in eachspace.
Thereisan
(0)at the beginning.
example

17

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C,or D


(0)at the
whichbestfitseachspace.
Thereisan example
beginning.

,l-.

WtreelieBins

i1:'r

Once0) up** a time, binswere large,heavy,


tl.
human beings?Many people
metal objectswhich were difficultto lift and j;; I
believe that they are, and are fascinatedby these enormous yet
carry Theywere 1)
of one long metal .3il::
gracefulcreatures.In recent years, whale watching has become '.
i,.
sheet,joined along its longestedge, with a
extremelypopular,as more and more peoplewant to experience
the ii,
circularmetalbase Theyhad two handles,one
feelingthattheyare developing
a 1) .,...,..,.
.:'
relationship
withwhales.
2)
w h i c h d u s t m e nw o u l d u s e t o l i f t
Whalewatchinginvolvessailingout a long way from shore,often
them and swingthem onto their shoulders,
throughvery2) ,.........
waters.As a result,manywhalewatchersaretoo
showinglittlecarefor hygiene,or for their own
busyworryingabouttheirupsetstomachsor tryingnotto falloverboard
physica
wle l l - b e i n g
to actuallylookfor whales.Mostof them3) ..........
on a guideto keepan ,
As soon 3)
plastic bins became
4)..........outfortheJ|ashofafinorag|impseofatai|to|etthemkn
a v a i l a b l et h, e s et o o k 4 )
from the old
whento look.
m e t ao
l n e sT h e yw e r es i m i l airn a p p e a r a n caen d
However,
therewill not alwaysbe whalesto see,and even5) .......,...
w e i g h t ,b u t w e r eh a r d e r5 )
d a m a g eo r
thereare,thereis no 6) ..........
thatthe whalewatcherswill noticethem.
dent However,
beingmadeof plastic,theywere
W h a l e sa r es o 7 ) . . . . . . . .h. .o m ei n t h es e a ,a n d8 ) . . . . . . . .i.n, t ot h ew a t e rs o - ,
not suitablefor hot waste,6)
as ashes,
well that they can be hardfor peopleto 9) ..,.......
evenwhen one has
asthesedestroyed
their interrors
pointed
been
10) ..........
1othem.A competentguidewillusuallybe able :'i"
I n m a n yp a r t so f t h e w o r l d ,t h e s t a n d a r d
bin
to find at leastone, though,and it has to be said that a whalein its
h a sn o w b e e nr e p l a c e7d)
the wheelie
n a t u r a1l 1 ). . . . . . . .i.s. a w o n d e r f usli g h t .
bin Theseare large,rectangular,
plasticboxes
The luckywhalewatcherwillbe 12) ..........
to a spectacular
displayof ,
o n w h e e l sw
, i t h a h i n g e dl i d a n d a b a r w h i c h
gymnastics,
water
as occasionally,
whaleswill 13) ..........
intothe air or
a l l o w st h e b i n t o 8 )
. . p u s h e do r p u l l e d
wave
at
their
jets of water
audience
with
their
tails.
They
often
spout
a l o n g M o s t w h e e l i eb i n sa r e b l a c k ,b u t s o m e
..
high
1a)
..........
the
These
generally
air.
acts
make
whale
watchers
feel
are green,brown or red Theyare designedto
as thoughtheirtrip has been15) ,.........
and has broughtthemcloserto :l
b e j u s t a s s p a c i o uass t h e o l d b i n s ,9 )
understanding
thesehuge,strangemammals.
w e l l a s b e i n g e a s i e rt o m o v e a r o u n d a n d
10)
l i k e l yt o c a u s ei n j u r i e sM a n yl o c a l
c o u n c i lisn s i stth a t b i n sa r el e f ta t t h e s i d eo f t h e
0 A clever
intelligent C smart
D bright
'l
road for collection,and for many people,
A private
B i n d i v i d u a l C own
D personal
c a r r y i n go n e o f t h e o l d b i n s 1 1 )
the
2 A rough
B uneven
C lagged
D coarse
back gardento the front of the housewas
A
trust
3
B ASSUMC
C rely
D believe
e n o u g ht o c a u s es e r i o um
s uscle
damage
4 A ear
B eye
C arm
D elbow
N o m a t t e r1 2 ) .
w e l l - d e s i g n eadb i n
5 A I T
B though
L d 5
D whether
maybe, however,
therewill alwaysbe problems
6 A p r o m i s e B a g r e e m e n t C g u a r a n t e e D contract
Wheeliebins are unattractive
and can also be
7 A i n
B to
C with
D a t
difficultto manoeuvre
up and down stepsWhat
8 A mix
B blend
C combine D join
13)
more, if you are unfortunate
J
A spot
B look
C watch
D glance
enoughto dropsomethingin the bottomof one
10 A i n
B to
C out
D for
of them, you will havea hard time getting it
1 1 A home
B place
C habitat
D location
14)
a g a i n ,a s t h e b i n sa r e a b o u t f o u r
1 2 A given
B +t t/ ^c oa +L^c-ul
C shown
D entertained
feet tall Nevertheless,
they are certainlya step
t 5 A fall
B SWtm
C climb
D jump
15)
one
, and giveus hopethat, perhaps
1 4 A into
B ACTOSS
c u p
D through
day,someonewill designa trulytrouble-free
bin
tl
A w o r t h w h i l e B usefu
I
C wasted
D sensible

96

(Units
Revision
1-4)
thecorrect
item.
18 Circle

1 4 We'd betterwait . .
A before
B for
15

1 You must
A coming
B come

C to come
D to coming

You'dbetter .. . . it with Mrs Harrisand find out


thedetails.
A discussing
C to discuss
B discuss
D havediscussed
I e n j o y. . .
t o w o r kl n t h e m o r n i n g
A walking
C to walk
B walk
D b ew a l k i n g
5 Shewent on a diet
A losing
B lose

| wanted
A seeing
B see

. someweight
C to lose
D havinglost

Laurabeforesheleft
C to see
D to seeing

lt's a shame Lisa couldn't come, I was looking


forward .. . .. her
A meeting
C to meet
B meet
D to meeting
We should let Gary . . ... what time we are
meeting.
A knowing
C to know
B know
B to knowing
Bobis veryworriedabout ..
the exam.
A failing
C to fail
B fail
C havingfailed

1 0 I regret

you that the restaurantwill nor


o p e nt h i se v e n i n g
A informing
C to inform
B inform
D to haveinformed

't1

What'sthe ...
A much
B more

12 Don'ttell Ann
A as longas
B unless

1 3 H e ' sl a t e . .
A much
B like

backby Tuesday

.. to the party

Shallwe stop on the way there


something
to eat?
A getting
C to get
B get
D havegot

. . it stopsraining.
C until
D while

boringfilm you'veseen?
C most
D less
sheasks
C provided
D if

c
B hasbeen

D will havebeen

1 6 Hefailed
. hisnew boss.
A to impress
C
B impressing
D Inrmpresstng
17 lt's . . . than a weeksinceI spoketo Jim
A over
C more
B rather
D much
18 Thisbag is . .
A enough
B much
1 9 S h ew a sm a d e
A stay
B staying
20

D o n ' tg o
A untij
B after

heavyfor John
C s o
D too
late
C to stay
D havingstayed
y o u rn a m ei sc a l l e d
C a ss o o na s
D yet

word.
19 Fillinthemissing
1 She .
learnedto usethe computer
2 H e w a s r e a l l yh a p p yt o . . .
a b o u tJ o , s
engagement
3 T o n yh a s. . . . . . . .. . w o r k i n gh a r da l ld a y
4 Theriveris . .
pollutedto swim in
5 He asked
they hadto go
6 It'sa . .
.. colderthan it was yesterday.
7 Peteris
...
determined
asJames
8 Sam is by ...
the best studentin the
class.
9 Thefurtherwe walked,the
.. tiredwe
0ecame
10 Thereare too
factoriesin this part
of town
1 1 T h e l o n g e rt h e t e l e p h o n e
c a l l ,t h e
you pay
1 2 l ' m s u r ey o u c a nd o b e t t e r
. . ..this.
1 3 She didn't get the job becauseshe wasn,t
e x p e r i e n c e. d . . .
1 4 I t ' sb e e nr a i n i n g. . . . .
mornrng
1 5 S h ei s n ' t. . .
. . t o w o r k i n gl a t e
't6
. you washedthe dishes?
1 7 She
.. .. havinglunchat 12 o,clock

yesreroay.

usual
C so
D as

1 8 Take
anumbrella
in ..
it rains.
19
. /you
L v work
v v u t N yesterdayT
yE)l
vu
vgo
v to
2 0 It was cold yesterday
but today is
colder

_a.1
it:

il- ii:=+=
ModalVerbs
Use ,
ability

Presentlirtur"
Shecanplaytheviola.
He'sableto writepoems

(90%certain)
Shecanstillbeat schooL
Shecouldbe late.(50o/o
certain;it's possible
s h ew i l l b e l a t e )
(50%certain;it'spossible
Sammaybesleeping.
that he issleeping)
Theymight needsomehelp.(40% certain;
p e r h a ptsh e yn e e ds o m eh e l p )
It is likelythat Tomwillcometomorrow.
Tomislikelyto cometomorrow
probability
Shewill be 20 nextmonth.(100% certain;
prediction)
Theyshould arrive tonight.(90o/o certain;
futureonly,it'sprobable)
Heoughtto beat worknow.(90% certain;he
w i l l p r o b a b lby e a t w o r k )
l o g i c aal s s u m p t i o n sYoumustknowthat.(90% certain- positive;
l'm sureyou know that)
Shecan'thaveso manypets.(negative;l'm
s u r es h eh a s n ' t )
Theycouldn'tbe at home now (negative; I
d o n ' tt h i n kt h e y ' r ea t h o m en o w )
permrssron
You can/can'topen your book (giving or
r e f u s i np
g e r m i s s i oinn;f o r m a l )
CouldI go out?(more polite; asking for
permission)
givingpermission)
Youmaygoout.(formal;
Might I make a phonecall?(more formal;
a s k i n gf o r p e r m i s s i o n )
l'm afraidyoucan't/mustn't
makea phonecall.
(informal,refusingpermission)
(formal;
Passengers
maynot usemobilephones.
refusingpermissionwrittennotice)
(l sayso)
necessity
I mustpaythebilltomorrow.
(necessity
Theyhaveto wearuniforms.
coming
from outsidethe speaker)
He'sgot to catchthetrain.(informal)

Shecould/wasableto play theviola.(repeated


a c t i o n- a b i l i t yi n t h e p a s t )
Wewereable to escapefromthe burninghotel.
( s i n g la
ec t i o n )

possibility

(Luckily
Hecouldhavedrowned.
he didn't)
A n n m a y h a v e g o t l o s t . ( P e rshhaepi ssl o s t)
Tommight havesoldhlscor (Perhapshe has
s o l di t )
Itwaslikelythat thestarhaddisappeared.
Thestar waslikelyto havedisappeared.

Sheshouldhaveleftbynow.(5hehasprobably
left )
Heoughtto haverecorded
hisnewCDby now.
(Hehasprobablyrecordedit )
Shemusthavebeenseriously
l//.(posiiive;l'm
sureshewas)
Theycan't have beenabroad.(negative;l'm
suretheyweren't)
Theycouldn'thavebeenmarried.(negative;I
d o n ' tt h i n kt h e yw e r em a r r i e d
)
They weren't allowed to/couldn't enter the
country.
\he wasallowedto seethe fiIes.(not: eeuld)

(l was obligedto)
I hadto paythebillonFriday.
Theyhad to wearuniformsat theprivateschool.

Hehad to catchthetrain.
Thecqrneedsservicing.
ORThecarneedsto be Thecarneededservicing.
ORThecarneededto
(lt's necessary)
serviced.
(it
beserviced. was necessary)
Shedoesn'thave to/doesn'tneed to/needn't Shedidn'thaveto/didn'tneedto workovertime.
(lt
- dr hUcJnt rnt- t^L C ^ F
f\/na if nov/ flt iqn't
a tr yv
|n'AL aL oL c) ). d
Ul
wasn'tnecessary
for herto work overlimeand
necessity)
shedidn't - absence
of necessity)
Yououghtto dropthema line.(t's necessary) Youneedn'thavemademe a cake.(lt wasn't
necessary
to makeme a cake,but you did )

nl^r
VX
J\)

I Ll l l l l l l t l l i l Ll i ' l r I i i ] r rLL rlir j i i ,L : i:ri r i r: i ) r , r , r , r r j i : ,l

i i= ii:=i.-=

advice

criticism

obligation

requests

offers

suggestions

prohibition

duty

'.
Past
I
Youshouldbemorecareful.
(generaladvice;I Youshouldhavebeenmorecareful.(but you
adviseyou)
weren't)
You ought to brush your teeth every day. He ought to have givenher
d /iff. (but he
(l adviseyou; mostpeoplebelievethis)
didn't)
Wehadbettercancelthistrip.(lt'sa good idea; It would have beenbetterif
we had cancelled
adviceon a specific
situarron;
thetrip.(but we didn't)
Shallwe borrowmoneyfrom thebank?(asl<ing
for advice)
Youcouldat leastletmeknow.
Youcouldat leasthaveletmeknow.
Heshouldtryagain.
Heshould
havetried
again.(but he didn,t)
Sheoughtto beon time.
Sheought to havebeenon time.(lt was the
I muststudyharder(l needto; I sayso)
I haveto studyharder.
(l'm obligedto; my
teachers
sayso)
Weoughtta exercise
daily.(lt'sthe right thing
to do, but we don't alwaysdo it )
CanI borrowyourbook?(informal)
CouldI borrowyourbook?(polile)
MayI havethebookwhen
youfinishit?(f ormal)
Mightlturn up theradio?(veryformal)
Willyouhelpmewith thisexercise?
(veryfriendly)
Wouldyou mind notsmokingin here?(polite)
CanI helpyouwiththehousework?
(informal)
Shall I preparesnacks
(informal)
forthepicnrc?
Wouldyou likeme to mowthelawnfor vou?
Shallwego to thetheatre?
Wecanalwayscatcha laterbus.
Wecouldgo to thebeachat theweekend.
You can't make overseas
calls.(you aren,t
allowedto)
Youmustn'ttakephotographs.
(it,sforbidden)
Youmaynot parkhere.(f ormal)
AIImotoristsmustobserve
thenighwiy Code"
People
oughtnottosmoke.
(lt'sthe rightthing
to do, but peopledon't alwaysdo it )

r i g h t h i n gt o d o ,b u t s h ed i d n , d
t o it )
I had to studyharder.
I had to studyharder.
Weoughtto havegivenmoremoneyto charity.
(lt
wasthe rightthingto do,but we didn,tdo it )

lgyt?yla Uue usedmycar.

They couldn't make overseai ;l/r.


weren'tallowedto )

-iTh.y*-

Allemployees
hadto signnewcontracts.
Sheoughtto havetakenherparents,
(lt
advice.
w a st h e r i g h tt h i n gt o d o , b u t s h ed i d n , td o
It)

Needn't- Didn't needto - Needn,thave


' don'thaveto/don'tneedto/needn't+presentinfinitive(itisnotnecessarytnthepresentorfuture)
youdon,thave
to/don'tneedto/needn'twakeupearlytomorrow.It'sSunday.(lt
is not necessary
to wake up )
' didn'tneedto/didn'thaveto + present
(it was not necessary
infinitive
in the pastandwe maynot know if the
acttonhappenedor not ) shedidn'tneedto/didn'thoveto wakeup earlyyesterday.
It wassunday.(ltwasn,tnecessary
for herto wakeup earlyand we don,tknow if shedid or not
)
o needn't+ bareperfectinfinitive
(we knowthat sth happenedrn the pastalthoughit was not necessarv
)
Youneedn'thaveleftsoearlylastnight.(you
did, althoughitwas not necessarv,)

99

Irr
l]

:E

:-=

*tr.ir"ffirr ;

Li=*:
- rvraylvrishi ip"rtibir

-.3,

PresentInfinitive

Shemuststudya lot.
Shemaystudya lot.
PresentContinuous Shemustbestudying.
lnfinitive
Shemoy/mightbestudying.
PerfectInfinitive
Shecan'thavestudied.
Shecan'thavestudied.
Shecan'thavestudied.
PerfectContinuous Shemayhavebeenstudying.
Infinitive
Shemayhavebeenstudying.

pi.J.rru*ptio.r)

l'm sureshestudiesa lot.


Perhaps
shewillstudya lot.
l'm suresheisstudying.
Perhaps
shewill bestudying
I'msureshedidn'tstudy.
l'msureshehasn'tstudied.
l'msureshehadn'tstudied,
Perhaps
shewasstudying.
Perhaps
shehasbeenstudying.

Tags
Question
at the end of statements
usedto confirmif the statementis true or not
Questiontags areshortquestions
.

.
.
.

Theyareformedwith the modalor auxiliary


verbfrom the mainsentence
and the appropriate
subject
pronoun
A positivestatementtakesa negativequestionlag Youorecomingwithus,aren'tyou?
A negativestatementtakesa positivequestionIag Hecan'tspeakEnglish,canhe?
Whenthereis no auxiliary
or modalverb,we usedo/doesor did + subjectpronoun
Helenworksfor lnfotec,doesn'tsheTFelixdoesn'tlikeclassical
music,doeshe?
Whenthe statementcontainsa negativeadverbof frequency
suchas rarely,neverihardly,seldom,we usea
positivequestiontag SheneverwatchesTV,
doesshe?
Thequestiontagsof someverbs/expressions
areformeddifferently
I am invitedto theparty,aren'tl?
(imperative) Leavemealone,will/won'tyou?Don'ttellanyone,will you?Let'shavea picnic,shallwe7
Thereis someicein thefridge,isn'tthere?Therearea fewbiscuitsleft,aren'tthere?
Hehasgot a motorbike,
hasn'the?BUTYouhaveenoughmoney,
don'tyou?
ThisislThatisJane'sbaq,isn'tit?

