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WRITING GOOD SENTENCES

APPENDIX

SECTION I

AI-A3

PUNCTUATION AND MECHANICS

A . THE COMMA

1 . Commas are used to separate the units of certain types of compounds.

C o mp o und s co n s i s tin g o f si n g l e -w o rd unit s, co mpound s consi s tin g of pr e d ica t es, comp o und s co ns is tin g

of phr as e s, and co mpound s con s istin g o f dependent c lau s es follow identi c al pun ct uation pattern s .

P u n c tu a ti o n patt e rn s :

 

and_

_

----------------------------------------,

 

-------- ------------------------------------

,

and

, a nd and

_

 

_

- --------------- - - ---- ---

- - ----------- ,

--------------------------------------------, ---- - ------

--------------.------------------

See pp. 52 - 5 3.

2. Commas are used to separate the independent units of certain compound and compound-complex sentences.

a. If there is no internal c omma pun c tuation near a break between independent unit s, a senten c e co ntainin g

independent units connected b y a single coordinating c onjunction normall y follows one of two pun c tuati o n

patterns.

Pun c tuation pattern s :

-

r and 'I J but l

----- - - ----- ----------- --------- - ----or-- , ' r ----------------------------------------. I for l nor J

I

See p. 1 50 .

- ---- - - ------- -- - ----- - --- - -- - - ---- ----- - - -- ,

-

-------------- - -- - - - - - --- - - - ---

-

- - --- - - - ,

andl

{ or J

~------------------".

-

b . If there i s no int e rnal c omma pun c tu a tion near the break between indep e ndent units , a sent e n c e co nt ain-

i n g i nd e p e nd ent unit s co nn ec t e d b y a p air o f conjun c ti o n s n o rmall y has a c omm a sep a r a tin g th e unit s .

Pun ct u a t i on p a ttern s :

Se e p. 151.

No t o nl y Either

, but ( also ) , or

.

.

3

. Commas are used to set off non-restrictive modifiers.

a

. Adj ectiv a l m o difiers

(

1 ) Non-restri c ti v e adj ec ti ves ar e s et o ff b y commas. See pp. 33-3 4.

(

2 ) No n-r es tr ic ti ve

p a rti c iple s and p a rti c ipi a l phrase s ar e set off b y c omma s.

See pp. 49, 9 0 .

( 3 ) Non-res tri c tiv e a dje c tiv e c lauses are s e t off b y commas.

See p. 127 .

277

A3-A8

b. Adverbial modifiers

PUNCTUATION

AND MECHANICS

( I ) Non-restrictive adverbs are set off by commas .

Example :

He climbed the stairs, slowly and painfully .

( 2 ) Non-restrictive adverbial phrases are set off by commas.

Example:

The motion was carried , despite his opposition.

(3 ) Non-restrictive adverb clauses are set off by commas. See pp. 135, 137, 138.

4 . Commas are used to set off certain non-restrictive ap p o s itives. See pp. 64-65, 67 .

5 . A comma usually follows an intro d uctory ex pr e s si on us ed with an appositive. See p. 67 .

6. Commas are used to set off certain independent sentence elements.

a . Mild exclamatory expressions are often set off by commas. See p. 68.

b.

Vocatives are set off by commas . See p. 69.

7.

Commas are used to set off most sentence modifiers.

a.

Commas are used to set off most single-word sentence modifiers.

Example :

Honestly, I do not know what he said. See pp. 39-40.

b . Commas are used to set off phrases functioning as sentence modifiers .

Example :

To tell the truth, he has already written the letter . See pp. 83-84. e . Commas are used to set off clauses functioning as sentence modifiers.

Example:

Mary, you know, was the person who invited him.

d.

Commas are used to set off certain conjunctive adverbs. See p. 152.

e.

Commas are used to set off nominative absolute constructions.

Example:

The bell having rung, the teacher ended his lecture. See Note on p. 92 .

8.

Commas are used to set off certain elements when t h ey occur in specified positions in the sentence.

a.

A long prepositional phrase preceding the subject is set off by comma punctuation . See p. 83.

b.

