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Industrial

Ethernet

... from the Ofce to the Machine


- world wide -

Band I

Ronald Dietrich

Industrial
Ethernet
... from the Ofce to the machine
- world wide -

HARTING
The best connections worldwide because quality
connects.
HARTING was founded in 1945 by the family that still retains sole ownership of
the company. HARTING presently employs more than 2 000 people including
150 highly qualied engineers and over 100 sales engineers who take care of the
daily needs of our customers.
Today, HARTING is the leading manufacturer of connectors with 34 subsidiary
companies in Europe, America and Asia.
As the market leader, HARTING offers the advantage of just in time services. It
is therefore no wonder that the company maintains close business relationships
with all of its important customers active in the world market. HARTING is the
market leader in several of its product sectors.
HARTING can draw on many years of extensive experience gained in achieving
high degrees of protection in industrial environments (IP 65 and higher), all of
which has owed into expanding its product portfolio as well as the development
of its family of devices for industrial communication.
HARTING products are manufactured utilizing cutting edge and efcient
productions methods. CAD systems support research and development as well
as tool making activities. We abide by our philosophy of quality, which states that
only fully automatic manufacturing processes can achieve a zero error rate. In
accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001, the organisation and procedures constituting
our quality assurance measures are documented in a quality assurance manual.
HARTING employs approximately 60 members of staff in quality assurance. The
majority of them are highly qualied engineers and technicians who have gained
their qualications through the German Society for Quality (DGQ) or the Swiss
Association for Quality (SAQ).

Ronald Dietrich

Industrial
Ethernet
... from the Ofce to the Machine
- world wide -

This book was compiled with the technical support of HARTING Electric GmbH &
Co. KG, Dezember 2004.
All rights reserved by HARTING Electric GmbH & Co. KG, D-32339 Espelkamp.
Author: Ronald Dietrich
Design and Layout: Ronald Dietrich
Translation: Scriptor GmbH, Bielefeld
Print and bookbinding: Printshop Meyer, Osnabrck
Pictures: Company photos
All other illustrations: HARTING Electric GmbH & Co. KG
All rights are reserved, especially relating to the translation, reprint and the
extraction of illustration, broadcasting, the photo-mechanical or similar reproduction and storage in data processing systems. This also applies to partial
utilization. The reproduction of utility names, trade names, product designations
etc. in this documentation does not, even if without special reference, manifest an
assumed right to consider names in the sense of legal status for trademarks and
trademark protection as being freely available to the public.
Important note
As a result of research and standardization technical ndings are subject to
continuous change. The author has exercised meticulous care to ensure that the
information and statements in this documentation correspond with the current
state-of-the-art. However, the user is not exempt from the obligation to check
whether the information in this documentation deviates from the information
contained in the original documentation (especially for standards) and to determine
the utilization of this information under own responsibility.
DIN standards and other technical regulations
The DIN standards, VDE regulations and other technical regulations referred
to in this documentation relate to the editions available at the time of copy
deadline. Relevant for the user of a standard, however, is only the latest edition
of the respective standard. DIN standards can be ordered from Beuth-Verlag,
Burggrafenstr. 6, 10787 Berlin.
Printed on bleached cellulose, 100 % free from chlorine and acid.

Preface
Dear Reader, this book is intended to introduce you to the subject of Industrial
Ethernet. At the same time, it seeks to demonstrate the possibilities open to you
to full your requirements for the industrial use of Ethernet by utilizing HARTING
components. Following a short summary on the subject of eldbus technology,
we will describe the particular demands placed on Industrial Ethernet and how
HARTING provides the appropriate solutions.
It is not the intention, nor can this book cover all questions relating to the subjects
eldbus technology and Industrial Ethernet. For more detailed information on
these subjects, please refer to the corresponding recommen-dations contained in
the Further reading list at the end of this book.
The standards and guidelines contained in this book were valid in 2004. Dear
Reader, if by reading this book you should feel encouraged to take a more indepth look at the subject of Industrial Ethernet or even put the knowledge
gained into practise, you are duty-bound to ensure that you are aware of the
latest information concerning prevailing law as well as the latest standards and
guidelines. This book is intended to be an introduction to the subject of Industrial
Ethernet. It was not written with the intention of providing a detailed description
of standards and guidelines. Descriptions of individual devices and components
contain no detailed reference to proprietary or patent rights.
Further information about HARTING devices and components described in this
book are contained in the relevant catalogues and technical manuals. The sources
where they can be drawn are contained at the end of this book.
Espelkamp, June, 2005

9
Contents

Preface .....................................................................................................7
1 General Information about Fieldbus Technology ..........................13
1.1
1.2

1.3

1.4
1.5

Historical background ......................................................................... 13


The Automation pyramid .................................................................... 17
The eld level ............................................................................... 17
The control or process level ......................................................... 18
The system or cell level ................................................................ 18
The process control and the management levels ........................ 19
The Layer model ................................................................................. 19
Layer 1: Physical Layer ................................................................ 20
Layer 2: Data Link Layer .............................................................. 20
Layer 3: Network Layer ................................................................ 21
Layer 4: Transport Layer .............................................................. 21
Layer 5: Session Layer................................................................. 21
Layer 6: Presentation Layer ......................................................... 21
Layer 7: Application Layer ............................................................ 21
Using the ISO/OSI Reference Model ........................................... 21
Classifying the eldbus systems ......................................................... 22
Fieldbus systems with decentralised master transfer................... 23
Fieldbus systems with central master transfer ............................. 24
Further information ............................................................................. 24

2 Industrial Ethernet............................................................................25
2.1
2.2

2.3

What is Ethernet? ............................................................................... 25


Classic Shared Ethernet ................................................................... 26
Ethernet and the ISO/OSI Reference Model ................................ 26
The Ethernet address ................................................................... 28
Standard Ethernet Frame ............................................................. 29
Communication via Shared Ethernet ........................................... 30
Broadcast telegrams .................................................................... 31
Network Access Method CSMA/CD ............................................. 33
Different approaches to improving performance .......................... 35
Fast Ethernet ................................................................................ 35
Gigabit Ethernet ........................................................................... 36
10 Gigabit Ethernet ...................................................................... 38
Ethernet with switching (Switched Ethernet) ................................ 39
Industrial Ethernet Network ................................................................ 40
Why Ethernet for industry? ........................................................... 40
Fields of applications for Industrial Ethernet ................................ 43
General requirements placed on Industrial Ethernet networks .... 45
User organisations and protocol variants ..................................... 49

10
3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet ...53
3.1

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

3.7

3.8
3.9

3.10

Network topologies ............................................................................. 55