Note:
. Whenyou aresureof'_p9answerand expectagreement,
yourvoicegoesdown in the questiontag
Hehaslivedabroad,hasn'the?
. W h e n y o u a r e n o t s u r e o f t h e a n s w e r , y o u r v o i c e g o e s u p i n t h e q u e sYt iooundt ao gn ' t e a t m e a t , a f f i w l

Complete
the dialogues
by fillingin must,mustn't,
con,con't,needn't
or haveto,asin the example.
1 A: Do I needto buy a ticketin advance?
B : N o ,y o u . a i l b u yo n et h e r e ,i f y o u l i k e .
2 A . I h a v e n 'et a t e na n y t h i n ga l ld a y
B: Really?
You
be starving
3 A : A r ey o uw o r k i n gl a t ea g a i nt o n i g h t ?
B: Yeswe
finishthe projectby the
weeKen0
4 A : W o u l dy o u l i k em e t o c o o kd i n n e rt o n i g h t ?
B: Oh you
do that l'll make
s o m e t h i nw
g h e nI g e t b a c k

100

5 A: Haveyou seenthis note I got from Alex? |


readanyof it
B : O h ,I k n o w H i sh a n d w r i t i nigsa w f u l ,i s n ' ti t ?
6 A: So,we'll meetat the stationat sixo'clock
B: OK, fine. You
forget to call
Adamto let him knowwhat timewe'rearriving
7

A: lt's a shamewe didn't book that holiday,isn't


ir?
B: Yesbut there'snothingwe
do
it
about now, l'm afraid

ffi

.i=

: 1= li:=+r::
A: Youlook happyWhat did the doctorsay?
B : O h , h e s a i d m y k n e e i s m u c h b e t t e ra n d I
.
g o b a c ka n ds e eh i ma g a i n

3 The doctorsaidI can't/mustn'teat too much red


meat
4 He'sgot a terribletoothacheHereallyshould/could
go to the dentist
5 I m u s t n ' t / m i g h tg o o u t t o n i g h t ,i f I f i n i s ht h i s
project
6 You must/ought to eat at leastthree piecesof
fruit eachday .
7 You mustn't/shouldn'tforget to pay the phone
b i l lt o d a y
8 You must/oughtto wear a helmetwhen you ride
a motorbike,it'sagainstthe jaw not to

A : D o y o ut h i n kt h a t ' sp a u l ' ss i s t e r ?
B : N o ,i t
. b e H es a i ds h ew o u l db e
i n R o m et h i sw e e k
1 0 A : l sJ a n eh o m ey e t T
B : N o ,s h e
s t i l lb e a t w o r k S h es a i d
shewouldbe latetoday

Underlinethe correctmodalverb.
1 Shesaidshecouldn't/can't
comeyesterday
because
s h e h a d a l r e a d ym a d ep l a n st o g o o u t w i t h h e r
sister
2 W e c a n ' t / m u s t n 'ht a v er u n o u t o f m r l k ,I b o u g h t
s o m et h i sm o r n i n g
3 We needto/shouldhaveinvitedCraigto the party
4 Louise isn't upstairs.She can/must have left
already
5 | w o n d e rw h y H a n n a hd i d n , tc o m et o w o r k t o d a y
M a y b eo n e o f u s m a y / s h o u l d
c a l la n d c h e c kt h a t
s h e ' sa l r i g h t
6 W e m u s t / m i g h tf i n i s ha l l t h e w o r k b y 1 O3 0 l , m
not sureyet
7 We needn't/oughtn't to leave right away, we
haveplentyof time
8 l'm afraidyou can't/mustn'tspeakto Mr Lambert
a t t h e m o m e n t h, e ' si n a m e e t i n g
9 | can'tdo my HistoryhomeworkDo you think you

9 You might/mayborrowmy new earrings,


as long
a sy o u d o n ' tl o s et h e m
10 You shouldn't/can'thaveeatenso manysweets
No wonderyou'vegot stomachachel

1 L u c k i i yI
(do)all of the work
a g a i nb e c a u sIeh a da b a c ku p c o p yo n d i s k
2 l t t u r n e do u t t h a t I
( c a l l )J o
b e c a u sIea nh a da l r e a dtyo l d h e rt h e n e w s
3 |
(buy) more milk because
M u m h a da l r e a dby o u g h ts o m e ,
4 She
(dress)smartlyfor the
party,so shewore herjeans
5 John
(go) into the bank, he
c o u l dh a v ec l o s e dh i sa c c o u not v e rt h e p h o n e
6 They
(walk)to the supermarket
because
Simongavethem a lift

could/should
helpme?
10 Youmustn't/needn't
tellhimaboutthe oartvWe
wantit to bea surprise
3

Wheremightyouseeeachof the followingsigns?


Writesentences
to explainwhat eachonemeans,
asin theexample.

Fillin needn'thave/didn,tneedto and the correct


form of the verb in bracketsto completethe
sentences.

a
b

Usecan,cont,hoveto,
don'thavetoand
needntwith the
promptsbelowto ask
andanswer
questions
aboutusingpublic
transportin your
country.
Youcanuse
yourown ideas.

H
#t

1 (lnapark)- Youmustn't
playballgames
in thisarea.
a

Underline
the correctmodalverb,thenexplainits
use.
1 Excuse
me,will/couldyoutell me howto get to
OxfordStreet,
please?
2 Youneedn't/shouldn't
pickup the children
from
school,
l'm leaving
workearlytodaysoI cando it

a
o
a
o

buya ticketto travelon the bus/train


buy a monthlytravelpass
travelfreeif you areover65
e a to r d r i n ki n t h e v e h i c l e
buyticketsin advance

A: DoI haveto buya ticketto travelon thetrainor bus?


B: Yes,
youdo.CanL..etc

101

tat
*!

:F==
LJ=;#
7

Lookat the photographs


andusethe promptsto
makeup sentences
usingmust,mustn'tor needn't.
. buy a ticket
. throw litterover
theside
. makea reservation
Youmustbuya ticket
yougeton the
before

ferry.
havetoo much
ruggage
c h e c ki n
t a k ey o u rl u g g a g e
on board

2 A : S h a lw
l e g o t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t ?
B : a Sorry,we won't
b Sorry,I can't
3 A : C o u l dy o u p o s tt h i sf o r m ew h i l ey o u ' r eo u t ?
B : a N o ta t a l l
b No problem
4

A C a nI t a l kt o y o u f o r a m o m e n t ?
B : a Yes,you will
b Certainly
Wouldyou pickRonup tomorrow?
B : a Of courseI would
b O f c o u r s eI w i l l

6 A : W i l ly o ut a p et h a t f i l mf o r m e t o n i g h t ?
B : a l ' d b e h a p p yt o
b Yes,I may

question
tags.
10 Fillinthecorrect

o
o

t a k ey o u rr e c e i p t
forgetyourPIN
number
haveyourlD with
you

Lookat the pictures


andmakeasmany
assumptions
aspossible,
asin the examples.
Hemightbelateforan
appointment.
Hecan'tbeonholiday.
Hecouldbeon hiswayhome.

1 Let'sgo for a walk,


.?
2 He rarelygoesout on a week night,
5
Shelivesnearme,
?
your
4 Thisis
newspaper,
?
5 Youhaven'tfinishedyour homework,
6 Thechildrenareveryquiettoday,
7 He is a good cook,
?
8 Youhaven'tgot a CD player,
9 Tonylovesltalianfood,
7
1 0 Youwill cometo the party, ..
?

Useof English
. Error
Correction
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
11 Cross
I m u s tt o g o t o t h e b a n ka t l u n c h t i mteo g e t s o m e
money
2 Y o us h o u l dt o s t o pe a t i n gj u n kf o o d
3 Theydidn't havebeento work becauseit wastheir
dayoff
I w a s n ' tb e a b l et o c a l ly o u O e c a u syeo u r p n o n e
w a se n g a g e d
Don't let me forget, I must have to phone my
p a r e n ttso n i g h t
I a m u s e dt o b e a b l et o p l a yt h e p i a n ow h e n I w a s
younger

Choosethe correctanswer.
1 A : D o y o ut h i n ky o u c o u l dh e l pm e w i t h t h i s ?
B: a Of course
b Yes,I needto

1I n-)
wz_
i I l l i l l l i l l ' l l l l L l l l l r [ ] r | ! r i i I r : r i l L l r Lr b , , ! r ' r r l

H e d i d n ' tn e e dt o h a v ec l e a nt h e k i t c h e nb e c a u s e
R i c kh a da l r e a ddy o n ei t
.J
N e e dI t o g o w i t h t h e m ?
9 W e d o n ' to u g h th a v et o g o i f y o ud o n ' tw a n t t o
1 0 T h e ym i g h t h a v et o c a u g h tt h e t r a i n i f J o a nh a d
b e e nr e a d yo n t i m e

ffimwwwffiffif

Effi#%
. WordFormation

. KeyWordTransforrnations
usedwith

deactivate,decode

verbs
verbs,adjectives,
n o un 5
in-:
independent,indecisive
adjectives,
nouns
(beforel) illogicat
il-:
adjectives,
nouns
im-: . (beforem and p) impossible adjectives,
nouns
(beforer) irresistible
ir-:
adjectives,
nouns
non-: non-smoker,non-toxrc
adjectives,
nouns
un-: unfailuntidy
adjectives,
adverbs
a n dn o u n s

Studytheexamples.
ln eachcasethesecondsentence
has
a similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.

disadvan tag e, disinf ect

Youcan'tget a drivinglicenceif you are underj 7


rnust
You must be 17 or overto get a driving
licence
2 lt'sa good ideato brushyourteeth aftereverymeal
should
You should brush your teeth after
everymeal
3 There's
a possibility
that Jjmwill be at the party.
might
J i mm i g h t b e a t t h e p a r t y .
4

thesentences
witha wordformed
from
12 Complete
thewordin bold.
1 Luckily,
the housewas
. when the fire
brokeout
It wasa relaxed,
.
occaSton
You mustkeepon workingwith
him no matterhow muchyou

OCCUPIED

H a v i n grespectfor your parentsis the right th jng to


do.
ought
You ought to have respectfor your
parents

5 Do I needto get a visato visitthe USA?


necessary ls tt necessary
to get a visato visitthe

FORMAL

AGREE
lf you
the turkey,
FROST
w e w i l l c o o ki t t o n i g h t .
Hewas surethat what theywere
d o i n gw a s
,., sohe
LEGAL
decidedto callthe police
He haswrittenten novelsaswel as
a n u m b eor f
... books,
FICTION
I havea meetingat 5 30, it'sreally
.
because
I normally C O N V E N I E N T
finishwork at 3:00o'clockon
Fridays
Don't be so
! The
PATIENT
b u sw i l l b e h e r ei n a m i n u t e
Matt wasvery
and
LUCKY
m i s s e tdh e g o a l .I t h o u g h th e w a s
the bestplayeroverall
1 0 Theyrun a
PROFIT
o r g a n i s a t i ownh i c hh e l p st h e
homeless
in London
1 1 What he wassayingwastotally
..
t o t h e m a i nt o p i c
RELEVANT
of the meeting
1 2 You mustn't
. the
OBEY
law or you'llget into trouble.

13

Completethe sentences
with two to five words,
includingthe word in bold. Do not changethe
meaningof the originalsentence.

1 l ' m s u r et h a t F r a n km i s s e tdh e t r a i n .
have
Frank
the train
2 lt was not necessary
for usto booka tablebecause
the restaurant
is neverbusyon Mondaynights
have
Therestaurant
is neverbusyon Monday
n i g h t ss, o
. . . . .a t a b l e .
3 lt is forbiddento studentsto talk to one another
d u r i n gt h e e x a m
must
Students
o n ea n o t h e d
r u r i n gt h e e x a m
4 Youshouldget somedetailsfrom theirwebsite
you
ought
5

moredetailsfrom theirwebsite,
R o b i nm u s tb e h e r e ,h i sc a ri ss t i l li n t h e c a rp a r r .
certain I
hereh
, i sc a ri ss t i l li n t h e c a rp a r k
NeedI callto confirmmy booking?

necessary
ts
7

to confirmmy booking?
My doctoradvisedme to stayin bed
should My doctortold me that

8 lt isposibte
thatI wil J: fffl to hetp
you
might

tthinkt.

you

103

=ilELJ=*
. OpenCloze
14

Readthe text below and think of the


word which bestfits eachspace.Use
only one word in eachspace.Thereis an
e x a m p l e( 0 ) a t t h e b e g i n n i n g .

. M ultiole
Choice
Cloze
15

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which


bestfitsthe space,
(0)
asin the example.
Thereisan example
at the beginning.

Don't be SAD
Mostof us,at sometime or 0) cnofher,
suffer
from the 'winterblues',As the daysget shorter
and cooler,we find ourselves
feelingtired and
w e t e n d1 ) . . .
e a t m o r et h a nw e s h o u l dl t
is perfectlynatural,our internalbiological
clocks
a r e s i m p l yr e a c t i n gt o t h e c h a n g e si n s u n l i g h t
p a t t e r n sT h eo n l ys o l u t i o ni st o c a r r y2 ) . . . . . . ..
a n d t r y t o m a k et h e b e s to f t h i n g s3 ) . . . . . .
w a i t i n gf o r s p r i n g .
Some people, however, 4)
the
'winter
blues'overwhelming.
Theyhavelittleor
no interest5)
work, school,familyor
friends Theyare tired all the time, 6)
matterhow muchsleepthey get,and theycrave
(potatoes,bread,spaghetti,etc)
carbohydrates
Theyalsoexperience
feelingsof despair,misery
and hopelessness
Theseare symptomsof the
disease
7)
... as SADor Seasonal
Affective
Disorder
The cure 8) . . .
a logicalone. Sufferers
needexposure
to brightlight Formild formsof
t h e d i s e a s es i m p l ys p e n d i n gm o r e 9 ) . . . . . . .
outsideusuallyhelpsto relievethe symptoms,
but seriousSAD sufferersneed 10)
moreeffectivetreatment.Accordingto medical
professionals,the recommendedtreatment
11)
. . . S A Di s e x p o s u r ef r, o m 3 0 m i n u t e s
to two hours daily,to a 'light box' This box
p r o d u c eas b r i g h tl i g h tw h i c hi s s i m i l atro b e i n g
o u t s i d eo n a c l o u d yw i n t e r ' sd a y i n A l a s k aT h e
p a t i e n t1 2 ) . . . . . t o a l l o wt h e l i g h tt o m a k e
contactwith their eyesas research
has shown
that it is the effectof light on the eyes,rather
13)
o n t h e s k i n ,w h i c h r e d u c e sS A D
symptoms. Exercisecan also help relieve
symptomsof depressron
L u c k i l yt h
, o u g h ,m o s t 1 4 )
us simply
experience
a mild form of the diseaseIn thls
case, an effective cure includes anything
15)
a C a r i b b e a nh o l i d a yt,o a g r e a t
evening
outwithfriends.

104

Curry,nowadays,is becomingknown as a 0) ir"=#ii';,:,-r=i+j


English
food In fact, it is 1) .
easierto find an Indianrestauranl
t h a na f i s ha n dc h i ps h o pi n m o s tl a r g ec i t i e sa n dt o w n si n t h e U K
The reasonsare obvious,curriesare tasty, whereastraditional
Englishfood 2) .
sometimesbe quite bland What few
peopleknow, 3)
, is that most of the herbsand spices
usedto makecurryhavemedicalproperties
G a r l i ca n do n i o n sh a v eb e e nu s e d4 )
t h o u s a n dosf y e a r s
to help lowercholesterol
and blood pressure
and treat infections.
Turmericacid aidsdigestion,actsas an antisepticand supposedly
hasantr-cancer
propertiesCoriander,
used5) , ., , , the ancient
Greeksand Egyptians
to flavourwine, is known to easemigraine
headaches
Gingeris 6) . .
known for its abilltyto suppressnausea
and reducefever When usedtopicallyit alsoactsas an effective
7)
Chilliis alsofamousasa topicalpainreliever
aswell as
b e i n ga b l et o s t o p b l e e d i n g8 )
. a p p l i e dt o a c u t . l t a l s o
h e l p s t h e b o d y p r o d u c ee n d o r p h i n sw h i c h c a u s ef e e l i n g so f
pleasureClovesare usefulfor preserving
food and they are also
a(n)9) .
ingredientin topicalpainrelievers
usedby dentists
But, be warned,beforeyou go rushingto your spicerack to
10 )
y o u ra c h e sa n d p a i n sm a k es u r et h a t y o u 11)
what you are doing Most of thesespicescan havea 12)
effectif you usetoo much lt is also13)
to find out what
f o r mt h e ys h o u l db e i n F o re x a m p l ec,u t t i n ga r a wc h i l lpj e p p ear n d
r u b b i n gi t i n t o a n o p e n1 4 )
c o u l db e 1 5 ).
a sw e l l
a sh a r m f u l .

0A ac c epte
l Aquite
2 A is
3 Aso
4 A for
5 Awith
6Amuch
7 A painkiller

d B u s u a l |El
B often
C
B would
C
B f o r t u n a t e lC
y
B rn
C
B by
C
B highly
C
B stopper
C
8Awhile
Bwhen
C
9 Afirst
B important C
10 A solve
B fix
C
11 Athink
B consider C
12 A positive
B unknown C
13 Aimportant B needed C
14 A lnjury
B hurt
C
15 A hurtful
B painful
C

tradtttonal lJ
very
D
could
D
nevertheiessD
since
D
for
D
very
D
reducer
D
as
D
usual
D
cure
D
learn
D
negative
D
advised
D
sprain
D
helpful
D

cultural
seldom
can
however
during
from
well
destroyer
whether
main
mend
know
minimal
significant
wound
awful

W
w

E!.==#

Revision(Unitsl-5)
thecorrect
item.
16 Circle

1 4 P u p i l s. .
inthecorridors
A d o n ' th a v et o r u n
C m u s t n ' tr u n
B n e e d n ' rt u n
D n e e d n ' bt e r u n n i n g
15

He hasworkedwith hisfather
he left school
A when
B since
C before D while
| .. . to the partybut I didn'tstaylongbecause
I
wastired
A amgoing
C h a db e e ng o i n g
B was going
D went
3

lt ..
. heavilyall week and the roadsare wet
and slippery.
A h a dr a i n e d
C h a sb e e nr a i n i n g
B i sr a i n i n g
D rains
W h a tt i m ed i dJ o h n ' sf l i g h t
.. yesterday?
A land
C landed
B belanding
D w a sl a n d i n g
H ep u t t h e l a d d e u
rp
t h ew a l l .
A to
B against C from
D between
Bythistime nextyear| . . payingfor my car
A havefinished
B w l l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
C amfinishing
D a m g o i n gt o b e f i n i s h i n g
l f h e h a se n o u g hm o n e y h
, e..
o n h o l i d a yi n
thesummer
A goes
C willgo
B istogo
D w i l l h a v eg o n e

C o l i nw o n ' t c o m eu n l e s h
se ..
theessav
A willfinish
C i sf l n i s h i n g
B finishes
D w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
When I was at school,I reallyhated
. . for
exam5.
A study
C usedto study
B to study
D studying

10 Oh no! | forgot
out.
A posting
B post

those letterswhen I was


C to post
D to haveposted

1 1 S o l d i e r .s. .
obey ordersfrom their superior
officers.
Acan
B might
C haveto D ought to
12 You
to the supermarketlater, l'll go
t o m o r r o wm o r n t n g .
A n e e d n 'gt o
C n e e d n 'h
t a v eg o n e
B didn't haveto go
D neededto go
13 That
have been Harry,scar you saw
yesterday.
Hisis blue,not green.
A needn't
C mightn't
B couldn't
D shouldn't

. you tell me how to get to the stationfrom


here,please?
A Shali
B Could C Should D May

1 6 T h e r e.
5Ure.
A must
17 We could
heavily
Ago
B begoing

be an electionthis year,but l'm not


B might

C ought

D should

to the theatre,but it was raining

1 8 L e a v em e a l o n e ., . .
A shall
B will

C havegone
D havebeengoing
you?
C do

D have

1 9 T h a th o u s e . . f 3 0 , 0 0 0i n 1 9 9 8
A cost
B will cost C hascost D costs
20 Thematchwill havefinished
A when
B after
C by

six.
D since

word.
17 Fillinthemissing
1 Do I
to do my homeworknow?
2 She
..
be ill I saw her just five minutes
ago.
3 Thecoffeeis . .
..
hot for me to drink
4 We aren't going to the cinema tonight,
..we?
5 Thewater isn'thot
yet
6 ..
you be coming to the party on
Saturday?
7 He isthe
. .. . interesting
man l,veevermet
8 You .
..
.. smokein here lt,snot airoweo.
9 l ' l lb e h o m ee a r l y
t h e b u si s l a t e
1 0 W h e nI w a s a c h i l d w
, e ..
. to go to Spain
everySummer
1 1 J a n ec o u l d . . .
h e l p e du s ,b u t s h ed i d n , t
12 He is
to workingon Saturdays.
1 3 L e t ' sp l a ys q u a s h ,
.. we?
'14
Thebandhad beenplayingfor an hour
the lightswent out
1 5 D o n ' tp h o n ea t 6 : 0 0 l ' l l
h a v i n ga p r a n o
lesson
16 We were not ..
to takephotos
17 Tomrarelydrivesto work,
he7
1 8 H o wo l d
l i t t l eM a r yb e i n M a r c h ?
19 Was Sharon
to read and write when
shewas fiveyearsoldT
20 When we were youngerwe used to go sailing
.. ... weeKeno

105

!'i'

il

=
:; '; E:

eJ=*

-rr-^ t-)^--i,,^
I r rc rd>>tvc

Verb/TenseForm
P r e s e nsti m p l e
Present
continuous
P a s st i m p l e
Pastcontinuous
F u t u r es i m p l e
Prp(ont narfort

Pastperfect
Futureperfect
Present
infinitive
Perfectinfinitive
-ing form
Modals

Active

Passive

Hiscompanybuildshousesandofficeblocks Houses
andofficeblocksarebuilt by his
company.
Theyarebuildinga newhospital.
A newhospital
is beingbuilt.
Theybuilt thesehousesin the 1950s.
Thesehouses
werebuiltin the l950s.
Theywerebuildingthesupermarket
when
Thesupermarket
wasbeingbuilt when
theyranoutof money.
theyranoutof money.
Theywill builda bridgeacrosstheriver.
A bridgewill be built acrosstheriver.
Theyhavebuilta biggercinema.
A biggercinemahasbeenbuilt.
Theyhad builthalfof thehouses
beforethey Halfof thehouses
hadbeenbuiltbefore
phone
laidthephonecables.
thevlaidthe
cables.
Theywill havebuilt it by theendof theyear. It will havebeenbuilt by theendof theyear
Theycanbuildan extension
in theirback
An extension
canbe built in theirback
qarden.
qarden.
Theymusthavebuiltthesecond
terminalat Thesecond
terminalat theairportmust
theairportbynow.
havebeenbuilt bynow.
Theywantto preventthemfrombuildinga
Theywantto preventa newroadfrom
newroad.
beingbuilt.
Theyshouldbuilda newTownHall.
AnewTownHallshouldbe built.