An infinitive or an infinitive phrase functioning as an adverb is set off by comma punctuation when it pre~

cedes the element it modifies . See pp. 46,101.

c. An adverb clause preceding or falling within the independent clause to which it belongs is set off by comma punctuation . See p. 135.

278

PUNCTUATION

AND MECHANICS

A9-El

9. Commas are used to set oft' a short direct quotation functioning as the object of a verb of saying, com-

mand i ng , exc laiming, asking , etc.

See pp. 1 0 6 - 07.

1 0. Commas are used to set oft' parts of dates and addresses.

Examples :

On Wednesday, February 23, 1949 , the preliminary agreement was signed. She lives at 4515 East 25th Avenue, Denver, Colorado.

1 1 . Commas are used to prevent misreading. Example:

Confusing: Below the football players were practicing. Clarified : Below, the football prayers were practicing.

B. PARENTHESES

1. Parentheses may be used to enclose certain types of appositives. See pp. 64 - 65 , 67.

2 . Parentheses may be used to enclose interpolated elements.

S e e p. 69.

C. THE DASH

1 . A dash is used to mark sudden shifting or interruption of thought in a sentence.

Examples:

He said-I won't tell you what he said. I wonder what they-

2 . Dashes may be used to enclose certain types of appositives.

S ee pp. 64-65 , 67 .

3. Dashes may be used to enclose interpolated elements.

S ee p. 69.

D. BRACKETS

Brackets are used to enclose explanatory notes or additions inserted in quoted material .

Example :

Byron said: " He [Colonel Stanhope] leaves nothing untouched from the general government to the schools for children . "

E. THE SEMICOLON

1 . Semicolons are used to separate the independent units of certain compound and compound - complex sentences. a . If there i s no conjunction connect i ng the independent units, a semicolon is used to separate the units.

Punctuation patterns:

----- --------------------- --------- ----- ,

-------------------------------- -------- ,

See pp. 151-53.

-- ---- --- --- ------ -------------------- ,

b. If there is internal comma punctuation near a break between independent units, a semicolon is used to

s eparate the units even though they are connected by a conjunction. See pp. 150-51 .

279

E2-Jl

PUNCTUATION

AND MECHANICS

2 . Semicolons are used instead of commas to separate the units of compounds containing internal comma punctuation.

Example:

We invited Jones, the banker; Smith, the mer c hant; and Johnson, the editor .

F. THE COLON

1. A colon is used before a direct quotation which is formally introduced. Usually such a quotation will be

relativel y long.

Example :

George Washington said: " A slender acquaintance with the world must convince every man that action s , n o t words , are the true criterion of the attachment of friends and that the most liberal profe ss ions of good-will are very far from being the surest marks of it. "

2 . A colon may be used before certain types of appositives.

S ee p. 65.

G. THE PERIOD

1. A period is used to close a declarative sentence.

See p. 71 .

2. A period is used to close an imperative sentence, unless the sentence is also exclamatory.

See p. 71 .

3. A period is used after an abbreviation.

Examples :

Mr . , Mrs . , Dr., a.m. , N . Y .

H. THE QUESTION MARK

1 . A question mark is used to close an interrogative sentence.

See p. 7 2 .

2 . A question mark is used after an interrogative element which stands alone as a non-sentence.

Examples:

When? Day after tomorrow?

I. THE EXCLAMATION

POINT

1 . An exclamation point is used to close an exclamatory sentence.

See p. 76.

2 . An exclamation point is used after an exclamatory element.

See p. 68 .

J. QUOTATION

MARKS

1. Quotation marks are used to enclose titles of relatively short literary compositions, such as essays, arti-

cles, short stories, and lyrics.

Titles of subordinate parts of long works are also enclosed in quotation marks .

Examples:

We read Shelley's "Ozymandias." The first chapter is "The Tennyson Legend."

280

PUNCTUATION

AND MECHANICS

2. Quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations.

J2

Note the use of quotation marks and other marks of punctuation in the following examples :

a . Direct quotations of senten c es c ontaining no punctuation

Example s :

Ori g inal sentenc e Your method of working is entirely wrong.