Star ............................................................................................... 55
Tree .............................................................................................. 55
Line............................................................................................... 56
Ring (redundancy) ........................................................................ 56
Active and passive network components............................................ 57
Ethernet gateways .............................................................................. 58
Ethernet router .................................................................................... 59
Ethernet bridges ................................................................................. 60
Ethernet switches ............................................................................... 60
Switch the key network component in Switched Ethernet ......... 60
Operating modes .......................................................................... 61
Ethernet switches with IP 20 protection ....................................... 64
Ethernet switches with IP 65 / IP 67 protection for direct
mounting....................................................................................... 65
In-between Ethernet switches for mounting onto external
enclosure panels .......................................................................... 70
Ethernet hubs ..................................................................................... 74
Hub as an active network component .......................................... 74
Operating modes .......................................................................... 75
Ethernet hubs with IP 20 protection ............................................. 75
Ethernet hubs with IP 65 / IP 67 protection .................................. 76
Industrial Outlets for Industrial Ethernet ............................................. 81
Industrial Outlet as a passive network component ....................... 81
Industrial Outlets for wall mounting in industrial environments .... 82
Cabling................................................................................................ 83
Standardisation ............................................................................ 84
Frequently used Ethernet transmission media ............................. 85
Characterising cables and channels ............................................ 86
Specications for transmission cables made of copper for
Industrial Ethernet ........................................................................ 88
Hybrid cable ................................................................................. 90
Special cable for Gigabit Ethernet ................................................ 90
Special cable for 10 Gigabit Ethernet ........................................... 91
Power on Ethernet (PoE) ............................................................. 91
Connectors ......................................................................................... 93
Connectors for IP 20 .................................................................... 94
Connector for IP 65 / IP 67 ........................................................... 94
Hybrid connectors ........................................................................ 97
Contact assignment...................................................................... 98
Special conditions for Gigabit Ethernet ...................................... 101

4 Future Prospects ............................................................................103

11
5 Overview of Modules and Accessories for Ethernet Components
from HARTING ................................................................................105
5.1

5.2
5.3
5.4

Ethernet devices Overview of types .............................................. 105


Ethernet switches for direct mounting ........................................ 106
In-Between Ethernet switches .................................................. 106
Ethernet hubs ............................................................................. 107
Industrial Outlets ........................................................................ 107
Mounting options .............................................................................. 108
Available cable types ........................................................................ 108
Connectors ....................................................................................... 110

Annex A
A-1

A-2

A-3
A-4

List of Standards and Guidelines .................................. 113

Standards and guidelines applicable to Ethernet / bus technology .. 113


EN standards.............................................................................. 113
IEEE standards .......................................................................... 114
IEC standards............................................................................. 115
Guidelines .................................................................................. 115
Standards and guidelines for devices ............................................... 116
EN standards.............................................................................. 116
IEC standards............................................................................. 117
UL standards .............................................................................. 117
Standards and guidelines for connectors ......................................... 117
EN Standards ............................................................................. 117
IEC standards............................................................................. 118
Standards and guidelines, general ................................................... 118
EN standards.............................................................................. 118
IEC standards............................................................................. 118
HD / VDE standards ................................................................... 118

Annex B

Bibliography .................................................................... 119

Annex C

Continuative Links ..........................................................121

Glossary

..........................................................................................123

B.1
B-2

C-1
C-2
C-3

General information about eldbus technology ................................ 119


Industrial Ethernet / network technology........................................... 120

Links for eld bus, general ............................................................... 121


Links for Industrial Ethernet .............................................................. 121
Other links......................................................................................... 122

Degrees of Protection .........................................................................151


List of gures .......................................................................................155
List of tables ........................................................................................159
Index

..........................................................................................161

12

1 General Information about Fieldbus Technology

General Information about Fieldbus Technology

1.1

Historical background

In the past, an alternative was sought to purely being able to enter and read data
and signals directly at the machine or system; instead engineers also wanted to
be able to provide data inputs and outputs as well as signal and status indicators
to a remote control room. The rst step in this direction was to connect the control
room with each point at which measurements were taken at the machine.
As the possibilities for displaying and operating grew, so did the demands
and requirements. Simply displaying status information became insufcient; it
should also be possible to perform process control tasks from the control room.
However, control of machines and systems as well as the detection of various
statuses and measurement values requires the transmission of an enormous
amount of data and signals. Each sensor and every measurement point was
still being conventionally wired with various amounts of individual wires to a
switching cabinet or central evaluating unit via marshalling cabinets. That meant
that as well as the huge amount of cables and wires that sometimes needed to
be routed across large distances, high standards were required with regard to the
creation and adherence to wiring plans as well as the installation of the cables
and wires. Nevertheless, the danger of wiring mistakes remained extremely high.
Troubleshooting often proved to be quite difcult, because the errors on the
individual wires could occur anywhere along the fairly long distances between
the point of detection and the central switchgear cabinet. A further big handicap
became apparent when alterations to the wiring were made necessary, for
instance, when functions became superuous or additional signals were required.

Figure 1-1

Cable installation based on conventional wiring

13

14
Cable installation was simplied with the introduction of the eldbus systems:
eldbus-compatible components were connected to the eldbus directly at the
machine or at the point of measurement. Only the eldbus itself required a
separate cable to the central switchgear cabinet or controller station.
As well as reducing the wiring needed to connect the eld devices to the higherlevel controller and systems, this simplication also led to a considerable
reduction in the susceptibility to faults and associated troubleshooting. Only
a fraction of the work is necessary when a component is no longer required,
needs replacing or when a new component has to be installed: theoretically, as
well as the connection to the existing eldbus structure, an amendment to the
corresponding conguration and parameter software is all that may be necessary.

Figure 1-2

Cable installation based on a eldbus

Together with increasing automation and decentralisation in measurement,


sensor and drive technologies, the need grew to create multi-vendor and open
communication standards that would connect different devices from various
manufactures as well as guarantee cross-system communication. At the same
time, decentralised eld devices, sensors and actuators continue to become
available with improved functionality, so that communication increasingly has to
ow in various directions:
From the PLC (transmitter) to the eld devices, sensors and actuators
(receivers)
From the eld devices, sensors and actuators (transmitters) to the PLC
(receiver)
Between the eld devices, sensors and actuators (alternatively acting as
transmitters and receivers)
Due to stringent quality and safety requirements, importance is increasingly being
placed on the transmission speed of the signals and messages with respect to
maintaining certain requirements; these include, for example, diagnosis and
troubleshooting, safety-relevant transmission of data, and they also include fast
processes such as those necessary in the paper or food industry.
The share of distributed intelligence continues to grow. As a result, automation
tasks are becoming increasingly complex with ever-greater amounts of data to be