Thepresent
perfectcontinuous,
pastperfectcontinuous
futurecontinuous,
andfutureperfectcontinuous
arenot
y
normal usedinthepassive
Wecanusetheverbto get instead
of theverbto be in everyday
speech
whenwetalkaboutthingsthathappen
by
accidentorunexpectedly
Hegotinjuredwhenhewasplayingrugby.(nsteadofhewosinjured...)

We usethe passive:
'

'
'

whenihe person
or people
whodo theactionareunknown,
unimportant
or obvious
fromtheconiext,
(Wedon'tknowwho stoleit )
Hrswalletwas
stolen.
Thecarisbeingrepaired.(ft
isunimportant
whoisrepairing
it )
(lt isobvious
Thecriminals
havebeenarrested.
thatthe policearrested
them)
whentheactionitselfismoreimportant
thantheperson/people
whodo it, asin newsheadlines,
newspaper
articles,
formalnotices,
processes,
advertisements,
instructions,
etc Thegallery
willbeopened
to thepublic
onJuly7th.(formal
notice)
whenwe wantto avoidtakingresponsibility
foranactionor whenwe referto an unpleasant
eventandwe do notwant
to saywho or whatisto blameMstakes
havebeenmadeinthepast.

Changingfrom the activeto the passive:


o
.
I

106
I I i , l i l l [ ] lI I l l l l l r0 r 1 L i i I i l , I M L ,

i r i , ,r , , , 1 , , r '

the objectof the activesentences


becomes
the subjectin the passive
sentence
theactive
verbremains
in thesametensebutchanges
intoa passive
form
thesubject
of theactive
sentence
becomes
theaqent,andiseitherintroduced
withthepreposition
by or isomitted

ffirmrmffiffi$

ffi#%
f Acrtr/El
rapns

fPASstr/E
I

'

'

Subject

only transitive
verbs(verbsthat take an ob.lect)
canbe changedinto the passrve
Jackieis redecoratingtheflat. (transitive verb) l Theflat is beingredecorated
byJackie.
BUT:Jackielivesonthethirdfloor(intransitive
verb) - no passivefarm:Thethirdfteerl
yJafu.
Note: Sometransitive
verbs(have,be, exist,seem,fit, suit, resemble,lack,etc)cannotbe changedinto the
passive,
Rick
hasa redjumper.(NOTMdjry1@k)
by + agent is usedto saywho or what carriesout an actton
with + instrument/material/ingredient
is usedto saywhat the agentused
Thepastasaucewasmadeby Tony.
/ lt wasmadewith freshtomatoesfrom thegarden.
Theagent can be omittedwhen the subjectis they,he,someone/somebody,
people,one, elc
Somebody
hascleaned
thecar. -)
Thecarhasbeencleaned.
Theagentis not omittedwhen rt is a specific
or importantperson,or when it is essential
to the meaningof the
sentenceThenovelwaswrittenby Charles
Dickens.
Newmeasures
areto beintroduced
by the localcouncil.
Whenwe want to find out who or what performedan action,the passive
questionform is Who/What... bv?
Whowasthepicturepaintedby?
With verbswhichcantaketwo objectssuchas bring,tell, send,show,teach,promise,buy,sell,
read.offer,
give,lend,etc,we canform two differentpassive
sentences
Emilytoldthechildrena story.(active)
Thechildrenweretolda storybyEmily(passive,
more usuar/
A storywastoldto thechildren
byEmily.(passive,
lessusuarT
lf, in an activesentence,
preposition
a
followsa verb,then it is placedimmediately
afterthe verbin the passive
Christhrewtheballinto theair.
r
Theballwasthrown into theair bv Chris.
Theverbshear,help,seeand makearefollowedby the bareinfinitivein the activebut by the
to-infinitivein
the passive
Theteachermadethestudentsworkveryhard. t
Thestudents
weremadeto workveryhardby theteacher.
Let becomesbe allowed to in the passive,Shelet thechildren
stayup late. t Thechildrenwereallowedto stavuD
late.

Relative
Clauses
Relatlve
clauses
areintroduced
with eithera relativepronounor a relativeadverb.
RelativePronouns
We use:
1
2
3

who(m)/that to referto people Tina,whoisHelen's


got herBAlastsummer.
sister,
which/that to referto things Thepenwhichisonyour deskis
mine.
whosewith people,animalsand objectsto show possession
(insteadof a possessive
adjective)Bob,whose
fatherisa lawyer,
gotpromoted
lastmonth.

107

nlffir

* r5#

W h o , w h i c h a n d t h a t c a n b e o m i t t e d w h e n t h e y a r e t h e o b j e c t o f t h e r e l a t i v 5e hc e
l a3ut sh e g(iw
r lh o ) t t o l d
youabout.BUTShe's
thedoctorwholivesnextdoar.(whocan'tbeomitted)
Whom canbe usedinsteadof who when it isthe objectof the relativeclauseWhom is alwaysusedinstead
of who or that after a preposilionThat's
themanto whomlwasspeaking
lastnight
Who, which, or that arenot omittedwhen they arethe subjectof a relativeclauseThemanwholivesnextdoor
isa doctor.
Whoseis neveromitted,She'sthegirl
whosecarlbought.
RelativeAdverbs
We use:
1
2
3

when/that to referto a time (when/thatcan be omitted) Thatwastheyear(when/that)wewenttosouthAfrica.


where to referto placesThetownwherehelivesisin theNorthWestof England.
why to givea reason,usuallyafter the word reason(why can be omitted) Thereason(why)hedid thisis stillnot
clear.

ldentifyingand Non-ldentifyingRelativeClauses

'l

An identifying
relativeclausegivesnecessary
information,
essential
to the meaningof the mainsentencelt is
not put in commasand is introduced
with who, that, whose,where,when or the reason(why).
ThedoctorwhotreatedHannahsaidshewouldbefinein a coupleof davs.

A non-identifying
relativeclausegivesextrainformationand ls not essential
to the meaningof the main
sentencelt is put in commasand is introduced
with who, whom, which,whose,where or when
Thedoctor,who wasveryfriendly,
gaveHannahan injection.

a. Fillin the gapsin the table.

5 When I spoke to him this morning he


. . . . .. t h e g a r d e nf e n c e
6 Yesterday
she took the bus to work because
h e rc a r
7 The report
...... by Harry
and Sarah.
8 Duringthe last year,two new supermarkets
. . in the centreof town

Fillin byor with, as in the example.

b. Usethe appropriateverb forms from the table


to completethe sentences.
1 The companysforssinformationabout all its
customers
on computer.
2 Theparcel
tomorrow.
3 T h ep o l i c e.
. . . t h e m a nf o r
a letterto Anna at

108

1 The salad dressingls made r,vltholive oil and


vrnegar.
2 The car was being fixed
a friend of
ours
3 Thetreewas cut down
a chainsaw.
4 On Saturdayafternoonsthe streets are filled
. shoppers
5 That book was written
.... . my favourite
autnor
6 All of this troublewas caused
Sally's
interfering

?:='==:r:.;-:
3

a. Readthe passage
andput the verbsintothe
correctpassive
tense.

4 A : H a v et h e yf i n i s h e b
du i l d i n g
t h e n e wc j n e m a
yet?
B : Yes,I heardthat iVopen/the
mayornextweek

lne

Didyou writethat report?


B : No, I think iVwrrte/Fiona

firstmodern
OlympiG
c ames

6 A : Why wereyou late?


B : My flighVdelay/by
the badweather

A t h e n si n 1 8 9 6 T h e y 2 ) . .
(organise)
by the lnternational
Olympic
Committee,
which3)
(found)two years
e a r l i ebr y t h e F r e n c h m aBna r o np i e r r ed e C o u b e r t i nA t
the firstgames,athletesfromjust 13 countries
4)
(invite)to take partin 42 eventsSince
t h e n ,t h e s u m m egr a m e s5 )
( h o s t )b y a
differentcityeveryfour years(exceptduringthe World
W a r sa
) n dt h e i rp o p u l a r i thya sg r o w na n dg r o w n T h e
2000 Gamesin Sydney,
Australia,
which
6)
( a t t e n d )b y m o r et h a n 1 O , O O 0
athletesfrom almost2OOcountries,
7)
(think)to havebeen
the biggestand the bestyet lt
8)
(hope)that the evenr
will be evenmoresuccessful
in the
yearsto come

8 A : Haveyou finisheddecorating
yourflat?
B : No, but iVfrnish/by
the end of the month
o

n.

C a nI b o r r o wy o u rb l u ej u m p e r ?
B : Sorry,but iVwash/at
the moment

1 0 A : H o wo l d i st h i sp i c t u r e ?
B : l V p a i n V m o trhea n 1 0 0y e a r sa g o

b. Askandanswerquestions,
asin the example.

A Haveyou got yourcarbackyet?


B : No, iVstill/not
repair

Rewritethe followingpassagein the passiveform.

'3a

The poticearrestedlocatman ,r"o;:;",


;.;;;';;;. ;;.r'
i:f the armedrobberyof the petrolstationon GeorgeStreet
::{
:1 TheycaughtRowerunningaway from the sceneand they
t;
found that he was carryingmorethan f2OO0in cash They
a,
Usingthe prompts,
writesentences
in the passive, ri later officiallycharged him with the robbery A police
asin the examole.
; s p o k e s m aann n o u n c etdh a t R o w ew i l l a p p e a ri n c o u r tn e x t
m o n t h l f h e i sf o u n dg u i l t yt,h ej u d g ec o u l ds e n t e n chei mt o
,l
up to ten yearsin prison

A: Where
werethefirstmodern
Olympic
Games
held?
B: They
wereheldin Athens.
Who.. .? etc.

Rewritethe newspaper
headlines
ascomplete
sentences,
asin the examole.

I Investigationto be held into tragiccoachcrash I


1 A : W h a ta r et h e c h i l d r e d
no i n g ?
B : They/teach/E
nglish
TheyarebeingtaughtEnglish.
2 A . That'sa reallynicedress
B : Thanks,iVgive/tome for my birthday
D o y o u f a n c yg o i n go u t f o r d i n n e rt o n i g h t ?
B : SorryI can't,I/invite/to
a party

I ueroict not reached


Ot iurY in the
,
:
case -,
waterman
:

, Extrafundingfor hospitals.
announcedby Health
:
.
:
-. Minister

Ove-o+y sTRiKETo EE ++to


Fy TRAIMDRvER5

Aninvestigation
willbeheldintothetraqiccoachcrash.

109

ff
:= L==#

ti

lf possible,
in the
rewritethe followingsentences
passrve.

andmakeupasmany
10 Lookat thepictures
sentences
aspossible
usingrelatives.

Julielivesin Barcelona
Can'tbeput intothepassive
TheychosePaulto be the newteamcaptain
Paulwaschosento bethenewteamcaptain.
Theyhaveclosedthe roadbecause
ofthe floods
4 Theyhavetwo sonsanda daughter
5 Thepostmandelivered
the letterjust beforewe left
6 Thatold shirtdoesn'tfit me anymore

a l a r mc l o c k
goldfish

Fillin who,whichorwhose,then
saywhetheror not
pronouncanbe omitted,asin the
the relative
examptes.

4
5

That'sthe woman wh*se daughterworks in the


bank ir***of&eoffiiffedj
Maryis the personwJ'l*lwantedto speakto {r**
&c*ffiiri*dj
That'sthe book
I wantedto borrow
from you
l s M a r kt h e b o y
hasgot a motorbike?
M r J o h n s o ni s t h e m a n
t o po f t h e h i l l .
TL^-^
| | tc)c

^-^
dtc

+L^
L It c

-L^^)t luc5

b i n o c lua r s

tr

e-

-r

"

lbought last

chef

Agoldfish
isasmall
fishwhich
wekeep
asapet,
thecorrect
item.
11 Circle
1 Do you know the man
newsagent's?
A which
B whose
2

Matchthe itemsin the two columns.


Thenusethe
correctrelativepronoun,who,whoseor which,to
makeup complete
sentences.
FTdl n doctorissomeone
ETI rhe tigerisan
animal
This
is Peter
FTI
ETI n kettleissomething
ETI Cregisthemechanrc

11n'
t t \ J

iI :l ltl il tt 0 il [] rilil nilnr

C who

3 W h a t ' st h e n a m e o f t h a t c o m e d i a n
TV
showyou werewatchinglastnight?
A who's
B whose
C whom

a fixedour car
b is usedto boilwater
c c a nb e f o u n di n
lndia

thesick
d cures
youmer
e srsrer
yesterday

5 Thisis MissWalters
phone

Adoctor
issomeone
whocures
thesick.

owns the

N e i l s a i d t h a t t h e r e ' sa f i l m o n a t t h e c i n e m a
. . . we mightenjoy
A which
B who
C whose

The students,
essayswere due the next
day,wereall workingin the library
A whose
B that
C who

A which

1- d

l an t e r n

n o u s e1 50 n

week
.Jamie
is the person
. i s i n c h a r g eo f t h e
project
8 lsn't ClaireWinters the woman
brotherworkswith Steve?
9 R o h ' ct h o n o r c n n
won the tennis
c o m p e t i t i o nn,o t W i l l
'10
That'sthe school
the boysusedto go
to

e""

you spoketo on the

B whom

6 T h e n e w w a s h i n gm a c h i n e
wasverycheap
A where
B which

C who's
she bought
C who

Useof English

. ErrorCorrection

. WordFormation

out-:
over-:
post-: '
pre-:
re-:
semi-:
sub-:
super-:
under-:

outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
13 Cross
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Theirhouseit was brokeninto lastweek


Amandawho was invitedto the partyby Jane
He is saidthat to be veryrich
S h e ' sh a db e e nh e rh a i rc u t ,h a s n ,st h e ?
Thereportis stillbeinghadtypedat the moment
I was agreedwith everything
theyweresaying.
That'sthe manwho isworksin the supermarket
Joyce,whosedaughterlivesnextdoor,sheworksin
thehospital
9 T h a tw h i c hi st h e g i r lw h o b o u g h tR o b , h
s ouse
1 0 5hewas seento talkingto Benlastnight

more,better (outperform)
to a great extent (overreact)
after (post-graduate)
before(pre-school)
again(rewrite)
half(semi-detached)
under,less(sub-zero)
big, more(supermarket)
not enough(underpaid)

. KeyWordTransformations
eachof thesentences
witha word
12 Complete
formed
fromthewordin bold.

Studythe examples.ln eachcasethe secondsentencehas


a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.

1 He
everybodyelse
i n t h e t o u r n a m e nat n dw o n e a s i l y
2 The seatshad beenarrangedin a

PLAY

facingthe front of
the room
3 Thefilm was in Frenchwith English

CIRCLE

apporntment,
allowed I was allowedto leaveearlybecauseI had
a d e n t a al p p o i n t m e n t .
2 The governmenthassuggested
that we shouldtry to
conservewater.
by
lt has been suggestedby the government

TITLE
4 T h e g a r d e nhad been neglected
and wasvery
5 You mustn't
how
difficuitit is goingto be
6 Theirhousewas destroyedby the
earthquake
but theyaredetermined
to
it
7 lna.
.interview,the
coach tried to explain why his
team had playedso badly
8 Before you put in the chicken,
. the ovento 1BO"C
9 She had always dreamed of
b e c o m i na
g
10 |
a n d w a s l a t ef o r
scnool

that we shouldtry to conserve


water
GROWN
ESTIMATE

BUILD
MATCH

HEAT

Most people believethat the OlympicGamesnerp


promoteworldpeace.
believed The OlympicGamesare believedto help
promoteworld peace

We got a qualifiedplumberto installour new shower.


had
We had our new shower installedby a
q u a l i f i ep
dl u m b e r .

Someone
stolehercarlastnight.
was
Hercarwas stolenlastnight

6 They will replacethe broken wrndow romorrow


morntng.
be
The broken window will be replaced
tomorrowmornjng

STAR
SLEPT

7 Theyare expectingthe Royalcoupleto arriveback in


E n g l a n od n S u n d a ym o r n i n g
expected The Royalcouple are expected to arrive
b a c ki n E n g l a n od n S u n d a m
y orning
8

lf I don't finjshthe reportby Friday,


I won,t be abteto
go awaythisweekend
finished tf this report isn,t finished by Friday, I
won't be ableto go awaythisweekend.
"j

111

*!&

ffi

r- Li-*

tl4

with two to
Complete
the sentences
fivewords,including
the wordin bold.
Donot change
the meaning
of the
originalsentence.

. M u l t i o l eC h o i c eC l o z e
thetextbeloWthencircle
theanswer
A, B,Cor Dwhich
1 5 Read
(0)at thebeginning.
bestfitsthespace.
There
isanexample

Wg

She has to finish her essayby next


Monday
finished Heressay
by nextMonday

Going abroadhas neverbeen


easierToday,thanks 0) f* the
UK'sPetTravelScheme(PETS),
you can safelyand easilytake
your pet with you when you
travel to many European
c o u n t r i e as n d t o a n u m b e r
of long haul destinations
1 ) . . . . . . . .. . . .A u s t r a lai an d
N e w Z e a l a n dF
. i r s to f a l l ,

Theylet me takethe dayoff yesterday


allowed I
the day off yesterday
Peoplebelievethat the traincrashwas
caused
b y a s i g n afla i l u r e
believed lt . .
train crashwas causedby a
s i g n afla i l u r e
They delivered her new furniture
yesterday
was
H e rn e w f u r n i t u r e
. .. yesterday
The mechanicat the garageserviced
o u rc a r .
had
We
t h e m e c h a n iact t h e g a r a g e
A national newspaperhas reported
t h a t t h e m i n i s t eirs g o i n gt o r e s i g n
by
lt has
n a t i o n a l n e w s p a p e rt h a t
t h e m i n i s t e ri s g o i n g t o
restgn
It is expectedthat Barcelona
will win
the match
Barcelona
the match
T h ep o l i c ea r et o c a r r yo u t a t h o r o u g h
investigation
be
A t h o r o u g hi n v e s t i g a t i o n
b yt h e p o l i c e
T h e l o c a lc o u n c i h
l a s s u g g e s t etdh a t
t h e p o l i c es h o u l di m p o s eh e a v yf i n e s
f o r d a n g e r o udsr i v i n g
by
l t ........
t h e l o c a l c o u n c i lt h a t t h e
p o l i c es h o u l di m p o s eh e a v y
f i n e sf o r d a n g e r o udsr i v i n g

1I 1t z )_
l

'

vorir net

ncpds to

have a

m i c r o c h i p2 )
This
m e a n st h a t a s m a l lm i c r o c h i p ,
a b o u tt h e 3 )
of a grain
of rice,is inserted4)
the
looseskin 5)
the back of
the neck The microchiphas a special
c o d eo n i t w h i c hi s 6 ) . . . . . . . . t o e a c h
animal and is used for identification7)
I n f o r m a t i oanb o u tt h e a n i m asl u c ha s n a m e a
, g e ,b r e e da n dv a c c i n a t i o n
d e t a i l sa, l o n g8 ) . . . .
d e t a i l sa b o u tt h e o w n e r a
, r e9 )
on a
central computer The next step is to have your pet vaccinated
10)
rabiesThenafter a follow-upblood 11)
, a PETS
Certificate
or passportwill be issuedand your pet canset off with you
Of course,this new conveniencedoesn't come cheap, with the
12)
costof the procedure
amountingto f200
13)
w
h
e
n
c
o
m
p
a
r
e
dt o t h e o l d w a y , a q u a r a n t i n e
,
14)
of six months at a cost of f2,OO0,it is certainlya
15)
i n t h e r i g h td i r e c t i o n

O A
1 A
2 A
3 A
4 A
5 A
6 A
7 A
8 A
9 A
1 0 A
11 A
1 2 A
1 3 A
1 4 A
1 5 A

for

counting B
fitted
B
amount
B
to
B
In
B
unrque
B
reasons
B
to
b
stored
B
to
B
e x a m i n a t i oBn
total
B
Whereas B
nori nd
B
B

to

C
C
installed C
rar9eness C
Into
C
on
C
individual C
intentions C
with
c
deposited C
o9or r)L
C
research C
SUM
C
l-)oqnito
C
C
time
stride
C
l-A^aih6r

with
plus
built-in
size
beside
a t
only
functions

b v
reserved
for
test
added
However
<i:no

walk

D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

o f
including
fixed
range
b v
b v
same
purposes
for
collected
through
investigation
complete
Eventhough
stretch
step

:;il

l=:=

:i- ii:=;+j:
. OpenCloze
Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhich
bestfitseachspace.
Useonlyonewordin each
space.
Thereisan example
(0)at the beginning.