Direct quotations

He said, "Your method of working is entirely wrong." "Your method of working is entirely wrong," he said. "Your method of working, " he said, "is entirely wrong."

Punctuation patterns:

He said , "

. "

"

," he sai d.

" - -

," he said, "

."

See pp. 106 - f J7 .

b. D i re c t quotations of s entences containing comma punctuation

Examples:

Ori g inal sentence

I waited at the office, but the doctor did not come.

Direct quotations

He said, "I

the doctor did not come."

" I waited at

" I waited at the office , " he said, "but the doctor did not come."

waited at the office, but

the office, but the doctor did not come," he said.

Punctuation patterns:

He said, "

, but

."

"

, but

, " he said.

"

," he said, "but

."

c . Direct quotations of sentences containing semicolon punctuation

Examples:

Original sentence Our opponents have weight; we have skill and speed.

Direct quotations He said , "Our opponents have weight; we have skill and speed." "Our opponents have weight; we have skill and speed , " he said. " Our opponents have weight , " he said; "we have skill and speed."

Punctuation patterns :

He said, "

;

."

"

;

, " he said.

"

, " he said; "

.

"

d . Direct quotations of more than one sentence

Examples:

Original sentences She must be here . Her car is in the driveway.

287

J2 - K3

PUNCTUATION

D i re c t quotations

AND MECHANICS

He said, " She must be here . Her car is in the driveway. " " She must be here . Her car i s in the drivewa y ," he said. " She must be he r e ," he s aid. " Her car is in the driveway. "

Punctuation patterns :

He said , "

.

."

"

.

, " he said .

"

," he said, "

."

3. The position of various marks of punctuation in relation to the final set of a pair of quotation marks

may be determined by the following rules:

a. Commas and per i ods are placed inside the quotation marks.

Examples:

"I misplaced m y notes," she explained. The man replied, " I have not completed the work. "

b . Col o ns and s e mi c olons are placed outside the quotation marks .

Example:

I selected Poe's " The Raven" ; she preferred Coleridge ' s "Kubla Khan ."

c . Question marks and exclamation points are placed inside the quotation marks when they refer to the quo- tation itself .

Examples:

She asked, "When did you arrive?" " What a surprise!" the girl exclaimed.

d. Question marks and exclamation points are placed outside the quotation marks when they refer to the

entire sentence in which the quotation occurs.

Example:

Who said , "A little learning is a dangerous thing"?

4 . Single quotation marks are used to enclose a quotation within a quotation.

Example :

Mary replied , " I'm sure the teacher said, 'We may have an exam . ' "

K. THE APOSTROPHE

1. The apostrophe is used in forming certain possessives. See pp. 31-33.

2. The apostrophe is used to indicate omitted letters in contractions.

Examples:

don't, doesn't, I'm , you're

3. The apostrophe is used in forming the plural of letters, figures, and words used as words.

Examples :

There are two m's in committee. There are too many and's in this paragraph.

282

L. THE HYPHEN

PUNCTUATION

AND MECHANICS

1 . The hyphen is used to divide compound words.

LI-N3

Consult a g o od dictionary to determine whether a word is hyphenated .

S ee Not e 1 on p. 35.

2. The hyphen is used to divide a word which is carried over from one line to another.

A word may be divided only between syllables. Consult a labication of a word .

good dictionary to determine the proper syl-

M. ITALICS

Underlining is used in handwritten and typewritten material to indicate italics.

1 . Italics are used for titles of works of art, newspapers, magazines, and relatively long literary composi- tions, such as books, plays, and long poems.

Examples :

He alwa y s reads the Saturday Review of Literature. Did you see Green Pastures?

2 . Italics are used for names of ships, trains, and airplanes.

Example:

She arrived on the Queen Mary.

3. Italics are used for letters used as letters and words used as words.

Example :

The word across is spelled with one c.

4 . Italics are used for foreign words occurring in English sentences.

Example:

They believed in the doctrine of laissez faire.

5 . Italics are used for emphasized words.

Example :

I am c ertain that he did go.

