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LECIA 18

Verbe care primesc infinitive sau forma n -ing.


Mass Media
GRAMATIC
A. Form verbele care urmeaz altor verbe au una dintre formele: infinitiv + to sau forma
n -ing (vezi i Lecia 15/16). Verbele se mpart n patru categorii principale:
1. verbe care pot fi urmate numai de infinitiv + to:
We agreed to meet at soon as possible.
2. verbe care pot fi urmate numai de forma n -ing:
You risk being perceived as rude.
3. verbe care pot fi urmate fie de un infinitiv + to fie de forma n -ing fr a nregistra o
modificare de sens:
I see Harry has started to play golf again.
(= n general)
I see Harry has started playing golf again.
(= n general sau numai n momentul de fa)
4. verbe care pot fi urmate fie de infinitiv + to fie de forma n -ing dar cu o schimbare
major de sens:
I forgot to go to the bank yesterday.
(= Nu m-am dus.)
I have forgotten going to the bank yesterday.
(= Nu-mi amintesc s fi fost.)
B. Utilizare.
1. infinitivul + to se folosete de obicei dup:
afford
agree
appear
arrange
expect
fail
help
hope
offer
plan
prepare
pretend
tend
threaten
want
wish
refuse
attempt
manage
promise
I cant afford to buy my own apartment now.
I fail to see the point in not answering the phone.
We cant promise you to be there before the detective arrives.

ask
learn
seem
decide
mean

ATENIE: forma negativ este not to + infinitiv.


The boy promised not to misbehave ever again.

ask, decide, explain, know, remember, forget, understand urmate de cuvinte


interogative: how, what, when, which, where, whether etc:
I dont know how to get to the cathedral from here.
We havent decided which restaurant to go to tonight.

ask, enable, force, get, invite, order, persuade, remind, teach, tell, warn +
complement:
We invited our close friends to dinner on Saturday night.
Can you ask them to leave, please?
make n propoziii pasive:
When I was a child, I was made to wear eat all the food in the plate.
Due to the heavy fog, the plane was made to divert to Gatwick airport.

2. forma n -ing este de obicei folosit dup:


admit
avoid
consider
delay
deny
finish
feel like
imagine
give up
enjoy
mind
miss
postpone
practice
risk
suggest
mention
recall
regret
fancy
He admitted stealing the jewels.
Have you considered studying abroad?
I suggest starting with your reason for coming here.

dislike
keep on
stand(=bear)
involve

ATENIE: forma negativ este not + -ing.


I enjoy not having to wake up early in the morning.
NOT: dup admit, deny, regret, suggest se poate folosi i that.
Sam denied that he had shot his wife. SAU: Sam denied shooting his wife.

dup verbe complexe: carry on, end up, give up, go round, keep on, put off, set about:
You carry on talking while I eat my lunch.
Irene is always trying hard to give up smoking.

3. se pot folosi att infinitivul + to ct i forma n -ing fr diferene de sens dup


verbele: begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start:
I began to play chess three years ago. SAU: I began playing chess three years ago.
Mike loves to drive fast cars. SAU: Mike loves driving fast cars.
4. infinitivul + to sau forma n -ing au sensuri diferite dup: remember, forget, try, stop,
go on, regret:
Have you forgotten posting that letter? (= Ai trimis-o dar nu-i aminteti.) DAR:
Have you forgotten to post that letter? (= Nu ai trimis-o?)
I stopped smoking cigarettes because they were bad for me. (= Nu mai fumez.)
DAR: I stopped to smoke a cigarette. (= M-am oprit i am fumat o igar.)

EXERCIII
1. Trecei verbele din paranteze fie la infinitiv + to fie la forma -ing.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ive agreed ......playing.................... chess for the local club next season. (play)
Marie doesnt allow ...somking....................... in her car. (smoke)
When do you advise me .......to come/coming................... again, doctor? (come)
My daughter cant stand ..........eating................ cheese. (eat)
My neighbour offered ......to look............... after Josh while I went shopping. (look)
We enjoyed Tracys .......................... the piano. (play)
I deny ......telling.................... anyone about his drug problem. (tell)

8. Barbie pretended not ........seeing.................. me but Im sure she did. (see)


9. Do you approve of the children......to make.................... so much noise? (make)
10. Jasmine promised not ..............to be............ late. (be)
2. Transformai verbul din paranteze fie n infinitiv + to, fie n forma n -ing pentru a
exprima sensul cel mai potrivit.
1. Ill never forget .......hearing................... Aerosmith live in 2010. (hear)
2. Dont try .......crossing................... the Amazon on your own. (cross)
3. I hate .......driving................... at night. (drive)
4. She would hate ........to speak.................. in public; shes very shy. (speak)
5. Did you remember .......buying................... some bread for tonights meal? (buy)
6. The rock star finally decided ......to write.................... his autobiography. (write)
7. Do your neighbours never stop ...........arguing...............? (argue)
8. The Government promised .......to reduce................... taxes by next year. (reduce)
9. I see she plans to carry on.....crying..................... until you give in. (cry)
10. Do you ever see yourself .........getting married.................? (get married)
11. Before James began ......going.................... to the gym regularly he was quite fat. (go)
12. Would you help me ............carring.............. my bags inside, please? (carry)
13. If Buster is not careful, hell end up .........getting................. into trouble with the
police. (get)
14. Paul always forgets ...........to switch............... the laptop off before he goes to bed.
(switch)
15. This hot weather makes me ..........to feel................ thirsty all the time. (feel)
3. Punei verbele la forma corect (infinitiv + to sau forma n -ing). Uneori ambele variante
sunt posibile:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Would you like to listen/listening. (listen) to some music?