16

thecorrect
item.
17 Circle
1 He
f o r t h a t p h o n ec a l ls i n c e5 o , c l o c k
A waits
C h a sb e e nw a i t i n g
B i sw a i t i n g
D w i l lw a i t
2

lf I hearfromJoey,I
A am letting
B let

H i sp r e v i o ujso b w a sj u s t , .
w e l l p a i da s t h e
o n e h e h a 5n o w
A not
B more C slightly D as

i r*rl-r.=; i*:r-rlll
'-'

_[

s-G)
R e v i s i o( U
n n i t1

L""

'dr

rr-'

r+/

More and 0) ;=Gr-people today are turning to the


I n t e r n etto m e e t 1 )
e m p l o y m e nnte e d sA c c o r d i n g
2)
one recentsurvey,more3)
one million
U K r e s i d e n t ss e a r c h f o r j o b s t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r n e t
4)
m o n t h l n r e s p o n s5
e)
this demand,
thousandsof new sites,offeringto matchjob huntersto
suitable
a d v e r t i s e m e nht sa,v e6 )
I a u n c h e dF o rt h e
thesesitesareveryconvenientThereis no more
lob-seeker,
h u n t i n g7 )
a l i s to f t h o u s a n dosf a d v e r t i s e m e nr or s
f i n d t h e o n e t h e y a r e l o o k r n gf o r T h e y c a n s i m p l y
8)
r i d o f u n s u i t a b l ea d v e r t i s e m e n b
t sy b e i n g
specific9)
their searchdetails lf they do not wish
to accept a salary 10)
less than f3O,OOO,
11)
if they do not wish to work outsidea certatn
area,for example,
then they cantype in this informationat
the start of their searchin 12)
to savetnemsetves
t h e t r o u b l eo f r e a d i n ga b o u tj o b st h a t a r e 1 3 )
no
rnterest
to them TheInternetalsoallowsthe job_seeker
to
sendtheirCVsto a numberof differentplacesmorequickly
They can 14)
get up-to-the-minuteinformation
a b o u tw h i c hj o b s a r e s t i l la v a i l a b l eS o , n e x tt i m e y o u a r e
15)
the lookoutfor that exciiingnew opporrunrry;
g e t o n l i n ea n dg e t a h e a c , ,

you know
C w i l lb e l e t t i n g
D w i l ll e t

4 There'sno point in
she'snot interested
A explaining
B explain
5

i w o u l dl o v e
A own
B to own

how you feel,because


C explained
D to explarn

my own restaurant
one day
C owning
D to beowning

6 She
b e m a r r r e d S h e w a s w e a r i n ga
w e d d i n gr i n g
A could B needn't C must
D c an ' t
7 We
to go to bed soon We'vegot a very
busydaytomorrow
A should B ought C must
D can
8

He
g e t t h e r e i n t i m e ; t d e p e n d so n t h e
trafflc
A might B must
C ought D need

9 Theleakwas fixed
A w i th
B for

a plumber.
C by
D to

1 0 H e c a n ' t c o m e b e c a u s eh e
to work
overttmeeverynightthisweek
A makes
C i sm a k i n g
B i s b e i n gm a d e
D i sm a d e

word.
18 Fillinthemissing
'l

% b l
1
t "'
,

l
o't
i

1"..
l''r'' I
t , t. i

.,

C h i n e s ies
in Taiwan
2 Haveyou
invitedto the party?
3 She will have
working here for
iwenty-fiveyearswhen sheretires
4 That'sthe house
I grew up
5 The demonstrators
want to stop the law from
,
passed
This is Peter James
is the new
c o m p u t etre c h n i c r a n
H e h a s b e e ns t u d y i n ga l l n i g h t H e
be exhausted
8 It is
that he will be the nextpresident
9 Thesaucewas made
freshherbs
1 0 The priceof computersis expected
Ise

113

j-

Causative
form
o
.
.
.

We usehave+ object+ past participleto saythat we havearrangedfor someoneto do somethingfor us The


pastparticiple
(5hedidn'tcut herown hair)
hasa passive
meaningShehadherhaircutat thenewhairdresser's.
(present
verb
have
formed
with
and
negations
of
the
are
do/does
simple)or did (pastsimple)
Questions
Didyouhavethecarpetscleanedlastweek?
Wealsousehavesomethingdonetotalkaboutanunpleasantexperiencethatsom
WehbeondKyahtaedw a s
in town,shehadherbagstolen.(= her bag was stolen)
Wecanusetheverbgetinsteadofhaveininform
c oanl v e r s a t i ol 'nl lg e t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s d e v e l o p e d w h e n l g o
tntotown.
Regularactiveform

PresentSimple
PresentContinuous
P a s tS i m p l e
PastContinuous
FutureSimple
F u t u r eC o n t i n u o u s
PresentPerfect
PresentPerfectContinuous
PastPerfect
PastPerfectContinuous
Infinitive
-ing form

He fixeshisbike
H e i s f i x i n gh i sb i k e
He fixed hisbike
Hewas fixing hisbike
H ew i l l f i x h i sb i k e
H ew i l l b e f i x i n gh i sb i k e
H eh a sf i x e dh i sb i k e
H e h a sb e e nf i x i n gh i sb i k e
H e h a d f i x e dh i sb i k e
H eh a d b e e nf i x i n gh i sb i k e
H es h o u l df i x h i sb i k e
It'sworth fixing hisbike

Causativeform
He has hisbikefixed
He is havinqhisbikefixed
He had hisbikefixed
Hewas havinohisbikefixed
Hewill havehisbikefixed
H ew i l l b e h a v i n gh i sb i k ef i x e d
He has had hisbikefixed
He has beenhavinghisbikefixed
H e h a d h a d h i sb i k ef i x e d
H eh a d b e e nh a v i n gh i sb i k ef i x e d
He shouldhavehisbikefixed
It'sworth havinghlsbikefixed

Reoorted
Soeech
.
o

We usedirectspeechto quotesomeone's
exactwords We enclosetheirwordsin invertedcommas
"llivein HighfieldRoad,"Evesaid.or Evesaid,"llivein HighfieldRoad."
We usereportedspeechto reportthe exactmeaningof what someonesaid,but not in the exactwords We
do not useinvertedcommasPersonalpronouns,possessive
pronounschange
adjectivesand possessive
according
to the meaningof the sentenceEvesaidthatshelivesin Highfield
Road.
We can reportsomeone's
wordsa longtime aftertheyweresaid(out-of-datereporting)or a shorttime after
theyweresaid(up-to-datereporting)

S a y - T e- A
llsk
Saycan be usedboth in directand reportedspeechlt is usedwith or without a personal
object Whenit is
usedwith a personal
objectit is alwaysfollowedby to (saidto him) In reportedspeechsay is not followedby
an objectpronoun,but it can be followedby that
"l'mtired,"shesaid. OR "l'mtired,"
Direct:
shesaidto me.
(that)
Reported: Shesaid
shewastired.
Tellcanbe usedboth in directand reportedspeechlt is alwaysfollowedby a personal
object(toldhrm)
Direct:
"lcomefromNewcastle,"
Garytoldme.
Reported: GarytoldmethathecomesfromNewcastle
Ask is usedin directquestionslt is alsousedin reportedquestions
and requests
Direct:
"Where
areyougoing?"
heaskedme.
"Hurryup,"shesaid.
Reported: Heaskedmewherelwasgoing.
Sheaskedusto hurrvup.

114
i l r l l l l n u uur L rr u n r L r ,

ii= ti=*

Expressions
usedwith say,tell and ask
hello,good morning/afternoon
etc,something/nothing,
so,a prayer,a fewwords,etc
the truth, a lie,a story,a secret,a joke,the time,the difference,
one from another,somebody
one,sname,
somebody
the way,somebody
so,someone,s
fortune,etc
a question,a favour,the price,aftersomebody,
the time,around,for somethrng/somebody,
etc
In reportedspeech:
.

Tenses
changeas fotrows

" I walk to work everyday


PresentSimple
" I a m g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m a
PresentContinuous
" I nave
haveTtntsneo
finishedmy homework',
PresentPerfect
" I b o u g h tt h e i rn e w C D .

-+
-+
**+

" l w a s p l a y i n gf o o t b a lal t 1 2 o , c l o c k"


PastContinuous

-+

" l w i l l g o a n db u ys o m eb r e a d"

FutureSimple(will)

Hesaid(that)he walkedto work everyday


P a s tS i m p l e
H es a i d( i h a t )h e w a s g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m i .
Hesaid(that)he had finishedhishoinework_
Hesaid(that)he boughVhad nougfrttherr;;:;tO.
PastSimpleor Pastperfecr
H es a i dt h a t h ew a s p l a y i n g / h abde e np l a y i n gf o o t b a lal t 1 2
PastContinuousor PastperfectContinuous
H es a i dt h a t h e w o u l d g o a n db u ys o m eb r e a d .
Conditional(would)

Thepastperfectand pastperfectcontinuous
do not changein reportedspeech
'

Somewordsand time expressions


changeaccording
to the meaningof the sentence
here+ there,come+ go
today,tonight+ that day,that night
r the day before,the previousday
yesterday
now >then, at that/the time/moment.immediately
two daysago + two days before
lastmonth- the month before,the previousmonth
thisweek+ that week
tomorrow+ the next/followingday
nextmonth+ the month after,the following month

Somemodalverbsalsochange,as follows:
will , would
- could,can (futurereference)>could/wouldbe able
can(ability)
to
+
may might
shall ' should
+ p''rt,71rud
must(obligation)
,o
needn't needn't/didn,tneedto/didn.t haveto

115

E= Li=*

lr

Usethe promptsto saywhatyou cando at eachof


the businesses.

Lookat the pictures


and makesentences
usingthe
causative
form,asin the example.

RomsPizzs
Beautiful
Itolisn
pasta
ond pizza

Top stylisf ct low prices

We'll developyour
holidoy snops while you wcit

===--=

Seclgrity

We con insfoll locks, security lighfs,


burgloralorms.

They/photograph/take
Theyarehavingtheirphotographtaken.

LEAFLFfS ANb FLYER5ARE OUR 5PECTALTY

2
5

pizzaldeltver
(bythem).
Youcanhavea pizzadelivered

2
3
4
5
6

Rewrite
the sentences
usingthe causative
form,as
in theexample.
1 Someone
isgoingio paintourhouse
tomorrow
Wearegoingtohaveourhouse
painted
tomorrow.

hair/cut
photographs/
develop
n e wb u r g l aar l a r mi/n s t a l l
leaflets/print
carlrepair

2 Weareinstalling
central
heating
thiswinter
3 T h eh a i r d r e s sceur t m v h a i rt h i sm o r n i n o
4

Rewritethe sentences
usingthe causative
form,
in the example.
Hiscarisserviced
twicea year
Hehashiscarserviced
twicea year.
Herjacketis beingdry cleanedat the moment
3 Theirnew gasfirewas installed
lastmonth
4 M y m o b i l ep h o n ew a ss t o l e nl a s tn i g h t
5 Thedoctorcheckedhisbloodpressure.
o
Dida professional
theirhousefor them?
decorate
z

4 4 / '

t t o

i: lLrl lll ll iill iNll [] r [] [,r NrLr]


rn[],r Lrxrrx:rtrililxrdnn,,-,rnu,!,n,ri.

She/order/take
She/teeth/check
He/trousers/a
lter

T h e yw i l l d e l i v eor u r f u r n i t u r eo n F r i d a y

5 T h ep l u m b eirs f i x i n qt h e s i n ki n t h e k i t c h e n

Complete
the sentences
usingthe causative.
1 Ann'shairistoolongShe
Theywantedto havea marqueein their garden
They
We still haven'ttakenour holidayphotographs
to
be developedWe
yet

John is at the optician'sHe

Reportwhatthe doctorsaidto the patient,asin the example.

You need to arrange for


someoneto repairyour roof
You
Mary's purse was stolen
yesterdayMary
Tony'snosewasbrokenduring
the match.Tony
T h e p a i n t e ri s p a i n t i n gB e n ' s
bedroom Ben.

lf it is broken,
we will haveto
put it in a cast

Complete
the sentences
by
fillingin the correctformof
say,tell,or ask,asin the
examole.
Alisonref#me that she was
goingon holidaynextweek
N e i l ' sg o i n g i n t o t o w n , h e
.
if we wanted
anythingfromthe shops
lf you seeCarol
her that Harrywas looking
f o r h e re a r l i e r
D i dA n n ao r C h r i s
a n y t h i na
g b o u tw h a tt h e ya r e
d o i n gt o n i g h t ?
The boss
John
that we have to finish the
reporttoday
Dave
that we
shouldn't wait for him
b e c a u s eh e m i g h t b e a b i t
late
He
her where
she would like to go for
drnner
I mustrememberto
someone what time rne
examstarts I don't want to
be late
Did she
you
why shedidn'tgo to the party
lastnight?
1 0 Tina always
t h a t s h e i s g o i n gt o q u i t h e r
job and go back to college,
but I don't know if she ever
will

to sitdown'
thePatient
asked
1 She
2
3
4
5
6

Matchthe speech
(A-F)tothe sentences
bubbles
(1-6).Then,rewrite
themasreported
speech
to complete
the sentences,
asin the example.
B

G o t o y o u rr o o m !

Wheredid you
buy it?

I-TII I was meetinghim at the station,so I csksdhim wh*t tifi1hlstr#itt


*{{ivtd.

fTrl
frtl

Theboywas misbehaving,
so hismum
Benhad an examthe followingday,so he

ff4l

J a n er e a l l yl i k e dT i n a ' n
s e ws k i r t s, o s h e

l-Til rh" rentwasdue,soTim


soJim
l-T0 I Wewereallgoingoutto dinner,

117

=
.: I ;
"

i ; 1 . - ;;, -" ' =


r.--,

Joworksin a clothesshop.Readthe questions


that
a customer
askedherandturntheminto reported
questions,
asin the example.

Change
the directspeech
into reported
speech,
as
in theexamole.

"Do you havethis

3
4
5
6

shirt in a smaller
stze?"
Heaskedif theyhad
theshirtin a smaller
stze.
" l s t h e r ea f i t t i n g
room whereI can
t r y i t o n ?"
" How muchdoes
it cost?"
"Can I pay by
creditcard?"
"Willyou be opentomorrow?"
" W h a tt i m ed o y o ; c l o s eo n S a t u r d a y s ? "

It'son sai
T O rL l 5

'l

Thecustomer
asked
if thetiewentwith hisshirt.

10

Rewriteeachof the sentences


in directspeech,
as
in theexamole.

5
6

Hesaidthathewouldcalimethenextday
"lwillcallyoutomorrow,"
2 Shesaidthatshecouldspeak
ltalian
5

He saidthat he neededto go to the supermarket


laterthat day
Shesaidthat she had seenthat film the previous
week

Heaskedif I wouldgivehim a lift to work

Shesaidthat I shouldgo backtherethe following


mornrng
When I saw him yesterday,
he saidthat he wasn't
workingtoday

ltlLrrr'',uu,',

. Error
Correction
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
12 Cross

SheaskedwhetherI was goingawaythe following


weeKen0

5
6
7

He askedwhetherwe had playedfootballthe day


before

8
9

10 Sheaskedif shecouldborrowsomemoney

118

Useof English

10

He is having had his house decoratedat the


moment
H e r a p p o i n t m e nwt a s t w o h o u r sa g o ,s o s h ew i l l
h a v eh a db e e nh e rh a i rc u t b y n o w
I don't want to cooktonight Why don't we have
s o m e t h i nhga v ed e l i v e r e d ?
I am havingmy eyesbe testedat the optician's
this
afternoon
Shegot her new furniturewas delivered
yesterday
S h ed i d n ' th a v et h e h o u s eb e c l e a n e b
d yt h e m a i d
N i n as a i dm e t h a t s h e h a d a s p a r et i c k e tf o r t h e
concert
Emmaaskedif wherewe weregoingio meet
H e a s k e dt o m e w h a t I w a s d o i n g l a t e r t h a t
evenIng
S h e s a i d s h e w a s s t a r t i n gh e r n e w j o b o n r n e
followingweek

il:e
E E
. KeyWordTransformations
Studythe examples.In eachcasethe secondsentencehas
a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.

S t u a r st a i d , I t h i n kt h a t I c a nf i x i t
cout0
Stuartsaid
fix it
7

sard
would

t 1 Theyarrangedfor a caketo be madefor Joe,sbirthdavl


party
had

They had a cake made for Joe'sbirthday


party

A t t h e m o m e n tt,h e i rk i t c h e ni s b e i n gp a i n t e d
having Theyare having their kitchen painted at
themoment
3 Whichhairdresser's
did you go to lastweek?
get
Wheredid you get your haircut lastweek?
4

P a ms a i d ," l ' m g o i n gt o t h e t h e a t r ew i t h S a r a hn e x t
week "
was
Pamtold me that she was going to the
theatrewith Sarahthe followingweek

" W h e r es h a lw
l e g o t o n i g h t ?" p a u la s k e d
should

P a ual s k e dw h e r ew e s h o u l dg o t h a t n i g h t

" l t ' sh o t i n h e r e , "s h es a i d " W i l ly o u o p e na w i n d o w ,


"
Mike?
asked
Shesaidthat it was hot in there and asked
Mike to opena window.

" l ' l l g o a n d p i c kC l a i r eu p f r o mt h e s t a t i o n , "M a r k

M a r ks a i dt h a t
Claireup from the station

Paulsaid," I was on holidayin Francelastweek ',


p r e v i o u s P a usl a i dt h a t d u r i n gt h e
.

. o n h o l i d a yi n F r a n c e

. WordFormation

verb + erlorlar (teacher,


governor,Iiar)
verb/noun/adjective
+ ist (typist,motorist,specialist)
verb+ ant/ent (assistant,
correspondent)
noun + an/ian (American,
ltalian,historion)
verb + ee (licensee,
referee)

1 4 Completeeachof the sentenceswith a word


formed from the word in bold.

thesentences
withtwoto fivewords,
13 Complete
including
thewordin bold.Donotchange
the
meaning
of theoriginal
sentence.
1 Julianarrangedfor one of the secretaries
to type
that letter.
had
Julian
by one ofthe secretaries
2

Our new sofa didn't fit in the car,so it is being


delivered
nextweek
getting Our new sofadidn't fit in the car,so we

He took his car to the garage


couldbe fixed
having He
a t t h e g a r a g et o d a y

" l st h e m a t c ho n T Vt o n i g h t ? "s a i dR i c k
whether Rick
o n T Vt h a t n i g h t

" Y o u s h o u l dd o y o u r h o m e w o r ka f t e r d i n n p r
T o m ' sm u ms a i dt o h i m
told
T o m ' sm u m
do hishomeworkafterdinner

.
+^l-.,
LWUOy

next week
-^
)U

+L^+
U td L

:+
tt

The .
. told
PHOTOGRAPH
everyone
to smilewhilehe took
the picture
Spainattractshundredsof
t h o u s a n dosf
TOUR
everyyear
Didthey evercatchthe
w h o b r o k ei n t o
BURGLE
yourflat?
All
of the
EMPLOY
compana
y r ee n t i t l e dt o f o u r
weekspaidholidayeachyear.
T h ew i n n i n g
CONTEST
recervesaf5000prize
He is a verytalented
.
a n d h i sl a t e sfti l m
ACT
was a greatsuccess
She'sa
.atSt
STUDY
Andrew'sCollege
8 He'sverycreativeand he'salways
wantedto be an
ART
Her
t o l d h e rt h a t
MANAGE
shewould haveto do some
overtimethisweek
1 0 Thetown hasabout70,000
INHABIT

119

:il=:";-=it

' O p e nC l o z e

1 5 Readthe text belowandthinkof the

wordwhichbestfitseachspace.
Use
onlyonewordin eachspace.
Thereis an
(0)at the beginning.
example

L::..
t;_:::

i:----..