N. CAPITAL LETTERS

1. A capital letter is used at the beginning of a sentence.

Example:

The car struck the wall .

2 . A capital letter is used at the beginning of a quoted sentence.

Example:

The boy replied, "You should turn at the next corner . "

3. A capital letter is normally used at the beginning of every line of poetry.

Example :

That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, Bare ruin'd choirs where late the sweet birds sang.

n

283

N4 - N7

TROUBLESOME

VERBS

4. Proper nouns and adjectives derived from proper nouns begin with capital letters. Ifa proper noun con-

sists of several word s, the important words are capitalized .

Se e pp . 4 , 29 .

5. The important words in titles are capitalized.

Example:

Cooper wrote The Last of the Mohicans .

6 . The

7. Words which refer to Deity are always capitali z ed.

pronoun I is always capitalized.

E x a mple s:

God, Jehovah , the Almight y , Christ, the Saviour.

SECTION II

A LIST OF PRINCIPAL PARTS OF TROUBLESOME VERBS

Pre s ent

Past

Past

Present

P a st

Past

Infinitive

Tense

Participle

Infinitive

Tense

Participle

acc ompan y

ac c ompanied

accompanied

bore

bored

bored

ache

ached

ached

break

broke

broken

agree

a greed

agreed

breathe

breathed

breathed

a

ppl y

applied

applied

bri n g

brought

brought

argue

argued

argued

build

built

built

a

ns e

aros e

ansen

burn

burned or

burned or

ask

a sked

asked

burnt

burnt

at ta c k

a tt ac ked

attacked

burst

burst

burst

aw a k e

a woke or

awoke or

bury

buried

buried

awaked

awaked

buy

bought

bought

a

wak e n

a wakened

awakened

carry

carried

c arried

bath e

bathed

bathed

cast

cast

c ast

b

e

was ( were) been

 

catch

caught

caught

be a r

b o re

borne or born

choose

c hose

c hosen

 

(

passive)

c limb

c limbed

c limbed

bea t

be a t

beat or

cling

c lung

c lung

 

beaten

close

c lo s ed

c losed

be co m e

b ec am e

become

clothe

clothed or

c lothed or

be g in

b ega n

begun

clad

c lad

b

e h o ld

b e h e ld

beheld

comb

c ombed

c ombed

b

e nd

b e nt

bent

come

came

c ome

benefit

b e nefited

benefited

compel

compelled

compelled

bet

b e t or

bet or

consider

considered

considered

betted

betted

conti n ue

continued

continued

bid ( offer t o

bid

bid

co p y

copied

c opied

pur c ha se) bid (co mmand )

b a d e

bidden or

cost creep

cost crept

c ost c rept

bind

bo un d

bid bound

cry c urse

cried cursed or

c ried c ur s ed o r

bite

bi t

bitten o r

c urst

c urst

 

bit

c ut

cut

c ut

bl eed

bl e d

bled

deal

dealt

dealt

bl ow

bl e w

blown

defy

defied

defied

284

TROUBLESOME

VERBS

285

Present

Past

Past

Infinitive

Tense

Participle

deny

denied

denied

deposit

deposited

deposited

develop

developed

developed

die

died

died

dig

dug or

dug or

digged

digged

dine

dined

dined

dive

dived

dived

do

did

done

drag

dragged

dragged

draw

drew

drawn

dream

dreamed or

dreamed or

dreamt

dreamt

drink

drank

drunk

drip

dripped

dripped

drive

drove

driven

drop

dropped

dropped

drown

drowned

drowned

dry

dried

dried

dwell

dwelt or

dwelt or

dwelled

dwelled

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fell

felled

felled

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

fit

fitted

fitted

flee

fled

fled

fling

flung

flung

flow

flowed

flowed

fly

flew

flown

forbid

forbade or

forbidden or

forbad

forbid

forget

forgot

forgotten or

forgive

forgave

forgot forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got or gotten

gIVe

gave

given

go

went

gone

grind

ground

ground

grow

grew

grown

hang ( suspend) hung

hung

hang ( kill by suspending )