1 General Information about Fieldbus Technology

transferred; at the same time, the demands for greater reliability of data transfers
continue to grow. Demands on transmission rates have risen in the last few years
due to the categorical explosion in the amount of data being transmitted as well
as the increased complexity of the automation tasks. It is realistic for us to expect
a sharp increase in these demands in the wake of the introduction of eldbus
systems into safety-relevant areas, and the introduction of Industrial Ethernet into
the eld of automation.
This trend will continue for the next few years, and, in the nal analysis, will be
reected in the number of installed eldbus stations, as well as in the share that
eldbus communication will have of automation activities as a whole.
With growing demands for a universal, harmonised data landscape as well as
greater demands for the transfer of increasingly larger amounts of data together
with continuously escalating transmission speeds, the classic eldbus systems
will eventually reach the limits of what they can do. That, however, does not mean
that these eldbus systems will be completely replaced. On the one hand, they
are already in a position to fall back on many installations in industrial applications around the world. On the other hand, classic eldbus systems are often
already designed for rapid data transmissions. As a rule, they are only based
on the layers 1 and 2, and possibly layer 7 of the OSI Reference Model (please
refer to section 1.3 The Layer Model). Relatively young as far as industrial
applications are concerned, Industrial Ethernet in the main also makes use of
protocols for the higher layers 3 to 7 on top of its pure Ethernet protocols of
the layers 1 and 2, which in turn leads to a reduction of the effective rate of data
transmission. For that reason, a realistic comparison between the classic eld-bus
systems and Industrial Ethernet cannot purely be based on the maximum possible
rate of transmission, but rather has to take into consideration the transmission
rate that can effectively be attained.
As the graphic below demonstrates, most classic eldbus systems achieve
transmission rates ranging between a few Kbit/s through to several Mbit/s.
Industrial Ethernet is already in the starting blocks to achieve even higher rates of
transmission up to as much as several Gbit/s.

15

16
10 Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
Ethernet

Fast Ethernet

PROFIBUS-DP
PROFIBUS-FMS
CAN / CANopen

AS-Interface
INTERBUS
BITBUS

SERCOS

ARCNET

HART
DIN-Messbus

1
kbit/s

19,2
kbit/s

9,6
kbit/s

Figure 1-3

150
kbit/s

60
kbit/s

300
kbit/s

500
kbit/s

1
Mbit/s

10
Mbit/s

100
Mbit/s

1
10
Gbit/s Gbit/s

Overview of transmission rates for various classic eldbus systems and


Industrial Ethernet

Further developments are awaited with an air of expectancy, in particular as


far as Industrial Ethernet is concerned. Today already, the rst tentative steps
towards 10 Gigabit Ethernet are showing a great deal of promise. In particular
in conjunction with Industrial Ethernet, the new transmission technologies, for
example, bre-optics or wireless applications, will play an increasingly important
role when decisions for a new eldbus system are being contemplated.

1 General Information about Fieldbus Technology

1.2

The Automation pyramid

Based on the amount and number of the required components, the information
to be transmitted within the different levels of a system can be portrayed in the
form of a pyramid:
Management level
Plant or factory Computer;
CAD / CAM
Amount of
data

Number of
Components

Process
control
level
System or
Cell level

Figure 1-4

Factory bus /
Office Network

Master Computer,
PCS
Cell Computer,
PLC, PC

Control or Process level

PLC, CNC, NC

Sensor / Actuator level

Controllers, Sensors,
Actuators,
Multiplexer

Process or
Cell bus Network

Fieldbus
Network

The automation pyramid

Bus systems provide the means for communication both within and between the
different individual levels. That said, the following applies: the higher the level is,
the slower the rate of transmission, but the greater the amount of data that can
be transmitted.
Standard Ethernet is used mainly for communication between the higher levels
(from the management level to the system or cell level).
Bus systems used within and between the sensor/actuator level, the control
level and the system/cell level are the classic eldbus systems (PROFIBUS,
AS-Interface, CAN, DeviceNet ...) and increasingly in the recent past, Industrial
Ethernet.

The eld level


This is the lowest level, where sensors and actuators are used to control production
and manufacturing processes. Process-related data is for example:
Analogue signals:
Liquid level, pressure, temperature, ow rate, rotational speeds,
Digital signals:
End positions, control states,
This data is read-in at the eld level and then processed. In addition to the normal
process data, safety- and quality-relevant data is also read-in, processed and
transmitted. This includes alarm values, run times, analysis values and so forth.

17

18
Data exchange takes place predominantly between different levels, and only
seldom between the devices within the same level. For example, setpoint values
are transmitted from, and actual measured values are transmitted to a higherlevel controller. However, although this controller can be located in the eld level,
it is generally assigned to the next level higher up the control or process level.

The control or process level


The tasks covered by this level include:
Collecting, conditioning and processing the data received from the assigned
sensors and actuators on the eld level
Administering several control and regulating modules
Carrying out automation and control tasks
Routing selected data to the system level
Visual display of data
...
Typical devices for this level are, for example, programmable logic controllers
(PLC) and regulators or CNC modules.
Data exchange takes place both between and within the levels. For example,
setpoint values can be transmitted from a higher-level controller to the lower-level
sensors and actuators as can evaluation results be transmitted to the system
or cell level. This data can equally be transmitted between the individual PLC
modules within this level.

The system or cell level


This level is responsible for the monitoring, control and regulation of several
processes. The tasks covered by this level include:
Collecting, conditioning and processing the data received from the assigned
controllers and regulators in the control level.
Administering several control and regulating modules
Carrying out higher-level automation and control tasks
Routing certain data to the process control level
Central point for visualisation of selected data.
...
Typical devices for this level are, for example, programmable logic controllers
(PLC) and PCs.
Data exchange takes place both between and within the levels. For example,
setpoint values can be transmitted from a higher-level management system to the
lower-level PLCs and the evaluation results transmitted back to the management
level. This data can equally be transmitted between the individual stations within
this level.

1 General Information about Fieldbus Technology

The process control and the management levels


These two levels serve predominantly to control larger systems or factory operating
areas as well as higher-level planning and control of the entire production.
Standard Ethernet is generally the bus system used.
These two levels are of less relevance as far as classic eldbus systems are
concerned. Gateways operating as converters between the classic eldbus
systems and Standard Ethernet are normally utilized to enable communication
between the lower levels and these two higher levels.
When contemplating Industrial Ethernet, these two levels are of interest to the
extent that data exchange can take place through to the eld level using Standard
Ethernet / Industrial Ethernet..

1.3

The Layer model

The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (abbrev. OSI Model, also
often referred to as the ISO/OSI Reference Model) came into being in 1983
based on the experienced gained from using and developing Ethernet TCP/IP as
a standard for ofce communication.
This reference model provides an extremely abstract description of the OSI
environment. At least two open systems make up the OSI environment, these
being connected to one another by means of a physical medium for the exchange
of data. Having said that, each of these systems is an autonomous entity that can
independently process and transmit data.
According to OSI specications, data exchange takes place in an open system
in accordance with formal rules of communication, which were developed in
accordance with the ISO/OSI Reference Model.
In order to be able to use the ISO/OSI Reference Model on a system, the system
needs to be divided up into two categories.
For using the ISO/OSI-Reference model on a system this system has to be
splitted into two parts:
In data processing to perform a certain task
and
In the communication system solely responsible for the transfer of data.
The rules applied to the system of communication are called protocols. These
rules require the exchange of data between the individual stations participating
in this communication by means of messages that can be subdivided into four
different types:
Request
Indication
Response
Conrmation

19

20
The ISO/OSI Reference Model is divided up into 7 layers. Each layer contains
at least one instance specifying particular network functions. This instance can
be compared with an independently functioning software module that carries out
special tasks with the assistance of neighbouring instances.
Application Program

7.