'j:-::

1,.......1
L-,__.

t:_:":
t'

a,

Did you know that shoppingcan 0) ;::-baci


f o r y o u rh e a l t h ?F o rm a n yo f u ss h o p p r nigs p a r L
of our dailyroutine,whether it's going to the
7:::,
supermarl<et
or lust buyinEa newspaperfrom
t_.L..__.__
l-.,---..1the local newsagent 'tr)
, a recent
ttrdy by a Britishresearcher
hasshownthat, in
, .-.._
L-,.--.-,-some
cases,shoppingcan be 2) ..
stressful
that it couldleadto healthproblems
l-1
The
study
--.vras carried3)
by a
{"
consultingfirm hired by a largeNorth London
|-':shopping
centre The aim of the studywas to
l.' ,-1.
help identifythe stresslevel 4-)
s h o p p e rds u r i n gb u s yt i m e s5 )
as
Saturdays
or holidays,and to try to come up
6)
waysto helpmakethe shopping
expenence
morerelaxing
andenjoyable
Thirtyfive shoppers7)
selected
for the study Theyrangedin age between22
a n d 7 9 a n d t w o t h i r d so f t h e m w e r e f e m a l e
Their heart rates and blood pressurewere
recorded8)
they were shopping
and they were interviewed before and
9)
t h e i rs h o p p i n tgr i p
The study reportedsome '10)
interestingresults All the male test sublecrs
e x p e n e n c eadn i n c r e a s1et r )
blood
pressureand heart rate, some reachinglevels
s i m i l a1r 2 ).
a f i g h t e rp i l o tg o i n gi n t o
n o i n gi n t o a d a n g e r o u s
b a t t l eo r a p o l i c e m a g
s i t u a i i o nO n t h e o t h e r 1 3 )
, only
one in four of the 14)
test subjects
e x p e r i e n c ecdh a n g e sr n b l o o d p r e s s u r ea n d
heartrate
The conclusions
drawn 'l5)
ihis
s t u d y s h o w t h a t w o m e n a r e g e n e r a l l ym o r e
e x p e r i e n c eadn d c o m f o r t a b l ew l t h s h o p p i n g
L e s ss u r p r i s i n g l m
y ,o s t m e n r e a l l yd o n ' i l i k e
s h o p p i nagt a l l !
-

. M u l t i p lC
e h o i cC
eloze
Readthe text beloWthencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which
(0)at the beginning.
bestfitsthe space.
Thereis an example

16

F,fu*E=*sfi*
What do live frogs, underwear,
p o a c h e de g g sa n d c a p p u c c i naol l h a v e
0 ) , i c o m m o n ?T h e a n s w e ri s t h e y a r e
.&
a l l i t e m st a k e n 1 )
a v e r yl o n g l i s t
of objectsthat can be bought from
v e n d i n g m a c h i n e sM o s t o f u s a r e
familiar 2\
more traditional
m a c h i n et sh a t s e l ls o f td r i n k sc, h o c o l a t e
bars or stamps,but believeit or not,
t h e r ea r e n ' tt o o m a n yi t e m sy o u c a n ' t
.a
3)
i n v e n d i n gm a c h i n e s
V e n d i n gm a c h i n e us s e dt o b e a l o t m o r e p o p u l a r4 )
:
Sunday
li shopping,24 hr convenience
storesand fast food restaurants
entered
':,1
Therewere evenmachines
,i our 5)
in the 1950'sthat sold bread,
e g g sa n d o t h e rs t a p l ef o o d i t e m s 6 )
, , i n J a p a nv, e n d i n gm a c h i n e s
are still as popular 7)
ever They even have fully automated
'a convenjence
storeswherecustomers
come in, write 8)
the code
j n u m b e r so f t h e p r o d u c t st h e y w a n t a n d p u n c h t h e m 9 )
a
i, computerat the front of the store A robotic'buckei'then collectsatl
t1,''the itemsyou want and putsthem into bagsfor youl
'1\r InEuropa
e n dt h e U S ,c o o k e df o o dv e n d i n gm a c h i n e1s0 )
to be
'fry
q
u
i
t
e
c
o
m
m
o
n
T
h
e
o n t h e s p o t 'c h i p m a c h i n em
:;'
, i c r oh a m b u r g e r s
andpizzadispensers
wereparticularly
11)
with university
students
i a n d i n a m u s e m e natr c a d e s .
T o d a yw, e s t i l lf i n dv e n d i n gm a c h i n ei sn b u sa n dt r a r n1 2 )
i
a n di n
h o t e l a n d h o s p i t al o b b i e sb, u t u n f o r t u n a t e l u
y ,s u a l l yd u e 1 3 ) .
t e c h n i c adli f f i c u l t i easn, y t h i n g
m o r ec o m p l i c a t e1d4 ) . , a s o f td r i n ki n
adisappointment
, t i a c a n o r ap a c k e t obf i s c u i ti su s u a l l ybai t 1 5 )

:1'
'3

.t'94t
,*

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1'l
12
13
14
15

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

'

'/t

4.,,,k

with
u p
t o
find
before
homes
Despite
than
down
through
would
favourite
routes
t o

A for

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

o n
from
i n
search
after
kitchens
Whereas
a s
u p
with
were
approved
stops
b v
like
o f

C through
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
!

view
when
lives
However
for
i n
into
use
popular
proLq)

C o f
C than
C more

D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

out
with
ask
while
lifestyles
Even
how
over
b v
used
liked
stations
for
except
like

effirmr?t$llffiff
s =# -

(Units
Revision
1-7)
thecorrect
item.
17 Circle
I was soakingwet becauseas |
. backfrom
the shopsit startedto pourwith rain
A walk
C hadwalked
B w a sw a l k i n g
D h a db e e nw a l k i n g
2 Youwon't passthe course . . . you work hard
A whether B if
C when
D unless
They. .
eatingby the time we arrive
A w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
C a r ef i n i s h i n g
B w i l lf i n i s h
D h a df i n i s h e d
I regretnot
lastweek
A see
B to see

Cathywhen shewas in town


C seeing
D to be seeing

H e h a sd e c i d e d . . . . . a n e w c o m p u t e r .
A buy
C buying
B to buy
D to buying
Please
A shall

I borrowthat new CD of yours?


B must
C can
D shoulo

Oh, you . .
have fed the dog, I gave him
s o m e t h i nega r l i e r .
A mustn't
C couldn't
B oughtn't
D needn't
The escapedprisoner
dangerous
A believes
B is believed

C had believed
D believed

Thesaucewas made
Awit h
Bb y

. cheeseand cream
C fo r
D to

to be armed and

1 0 George,

... fatherowns the localgarage,is


t r a i n i n gt o b e c o m ea m e c h a n i c
A who's B whose C that
D which

't'l

Anna
A said
B told

that the film startsat 9 o' clock


C asked
D askedme

12 Excuseme, could you ..


please?
A say

1 3 They

B tell

what the time is


C asked

D tell me

the weddinginvitationsprintedlast

week
A have
B arehaving
1 4 He said that he

C had
D havehad
in Belfastthe following

1 6 | d i d n ' th e a ry o u
A to come
B havecome

h o m el a s tn i g h t
C come
D coming

1 7 H e. .
. . t o m et h a t I s h o u l dc a l lb a c ki n a n h o u r
A asked
C said
B expressed
D told
18

forget what he told you lt's very


rmportant
A mustn't
B needn't

C d o n ' th a v et o
D oughtn't

19 Haveyou decidedwhere
t h i ss u m m e r ?
A g o
C to going
B begoing
D togo

20 Thedetectiveisthoughtto .

the mystery.
C besolving
D havebeensolving

A havesolved
B solved

word.
18 Fillinthecorrect
I
.. . .... . .. to go to Portugaleverysummer
when I wasyoung
This novelis lesssuccessful
....
one.
You had ....

..

. the last

leavebeforeit rains

It's worth
SUmmer

a n e w s w i m s u i tt h i s

T h et r a i nw i l l
get there

arrrvedby the time we

lf I have.. .

money,l'll buy a new car

The children
allowedto join in the
party Theyall hada greattime
That is the stadium
me0at.

I won the gold

By September,
he wiil have
herefor fiveyears

1 0 Hesaidthat he

working
go to the banklater.

1 1 We are

forward to our summer

holiday

1 2 Let'shavedinner,. .. .
1 3 He askedme

we?
. I was from Egypt

1 4 We're playingtennis tomorrow

WCCK

A hasbeen
B w i l ib e

15 He had ..
. . t h e c a r p e tc l e a n e dt h a t m o r n i n g
and it lookedas good as new
A has
C had
B have
D i sh a v i n g

C had been
D w o u l db e

ratns
15 He.

hishairdyedyesterday.

121

r""*,*r
:{',

p
t.
R e n n r f e d f! vor rm mi l :| nr udr cr v,J , R
r \ Lo
y un! Jr Lj p
J / q t c JSU ryryn
L JnL p
t vc
t , t i nt n
\_L\,
J c
r\LyvrLLv

To reportcommands,requests,suggestions,
instructionsetc,we usean appropriate
introductory
verb
Introductory
verbsareusedwith the to-infinitive,the -ing form or a that-clause
Introductoryverb

Directspeech

+ to infinitive
agree
* claim
demand
offer
* promrse
refuse
* threaten

'l'llhelpyouwith
thedecorating."
"lknewnothingaboutit."
"l wantto speakto themanager."
"Would
youlikemeto carrythosebagsforyou?"
"l'llgiveyouthemoneybacktomorrow."
"No,I won'tapologise
to her."
"Behave
yourself
or l'llsendyouto bed."

+ sb+ to-infinitive
"Youshouldapplyforthatjob."
advise
ailow
"Youcango out withyourfriends."
ask
"Couldyougivemea lift to work?"
beg
"Please,
please,
you haveto helpme."
command
"Putyourhandsin theair."
"Youshouldenterthecompetition."
encourage
forbid
"Youcannotgo to theparty."
rnvite
"Willyoucomeoverfordinnertomorrownight?"
order
* remind
* warn

"Goanddoit st once!"
"Don'tforgetto watertheflowers."
"Becareful,
don'ttouchtheoven."

+ - i n gf o r m
accusesb of
* a d m i t( t o )

"She
stolethemoney."
"Yes,
I brokethewindow."

a p o l o g i sfeo r
* boastabouVof

"l'msorryI haven'tfinishedthiswork."
"l'mthebestplayerin theteam."

* c o m p l a i (nt o s b )
oflabout
* deny
" i n s i sot n
* suggest

"lhavea terrible
"
headache

+ that clause
explain
i n f o r ms b

122
lLrrrirLiirNLrr0L

"ldidn'ttakeyourkeys."
"lamgoingtopaythebill."
"Whydon'twego to thebeachtomorrow."
"llikeherlessons
because
she'sa verygood
teacher."
"Theflightwill bedelayedbyhalfan hour."

Reportedspeech
Heagreedto helpmewith thedecorating.
Heclaimedto knownothingaboutit.
Hedemanded
to speakto themanager.
Heofferedto carrythebagsfor me
Hepromisedto givemethemoneybackthenextday.
Herefusedto apologiseto her.
Hethreatened
to sendmeto bedif I didn'tbehave
myself.
Headvisedme to applyfor thejob.
Heallowedme to go out withmy friends.
Heaskedme to givehim a lift to work.
Hebeggedme to helphim.
Hecommanded
themto put theirhandsin theair.
Heencouraged
meto enterthecompetition.
Heforbademe to go to theparty.
Heinvitedme to go overfor dinnerthefollowing
night.
Heorderedme to go anddo it immediately.
Heremindedme to watertheflowers
Hewarnedmenot to touchtheoven.
Heaccusedherof stealingthemoney.
Headmitted(to)breaking/havingbrokenthe
window.
Heapologisedfor not havingfinishedthework.
Heboastedabout/ofbeingthebestplayerin the
team.
Hecomplained(tome)of/abouthavingaterrible
headache.
Hedeniedtaking/havingtakenmykeys.
Heinsistedon payingthebill.
going to thebeachthenextday.
Hesuggested
Heexplained
that heIikedherlessons
because
she
wasa verygoodteacher.
Heinformedusthat theflight wouldbe delayed
byhalfan hour.

Theverbsmarkedwith an asterisk
canalsobe followedby a that-clausein reportedspeech
Heclaimedthat heknewnothinqaboutit.
etc

ffirmrmffiffi$
@
6m
m%

'l:,.

never,rarely I haveneverbeen

N o t e :W e u s ea s i n g u l avre r bw i t h c o m p o u n dosf s o m e a
, n y a n d n o Thereis nothingwecando.

to meanall, everyone,
Wego to Scotlandeverysummer.Thebusesleaveeveryfive
p r a c t i c a l layn dw i t h o u t

A few/Few- A little/Littre
A f e w a n df e w a r eu s e dw i t h p l u r a lc o u n t a b l en o u n s A l i t t l ea n d l i t t l ea r eu s e dw i t h u n c o u n t a b l ne o u n s
'
n
.
o

A few meansnot many but enough There


area fewapplesleft,wouldyou likeone?
Few meanshardlyany. almost none,and can be usedwith very for empnasrsThereare (very)few placesfor
youngpeopleto go in thevillage.
A l i t t l em e a n sn o t m u c hb u t e n o u g h Thereisa little milk left,you don'tneedto buyanytoday.
L i t t l em e a n sh a r d l ya n y ,a l m o s tn o n e ,a n dc a nb e u s e dw i t h ,very for emphasis Thereis (very)little trafficat that
time of night.

123

ffiilf

&{3m%ffi
l.l','

" lt will be verydangerous!


"

Matchthe columns
to makesentences.
T h et e a c h e r l p r o m i s e d . e a r n i n ga l o t o f m o n e y
to sendthe studentsto
Herparents
the headmaster.
m a k i n ga l lo f t h e
Carl
advised
herself
i arrangements
They
th reatened . him to get moreexercise
i
.
Helen
boastedabout i h.t to go to the party
i . to do whateverthey couldj
Thedoctor
i n s i s t eodn
rn hotn

He
me that it would be very
dangerous
" N o ,I d i d n ' tb r e a kt h e g l a s s" .
He
h a v i n gb r o k e nt h e g l a s s

Fillin the correctformof the reporting


verbsfrom
the list.
. refuse. apologise
for . explain. suggest
. Warn. deny. Offer. aCCUSe
"Wouldyou likeme to helpyou with youressay?"
She
to helpme with my essay
" S h a lwl e g o t o t h e c o n c e rot n F r i d a n
yight?
goingto the concerton Friday
He . .
night
" l'm sorryI didn'tcometo the party."
She
not comingto the party
"Youwerespeeding
He .. .
. . . m eo f s p e e d i n g
5 " N o ,l w o n ' t d o i t "
to do it
6 | was latefor work because
I missedthe bus
He
. . . ,. . that he had beenlatefor work
because
he had missedthe bus

124

Rewritethe followingsentencesin reportedspeech


usingan appropriateintroductoryverb,as in the
example.
1

" N o , l w o n ' t h e l py o ua n ym o r e . "


Herefusedto helpmeanymore.

2
3
4
5
6

"lt would be a good ideafor you to join a gym "


"Don't forgetit's Dawn'sbirthdayon Friday"
"Wouldyou likea lift to the station,tomorrow?"
" l t w a sM i k ew h o b r o k et h e c o m p u t e"r .
"You'renot allowedto watchthat film lt's not
suitablefor children"
"We'rehavinga dinnerpartyon SaturdayWould
y o ua n d P a u l i k et o c o m e ? "
"Do you knowwherethe nearestbankis?"
"lt wasn'tme who ate all of the biscuits"
"l insistthat you refundthe moneyimmediately
"

7
8
9
10

Fill in o/an or some,


1
2
3
4
5

. ..

..

milk
chip
. a p p l ej u i c e
fruit
. burger

7
8
9
10

. flce
...egg
rea
... poraro
spaghettl

;.
&

Write C(for countable)or U (for uncountable)next


to eachof the nouns.Then,usethem to make up
sentences,
as in the example.

l'd likea cheese


sandwichanda glassof orangejuice,please.

'
"

- n"t

n,

D o y o u t h i n kw e i n v i t e dt o o
people
to the party?
B : M a y b eT h e r ei s n ' t
r o o mI n n e r e

5 A : We haven'tgot
time you know
B : I k n o w ,j u s t g i v em e
m i n u t e sa n d l , l l
be ready lt doesn'tmatter if we,re
late

Fill in is, are, a(n)or some.


1 I want to buy
new clothesthisweekend
2
thereany potatoesleft?
3 Broccoli
verygood for you
4 | was hoping you could give me
information
5 H e i s l o o k i n gf o r
n e wf l a t
6 Theysay that the first two weeksof the course
.
the mostdifficult
7 Wouldyou like
glassof water?
8 .Accommodationin London
very
expenstve

u-tn

4 A . We'vegot a
potatoes,shallI make
chips?
B : l d o n ' t t h i n k y o u ' l lb e a b l et o , t h e r e , sv e r y
,
oilleft

cheesesandwichf; yogurt ; sugar ; pear


oregano ;mussel ;flour
;ketchup
grapefruit ; omelette

Replace
the wordsin bold with afew,a little,very
few,or verylittle.
It'sbeentwo or threeweekssinceI spoketo Carol
It'sa seriousproblembut there'snot muchwe can
d o a b o u ti t , l ' m a f r a i d
Most of the guestshad left but therewere stilla
c o u p l e o f p e o p l e s t a n d i n ga r o u n d c h a t t i n g

What can you see in the picture?Whichthingsare


c o u n t a b l ea n d w h i c h u n c o u n t a b l e ?

T h e y h a d m a d ea l o t o f f o o d b u t o n l y a s m a l l
a m o u n to f i t w a se a t e n
S h e s p e a k sf l u e n t F r e n c ha n d s o m e l t a l i a n
H a r d l ya n y s t u d e n tsst u d yL a t i na n da n c i e nG
t reek
at schoolthesedays
There'sa small amount of stew ieft, would you
l i k et o f i n , s h: t ?
Not manypeoplewouldarguewith you aboutthat

10

Complete
the sentences
fillingin eachor every.
Ron must be very fit. practically
t i m e I w a l kp a s t h e g y m ,I s e eh i m i n t h e r e

Thereisan apple.(countable)
Thereissomespaghetti.(uncountable) etc

Completethe dialoguesby filling in some,any,


many, much,(o)Iittle, (a)few.
1 A : H a v ew e g o t
B : Y e sl t h i n k t h e r e ' s

m o r eo r a n g ej u i c e ?
left

2 A: Are there
ticketsleft for the Friday
n i g h tp e r f o r m a n c e ?
B: Yes, sir, we have a
left How
. w o u l dy o u l i k e ?