hanged

hanged

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

help

helped

helped

hide

hid

hidden or

 

hid

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurry

hurried

hurried

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

kill

killed

killed

Present

Past

Past

Infinitive

Tense

Participle

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

leap

leaped or

leaped or

leapt

leapt

leave

le f t

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie (rec l ine)

lay

lain

lie (te l l a falsehood)

lied

lied

light

lighted

lighted

or lit

or lit

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

marry

married

married

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

owe

owed

owed

pass

passed

passed

pay

paid

paid

plan

planned

planned

prove

proved

proved

raise

raised

raised

read

read

read

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

saw

sawed

sawed

say

said

said

seat

seated

seated

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

seem

seemed

seemed

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

shake

shook

shaken

shine (give

shone

shone

forth l ight) shine (po li sh)

shined

shined

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown or

 

showed

shrin k

shrank or

shrunk

shrunk

shut

shut

shut

smg

sang or

sung

sung

sink

sank or

sunk

sunk

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

slide

slid

slid

sow

sowed

sown or sowed

speak

spoke

spoken

spend

spent

spent

286

A SPELLING

LIST

Present

Past

Past

Present

Past

Past

Infinitive

Tense

Participle

Infinitive

Tense

Participle

spm

spun

spun

take

took

taken

spread

spread

spread

teach

taught

taught

sprmg

sprang or

sprung

tear

tore

torn

sprung

tell

told

told

stand

stood

stood

think

thought

thought

steal

stole

stolen

throw

threw

thrown

stick

stuck

stuck

tie

tied

tied

sting

stung

stung

try

tried

tried

stink

stank or

stunk

understand

understood

understood

stunk

wake

waked or

waked

stop

stopped

stopped

woke

strike

struck

struck

wear

wore

worn

string

strung

strung

weave

wove

woven

strive

strove

striven

w~ep

wept

wept

study

studied

studied

win

won

won

swear

swore

sworn

wind

wound

wound

sweep

swept

swept

wring

wrung

wrung

SWIm

swam

swum

write

wrote

written

swmg

swung

swung

 

SECTION III

 

A SPELLING LIST

 

absence absorb absurd accept acceptable accident accidentally accommodate accompaniment accompany accomplish account accumulate accustomed achievement acquainted acre across actually address adjective advantageous adverb advice advise affect afraid aggravate agg r essive

agreement

apostrophe

autumn

breath breathe bridal bridle brilliance Britain British Briton budget build bulletin bureau bury business busy calendar campaign canal candidate cannot can't ca p ital capitol captain carburetor career carefully carriage carried

carrymg

agriculture

apparatus

casualties

aisle

apparently

auxiliary average

cavalry

all right

appearance

bachelor

ceiling

alley

appetite

cemetery

ally

appositive

balanced balloon

century

almost

appreciate

certainly

already

approach

bargain bath bathe beautiful becoming

changeable

altar

architect

characteristics

alter

arctic

chauffeur

although

aren't

chief

altogether

argument

beggar

children

always

arrangement

chimney

amateur

arrival

beginning belief believe beneath benefiting berth bicycle birth biscuit

choice

amendment

article

choose

among

ascend

chose

amount

ashamed

chosen

analysis

asked

circumstances

analyze

assassin

cite

ancient

astonish

citizen

angel

athlete

climate

angle

athletics

bis h op

climbed

announce

atmosphere

clothes

answer

attached

b lossom born

clothing

antecedent

attacked

borne

cloths

anticipate

attendance

coarse

anti~,ipatory

attorney

boundaries brake b reak breakfast

coffee

anxIOUS

audience

colonel

apartment

author

column

"'-

_---

_ /

A SPELLING LIST

comedy

delegate

equipment

gradually

comfortable

demonstrative

equipped

grammar

commg

depth

equivalent

grief

commission

descended

especially

guarantee

committee

describe

establish

guard

comparative

description

etc.