Application Layer

6.

Presentation Layer

5.

Session Layer

4.

Transport Layer

3.

Network Layer

2.

Data Link Layer

1.

Physical Layer

Higher Protocol

Transmission
Protocol

Physical Transmission Medium


application-oriented layers
transport-oriented layers

Figure 1-5

ISO/OSI Reference Model

The tasks and functions are assigned to the individual layers as follows:

Layer 1: Physical Layer


Layer 1 (bit transmission layer) manages the physical medium for transmitting the
individual bits of the telegram messages. This includes dening the transmitting
medium (electrical cable, bre-optics), connector assignment, type of modulation,
transmission rate, and signal level as well as further physical parameters such as
the length of cable and similar.

Layer 2: Data Link Layer


Layer 2 is responsible for the bus access procedure as well as the fail-safe
transmission of blocks of data from the transmitter to a receiver (unicast) or
several receivers within a group (multicast) or to all receivers (broadcast).

1 General Information about Fieldbus Technology

Layer 3: Network Layer


Layer 3 supports the search and use of suitable transmission routes between the
transmitter and receiver through the network, possibly via a communication PC.

Layer 4: Transport Layer


Layer 4 is responsible for the control of and error-free logical delivery of
telegrams.

Layer 5: Session Layer


Layer 5 (communication layer) establishes, manages, synchronises and terminates
communication between the participating stations of a bus communication.

Layer 6: Presentation Layer


Layer 6 is responsible for character coding and conversion of data, monitor and
le formats into a suitably readable format for the corresponding computer.

Layer 7: Application Layer


Layer 7 provides interactive services (for example writing and reading) for other
network Stations. In doing so, it provides an interface to the user programmes in
PLC, PC and control systems.

Using the ISO/OSI Reference Model


Layers 1 to 4 are responsible for the transmission of data between the stations
within the network. Layers 5 to 7 coordinate the interaction between the bus
system and the user program of the computer in the respective station.
The structure of the layers applies only to the internal sequence of communication.
It has nothing to do with the control levels of automation engineering.
Generally speaking, only the layers 1, 2 and 7 need be considered for the purpose
of industrial communication by means of eldbus systems. In order to increase
the efciency of the respective protocols and achieve faster transmission speeds,
these layers are reduced even further in some individual eldbus systems (for
example, PROFIBUS-DP or AS-Interface).
The following image depicts a typical route taken by a message from the
transmitter to the receiver utilising a eldbus:

21

22
Transmitter

Receiver

Application Layer

Application Layer

Presentation Layer

Presentation Layer

Session Layer

Session Layer

Transport Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Network Layer

Data Link Layer

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Physikal Transmission Medium


supported layers
non-supported layers

Figure 1-6

1.4

Example of message transmission utilising a eldbus in accordance with the


ISO/OSI Reference Model

Classifying the eldbus systems

Based on Time Division Multiplex technology, classic eldbus systems are


generally serial in nature. That means that the communicating partners must
divide the transmitting time between themselves, because only one station can
occupy the bus for transmission purposes at any given time.
For that reason, only eldbus systems will be considered in the following that
work with time division multiplexing.
Classication of the eldbus systems can be carried out according to various
aspects:
According to access procedures or
According to topology
There are various options available to portray the association between the eldbus
systems and the various aspects. One variation is shown in the graphic below:

1 General Information about Fieldbus Technology

Time Division

Central Master
Transfer

Decentralised Master
Transfer

Deterministic
Master Transfer

Figure 1-7

Random
Bus Access

Line Topology

Ring Topology

Classifying the eldbus systems

Fieldbus systems with decentralised master transfer


The master function of a bus system employing a decentralised master transfer
mechanism is distributed between several stations. In this case, a distinction is
drawn between the differing access mechanisms:
Deterministic bus access
Certain stations, known as the masters, are each permitted to transmit (token
holders) for a dened period. Once this dened time has elapsed the token
providing the necessary authority to transmit is passed on to the next master,
which in turn becomes the active master. A logical ring is built up between the
masters so that this process can be applied independently of the network topology.
This process is known as Token Passing.
Typical eldbus systems that function according to this principle include, amongst
others, PROFIBUS and its variants.
Random bus access
Bus access is not granted according to a rigid predened plan. That means that all
stations have the same rights and are always ready to receive messages. Where
necessary, they can begin to transmit messages when the bus is not occupied.
The access procedure used is called CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access).
The advantage of this access procedure is the possibility of event-controlled
communication.
Typical eldbus systems that function according to this principle are:
CANopen / DeviceNet (CSMA/CA)
Industrial Ethernet (CSMA/CD)

23

24
Fieldbus systems with central master transfer
In a bus system operating a centralised master transfer mechanism the master
transfer function is carried out by a station dened as the master terminal. The
master terminal cyclically queries all of the other network stations (slaves).
The slaves are only permitted to transmit information following a request from the
master.
With this form of data transfer, a distinction is drawn between the different
topologies:
Line topology
Several stations are connected to a bus trunk cable by means of a stub line. Tree
topology is an extended form of the line topology. The maximum length of such a
cable is restricted by its electrical characteristics.
AS-interface is one of the typical eldbus systems that make use of a line
topology.
Ring topology
Both ends of the trunk cable forming the bus system are connected to each other.
That is the reason why no line termination is required. The individual stations form
a ring conguration. For data exchange purposes, separate data telegrams from
each station as well as accumulated frame telegrams are used in the transmission
of master information. The accumulated frame telegrams contain data for all of
the stations. Each station receives the data addressed to him, and attaches its
own data to this telegram at a time determined by the master.
INTERBUS is a typical eldbus system that makes use of a ring topology.

1.5

Further information

It has of course not been possible with these descriptions to cover the entire subject
of Fieldbus Technology in great depth. That would go far beyond the scope of
this chapter. After all, numerous books have already been published about the
individual types of eldbus, describing the corresponding basic information and
technical possibilities. Further information is not only available in specialized
literature but also in the appropriate guidelines and standards, which have been
and will be published on this subject, as well as over the Internet. In that respect,
it is particularly worth mentioning the individual user organisations, for example,
PROFIBUS, CAN, DeviceNet, INTERBUS, and IAONA. Some addresses are
listed in the Appendix.

2 Industrial Ethernet

Industrial Ethernet

2.1

What is Ethernet?

Ethernet is a relatively old standard originally developed by Xerox in 1975 for the
serial transmission of data.
Ethernet is based on a concept by Dr Robert Metcalfe dating from 1973 describing
the transfer of data between several networked stations connect by a coaxial
cable.