. o f u s w a s a s k e dt o s t a n du p a n d
introduceourselves
to the group
P e n n ya n d h e r s i s t e r g e t o n v e r y w e l l w i t h
other
Trainsto the town centre leave
twenty minutes
Theyarea verygoodteam Theyhavewon almost
gamethey'veplayedthisseason
l a nc o u l d n ' dt e c i d ew h e t h e rt o h a v et h e i c ec r e a n r
or the chocolate
c a k e ,s o h e t r i e d a l i t t l eb i t o f
of them

125

#
1'l

ti,

q*%ffi
4'{'"'t

a. Lookat the pictures


showingdifferentfoods.
Usethe promptsandseverol,
o lot of,no,not
many,notmuch,o few,a little,to makeup
sentences,
asin the examples.

questions,
asintheexamples.
13 Askandanswer

. pasta. applesr strawberries


. beans. tomatoes
r potatoes. icecream. raspberries
. broccoli
. soup. chocolates
. cake. biscuits
. lentils. milk
. salad. crisps. orange
juice

Fl
iil'

,\.
{.
{

.ti

lol

{'
x'

l
6 a l o tn f n n < f n
areno n n n l o c

A: Didyoubuy
manyeggs?
justa few.
B: No,

2 A: Didyoubuy
muchcoffee?
B: No,justalittle.

otr

Useof English
b . Lookat the pictures
again,thenin pairsaskand
questions,
answers
asin the example.
Arethereanytomatoes?
B: Yes,
therearea fewtomatoes.
etc
A.

12 Fillin some,onytno or their compounds,as in the


example.

126

1 We were lost so we asked:*neb*dy/rcn's**t for


directions
2 Havewe got
. morepasta?
3 l'm afraidthere's
cakeleft
4 Will you get
l a m b c h o p sw h e n
you'reat the supermarket?
5 l st h e r e
I c a nd o t o h e l p ?
6 | l o o k e da l lo v e rt h e h o u s ef o r i t , b u t I c o u l d n 'fti n d
it
A n d ya n d J i mm u s th a v el e f t a l r e a d yI c a l l e dt h e i r
flat but
answered.
T h e yk n e w
a b o u ti t u n t i li t w a st o o
late
9 We are determinedto go
hot and
s u n n yf o r o u r h o l i d a ytsh i sy e a r
1 0 | l o v et h a t s o n g ,l ' v e n e v e rh e a r d
likeit before

' KeyWordTransformations
Studythe examples.
In eachcasethe second
sentence
hasa similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.
" Don'tforgetto buy a birthdaycard
s a r dt o m e
remindedAmy remindedme to buy a birthdaycard
for Phil
2 " G e t o u t o f t h e c a r l" t h e p o l i c e m asnh o u t e da t t h e m
ordered Thepoliceman
orderedthem to get out
of thecar
3 B e ns a i d ," O K ,I w i l lw a l kt h e d o g t o d a y"
a g r e e d B e na g r e e dt o w a l k t h e d o g t h a t d a y
4 Thereisverylittlebreadleft
hardly
Thereis hardlyany breadleft
5 | l o o k e di n t h e b a gb u t t h e r ew a s n ' ta n y t h i n gi n i t
n o t h i n g I l o o k e di n t h e b a gb u t t h e r ew a s n o t h i n g
init
6 5 h er e a l l yl i k e st h a t a c t o ra n ds h eh a ss e e na l lo f h i s
films
every
S h er e a l l yl i k e st h a t a c t o ra n ds h eh a ss e e n
'",,,.
everyone of hisfilms.
,ii
=lllii\ir:l\liktJ:.iiiltirr7:'.,:irf,l\!ir,!i{ii1F-3ir!!:niitrifr

jnr.::!t_i!;:,lr:*.!ittrr\jftjl::ltlin!!::{a.i-'lril

&
ffigmrffi$?}ffit
em
ryffi

thesentences
withtwoto fivewords,
14 Complete
including
thewordin bold.Donotchange
the
meaning
of theoriginal
sentence.

He has a very good job and he earnsa lots of


money
1 0 D o y o u t h i n kt h e r ei s t o o h o w m u c hg a r l i ci n t h i s
sauce?

" l ' m n o t g o i n gt o l e n dy o ua n ym o r em o n e y ,J, 'a c k


told Rob
refused

Jack
any moremoney

C h l o es a i d , " l ' m a f r a i di t ' s m y f a u l t t h a t w e , r e


late."
that
Chloe
faultthat theywere late
"YesEve,you cango and watchthe film,,'herdad
toldher
allowed Eve'sdad
a n dw a t c ht h e f i l m .
"Yes,l've got a lot of work to do this week,,,he
s ar d
admitted He
a lot of work to do that week
Shehad nowhereto staythat night
anywhere 5he
s t a yt h a t n i g h t
The exam was very difficult and most of the
studentsfailed
very
Theexamwasverydifficultand
. the studentspassed
" D o n ' tf o r g e t o c a l lJ i m , "A n n es a i dt o m e
reminded Anne
Jim
We onlyhavea verysmallamountof cheeseleft
little
We..
..left

. ErrorCorrection
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
1 5 Cross
Dawnwarnedto us that it was probablygoingto
rainlaterthat day.
Hethreatened
them to callthe policeif they didn't
turn the musicdown
5
H es u g g e s t eodn g o i n gs h o p p i n tgh e n e x td a y
4 J i l ld e n i e dt h a t h a v i n gc a u s e tdh e a c c i d e n t
5 Will you buy some of rice when you go to the
shops?
There'sa very little coffee left Would you like
a n o t h e cr u p ?
I was sureit was the right room but therewas nor
nobodythere
She lovesthat singerand she,sgot everyone CD
he'severmade.

WordFormation

-ship: (addedto nounsthat referto people)


refers
to the state, experienceor skill of these
people(citizenship, friendship)
(addedto nounsthat referto people)refers
to the states,conditions
or periodsof time in
which sth is experienced(boyhood,
manhood)
- m e n t : (added to verbs) refers to
the processof
m a k i n go r d o i n g s t h , o r t h e r e s u l to f t h i s
process(enjoyment,
punishment)
-ne5s: (addedto adjectives)refers
to the state or
qualitydescribed
by the adjective(carelessness,
rudeness)

nounfromthewordin bold.
16 Formthecorrect

$ffiffi$

En *%ffi
. OpenCloze

1 7 Readthe text belowandthinkof the

Use
wordwhichbestfits eachspace.
Thereisan
onlyonewordin eachspace.
(0)at the beginning.
example

. Multiple
Choice
Cloze

1 8 Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which


(0)at the beginning.
bestfitsthe space.
Thereisan example

have
ave b
B a n a n a sh
Bananas
become
e c o m e B r i t a i n ' s.
hardly
a r d l y, ,
0) ttt*st popular fruit. lt is h
s u r p r i s i n gs i n c e t h i s b r i g h t
y e l l o wt r o p i c a lf r u i t h a s s o
lt tastes
m u c ht o 1 )
s w e e t a n d d e l i c i o u si,t i s
2)
w i t h v i t a m i n sa n d
to
m i n e r a lasn di sv e r y3 )
d
v , i ynLp
r srt

Ran,an:s elso contain a

fibre,whichgives
mixtureof threedifferentsugarscombined4)
your systeman instantburst 5)
energy They are enjoyedby
their energy
many world classathletes,who use them to 6)
levelsup duringcompetitions7) . . . fact,they areoftentakenonto
CentreCourtfor a mid-gamesnackby leadingtennisstarsor eatenat
"half-time
famousfootballersEvengolferscarrythem around'
8)
' t o e a t d u r i n gt h e i rg a m e B a n a n a9s)
. . m a k ea g r e a tb r e a k f a sotr
snack for studentsas they are 10) . .,
in potassium,viial for
improvingconcentrationWhat's more, it's not only humanswho,:i'
11)
enjoythe benefitsHorsetrainersusebananasto boostthe
12)
of their four-leggedathletes.As you can see, bananas
13)
for everyoneWe can all increase
our dailyvitalitywith the
. of our
h e l po f t h i s u n i q u ef r u i t .S i m p l ys l i c i n ga b a n a n ao n 1 4 ) .
b r e a k f a scte r e a le, a t i n go n e w i t h o u r l u n c ho r j u s t s n a c k i n o
gn one
15)
t h e d a yc a nh e l pu s k e e po u r e n e r g yl e v e l hs i g h

O A much
: 1 A grve
2 A pacKe0
3 A srmple
4 A to
5 A of
6 A match
7 A To
8 A with
9 A al s o
1 0 A wealthy
'tI
A might
1 2 A effect
1 3 4 do
1 4 A top
1 5 A while

128

tll_i

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

most
C
take
C
complete C
easy
C
of
C
tn
C
take
C
On
C
by
C
however
C
full
C
can
C
competitionC
make
C
over
C
after
C

many
D
offer
D
full
D
comfortable D
with
D
with
D
catch
D
For
D
for
D
besides
D
healthy
D
must
D
performanceD
help
D
cover
D
during
D

best
bring
top
gentle
b v
out
keep
l n
a s
though
rich
would
challenge
are
through
before

j',,r
i,f'

2
i

j
"

(Unirs
Revision
1-B)

14 | havenevermet .
A anyone
B everyone

thecorrect
item.
19 Circle

l ' m t o o t i r e d.
A g o
B togo

to

It's going to be a huge party.They have invited


practically
they know
A somebody
C nobody
B anybody
D everybody

outtonight
C going
D for going

18 My boss
A asked
B said

2 0 A
A

20

1 0 He

an extrasetof keyscut afterBlllmoved

in.
A has
B i sh a v i n g

C h a sb e e nh a v r n g
D had

1 1 H e.
t h a t h e w o u l dc a l lh e rb a c kl a t e r
A offered
C asked
B promised
D refused
1 2 H eb o a s t e d
. . w i n n i n gh i st e n n i sm a t c f r .
A about B on
C for
Dto

1 3 I'm not sureif I will havetime to meet you later


l'vegot
A lot

of thingsto do today
B many C lots
D much

of my friendsnow work in London


B many C lot
D all

Fillinthemissing
word.
I was gettingreadyfor work
rang

The thieves
. shortlyafter the robberytook
place
A werearrested
C havebeenarrested
B arebeingarrested D will be arrested
.. a

C insisted
D explained

19 Anna is very stressedShe saysshe has


t h i n g st o d o
A verymany
C too many
B verymuch
D too much

m o r et h a n a h u n d r e dy e a r s
C w a sb u i l t
D w a sb u i l d i n g

me to work on Saturdaythis

WCCK

l ' m s u r eh e
h a v et o l d u s i f h e h a d k n o w n
anything
A must
B can
C would D ought

After beinggiventhe award,the actor


few words
A told
C requested
B said
D talked

biscuitsleft Helpyourself
B afew
C little
D alittle

17 He
us to take the train because
the traffic
was verybad.
A offered
C forbade
B advised
D suggested

In the end he
. to go to the librarybecause
he foundallthe information
that he wantedon the
web.
A needhave
B needn,t
C need
D d i d n , tn e e d

T h e i rh o u s e
ago.
A h a db u i l t
B i sb u i l d i n g

assmartas her before


C no one
D nobody

Thereare
A few

I a m g o i n gt o b e da ss o o na st h e f i l m
..
A finished
C finishes
B i sf i n i s h i n g
D w i l lf i n i s h
t h a nj u l j e
C t a l l e s t D a st a l l

-*
*

t)

How long .. .
did you leaveuniversity?
A ago
B when C before D earlier

3 J a n em u s tb e s l i g h t l y
A tall
B taller

the doorbell

H e h a sb e e nw o r k i n gh e r e. ,
years
3

| can't believe
April
|
..
iater.

m o r et h a n 1 5

Mark

0e JU next

t o g i v e m y s i s t e ra lift to the airport

5 The car
house

stolen from

Lauraaskedme .

He

outsidehis

Jimwas comingor not.

. hishousepaintedby a professional

8 I trustAlex l'm surehe was . . .


the truth
9 There'svery .,
orange juice left in the
carton We needto buy some

1 0 Sheapologised
't1 The

forgettingmy birthday

saucewasveryspicyI think I put too


c h i l l pi o w d e ri n i t .
1 2 l ' m a f r a i dt h e r ei s n ' t
spaghettileft
1 3 5he claimed
already.

finishedthe report

14
1 5 Shewas carryinga suitcase
in

hand

129

ffiffir

&mw%ffi

to saythat we would like


somethingto be differentin
the present

fn

ovnra<<

ranrai

ehnr

rt

s o m e t h i nw
g h i c hh a p p e n e d
n rl U
n lli U
d nl ' ' t L 'h l: on V
n oVnC | | l; lnl JL-lhl ca n - - +
V
Pd)L

lwishyouwauldcometo lessons
on time.
lf onlyit wouldstopraining.

ltl:l'

130

to express:
o p o l i t ei m p e r a t i v e
. a desirefor a situationor
n e r s o n 'bse h a v i o rtror
change

Matchthe itemsin columnA with thosein column


B to makesentences,
asin the example.

"lv

A
.,,-}p 1 lf I wereyou,
"\ 2 l f N e i ld i d n ' t
to work tonight,
"$
-li 3 lf you left right
away,
.,'
l f E m m ad i d n ' tl i v e
'\
so far away,
lf I had morefree
3
't
time,
l f t h e yh a dm o r e
"ft
money,
"\

"\

a
b
c
d
e

Job
f you mightstillcatch
t h et r a i n

1- e Iftwere
you,lwouldappty
forthatjob.
'

-{,,

B
he wouldcomewith us.
I c o u l dl e a r na f o r e i g n
language
w e c o u l dv i s i th e rm o r e
often.
t h e yw o u i df i n da
b i g g e rf l a t
I wouldapplyfor that

'"1

"'

rrf

lf I had knownit wasyourbirthday,I


(buy)you a present.
lf I were you, |
(write) a
ietterof complaintto the company
lf I hadn'tgot stuckin traffic,|
..
.. (not/miss)the train.
lf we had beeninvitedto the wedding,we .
lf you didn't haveto *ort on Sutrrduyr,*. lno)
(visit)yourparentsmoreoften
lf I werean architect,
|.
(design)
..
my own house
lf you hadstudiedharder,you
(not/fail)yourexams
9 l f y o u h a dt o l d h i mt h e t r u t h ,h e
.. (forgive)you
1 0 l f w e h a da g a r d e nw, e
(grow)our own vegetables

Putthe verbsin brackets


intothe correcttense,as
in the example.
1 lf we hadenoughmoney,
we r*wfdgw(go)
to the
clnema.

131

&*%ffi

Lookat the pictures,


thenusethe promptsto write
sentences.
type2 or type3 conditional

g o l C a r i b b e ai snl a n d

invite/all
my friends

Whatwouldyoudo if yo1 wantedto loseweight?


If I wanted
toloseweight,
I wouldstartgoingto thegym.
lf lwanted
eata healthy
diet.etc
toloseweight,lwould
2 wonthe lottery?
3 hadtwo week'sholiday?
4 moved
to a newhouse?

In pairs,askandanswerquestions
aboutwhatyou
asin
woulddo in eachof the followingsituations,
the example.
1 you/meeVyour
favourite
singer
you
you
metyourfavourite
singer?
A: Whatwould doif
for
B: lf I metmyfavourite
singer,
I wouldaskhim/her
anautograph.

F r a n k / p a irlkl e g a l l y / n o t Julie/nothavea laptop/notbe


get parkingticket
able/workfrom home

2 you/win/two
ticketsto watchyourlocalfootball
3
4
5
6

6
Jennifer/not
studyhard/not
graduatefrom university

Stanley/read
notes/
not failltest

using
Lookat thepictures
andmakeupsentences
the prompts,asin the example.
Thenmakeup extra
sentences
for eachsituation,
usingyourown ideas.

team
yourhouse
a new sportscentre/open/near
yourfriends/have/a
fancydressparty
town
the circus/visiVyour
you/havea choice/goto a basketballmatch or
musicconcert
classical

Complete
the sentences
usingtype2 or type3
conditionals,
asin theexample.
1 lf I hadbeengivena payrise,I eauld
kavet:*ugtttu
ncwe6r
2
4
5

l f I w a s n ' ts o t i r e d ,
l f i t w a ss n o w i n g ,
l f I w a sg o i n go n h o l i d a y ,
lf Lucyhad a betterjob,

l f y o u h a dc a l l e dm e e a r l i e r ,

7
8
9

lf we hadseenHarry,
lf I wereyou,
lf you had readthat book,

1 0 l f M a r kh a d n ' tb r o k e nh i sl e g ,

132
I lLr uu,.,. .,,,,.. .,-,-,-,-,,

i,!l\

?T: tq9%
ry

Lookat the pictures


andcomplete
the wishes.
Then
makemixedconditional
sentences
usingthe
prompts,
asin the example.

My friends
s h o u l dh a v e
arrived
,.

r
lshouldn't
r, havequit my
\"!
iob
"",,,,

5
6
7
8

\,

I t w a sS a t u r d am
y o r n i n ga n d M r sJ e n k i nhs a dt o
go to the supermarketto buy the weekly
groceriesThecarparkwasfull,so sheparkedon
the street,The supermarketwas so crowded
t h a t i t t o o k h e ro v e ra n h o u rt o d o h e rs h o p p i n g
When she got to the cashier,
she realisedthat
s h eh a d l e f t h e r p u r s ei n t h e c a r ,s o s h ec o u l d n , t
payfor her groceriesShewent to the carto get
her pursebut the streetwas emptyand her car
h a d d i s a p p e a r eSdh ec a l l e dt h e p o l i c et o r e p o r t
t h a t h e rc a rh a db e e ns t o l e nT h ep o l i c et o l d h e r
that her car had beentowed awaybecauseshe
h a dp a r k e di t i n a n o - p a r k i nzgo n e H e rh u s b a n d
had to go down to the policestationand pay
t h e f i n es o t h a t s h ec o u l dg e t h e rc a rb a c k

ls h o u l dh a v e
beenmore
sensible

I shouldhave
startedthis
reportearlier.

\ I shouldhave
i studiedfor ihe
r,,,,., test
'\.

lf thecarparkhadn'tbeenfull,shewouldn,t
haveparKea
on
thestreet.

10
1 noVbe/bored
now
I wbhmyfriends
hadarrived.
lf myfriends
hadarrived
I
wouldn't
beborednow.
2 noVbe/so
tirednow
3 noVneedto/lookfor anotherone now
4 be ableto/answerthe questions
5 noVhave/this
hugecreditcardbill
6 noVstillwork/onit now
" " " ' ' b " n" " + ni u' ar . - . , . i l . i r r dr ( i l , { i i di ..r h.,,!,r ..,r ...h.,,- ,.,

Readthe story below and rewrite it usingtype 3


conditionalsentences,
as in the example.

,'i'' l

i I shouldhave
i goneto bed
t,garller
lastnight

1;1

I can'taffordto buy a motorbike


My fatherwon't let me drivehisnew car.
| forgotto sendmy sistera birthdaycard
| lostmy goldbracelet

Rewritethe sentences
aswishesandsaywhich
onesareregrets
andwhich areunrealsituations,
as
in the examples.
1 | didn'tstudyFrench
at school
I wbhI hadstudied
French
atschool.(egret)
2 | haven't
gota CDplayer
lwishlhada CDplayer.
(unrealsituation)

Fillin the correctverbform,asin the example.


1 i would rather the plumber {#ftt (come)
tomorrow,becauseI don't want to wait around
f o r h i mt o d a y
2 | would ratheryou
(not/go)
to that partyyesterday
3 l t h l n k h e w o u l dr a t h e r
(not/watch)the film He didn't seemto enjoy it
much
l'drather
( p l a y t) e n n i st h a n
.
g o s w t m m t nn
g e x tw e e k e n d
I would ratherthey
(try) to
fix the computerthemselves
beforethey askedme
to do it
6 I would ratheryou
(catch)
a l a t e rt r a i n
7 Would you rather I
(call)
you or sentyou a text m e s s a g e ?
8. l'd rather
(wait) for Saran
ihan go on withouther

3 | leftmyumbrella
on thebus
4 | don'tknowhowto usea computer.