guess

comparatively

desert

Europe

guidan~e

comparison

desperation

evening

gymnasIum

compel

dessert

exaggeration

handkerchief

competition

destroy

exceed

haphazard

complement

develop

excelled

happiness

completely

development

excellent

height

complex

diamond

except

hindrance

compliment

diary

exclamatory

hoping

compulsory

difference

exercise

hopping

concede

dilapidated

exhausted

huge

conceivable

dine

exhibition

hundred

condemn

dining

existence

hungry

conferred

disappeared

expensive

hurriedly

confident

disappointed

experience

hygiene

conjunction

discipline

experiment

hypocrisy

conq~enng

discussion

explanation

icicle

conscience

disease

expletive

illicit

conscious

dissatisfied

extraordinary

imagination

consequence

dissipation

extremely

immediately

consider

divide

faculty

imperative

consistent

divine

fallacy

impromptu

conspicuous

division

familiar

incidentally

contempt

doctor

fascinating

indefinite

continue

doesn't

favorite

independent

control

don ' t

February

indispensable

convenient

dormitory

field

individual

coordinating

doubt

fiery

inevitably

corps

dozen

fifth

infinitive

corpse

drowned

finally

infinity

couldn't

dumb

financial

influential

council

during

finish

initiative

counsel

dyeing

forehead

innocent

country

dying

foreigner

inquire

courageous

ecstasy

forest

intelligence

course

editor

forgotten

intensive

courteous

effect

formally

intercede

cousm

efficiency

formerly

interesting

cried

eight

forth

interpolated

criticism

eighteen

forty

interrogative

criticize

eighth

four

interrupt

crowd

either

fourth

intransitive

curiosity

eligibility

freshman

introduction

curriculum

eliminated

freshmen

invite

dairy

embarrassment

friend

irresistible

daughter

emphasis

fruit

island

debt

emphatic

fundamentally

isle

deceive

employ

furniture

isn't

decency

employee

garage

its

decision

empty

generally

it's

declarative

encourage

genius

itself

deferred

enemies

gerund

jewelry

definite

entirely

giant

journey

definition

environment

government

judgment

definitive

equal

governor

kindergarten

knowledge

occurrence

laboratories

o 'c lock

laid

officer

lazy

officia l

lead

often

led

omitted

leisure

oneself

length

opmlOn

liable

opponent

library

opportunity

license

opposite

lightning

optimistic

literary

originally

literature

pageant

lonely

paid

loose

pamphlet

lose

pararaph

losing

para lel

luxury

parentheses

lying

parliament

machinery

participle

magazine

parti c ularly

maintain

partner

maneuver

pastime

marriage

peace

material

peculiar

mathematics

perceive

measure

performance

medal

perhaps

medicine

permanently

melancholy

personal

merely

personnel

miniature

perspiration

minute

persuaded

miscellaneous

philosophy

mischievous

phrase

misspell

physical

model

physician

momentous

physiology

mortgage

picnicking

mosquito

piece

murmuring

plain

muscle

plane

mysterious

pleasure

mystery

poem

necessary

politician

neighbor

possession

neither

possessive

nevertheless

possible

nickel

potatoes

niece

potential

nineteen

practical

ninety '

practice

nominative

prairie

noticeable

precede

nowadays

precedence

obedient

preceding

occasion

predicate

occur

prefer

occurred

preference

287

288

RETA/NED ELEMENTS

pr e ferr e d prejudi ced prep a rati o n prep os iti o n

r e ad y re a l ize r e all y re c eipt

s a c rilegious s afety s alar y s andwi c h

stopped straight strategy strength

there therefore they're thorough

valuable variety v egetable v engeance

pr e r e qui s it e r ece i ve

scen e

s tud y ing

though

VIew

pr ese n ce pr e tt y primiti ve

reci p e rec ipr oca l r ecog niz e

scener y schedule s cholar

subjunctive s u bordinating substantive

through to together

v i g ilant villain v ocative

pr i ncip a l r eco mm e nded s eized

subtle successful sufficient superlative supersede supplementary sure surprIse susp~~t suspicion sword syllables s y mpath y sy stem temperamental temperature than their then

too tournament toward tragedy tragic transferred trea c her y tried truly twelfth twelve t y ranny unammou s undoubtedly unnecessar y until unusual usual usuall y