Figure 2-1

Ethernet The idea

The rst attempts at transferring data between network stations able to act
independently of one another were co-ordinated at an early stage by the IEEE
(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). The Ethernet was standardised
in the IEEE 802 in the 1980s, since when it has been extended many times. The
classic Ethernet was specied for a data transmission rate of 10 Mbit/s over
a maximum distance of 2500 m (divided up into 5 segments of 500 m) and a
maximum of 1024 network stations.
Since the 1990s, Ethernet has undergone a series of further developments in the
following areas:
Transmission media
Fibre optics
Wireless technology
Data transmission rates
Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit/s (1995)
Gigabit Ethernet 1 Gbit/s (1999)
10 Gigabit Ethernet (at the planning stage)
Network topologies
Switched Ethernet
Industrial Ethernet
Increasingly gaining in importance in the eld of industrial automation, Ethernet
today is the most prevalent base technology used in commercial EDP systems
around the globe. The Ethernet protocol is embedded almost in full onboard
inexpensive controller chips, so, together with wide distribution (or probably
because of it) and the associated availability, Ethernet represents an economic
solution for the construction of network connections.

25

26
Today, there is hardly an alternative to Ethernet, especially when fast transmissions
of large amounts of data are required.
Utilising Ethernet in both ofce and industrial environments achieves a
homogeneous and standardised infrastructure for communication extending
smoothly from the ofce to the machine.
New milestones in the utilisation of Ethernet are being set with the arrival of
new technologies for Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet as well as the
introduction of bre-optics and wireless technology. It is precisely these new
features that are providing the springboard for the growing use of Ethernet in
industry.

10 Gigabit Ethernet
10 000 Mbit/s
Gigabit Ethernet
1 000 Mbit/s
Fast Ethernet
100 Mbit/s
Ethernet
10 Mbit/s

1973

1980

Idea,
standardisation
Figure 2-2

2.2

1985

1990

1995

First
applications

2000

2004

Standard
products

Development of Ethernet to date

Classic Shared Ethernet


Ethernet and the ISO/OSI Reference Model

Specied in the standard IEEE 802.1 to 802.3, Ethernet performs services provided
by layers 1 and 2 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model. All incoming telegrams are
ltered in layer 2, which basically means only the right telegrams are passed
onto the higher layers.
The transmission protocol is implemented in layer 3. The best-known protocol in
conjunction with Ethernet is the Internet Protocol IP.
The transmission protocols are contained in layer 4. Ethernet is often used in
conjunction with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram
Protocol).

2 Industrial Ethernet

Higher-level tasks are achieved through various application protocols (FTP


or SNMP) as well as by utilising special purpose protocols (for example, for
automation). However, automation protocols can also be used to either extend
the layers 3 or 4 or both, or even replace them entirely.

7.

Application Layer

6.

Presentation Layer

5.

Session Layer

4.

Transport Layer

TCP / UDP

3.

Network Layer

IP

2.

Data Link Layer

CSMA/CD

1.

Physical Layer

Ethernet

Application Protocols

Higher Protocol

Transmission Protocol

OSI Reference model

Ethernet layers

application-oriented layers
transport-oriented layers

Figure 2-3

Ethernet and the ISO/OSI Reference Model

Layer 1
Layer 1 is responsible for unsecured transmissions via the physical medium,
with data being transmitted bit-by-bit. The format of the Ethernet data package
(frame) to be transmitted is dened in the standard IEEE 802.3 (please refer to
the section Standard Ethernet Frame in this chapter).
Originally, the transmission medium used was copper coaxial cable. Today,
copper cables are predominantly in use in the form of twisted pair cables. In the
recent past, the use of bre optic cables or wireless transmissions has grown
increasingly.
Layer 2
As well as allocating access rights to the physical medium, this layer is concerned
with the fail-safe transfer of blocks of data bits between two directly linked network
stations. Access to the physical medium itself is regulated by CSMA/CD (Carrier
Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) specications in accordance with
IEEE 802.3; please refer to the section Network Access Method CSMA/CD in
this chapter.

27

28
Layer 3
Layer 3 implements the protocol responsible for managing the network layer of
the ISO/OSI Reference Models. In the main, this Internet protocol is tasked with
providing solutions for the following:
Regulating problems of routing throughout the network
Generating associated with virtual connections via a physical medium
Introducing measures for network coupling
The Internet Protocol IP is the most widely known protocol throughout the Ethernet
world.
Layer 4
This level controls the error-free ow of data in the correct sequence between the
communicating network stations. Ethernet is often utilized with TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).
TCP is a connection-based protocol responsible for the error-free transmission of
data; it is mostly utilized for transferring large amounts of data.
UDP is a connectionless protocol particularly suitable for fast, cyclic data trafc.
Transmissions using UDP protocols are generally faster, however errors are not
xed.
Layers 5 to 7
The higher-level layers 5 to 7 specify the application protocols that allow the data
being transmitted to be interpreted. There is already a wide spectrum of specied
application protocols available for ofce applications (for example, FTP, http and
others).
For industrial communications, there are presently various protocols in use that
are incompatible with one another (please refer to the section The Industrial
Ethernet Network in this chapter).

The Ethernet address


As is the case with all mechanisms for transmissions between stations on a (local)
network, each station on an Ethernet network requires a unique, assignable
address. In the case of Ethernet, this station address is often called the MAC
address (Medium Access Control address). Generally stored in a non-volatile
memory, the MAC address is assigned to the physical network interface of the
station by the manufacturer.
The Ethernet address always comprises six bytes, which are split up into two
groups of three bytes respectively.
The rst group contains the address type (bits D47 and D46) as well as the
vendor ID. The IEEE manages these IDs centrally, to guarantee that each
Ethernet address remains unique all over the world.

2 Industrial Ethernet

The second group contains a sequential serial number for the network
interface.
D47

D46

Address type

D45 ... D24

D23 ... D00

Vendor address

Serial number

Group 1

Figure 2-4

Group 2

Structure of a MAC address

The signicance of the bits D46 and D47 depends upon the address type
(destination or source address):
Address
type
Destination
address

Source
address

D47
Value

D46
Meaning

Meaning

individual address

This address is administrated


globally by IEEE, meaning it is
unique throughout the world.

Group address
(for broadcast or
multicast telegrams)

This address is administrated


locally, meaning it is not coordinated through the IEEE.

always set to 0

This address is administrated


globally by IEEE, meaning it is
unique throughout the world.

This address is administrated


locally, meaning it is not coordinated through the IEEE.

Table 2-1

Value

Overview of address types

If the bit D46 is set to 1, private networks without public access can be
implemented using random address assignment. The IEEE does not co-ordinate
the addresses of these networks. That means it is the vendors responsibility to
ensure unambiguous address administration.

Standard Ethernet Frame


The data transmission is realised on Ethernet by means of so-called data packets
(frames). These frames include a header and a check-sum, additional to the real
user data.
Standard Ethernet frames are made up of six blocks:

29

30
Block

Size
(bytes)

Meaning

Preamble

8 bytes

Tasked with synchronisation of the receiver as


well as indicate the start of the Ethernet frame.