133

%,

2me*%ffi

thenuse
andspeech
bubbles,
11 Lookatthepictures
yourownideas
to makeupsentences,
asinthe
exampre.

questions
thefollowing
usingwould
rather
12 Answer
...because
andyourownideas,
asintheexample.
1 Y o u rf r i e n d sa r eg o i n go n h o l i d a tyo a G r e e ki s l a n d
but the sameweek your parentshaveofferedto
takevou to Pariswith them.

hatehavingto
weara Scnool
uniform

Iwouldrathergo withmy friendsbecause


I loverelaxing
on thebeach.
Yourbrotheris goingto renta videofor you both to
watch Hesuggests
eithera comedyor a horrorfilm
It is your bifthdayand your parentsaskyou if you
wouldprefersomenew clothesor a membership
to a
gym.

toweara school
unifarm,l
jeans
toschool.
couldwearmy

You are a bit short of moneyand your bossasks


you to work overtimeon Fridaybut you had
a l r e a d yp l a n n e dt o g o t o t h e c i n e m aw i t h y o u r

I haveto attend
lortr rre< hr ri iharr :ro

hoci friannl +hr+ ninh+

cn hnrinn

Yourfriendscan'tdecidewhetherto go to a club
to'norrownightor out for a mealat a restaurant

Useof English
' Error
Correction
outtheincorrect
wordin eachsentence.
13 Cross
1 l ' d r a t h e tr o g o s w i m m i n g
t h a ns a i l i n g
lf I didn't haveso muchhomeworkto do, I
c o u l dt o g o o u t t o n i g h t
lf I were you, I would havetalk to my manager
a b o u ti t
4 | preferto sendinge-mails
to writingletters
5 l ' d r a t h e yr o u h a dc a l l e dh i m n o w
6 | wishyou would havepaymoreattention
inclass
7 l f I h a d n ' th a dg o n et o t h e p a r t yI,
w o u l d n ' th a v em e t C o l i n
8 lf I havewon the lottery,I wouldtravel
aroundthe world
9 | w i s hi t w o u l db e s t o pr a i n i n g .
1 0 l f y o u h a d n ' tb e e nw o r k e ds o h a r d y, o u
w o u l d n ' th a v ep a s s eydo u re x a m s
you driveslowly,you maynot have
11 Unless
anaccident
1 2 | w i s hI h a dh a dm o r em o n e yT h e nI
couldafforda hoJiday
13 I'd ratheryou havetalkedless
14 Wouldit not be OK if I borrowedyour
pen?
15 You'dbetterto hirea nrivatedetertive

I m i s s e tdh e b u s
t h i sm o r n i n g

::. . :r.t' r " ;'':"''


.

- ;..:,::.
r-.

&Grnmtnffi
$$"'?
u5
' WordFormation

. KeyWordTransformations
Studytheexamples.
In eachcasethesecond
sentence
hasa similar
meaning
to the firstsentence.

-ence:
-ton:
-tion:
-ation:

r g n o r e- t g n o r a n c e
- correspondence
correspond
collect- collection
reduce- reduction
examine- examinatron

_dli4:r!,1.ir

ifllIF"iitr4iifj

:Er:iig,iflirs\\ln!fi\\q4Nji

1;=i

116l\ lititiar*i,iiri,ft\ltisit\lBl

""*'''""u"*'';\\!''.
i" 1 t reallyregret;;n".n
to the party.
wish
I wish I had gone to the party
2 W h a ta p i t yy o u d i d n , tg e t t h a tj o b
only
l f o n l yy o u h a d g o t t h a t j o b
3 | likeplaying
footballbetterthanwatchingit on W.
than
l'd rather play football than watch it
on TV

nounfromthewordin bold.
14 Formthecorrect
Therewerea few peoplestanding
a r o u n do u t s i d et h e m a i n
to thebuilding
She has been working for the
.. . . . for more than ten
years
Theygot in the car and droveoff in
the
of the town
centre.
We expecteda large
at the liveconcert
Moira feit great
. for
her brother
A .
o f g o o d l u c ka n d
skilh
l e l p e dh i mt o w i n t h e g a m e
Thedecorators
trredto causeas little
. . . . . t o t h e p e o p l ew h o
w o r k e di n t h e b u i l d i n g
a sp o s s i b l e .
The electrician checked the
between the two
cables
Getting stuck in a traffic jam has
becomean everyday
srnceI starteddriving
10 The governmentwill need to take
to deal with this
crrst5
1 1 T h e m a n a g etro l d h e r s e c r e t a rsyh e
wanted no
..
from
a n y o n ed u r i n gt h e m e e t i n g .
12 Theburglarsdisguised
themselves
to
avoid

My fatherdoesn'twant me to go out on a school


nrght
rather
N/yfatherwould ratherI didn,t go out
o n a s c h o onl i g h t

ENTER
ORGANISE

5 I l i k el t a l i a nf o o dm o r et h a nC h i n e s e
prefer
I preferltalianfood to Chinesefood
6 | d o n ' tf a n c yg o i n go u i t o n i g h t ,l e t , ss t a ya t h o m e
rather
l'd preferto stayat homeratherthan
90 outtontght

DIRECT
ATTEND
AFFECT

7 I t h i n ky o us h o u l dl o o kf o r a n o t h ejro b
were
lf I were you, I would look for another
job
8 | d o n ' th a v et h e t i m et o g o t o n i g h ts c h o o l
would
l f I h a d t h e t i m e ,I w o u l d g o t o n i g h t
SCnOOl

COMBINE

DISTURB

9 W e d i d n ' th a v ee n o u g hm o n e ys o w e c o u l d n ,bt u y
thehouse
could
I f w e h a dh a de n o u g hm o n e yw, e c o u l d
h a v eb o u g h tt h e h o u s e

CONNECT

10 Myhusband
s t a r t e dh i so w n b u s i n e swsh e nh e l o s t
h i sl o b
hadn't lf myhusband
h a d n , tl o s th i sj o b , h e
wouldn'thavestartedhisown business

OCCUR

ACT

INTERFERE

DETECT

thesentences
withtwo to fivewords,
1 5 Complete
including
thewordin bold.Donotchange
the
meaning
of theoriginal
sentence.
I likescience
fictionfilmsmorethan horrorfilms
prefer
I

I can'topenru o*n restaurant


;:l|l

H:-

haveenoughmoney

would

rrI hade:o:sn'"T;'";,
,urtr*unt

135

,/t

emm%ffi

He was drivingtoo fast so he got a


speeding
ticket.
been
lf he
fast,he wouldn't
got
ticket
have
a speeding
I t w o u l db e a g o o di d e at o s e l tl h a t o l d
motorbikeand buy a car.
were
lf I
s e l lt h a t o l d m o t o r b i k ea n d
buya car.
I c o u l d n ' td r i v em y c h i l d r e nt o s c h o o l
yesterday
because
my carbrokedown
could
lf my car hadn't broken
down,I
to schoolyesterday
6

| can'taffordto go awaythissummer
only
lf
g o a w a yt h i ss u m m e r
l'vegot a lot to do this afternoon.Can
we meettomorrowmorninginstead?
rather
l'd preferto meettomorrow
mornrng....
afternoon
What a pity I couldn't go to my
c o u s i n 'ws e d d i n g
wish
t o m y c o u s i n 'ws e d d i n g
I l i k e l i s t e n i n gt o r o c k m u s i c , n o t
countryand western
than
l'd ratherlisten
countryandwestern

10 My bossgetsupsetwhen I leaveearly
rather
My boss.. . .
d i d n ' tl e a v ee a r l y
1 1 We want to playtennis,but we can't
hor:rrco

was

lf
w e c o u r qp r a yr e n n r s

1 3I w i s hF i o n ah a dt o l d m e t h a t h e r s e l f
I
t o l d m et h a t h e r s e l f

1 4 | w i s h I h a d k e p t i n t o u c hw i t h C a r o l
andVicky
regret
I really
in touch with Carol and
Vicky

136
I l l L , L i l l L l l L i rr i I r

16

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which


(0)at the beginning.
bestfitsthe space.
Thereis an example

%kqffi

For some peopleflying is a


terrifyingexperienceSurely,
even those of us 0) who
quite enjoy this form
1 ) . . . . . . . . t r a v ecl o u l d
neverbe convinced
to
jump out of an
a e r o p l a n e1 0 , 0 0 0f e e t
ground,
above the
However, this is what
thousands
of skydivers
choose
to do everyday,and what's more,
someof them claimthat everyone
should2)
it a try.
So do you 3) . .
r u s h i n gt o w a r d st h e g r o u n da t o v e r o n e
hundredand fifty kmsan hourwhile relyingon a squarepieceof cloth
to 4)
. you backdown to Earthsafely?
lf 5)
. , you havetwo optionsfor yourfirstjump Thefirstisto
m a k e a t a n d e mj u m p , w h e r e y o u w i l l b e s t r a p p e d6 )
an
instructorand the two of you will makethe jump together However,
t h e s e c o n do p t i o ni s u s u a l l7y )
i f y o u a r es e r i o uas b o u tt a k i n g
the sport Hereyou will go to groundschool,9)
you
8)
w i l l l e a r nh o w t o s a f e l yg e t i n a n d o u t o f t h e p l a n e ,h o w t o p a c ka
parachuteand how to steerit Thenyour first jump will usuallybe a
s t a t i cl i n ej u m p .Y o uj u m p 1 0 )
y o u ro w n b u t y o u r p a r a c h u t e
opensautomatically
after a coupleof secondsThosemight seemlike
t h e l o n g e s ta n d s c a r i e s st e c o n d so f y o u r l i f e , 1 1 )
ihe
enthusiasts
sayit is all worth it for the incredible
feelingyou get when
y o u s e et h a t p a r a c h u toep e nu p a b o v ey o u ,a n d t h e e v e n1 2 ). . . . . . . .
amazingfeelingof achievement
that you get when you arrivesafely
b a c k1 3 )
s o l i dg r o u n dl.t ' st r u et h a t f o r m o s tp e o p l eo n ej u m pi s
y o uw o n ' t t h i n kt h e r ei sa n y t h l n g
n e v ee
r n o u g ha n db e f o r e1 4 )
s t r a n g ea b o u ts p e n d i nagl ly o u rs p a r em o n e ya n df r e ew e e k e n dpsa y i n g
to 15) . ..
thechance
t o j u m pj u s to n e m o r et l m e .

it ic r:ininn

1 2 O h n o l I f o r g o tt o c a l lA l e x
had
I
remembered
to callAlex
would

. M ultiple
Choice
Cloze

O A
1 A
2 A
3 A
4 A
5 A
6 A
7 A
8 A
9 A
1 0 A
11 A
1 2 A
1 3 A
1 4 A
1 5 A

wnom
of
--t.^
! |dNe

think
put
only
to
advised
along
while
Dy
despite
more
1+
O L

many
have

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
tr

which
for
grve

C
C
C
expect
C
t ur n
C
not
C
by
C
recommen0eo C
down
c
after
C
on
C
furthermore
C
a
better
!
to
C
long
C
00
C

what
t o
have
want
bring
this
with
wanted

u p
before
for
besides
+A^t t^h
Lrrvugr
I

o n
much
make

@
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

who
b v
g o
fancy
give
s o
u p
expected
off
where
t o
but
bigger
i n
far
give

lfg

xffiry%ffi
. OpenCloze
17

T h i st i m e n e x tw e e kw e
A fly
B will fly

Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhich


bestfitseachspace.
Useonlyonewordin eacn
space.
Thereisan example
(0)at the beginning.

Sorry,I nevermeant
t r a c ko f t i m e
A b e
B tobe

wffi,ffiwwKe&'a_&

fur ffiifd**s.&,envfuat

ffi,:;i'
'
I

C l a i r ei s m a d e
A work
B working

thecorrect
item.
18 Circle
1 Hewas hot and thirstybecause
he
for a run
A w a sg o i n g
C h a db e e n
B went
D havebeen

verylongnours
C to work
D to be working

She
t h a t s h e w a s g o i n g t o L o n d o no n
business
the followingweek
A asked
C a s k e dm e
B told
D toldme

for thosewho havelittleexperience


wrrn

Revision(Unitsl-9)

C to bebeing
D being

J e n n yi st h e g i r l.
e n g a g e tdo W i l l
A who
B who's C which D whose

2)
h i k i n ga n d c l i m b i n g
U n f o r t u n a t e ltyh o u g h , b e i n g a w a y
from civilisation
has its dangers,as
3)
as its rewards,especially

the great outdoors.Beforeyou head off the


b e a t e nt r a c k y, o us h o u l db e a w a r eo f t h e r i s k sa n d
h a v et h e r i g h t e q u i p m e nw
t ith you, in 4)
anythingdoesgo wrong
O b v i o u sw
l yh a ty o u n e e dw i l ld e p e n d5 )
where
you are going and the detailsof your trip However,
there
are some essentialsthat you should never forget
6)
p a c k H a v i n ga c o m p a sas n d a m a p i s c l e a r l y
verytmportantYou7)
, neverfjnd yourdestination
i f y o u a r e w a l k i n gr o u n da n d r o u n dg )
. , c r r c l e sl f
y o u d o g e t l o s ta n d h a v et o s p e n da n i g h to u t s i d eh, a v i n g
matches (kept in a waterproof container)and some
firelightercan make life a lot 9)
comfortableA
good firewill keepyou warm and can alsobe usedto cook
food On the subject10)
. food,you shouldalways
take more 11) . .
you will need lt,salwaysbetterto
carrysomefood homewith you than to run 12)
at a crucialmoment Somesurvival
expertssuggestthat you
s h o u l de v e nt a k ed o g b i s c u i tos r s o m eo t h e rf o o dt n a t y o u
r e a l l yd o n ' tl i k ei 3 )
t h a t y o u w i l lo n l yb e t e m p t e d
to eat it in a realemergency
O t h e r i m p o r t a n tt h i n g s t o h a v e w i t h y o u j n t h e
wildernessare a basic first 14)
kit and extra
clothing A Swiss-army
knife is also usefulfor all sortsof
d i f f e r e ntth i n g s O n c ey o u h a v ea l lo f t h e s ee s s e n t i asl a
s fely
p a c k e dt h e r es h o u l db e 1 5 )
stoppingyou from
heading
o f f i n t ot h e u n k n o w n ,

so long I just lost

We expect
who got the promotionsoon
A to hear B hear
C hearingD heard

As city life becomesmore and


0) r*r:r*stressful,
it is not surprising
that many peoplewani to get
1)
from it all Thishas
m e a n t a l a r g e i n c r e a s ei n t h e
popularity of activitres sucn
I

to Milan
C areflying
D wiil be flying

H e c a n ' t c o m e b e c a u s eh e
his new
f u r n i t u r ed e l i v e r esdo m et i m et h r sa f t e r n o o n
A has
C h a sb e e nh a v i n g
B h a sh a d
D i sh a v i n g
9

lt was a greatpartyl practically


I Know was
there
A somebody
C nobody
B anybody
D everybody

1 0 H e . . t h a t t h e c a rb e l o n g etdo h i m .
A claimed
C refused
B demanded
D ordered

word.
19 Fillinthemissing
1 Lastyearwe .
to playfootballeveryFriday
afternoon
2 Lookat thoseblackclouds,l,m sureit,s
to ratn
3 l'd
y o u h a dt o l d m e e a r l i e r
4 George,
wants to be a lawyer, is
studyinglaw at BristolUniversity
5 That photograph was taken
my
grandmother
S h ee x p l a i n etdh a t i t
. t a k e s o m et i m e
a n dt h a t w e s h o u l dg o b a c kt h e n e x td a y
7 L a u r aa c c u s ehdi m
lying.
8 lf
y o u h a dt o l d m e e a r l i e rI ,w o u l dh a v e
comewtth you
We have
. c a l lC h r i sa n d t e l l h i m w h e r e
w e ' r em e e t i n gt o n i g h t
1 0 | w o u l dh a v et a k e nt h e t r a i ni f I
known
how badthe trafficwas goingto be

137

ffirsffiffiffir
u5#

FuturePerfect
Forrn:will have+ past participle
"

a ivl el f i n i s h e d b e f o r e a s t a t e d t i m e i n t h e f u
W e u s e t h e f u t u r e p e r f e c t f o r a c t i o n s t h aht w
T thueryew h
i l al v e
finishedshootrng
thefilmbytheendof l\Larch.

The time expressions


we usewith the future perfectare:
before,by, by then, by the time, until/till(onlyin negativesentences)Hewon'thavefinishedwritingthearticleuntil/tiil
Thursday.

FuturePerfect
nuous
Cont:
Form:will havebeen+ verb + -ing
.

W e u s et h e f u t u r ep e r f e c tc o n t i n u o u tso e m p h a s i st h
e e d u r a t i o no f a n a c t i o nu p t o a c e r t a i nt i m e i n t h e
perfect
future Thefuture
is usedwith by... for Bytheendof
continuous
thismonth,hewill
havebeenworkingat
thisradiostationfor tenyears.

I i^l,i^^ \A/^"^.
Lil tr\il t9 vvtrtu)

Linking
w o r d ss h o wt h e l o g i c arle l a t i o n s hbi pe t w e e ns e n t e n c eosr p a r t so f s e n t e n c e s
.

Positive
addition
(this/that),
what is more,in addition(to),also,aswell as(this/that),
and,both and,too, besides
moreover,
furthermore,etc Hewasbothrudeandunhelpful.

"

Negativeaddition
RobnorDaveboughta newspaper
neither( nor),nor,neither,either,etc f''leither
today.

"

Contrast
b u t ,a l t h o u g hi ,n s p i t eo f , d e s p i t ew, h i l e ,w h e r e a se,v e nt h o u g h ,o n t h e o t h e rh a n d ,h o w e v e yr ,e t ,s t i l l e
, tc
Thecarisoldbut reliable.
Notethe structures:
although + clause , Althoughit wasraining,heleft.
rsin,heleft.
despite/inspite of + noun - Despitethe
despite/inspite of the fact + clause In spiteaf thefactthat it wasraining,heleft

G i v i n ge x a m p l e s
in particular,
suchas, ike,for example,
for instance,
especially,
e|c Thefoodwasdelicious,especiallythesteak.lt
wasexcellent.

Cause/Reason
as,because,
because
of, since,for this reason,dueto, so,as a result(of),eIc HeswitchedontheWbecausehe
wantedto watchthenews.

Condition
if, whether,onlyif, in caseof, in case,provided(that),providing(that),unless,
as/solongas,otherwise,
or
(else),
on condition(that),etc Heagreedtolendherthemoneyprovidedthatshepaidhimbackassoonaspossible.

Purpose
t o , s o t h a t , s o a s ( n otto) , i n o r d e r ( n o t o
) , i n o r d e r t h a t , i n c a s e , eRt co b c a u g h t t h e e a r l y t r a i n s o t h a t h e w o u l d
bethereon time

"

Effect/Result
such/so that, so,consequently,
as a result,therefore,for this reason,etc Shewasboredsoshedecidedtogofor
a watK.

@
ffirmmffiffitr
;a"=
#.=*

Listingpoints/events
To begin: initially,
first,at first,firstly,to starVbegin
with, firstof all,etc Firstly,hethankedeverybodyforcoming.
To
fv LUIlLf
continue:
lf ue' 5eLUIluiy'
secondly,
afterrnls/rnar,
dlLer
this/that,secono,
second,afterwardS,
afterwards,
then,next,
then,
next,etc
etc A/exf,
A/exf,
add theonions
addtheonionsandqarlictothe
mxture.

To conclude:finally,lastly,in the end,at last,eventually,


etc Eventually,wearrivedbackhome.
.

Summarising
tn conclusion,
in summary,
to sum up, on the whole,all in all,altogether,
in short, elc Inconclusion,eatinaa
healthybalanceddietis thebestwayto avoidthisproorem.

B o t h / N e i t h-eAr l l / N o n-e E i t h e r
"

Both referst o t w o p e o p l et,h i n g so r g r o u p sI t h a sa p o s i t i v m


e eaning
a n d i s f o l l o w e db y a p l u r avl e r b
Johnwentto themeeting.
stevewentto themeeting,tao.Bothmenwentto themeeting.
N e i t h e r e f e r st o t w o p e o p l et,h i n g so r g r o u p sa n d h a sa n e g a t i v m
e e a n i n gl t i sf o l l o w e db y a s i n g u l a r
c o u n t a b l ne o u n H o w e v e trh, e n e i t h e ro f + p l u r a ln o u n p h r a s es t r u c t u r cea nb e f o l l o w e d
b y e i t h e ra s r n g ua r
or pluralverbin the affirmativesheiladoesn'tknowwheretogo.Anndoesn'tknowwheretoqo,eitherNeitherof
the
girlsknow/knows
whereto go.
All refersto morethan two people,thingsor groups lt hasa positivemeaningand js
foilowedby a pruratverb
AIIof thechildrenwereexcitedaboutgoingon thetrip.