Peter and Kim have started cooking (cook) the dinner.
I prefer skating.. (skate) to jogging. (jog).
Id prefer walking (walk) home rather than going..
(go) by taxi.
5. My sister loves going..(go) shopping.
6. Id love to visit (visit) Thailand one day.
7. My brother hates having to/ to have to??.. (have to) work at
weekends.
8. Do you like playing/to play. (play) World of
Warcraft?
9. I like eating.. (eat) out as often as possible.
10. Shh! The orchestra is starting to play.. (play).
VOCABULAR
Mass Media
1. Newspapers
The newspaper is the oldest and most iconic type of mass media. Through newspapers, news
of the world was for the first time available to the general public. In 1605, the first newspaper
was published.

There are many types of newspapers, centred on various topics: economics, sports, politics
etc. Generally, a newspaper contains the following sections: political events, crime, business,
art/entertainment, society and sports.
A newspaper can be issued daily or weekly.
Radio
The radio is an electromagnetic device that receives radio waves. The first commercial radio
broadcast took place in 1920, in the United States.
Until the development of television, and even some time afterwards, the radio used to be the
most popular form of mass media. Everyone listened to the news, music and entertainment
programmes on the radio.
Nowadays, it is less important, when compared to the TV or the internet.
Television
The television is device used for telecommunication of moving images. The first TV set was
released in 1928. Nowadays, television occupies an important part in our everyday lives.
Either for news or just entertainment programmes, such as films, documentaries, most of us
spend an important part of every day in front of a TV.
As Europe is such a complex continent, with various cultures and languages, there are few TV
channels broadcasting for all European countries. Two examples are: Euronews and
Eurosport.
Internet
The Internet is a global system of networks that exchange data. The first wide-area network
was made available in 1983.
Because it is so easily available to so many people, the internet is a powerful tool of mass
media. All major media outlets have websites where they offer information and entertainment
to millions of people.

Did you know?


BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) is the world's largest broadcasting corporation,
founded in 1922. BBC reaches more than 200 countries in 33 languages. Its stated mission is
to inform, educate and entertain.
Its motto is Nation Shall Speak Peace Unto Nation.
2. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below using the words in italics.
documentary
television

talk show
presenter

internet
debate

film
radio

1. The radio was the first media instrument with a global reach.
2. A film or television or radio programme that gives facts and information about a subject is
called a documentary...
3. The film tells a story on the silver screen or on television.
4. We depend more and more on the internet/television??. for information and
communication.

5. Someone who introduces a television or radio show is called a presenter.


.
6. When people participate in a debate... they discuss serious subjects and bring
arguments.
7. The television/internet??.. changed the way we look at the world.
8. In a talk show.., several guests sit down and talk about a given subject, on
radio or TV.
3. Choose the best answer to each question.
1. The .... is the person who is responsible for the overall shape of the program.
a. actor
b. producer
c. presenter
2. Turn on the TV! There is live ...... of the football match between Italy and Spain.
a. coverage
b. report
c. review
3. Those were today's headlines. And now it's Angela McCarthy with her weather ...... .
a. broadcast
b. forecast
c. presentation
4. I can't stand that stupid comedy. Can you switch to another ...... , please?
a. host
b. channel
c. transmission
5. A ...... is some kind of TV drama in parts based on inter-human relationships.
a. soap opera
b. sitcom
c. documentary
6. We're just getting some ...... news, that tsunami wave has just hit the Indonesian coast.
a. sensation
b. arriving
c. breaking
7. The time of day when most people are watching television is known as ...... .
a. popular time
b. prime time
c. best time
8. Many TV viewers were shocked when the presenter cursed while ........ .
a. filmed
b. acting
c. on (the) air
9. Welcome to another live TV debate. Our ...... is as usual Peter Blitzer, and his guests today
are some of Ireland's most prominent politicians.
a. announcer
b. host
c. actor
10. Planet Earth, narrated by Sir David Attenborough, is the most magnificent nature .
from the BBC.
a. series
b. film
c. news report

4. Follow the clues for Across and Down to fill in the crossword.

Across
5. A regularly printed document consisting of news reports, articles, photographs and
advertisements that are printed on large sheets of paper which are folded together.
NEWSPAPER
6. A broadcast on television or radio.
8. Personal web pages where people can present their own views.
9. Advertisements that are broadcast on television or radio between and during programs.
COMMERCIALS
10. A television station. CHANNEL
Down
1. Very big media companies that own several mass media outlets. CORPORATIONS ???
2. The presenter of a news bulletin. ANCHOR ??
3. Information or reports about recent events. NEWS
4. Newspapers and magazines, and those parts of television and radio which broadcast news.
7. A type of thin book with large pages and a paper cover which contains articles and
photographs and is published every week or month. MAGAZINE