weather Wednesday weight weird welfare where wherever whether which wholly witch women won't write writing written y acht y our you're

pr~n c ipl e

r e f e r

s eparatel y

pri so n er

r efe r e n ce

s equen ce

privil eg e s

r e ferr e d

s ergeant

p

ro b a bl y

r e i g n

shepherd

pr ocee d

r e in

s hine

p

ro f ess i o n

r e li eve

s hining

pr o fe ss or

r e l ig iou s

siege

prominent r e med y

s ight

pron o un ce pr o nun c iation propag and a pr o peller

r e member repeat r e petiti o n r e st a urant

significan c e similar s in c erel y s ite

p

syc h o l ogy

r ev i e w

societ y

pun c tu a ti o n pursu i t qualit y

rh e tori c rh y thm r i di c ul e

s ophomor e s peak s peeches

quant i t y quiet quit e

ri di c ul o u s sacr if ice sac rilege

stationar y stationer y stop

SECTION IV

RET A/NED ELEMENTS

 

Wh e n c e rt a in

ac ti ve- v o i ce sentence s tructures

a re c h a n g ed

to the pa s sive voice, "retained"

e lements

a

re produced

in t h e pa ssiv e - voi ce sentences.

We s h a ll

e x a mine

six of these retained

elements:

the re-

tain e d

dir e ct obj ect,

th e r e t a ined

indirect

object, the retained

first object,

the retained

second object,

th e r e t a in e d

sub s t a nt iva l

and

the retained

adjectival objective complement .

 
 

Wh e n a n a ct ive -voi ce

obje c tive complement, sentence containin g

object

and a direct

object

is changed

to a

p

ass i v e-voice

se nt e n ce,

eith e r the indirect

object

an indir e ct or the direct

object

can be used as the subject

of the

p

ass i v e -v oi ce

v erb , a nd the oth e r

element

will be " retained"

as a retained object or as a r etained indi-

re ct obj ect .

 
 

E

xa mpl es:

 
 

Hi s m o ther

gave him

a book.

H

e was give n

(Indi rec t obj ect )

a book

(Dir e ct obj e ct)

by his mother .

(Passive

( R eta ined

voice)

d ir e ct obj e ct)

 

A book

was g i v en him

by hi s mother.

 
 

(Passive

(R e t a in e d

voice)

indir e ct o bj ec t)

In s i m il a r

f ashio n ,

whe n a n ac tive-voice sentence c ontaining

a doubl e

obj e ct is ch a n g ed

to a passive-

RET A/NED ELEMENTS

289

VOIce sentence, either

will be "retained"

object can be used as the subject of the passive-voice verb, and the other object

first object

or a retained

second object.

as a retained

Examples:

The student

asked the teacher

a question.

 

(First

(Second

object)

object)

A question

was asked the teacher

by the student .

(Passive

(Retained

voice)

first object)

The teacher

was asked a question

by the

student

.

(Passive

(Retained

voice)

second object)

 

In addition, when an active-voice sentence containmg

an objective complement

is changed

to a

passive-voice sentence, the objective complement will be "retained" in the passive-voice sentence. The

element

objective complement can

will therefore be either complement.

be either a substantive a retained substantival

or an adjective, objective complement

and the resulting retained

or a retained adjectival

objective

Examples:

The club elected him president .

(Substantival objective complement)

He was elected president

(Passive

voice)

(Retained substantival objective complement)

We considered her brilliant .

(Adjectival objective complement)

She was considered brilliant

by the club.

by us.

(Passive

(Retained adjectival

voice)

objective complement)

All of the six retained elements may appear in connection with passive infinitives, passive participles,

and passive gerunds. In such structures

the retained element

is part of a verbal phrase.

Examples:

Infinitive

Phrases Containing

He expected I to be given a book.'

Retained

Elements

(Retained direct object)

His mother

selected the boo~J to be given him.'

(Retained indirect object)

That was the first qUesti~J

to be asked the teacher. I (Retained

first object)

I To be asked a question'

was flattering. (Retained second object)

He wanted I to be elected president.