B o t h / A lcl a n g o a f t e r t h e v e r b t o b e o r a f t e r a n a u x i l i a r y v e r b b u t b e f o r e t h e m a i n v e r b
Theyareboth/allvery
happy.Theyhaveall/bothpassedtheexam but Theybothtravelledbycoach.
whole is usedwith singularcountablenouns we usea/the/this/myetc + whole
+ noun whole is not used
w r t hu n c o u n t a b n
l eo u n s
Sheatethe wholecake./ Sheateall of thecake.
Shespentoll of hermoney.(NOT<hespe.tthc ,ryheh+t_bet
^+n+y.)
All + daylmorning/week/yearetc = the whole + daylmorning/week/yearetc.
He,sbeen
workinqhard alt
morning/thewhole morning.
N o n eo f r e f e r tso t w o o r m o r ep e o p l eg, r o u p so r t h i n g sa n d h a sa n e g a t i v m
e e a n t n gl t i s u s e dw i t h n o u n so r
o b j e c tp r o n o u nas n d i sf o l l o w e db y e i t h e ra s i n g u l aor r a p l u r a vl e r bl a s k e d a l l ot hf e p e o p l e a t t h e b u s s t o p
but
noneof themknewwherethetheatrewas.
Eitherrefersto two people,thingsor groupsand is followedby a singularcountable
noun However,
the
eitherof + pluralnoun phrasestructurecanbe followedby eithera singutaror plural
verb Theblueshirtis fine.
Thewhiteshirtisfine,too.Eithershirtisfine./ Eitherof the shirtsis/arefine.
E i t h e r c a n a l s o b e u s e d a t t h e e n d o f a n e g a t i v e s e n t e"nl hc a
eveneverbeentoltaly.,,,,l,veneverbeen,either.,,

'

Both ... and is followedby a pluralverb BothChrisandJamesliveinscotland.


N e i t h e r . .n
. o r / E i t h e r . .o. r t a k ee i t h e ra s i n g u l aor r p l u r avl e r b ,d e p e n d i nogn t h e
s u b j e cwt h i c hf o l l o w s
norlor EitherNeilor Kateis goingto drivemeto thestation.EitherNeilor hisparents going
are
to drivemeto thestation

139

';=
'
Completethe sentencesby using the futureperfect
simple or the futureperfectcontinuous,as in the
example.
1 By the end of the year, | l+'r#f;*t"s $ge:'it+;*:.qm-*
(work) herefor eightyears
(finish) writing that
2 Pete
r e p o r ti n h a l fa n h o u r
3 B yt h e t i m eG r e gr e t i r e sh,e
(run)the business
for morethan thirtyyears
4 lf we don't hurry,the concert
(start)by the time we get there
5 | won't be able to drive to work tomorrow
m o r n i n gb e c a u steh e m e c h a n i c
(not/fix)the caruntilthe afternoon
6 T h e r e 'nso p o i n ti n p h o n i n gh e rn o w S h e
(already/leave)

B
untiltomorrow
for fiveyears
a l ld a y
by now

lt's hard to believethat this time next week you


a r o u n dA u s t r a l i a
A will havebeentravelling
B w i l lb et r a v e l l i n g
C travel

lt'sgettingcoldin here I
A w i l l h a v ep u t
B w i l lp u t
C w i l lb e p u t t i n g

| hopethe weather
A is goingto improve
B will improve
C will haveimproved

l ' m a f r a i dI
a c h a n c et o r e a dt h i s u n t i l
tomorrow
A amnot having
B won't have
C won'tbehaving

t h e h e a t i n go n

by the time we leave

1 | will havecleanedup the messbefore/untilMum


getsback
2 By/Bythen the end of the month, he will have
beenteachingfor threeyears
3 Shewill havepreparedall of the food bylby the
time the guestsarrive
4 T h em e c h a n isca i dt h a t h e w o n ' t h a v ef i n i s h e tdh e
repairsuntil/sincetomorrow
5 The essayis due tomorrorybut I don't think I will
haveevenstartedit by then/thetime
6 We will have been travellingfor three months
until/bythe time we get to Thailand

Tellyour partnerwhat you will havedone by:

By8pmtonight,Iwill haveeatenmy dinner.


By noon tomorrow,I will have been at school for four
hours.
BynextMonday,lwillhave
spentall my money.

Circlethe correcttense.
1 By the end of the month, he
threeyears
A willlive
B w i l lb e l i v i n g
C w r l lh a v eb e e nl i v i n g
2

here for

Mytrain
a t 7 : 3 0t o m o r r o wm o r n i n g .
A leaves
B w i l lb e l e a v i n g
C will havebeenleaving

3 Thesebagsareveryheavy;
upstairs?
A w i l l y o uh e l p
B w i l ly o u b e h e l p i n g
C w i l ly o u h a v eh e l p e d

140

Underlinethe correctitem.

. 8pm tonight . noontomorrow . nextMonday

B yt h e t i m ew e
t h i s ,i t w i l l b e l u n c h t i m e
A w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
B w i l lf i n i s h
C finish

Matchthe columnsto makecompletesentences.

A
FTI By May, she will have a
beenliving
in Manchester
ETI rhe workmensaidthey b
won'thavefinished
ETI t'm sure he will have c
wnttentheessay
I will be d
lZT_l NextSaturday,
working

me carrythem

Underlinethe correcttense.
A The play 1) starts/willstart at 8pm so we 2) will
meeVare meeting you outsidethe theatre at
7.45pm lf we 3) are not/will not be there by
7:55pm,go in andwe 4) will find/aregoingto find
you when we 5) will arrive/arrive
B Thanksfor babysittingfor us tonight;we 1) will
appreciate/appreciate
it | 2) have left/will have
left some moneyon the kitchencounterso you
can orderpizzafor dinnerPlease
don't let the kids
watch TV until they 3) have finished/willfinish
theirhomeworkWe 4) will be/arebackby 11

at'a
!=

i t= ij:=a;-::
C Welcometo the GoldenSandsHotel I hope you
'l)
haveenjoyed/willenjoyyourstaywith us your
.
room2) will be/ison the flfth floorwith an ocean
view Thebusinto town 3) will stop/stopsoutside
t h e h o t e la n d y o u c a nb u y y o u rb u st i c k e t sa t t h e
receptiondesk If you 4) will need/needanythrng,
pleasedo not hesitateto ask me or any other
memberof our staff

'

Choosethe correctitem.
1 A: Haveyou ilstenedto thosetwo CDsyet?
B : N o ,I h a v e n 'ht a da c h a n c e
t o l i s t e nt o
of themyet
a ati
b neither
L
EILI IEI

4 A . Shehasgot threebrothers,hasn,tshe?
B : Yes
, ofthem livenearby,
though
a None
b Neither
c All

6 A : What do your parentsdo?


B:
. of them areteacners
a Both
b. Ail

2 D e b b i ew i l lw a s ht h e c a ro r e l s ep a mw i
3 Carlhasn'treadthat book Rebecca
hasn,treadit
either
4 Johnboughtthat newspaper,
or maybeStevedid
5 J u l i a ni s g o i n gt o t h e p a r t yB o bi sg o i n gt o o
6 Keith hasn't got a computer Max hasn,tgot a
c o m p u t eer i t h e r

1 Either/Neither
Simonnor Kellyhad seenthe film
before
2 Shedecorated
the all/wholehouseby herself
3 I asked everybodybut none/no of the people
therehad seenLouisethat day
4 As soonasthe guestsarrived,each/everyof them
wasshownto theirseat
5 l've been to that restauranttwice before and
all/bothtimesthe food was excellent
6 We're really busy at the moment; I,ve been
workingovertimeevery/alldaythisween

A Thatshopsellslotsof niceclothes
B : Yes,but
of them areveryexpensrve
a both
b all
c neither

A r e D a n n ya n d M i c h a ecl o m i n gt o n i g h t ?
B : No,
o f t h e mc o u l dm a k ei t
a either
b both
c neither

1 Frankworksin a bank Tomworksin a banktoo


BothFrankond Tomworkin a bank.

thecorrect
word.
10 Underline

2 A: Clivehasgot two cars,hasn,the?


B: Yes,but he bought
of them secono
hand
a either
b both
c all
3

Rewritethe sentencesusingboth... and, neither


...
nor,or either... or, as in the example.

below.Makeasmany
11 Lookat thepictures
sentences
you
as canusingtheprompts
provided
andboth,neither,
all,none.
t have/briefcase;
2 indoors;3 inlpark;4 use/laptop;
5 use/mobile
phone; 6 have/jacket,
7 have/coffee;
8 wear/hat

Either

Underline
the correctword.
I can't speakFrenchat all, whereas/despite
my
srsterspeaksit fluently
Theydecidedto go for a walk, even though/in
spiteof the rain
S a r ah a s n ' tg o t a T V a n d s h e h a s n , tq o t a C D
playerneither/either
I hate travellingby boat becauseI alwaysget
seasickBesides/However,
I can,tswim
In spiteoflAlthough he couldplaythe guitarver,
w e l lh e d e c i d e d
n o t t o b e c o m ea m u s i c i a n
6 B o t h / E i t h eJri ma n d S a mw e r eb o r ni n C a n a d a
7 The salesassistantwas rude Furthermore/Even
though, he refusedto callthe manager
In additionto/ In spiteof beingstubborn,he was
lazy.
Of courseyou can borrow my car However/yet,I
needit backby 8 o'clocktonight
1 0 I lovethrrllers,
despite/inadditionto the fact that
theyalwaysgiveme nightmares.

Rachel

perry

Marr

1 Neither
Perry
norMarkhave/has
a briefcase.
12

Jointhe sentences
usingthe wordsin brackets,
as
in theexamples.
1 Thebookisuerywettwrittenlt isajsoveryfunny
(which)
Thebookwhich
isverywellwritten,
is alsoveryfunny.
2 The shirtwas expensive
He decidedto buy it
anyway

(although)

Althoughtheshirtwasexpensive,
hedecided
to buyit
anyway.
3 Shewasverytired Shewent to bed

(so)

141

+=

:::;l'+

i
n:

'':+,-.-...: .1,"

C o l i ni s t a l l w i t h d a r kh a i r H i ss i s t e ri s s h o r ta n d
(whereas)
blond
5

13

H e f i n i s h e de a t i n g H e d i d t h e w a s h i n g u p
(assoon as)
Philwrote a letter He postedit,

with two to five words,


Completethe sentences
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d i n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
meaningof the originalsentence.
by
1 Anne'sambitionis to open her own restaurant
t h e t i m es h ei st h i r t y
will
A n n eh o p e ss h e
her own restaurantby the time she is
thtrtY

(then)

I havea lot to do today I haveto speakto Mr


(for instance)
Wilsonabouthisorder

He movedto Portugalten yearsagothis month.


Bythe end of this month
been
in Porrugal
for ten years
.

Despitebeingshortof money,she decidedto buy


the new dress
even
Shedecidedto buythe new dress.. . .
shortot money

can go to the party providedthat you are


]o'
h o m eb v m i d n i q h t
long
Shecango to the party
h o m eb y m i d n i g h t

Paultook out a notebook.He could make some


(sothat)
9 We playedverywell We stilllostthe match
(eventhough)
10 Jim took the bus into town He was going
(becausei
shopping

l '

Iv JtLc o n
T F
n rr :|/ tr (r Jnr
Lr
vr

We couldn'thearwhat he was sayrngbecausehe

I
I

<nnka fnn nrriptlv

so

He

. KeyWordTransformations

Hedrankthe wholebottleof water himself


all
H ed r a n k
himself

has
In eachcasethesecondsentence
Studythe examples.
a similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.
7

.#*
%
| 1 Hestartedworkinghereat the end of Junelastyear. t
been
By the end of June,he will have been
working herefor one year

either

L a u r ad o e s n ' lti k eC h i n e sfeo o da n dC h r i s t i ndeo e s n ' t


l i k ei t e i t h e r
nor
NeitherLauranor ChristinelikesChinese
food
Shewaswritingthat reportall day
whole
Shespentthe whole day writing that

report

142
. tli,,t,,,,,,,,,,

I think that

t h a tC D
Emilydidn't learnto swimuntilshewas twenty
when
Emlly
to Swrm

WCCK

Althoughhe wastired,he decidedto go for a run


spite
In spite of the fact that he was tired,
he decidedto go for a run

| t h i n kt h a t L u k eb o r r o w e dt h a t C D ,o r m a v b eJ o e
did

2 O u r t e a c h e rs a i dt h a t s h e w i l l m a r kt h e e x a m st h i s
week
have
Our teachersaid that she will have
markedthe examsby the end of the
Sincehiscarbrokedown,5amhadto walkto work
because Sam had to walk to work becausehis
car broke down

we couldn't
hearwhat he was saytng

. Error
Correction
14

Crossout the incorrectword in eachsentence.


1 | doubtthat Robwill havewokenup by yet
2 Theywill havebeenarrivedat the hotelby the time
it getsdark
3 5hewill haveleft beforetheywill arrive
4 lt was such a hot weatherthat we went to the
0eacn
5 NeitherClairenor Susanhad not readthe book
6 Marinareallyenjoyscooking,whereasthat I prefer
to eat out
7 Brianand Carol both went to see the play but
neitherof enjoyedit verymuch

*ffi

#W

f i= L-*
By the end of July,I will havebeento
workingherefor two years
Despitefrom the fact that it was the
middle of August, the weather was
c o l da n dw e t
1 0 I ' m s u r es h e w i l l u n d e r s t a nw
dhy you
didn'tgo, providedfor that you explarn
whathappened

. M ultiple
Choice
Cloze
16

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which


bestfitsthe space.
Thereis an example
(0)at the beginning.

. WordFormation

)y:

combines with adjectives to


describe
something
beingdonein
the manner describedby the
adjective(quickly,happiIy)
-ward(s): combines with nouns and
adverbsof directionto describe
the directionin whichsomething
ismovingor facing (downward(s),
westward(s))

adverb
fromtheword
1 5 Formthecorrect
inbold.
1 He took a couple of steps
t o a l l o wt h e
othersto get through
2 She was upset becauseshe
felt that they had been very
treated
5 I n e yw e r em o v t n g
in the directionof the coast
4 Paulwas a muchbetterplayer
a n dw o n t h e g a m e
5 He spokevery
so that everyone would
u n d e r s t a nhdi m
6 We decided
to head
as soon as we saw the
a p p r o a c h i nsgt o r m

BACK

BAD
EAST

EASY
CLEAR

HOME

1)
betterbe carefulit couldmeanthat a tornadois heading
your
2)
The first sign that a tornadois comingis the formation
3)
a thunderstorm
I n t h e b e g i n n i ntgh e r e ,asn e e r i es t i l l n e sass
t h e p r e s s u ri e
ss u c k e d
a w a y T h ea i r i s s t i l la n dc a l ma n d n o b i r do r
i n s e csto u n d4s)
b e h e a r dC u m u l o n i m bcul so u d bs u i l di nt o w e r s ,
5)
as supercells,and the normalafternoonthundershowers
beginto take6)
an incredible
energy lf you watchthe horizon
y o u ' l ls e e a r e v o l v i ncgo l u m no f c l o u d sc, a l l e da f u n n e l ,h e a d i n g
g)
7) ., the earth Whenit connects
the ground,tne neat
feedsthe centre9)
the funnelanda tornadois born Thesafest
p l a c e1 0 )
y o u t o b e i s u n d e r g r o u nodr i n a n o p e n d i t c h
Tornadoes
desiroyeverything
11)
theirpathandhavethe power
to 12)
up people,trees,bridges,carsand evenhouses The
scariest
thingabouttornadoes
isthat you havemrnutes,
not hoursto
feact We now havewarningtlmesof up 13)
twentyminutes
14)
to betterradardetectorsWith oldermethodsof reporting
tornadoes,
we wereluckyto havetwo minutes
to 15)
cover

0Asometimes
l A h a d
2 Adirection
3 A o f
4 A must
5 Acalled
6 A u p B
7 Aaway
8 A b y
9 A o f
1 0 A o f
11 Aup
12 A make
13 A to
l 4 A b e c a u s
15 A make

B
B
B
B
B
B
o

never
w o u l d
route
b y
can
namec
f f

S
c
C
C
C
C
C
B up
C
B w i t h
C
B r o
C
B a t
C
B rhrough C
B pick
C
B for
C
e B a s
C
B take
C

ever
dtd
path
with
could
known
i n
across
for
i n
for
i n
take
against
since
hrd.^

D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

always
need
way
for
might
reported
o n
towards
across
u p
t o
across
turn
a t
due
draw

143

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Onon

Claza

1 7 Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhich


Useonlyoneword in each
bestfitseachspace.
(0)at the beginning.
Thereisan example
space.

daughter goes to school with


Doug,
Emma,livesin our street
B that
C which D whose
A who
You
disturbthe driverwhile the bus is
movrn9
A mustn't B couldn't C haven't D needn't
flour, milk and
The sauce was made
cneese
Dwith
Aby
B for
C up
I don't know who the letter was from but it
...inRome
A is posted
C was posted
D was beingposted
B is beingposted
He .. .. . methat he didn'thavetimeto helpus
A told
B said
C spoke D asked
She
tomorrow.
A has
B had

1 0 Thereis
cup?
A alittle

her hair dyed at the hairdresser's


C hasbeenhaving
D i sh a v i n g
coffeeleft Wouldyou likeanother
B afew

C little

D few

' t 1 lf I wereyou,| . ..
A must

demandan apology
D might
B would C may

12 Hewouldn'thavemadethat mistakeif he
moreexperienced
A w o u l db e
B i s

C hasbeen
D were

word.
19 Fillinthemissing
I was listeningto the newson the radio
Tonyarrived
I am
to London next week for a
conference
That
b e P a u l ,l ' d r e c o g n i s eh i s c a r

Revision(Unitsl-10)

1 8 Circlethe correctitem.
all morninqand the roadswerewet and
A rains
B i sr a i n i n g

C h a db e e nr a i n i n g
D w i l lr a i n

you if we decideto go out tonight


C amcalling
call
D w i l lb ec a l l i n g
willcall
3 At the weekend we went
mountarns
C hiking
A hike
D to hiking
B to hike

144

In t n e

anywnere
b e i n g o p e n e di n t h e
A new cinema
town centrenextmonth
we
He offeredto give us a discount
paidin cash
t lththem;
lf
. . . . . .I h a dg o n et o t h e c o n c e rw
i t s o u n d sl i k ei t w a sb r i l l i a n t .
lf | .
knownthat shewantedto come,
would haveboughta ticketfor her
. .... Sarah,
8 We all orderedthe steakexcept
who is a vegetarian
Marycanspeakltalian
9 NeitherTom.
arrivedat the airportby now
1 0 T h e yw i l l

WWWWWWW
UpstreamIntermediate82 is a modularsecondary-level
coursefor learners
of the Englishlanguageat post-intermediatelevel (pre-FCE,
CEFB11BZ,
ALTEA3/A4 or any other examinationsat the samelevelof difficulty.)The
series combinesactive English learning with a variety of riverytopics
presentedin themed units.
Key Features
.
theme-basedunits from a wide varietyof sourcesin five
modules
.
a varietyof cross-cultural
topics
.

systematic
developmentof all four languageskillsthrough
realisticchallenging
taskswhich encourage
the learner,s
personalengagement

'

practisingand activatingall essentialvocabulary


lexicalexercises
includingcollocations,
idioms,phrasalverbsand word formation
a varietyof authenticstimulatingreadingand listeningtasks

.
o

realistic,
stimulatingdialoguesfeaturingpeoplein everyday
situations

grammarsectionscoveringall majorgrammatical
areasplusa
GrammarReferenceSection

compositionanalysisand practiceon all typesof writing with


full models

a wide rangeof speakingactivities

intonation& pronunciation
sections

CultureClips

Literaturepages
Components
Student'sBook
Teacher's
Book(interleaved)
Workbook(Student's)
Workbook(Teacher's
overprinted)
Classaudio cassettes/audio
CDs
Student'saudio cassette/audio
CD
Test Booklet

hing
I S B N - 3. 1: 9 7 8 -1- 8 4 3 2 5 - 5 7 0 - 3
ISBN-10: 1-84325-570-7

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