Destination

6 bytes

Address of the receiver

Source

6 bytes

Address of the source

Type Field

2 bytes

Indicates the type of protocol (for example,


TCP/IP)

Data Field

46 to
1500 bytes

Data being transferred

Check

4 bytes

CRC value (Cyclical Redundancy Check) to


monitor transmission errors

Designation acc. to
IEEE 802.3

Table 2-2

Standard Ethernet frame

Preamble

Destination

Source

Type Field

Data Field

Check

8 bytes

6 bytes

6 bytes

2 bytes

46 - 1500 bytes

4 bytes

Figure 2-5

Standard Ethernet Frame

The preamble block comprises 7 bytes for the actual preamble and 1 byte as
starting frame delimiter. The start byte indicates to the receiver that the actual
information part of the frame is about to begin.
The subsequent bytes contain the destination and source addresses. Additionally,
the destination address is evaluated in the address lter of the Ethernet controller.
Only frames containing the correct destination address are forwarded to the actual
communication software.
Thus, each frame consists of 26 protocol bytes and between 46 and 1500 bytes
of user data. A minimum of 46 bytes of user data achieves a frame length that
can guarantee a faultless resolution of collision conditions. If less than 46 bytes
of user data are available, the Ethernet controller automatically compensates for
missing bytes by adding so-called padding bytes to bring the frame up to this
minimum size.
Whereas the protocol bytes correspond to dened patterns, the user bytes are
not subjected to any restrictions. The only condition user bytes are subjected to is
that they must be complete bytes (multiples of 8 bits).

Communication via Shared Ethernet


Ethernet was planned as a logical bus system: a transmitting network station
is heard by all other stations on the network. With its Ethernet controller, each
Ethernet component lters out the telegrams intended for him. However, only
telegrams with the correct destination address are accepted. It ignores all other
telegrams.
The so-called broadcast or multicast telegrams are the exception.

2 Industrial Ethernet

Ethernet Hub

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Transmitting to station C

Receiver
filter

Station A
Figure 2-6

Transmitter

Receiver
filter

Station B

Transmitter

Station C

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station D

Path taken by an Ethernet telegram

In gure 2-6, station A transmits a telegram to station C. This telegram is heard


by all stations but only accepted by station C.
The accepted telegrams are subsequently passed onto the higher layers in the
communications software (for example, IP or TCP / UDP).
The receiver checks all telegrams destined for him for errors (check sum, length,
format and so forth). Faulty telegrams are ignored. However, the receiver does
not transmit an acknowledgement of receipt; thus, the transmitter has no way of
knowing if its telegram has reached its destination without any faults.

Broadcast telegrams
Broadcast telegrams are Ethernet telegrams that are received by all stations on
an Ethernet network.
Ethernet stations recognise a broadcast telegram by the fact that all bits of the
destination address are set to 1.

Broadcast telegram

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station A

Figure 2-7

Ethernet Hub

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Receiver
filter

Station B

Transmitter

Station C

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station D

Path taken by broadcast telegrams

In gure 2-7, station B transmits a broadcast telegram that is heard and accepted
by all stations.
The so-called jam signal is one example of a broadcast telegram transmitted
by a station when it recognises a collision (please refer to the section Network
Access Method CSMA/CD in this chapter).

31

32
Multicast telegrams
Multicast telegrams are directed to a group of receivers. A station can belong to
a number of groups.
In the case of multicast, the following types of groups are differentiated:
One-to-many

A single transmitter transmits to a number of receivers.

Many-to-many A number of transmitters transmit to a number of receivers.


Many-to-one

A number of transmitters transmit to a single receiver.

The transmitter can, but need not, belong to the group or respective receivers.
Ethernet stations recognise a multicast telegram by the fact that bit D47 of the
destination address is set to 1. Bit D31 is subsequently checked. The telegram
is recognised as a broadcast telegram if this bit is also set to 1. The telegram is
recognised as a multicast telegram if the bit D31 is set to 0. In this case, the bits
D30 to D00 determine the group identication.
Multicast telegrams destined for unique group addresses around the world are a
special case. These addresses are identied by bit D46 being set to 0. These
addresses are assigned centrally by the IEEE.
Further information on the subject Addresses is contained in the section below.

Multicast telegram
Group 1

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Receiver
filter

Station B

Station A

Figure 2-8

Ethernet Hub

Transmitter

Station C

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station D

Path taken by multicast telegrams (group 1)

In gure 2-8, the station B transmits a multicast telegram to all other stations
belonging to group 1. Stations A and D belong to this group.
All other stations ignore this telegram.
Multicast telegram
Group 2

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station A

Figure 2-9

Ethernet Hub

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station B

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station C

Path taken by multicast telegrams (group 2)

Receiver
filter

Transmitter

Station D

2 Industrial Ethernet

In gure 2-9, station B transmits a multicast telegram to all stations belonging to


group 2. Stations A, B and C belong to this group. That means station A belongs
to both group 1 and group 2. The transmitting station B belongs to the group of
receivers.
All other stations ignore this telegram.

Network Access Method CSMA/CD


In a classic Ethernet network, often called Shared Ethernet, all stations on the
network share a so-called collision domain. All networked stations have the same
rights. Thus, each station can attempt to transmit data at any time.
The control of Ethernet network access is regulated by the CSMA/CD method
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection).
Using Carrier Sense logic, network components wishing to transmit data rst
check if the network is free. If it is, transmissions can begin. Collision Detection
checks are made at the same time to ascertain if other components have also
began to transmit. If that is the case, a collision will occur. If a transmitting station
recognises a collision, it curtails transmissions and transmits a so-called jam
signal. Consisting of 4 to 6 bytes with the address FF (all bits belonging to this
signal are set to 1) this signal is transmitted as a broadcast telegram, which
means it will be heard by all other network stations. As a result, all participating
network stations stop transmitting and wait a randomly determined time before
resuming transmissions.
The ow chart below offers a schematic outline of the data transmission
process:
Station
wants to transmit

Waiting in
accordance with
back-off strategy

Listening
to the network
No
Network
free ?
Yes
Transmit data and
listen to network

Collision ?

Yes

Transmit
Jam signal

No
Data transmitted
correctly

Figure 2-10

Sequence of a data transmission with CSMA/CD

33

34
Classic Ethernet (transmission speed 10 Mbit/s) was designed to ensure a
maximum signal propagation time of 25.6 s between the two stations furthest
apart. That means the rst station to transmit can recognise a collision within
max. 51.2 s. This time is also known as the collision window. If no collision is
recognised during this time, in other words, no jam signal was received, then the
transmission has been completed successfully.