I (Retained substantival

objective complement)

I To be considered brilliant

I pleases her . (Retained

adjectival objective complement)

290 THE PRESENT GERUND AND THE PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES

Participial Phrases Containing R e tained Elements

I Having been given a

book,

I~ild

was happy. (Retained

direct object)

The

boo,tl given him

I was

full of pictures. (Retained indirect object)

The questio~1 being asked the teacher I reveal lack of study. (Retained first object)

The teacher , having been asked several questions , explained the material again. (Re-

'-~--------------------------~

tained second object)

IHaving been elected president, I)e appointed several committees. (Retained substantival

objective complement)

IBeing considered brilliant, Uhe was given difficult assignments. (Retained adjectival ob-

jective complement)

Gerund Phrases Containing R e tained Elements

He appreciated I being given a book. I (Retained direct object)

She denied the boo~1 having been given him. I (Retained indirect object)

I was upset by the questioel

having been asked the teacher. I (Retained first object)

IBeing asked personal questions I is embarrassing. (Retained second object)

IBeing elected president I surprised him. (Retained substantival

She enjoyed I being considered brilliant . I (Retained adjectival

SECTION V

objective complement)

objective complement)

THE PRESENT GERUND AND THE PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES

The gerund usually functions as a substantive, and the participle as an adjective. However, the present gerund may also function as an adjective, and the present and past participles may serve as substantives. The following constructions involve the use of a present gerund to modify a noun:

diving board

playing field

sleeping porch

drinking glass

THE PRESENT GERUND AND THE PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES

291

Note th a t in these e xamples the noun names something

but i s not act u a ll y pe r fo r m ing the a ction. Usually the thing named by the noun is used [or the performance

of the ac ti o n:

i n g , how e v er, do es n o t a lways work . For instance, a typ i ng mistake is obviously not "a mistake for typing" but "a mi s t a k e i n ty pin g . " Still , it i s c lear that the mistake is not perjorming the action of typing. Th e sam e modif y in g w ord s which are classified as gerunds in the examples above must be classified p ar ti c iple s i f th e y i ndi ca te an a ction which is actually performed by the thing indicated by the noun:

which is involved in the action indicated by the gerund

a bo a rd for diving ; a porch for sleeping; a field for playing ; a glass for drinking. Such rephras-

as

diving boy s leeping baby playing children

(The boy is diving.) (The baby is sleeping.) (The children are playing.)

Sometim es, of c our s e , the expression is ambiguous VOIce:

unless clarified by context or (in speech) by tone of

rockin g c ha i r (a c hair for rocking or a chair which is rocking) singing t ea ch e r (a teacher of singing or a teacher who is singing) spinning wheel (a wheel for spinning or a wheel which is spinning)

It is import a nt p a rticiple:

to r emember that an -ing word modifying

handwriting expert plumbing display building inspector

a noun is not necessarily either a gerund or a

T h e di f fer e nce bet w een these constructions and those previously discussed is that the -ing word indicates an

o

the -ing word is simply an

acti on s ; a nd th e in s p ecto r

a dj ec tival use o f a w or d whi c h normally appears

b j e ct rather

than a n action:

the e xp e rt

judges an object,

not an action; the display presents objects, not

whether the word names

in s p e cts an object, not an action. In such constructions,

a noun,

as a noun. then, you should first determine

T o cl a ssif y a n -i ng w ord modifying

an action . I f it doe s not name an action, it is an adjective based upon a noun. If it does name an action, it is

a n a dj e ct i v a l u s e of a participle modifie s , a g e rund if it does not.

by the noun it

or a gerund-a

participle

if it indicates an action performed

J u s t as a pr e sent gerund may function as an adjective, a present participle tion a s a noun:

or a past participle may func-

We must first of all rescu e the living. (Present participle) The in jur e d w ill be flown to the hospital . (Past participle)

Note that a p a rticiple or verbal:

functioning in this

way may be modified by the sort of adverb which modifies a verb

He tre a ts the mentally disturbed. The doctors examined the badly injured.

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