Collision
recognised
Network
station n

Network
station 1

t
time in s
0

Figure 2-11

25,6 s *

51,2 s **

Schematic portrayal of the CSMA/CD method

Maximum signal propagation time between the stations furthest apart

**

Collision window
Network station 1 begins to transmit
Network station n (station furthest away) begins to transmit
The telegram from network station 1 reaches network station n (maximum signal
propagation time) which recognises a collision of data; it aborts transmissions and
broadcasts a jam signal.
Network station 1 recognises that the other network station has attempted to transmit
data, meaning, that station 1 also recognises that its transmission has failed, and
attempts to transmit again following a randomly determined amount of time.

Due to these collision characteristics, transmission times for frames depend


largely on the workload of the network, and cannot be determined before hand.
The more collisions occur, the slower the entire network will be. Therefore,
Shared Ethernet is not entirely suitable for industrial automation.
The maximum propagation time for data packets depends on the data transmission
rate being used (for example at 10 Mbit/s: 25.6 s, see above). For its part,
the propagation time determines the maximum possible size of the Ethernet
network:
Type of
Ethernet

Transmission rate

Collision window

Maximum length of
transmission path *

Shared Ethernet

10 Mbit/s

51.2 s

> 100 m / 500 m **

Fast Ethernet

100 Mbit/s

5.12 s

100 m

Gigabit Ethernet

1000 Mbit/s

0.512 s

25 m

Table 2-3

Inuence of the transmission rate on the collision window and maximum


transmission path

maximum transmission path for copper cable

**

maximum transmission path for coaxial cable

2 Industrial Ethernet

Different approaches to improving performance


Different methods of approach are being followed to improve performances.
Segmentation:

Splitting up the collision domains

Higher band widths:

Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet

Switching:

Switched Ethernet

and combinations of the above.


Ethernet will not just be of interest to, but will become practical for industrial
automation when these budding solutions are put into practise, in particular those
for higher bandwidths and switching. For this reason, only Fast Ethernet, Gigabit
Ethernet and Switched Ethernet will be described in the following sections.

Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet to IEEE 802.3 is not a new standard, but a further development of
the classic Shared Ethernet with the following new features:
Data transmission rate: 100 Mbit/s
Operating mode: Full or Half duplex
Auto-negotiation
Flow Control
Trunking
These features form the basis for industry-standard Ethernet networks.
Compatibility with classic Ethernet is guaranteed by Auto-negotiation as dened
in IEEE 802.3.
Ethernet

Fast Ethernet

Standard

IEEE 802.3

IEEE 802.3u

Data transmission rate

10 Mbit/s

100 Mbit/s

Bit slot time

100 ns

10 ns

Collision window

51.2 s

5.12 s

Access method

CSMA/CD

Largest data packet

1518 bytes

Smallest data packet

64 bytes

Length of address eld


Topology
Table 2-4

48 bits
Star, tree, and line topologies

Comparison between Ethernet and Fast Ethernet

Auto-negotiation
Under the Auto-negotiation protocol, the two respective stations making contact
exchange data packets to check their respective technical characteristics and
determine an optimum operating mode.

35

36
The parameters include:
Data transmission rate (10 / 100 / 1000 Mbit/s)
Full / Half duplex
Support of ow control
Flow Control
Flow control provides the possibility of slowing down the ow of data by temporarily
stopping it. This option is always required when a station is threatened with
storage overow. The ow control mechanism for 10 / 100 / 1000 Mbit/s is dened
in IEEE 802.3z.
Trunking
Trunking is the use of several parallel, physical transmission channels between
two network stations (for example, between two switches). Trunking aims on the
one hand to increase transmission capacity and on the other to increase fault
tolerance.
Full duplex operation
For the connection, Full duplex (FDX) means the possibility of transmitting and
receiving simultaneously. Both transmission lines are physically and logically
separate from one another. That not only requires special media for transmissions
(for example, a copper wire respectively for each direction), but also suitable
transceivers and software drivers at both ends.
Thus, theoretically, Full duplex operation doubles the bandwidth to 200 Mbit/s.
Full duplex is particularly advantageous when used between switches and stations
or between several switches. Because no collisions can occur, CSMA/CD is not
required.

Gigabit Ethernet
In comparison with Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet provides tenfold exploitation
of the available bandwidth for Ethernet networks. Apart from the higher bandwidth, Gigabit Ethernet offers the advantage of compatibility with Ethernet and
Fast Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet is also based on the CSMA/CD method for
data collision recognition. The same network operating systems and respective
application and management software used for Ethernet / Fast Ethernet can be
run without substantial alterations.

2 Industrial Ethernet

Ethernet

Fast Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet

Standard

IEEE 802.3

IEEE 802.3u

IEEE 802.3z

Data transmission rate

10 Mbit/s

100 Mbit/s

1000 Mbit/s

Bit slot time

100 ns

10 ns

1 ns

Collision window

51.2 s

5.12 s

0.512 s

Access method

CSMA/CD

Largest data packet

1518 bytes

Smallest data packet

Length of address eld


Topology
Table 2-5

64 bytes

512 bytes
(smaller data packets with
Carrier Extension)
48 bits

Star, tree line topology


Comparison of Gigabit Ethernet with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet

Operating modes
Gigabit Ethernet can operate in both Half duplex and Full duplex modes. Whereas
Full duplex operation is largely identical with that of Ethernet / Fast Ethernet, Half
duplex operation is problematical:
If the 51.2-s collision window (please refer to section Network Access Method
CSMA/CD) for Ethernet is shorted by a factor of 100 or 5.12 s in the case of
Fast Ethernet is shortened by a factor of 10, then this collision window will amount
to just 0.512 s. As this is double the maximum signal propagation time between
two nodes on the common transmission medium, this collision window would
allow the use of only very short lengths of cables (approx. 10 to 20 m), which
would be completely unacceptable for practical use.
That is why the collision window for Gigabit Ethernet was xed at 4096 bits
(euqivalent to 512 bytes or 4.1 s). A trick was employed to guarantee this x
without making changes to the data frame format: the Carrier Extension.
Carrier Extension
With a minimum of 512 bytes (19 protocol bytes and at least 493 data bytes,
Gigabit Ethernet frames full the 4.1-s time condition for the collision window
stated above; the 7 bytes for the preamble are ignored). Gigabit Ethernet frames
with less than 493 bytes of data (46 to 492) are padded out with a Carrier Extension
(see graphic below). The Ethernet frame itself remains unaltered, so that there is
no difference as far as the communications software is concerned.

37

38

Figure 2-12
Preamble
SFD
DA
SA
TF
Data Field
FCS
CE

Carrier Extension for a short Gigabit Ethernet frame (data eld < 493 bytes)
Preamble (without starting frame delimiter)
Starting frame delimiter
Destination address
Source address
Type eld (length)
Data eld with user data (possibly including up to 46 bytes of supplementary
characters).
Frame check sequence
Carrier Extension; between 447 and 1 byte in length

Carrier Extension is implemented by the physical layer (1).


Frame Bursting
If Carrier Extension becomes necessary, the length of the Ethernet protocol
overhead also increases. Gigabit Ethernet utilizes frame bursting, which is
also integrated on the physical layer, to compensate as far as possible for this
increase in length. Several short data blocks are packed into an Ethernet frame
on the physical layer to achieve the required minimum length of 512 bytes without
having to use the Carrier Extension facility.
Topology
The following characteristics are typical to a Gigabit Ethernet topology:
Group formation
Hierarchical structures with switches
Full duplex operation
In contrast to Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet utilizes all 4 pairs of a
twisted pair cable. This allows the data in Full duplex mode to be simultaneously
transmitted and received via 2 pairs respectively, which equates to doubling the
data transmission rates to 2000 Mbit/s.

10 Gigabit Ethernet
10 Gigabit Ethernet is presently the fastest variant of Ethernet transmissions
with product specications for the corresponding devices standardised in the
IEEE 802.3ae. As far as industrial communications are concerned, 10 Gigabit
Ethernet is only of note when networking to the higher levels is carried out via
the automation level (plant control or management level) or WAN (Wide Area
Network). In comparison, 10 Gigabit Ethernet is hardly used directly in industrial
environments; this is because segments can be always formed in industrial
facilities with their own collision domains, and lower data transmission rates are
the consequence.

2 Industrial Ethernet

Ethernet with switching (Switched Ethernet)


Denition
Switched Ethernet is a network in which each Ethernet component is assigned
to a port in a switch. That means that only one station is ever connected to each
port. As a result, the system is divested of previous collision domains in individual
point-to-point connections between network components and participating
terminal devices.
Preventing collisions ensures that each point-to-point connection has exclusive
use of the full network bandwidth. That means that Full duplex operation
is possible. The second pair of Ethernet wires required for collision detection
can now be additionally used for transmissions, which leads to a considerable
increase in data throughput. That means that using Fast Ethernet (100Base-TX) it
is possible to transmit 100 Mbit/s simultaneously in both directions, which, under
certain circumstances, amounts to doubling the data transmission rate.
Further information on switches is contained in the following chapter in the section
Ethernet Switches.
Advantages
Utilizing Switched Ethernet offers the following advantages:
Guaranteed collision-free networks, because only one component is assigned
to each port
Rapid switching of data packets
Considerable increase in data throughput as a result of Full duplex operation
Deterministic operation is possible due to elimination of collisions.
Network size
In theory, there is no limit to the possible size of a Switched Ethernet network. The
maximum cable length of a point-to-point connection is determined only by the
physical transmission properties, which according to specications is 100 m.
In practice, the actual possible length of the cable is determined by the types of
connectors and lines used.
Response times
Switched Ethernet eliminates all uncertainties with regard to time arising from
the collision resolution algorithm (CSMA/CD) used by Ethernet. Correctly
dimensioned, Switched Ethernet can be operated as a deterministic system,
meaning, its response times can be predicted. In this case, it must be guaranteed
that the switches operate within their deterministic range under all operating
conditions through correct selection of switches and appropriate dimensioning
of the network.

39

40
2.3

Industrial Ethernet Network


Why Ethernet for industry?

At the present time, three major trends are developing in automation:


Intelligence is increasingly being shifted towards individual eld components,
forming decentralized, distributed structures of automation (distributed intelligence).
The demands from within automation for IT standards are becoming difcult to
overhear.
Vertical communication is becoming increasingly integrated through all levels
of the automation pyramid.
In principal, distributed intelligence can be implemented independent of the
eldbus system being operated. However, with integrated communication in
mind, consideration should be given to combining with future-proof protocols
when planning intelligent eld devices.
Fieldbus technology as it presently stands, makes it difcult to integrate
communication across all levels of the automation pyramid using a bus system.
Gateways are necessary to facilitate communication between the eldbus systems
established in the lower levels (PROFIBUS, AS-Interface, CAN and others) and
the bus systems in the upper levels (mostly Ethernet). As well as leading to a loss
of quality, gateways can primarily be the cause of time delays and as a result
hinder or even prevent integrated fast communication.
As well as the different protocols, which in part are required by or support
other network structures, substantial disadvantages in present-day industrial
communications include a large number of protocols and vender-specic subassemblies with their associated high costs for installation, maintenance, repair
as well as their heterogeneous stock of data in the form of widely differing data
formats.

2 Industrial Ethernet

Figure 2-13

Conventional system extension operating different eldbus systems

Making use of Ethernet, right down to the lower levels of the automation pyramid,
will (to a large extent) sweep away these weaknesses in communication. The aim is
to use just one common bus protocol with uniform data formats. Using components
based on Ethernet reduces the complexity of installation, maintenance and repair
tasks, which in turn lowers the costs for connecting machines and systems to the
eldbus communication. And we should not forget that there is a great deal of
potential for savings to be gained by using proven, standardized components, for
example, RJ45 connectors as well as passive and active devices.
Neither should we forget to mention the fact that in the age of industrial Ethernet
there are also various Ethernet standards and variants of protocols being used for
fast communication on the lower levels that demonstrate little or no compatibility
with one another. That on the one hand can be attributed in part to diverging
demands (required of real-time capability for example) and on the other hand
to the fact that none of these variants has (yet) managed to assert itself as the
standard. The section User Organisations and Protocol Variants contains more
on this subject later in this chapter.

41

42

Figure 2-14

System extension based on Ethernet / Industrial Ethernet

It goes without saying that the Ethernet only having been used in ofce
environments will initially have to be adapted to suit industrial requirements, which
are imperative for communication purposes in the lower levels. As well as the
restriction or elimination of collision domains, these include real-time capability
and Full duplex operation.
The unbeatable advantage gained from utilizing Industrial Ethernet as an
integrated communication system is to be found in the use of a millionfold triedand-trusted uniform protocol in the form of Ethernet with TCP/IP from the
ofce environment through to the machine / sensor. The use of this Ethernet
standard means that today it is already possible to achieve economic applications
for use in industry based on standard solutions. Work continues on unresolved
questions and demands with regard to real-time capability, speed and reliability
(as in freedom from collisions) and other characteristics necessary in industrial
environments. Solutions will be found for these in the near future.
A further big advantage of Industrial Ethernet is its transmission speed: data
transmission rates between 10 and 1000 Mbit/s are available with Industrial
Ethernet compared to just a few Kbit/s through to a maximum of 12 Mbit/s offered
by conventional eldbus systems.

2 Industrial Ethernet

In summary, it can be said that in comparison with conventional eldbus systems


Industrial Ethernet offers the following advantages:
Ethernet is an open standard in use across the globe, which means, simple
interaction between the devices and components from various vendors is
guaranteed.
Ethernet is open and transparent. Different protocols can be utilized simultaneously in the same network.
Data transmission rates from 10 Mbit/s through to 1000 Mbit/s are possible.
Conventional eldbus systems have already been in use over a long period of
time. New installations are planned encompassing progressive and universal
methods.
However, despite the euphoria surrounding Industrial Ethernet, it should not be
forgotten that the big conventional eldbus systems (for example, PROFIBUS,
CANopen, INTERBUS, ARCOS) represent more than 80 % of all the presently
installed bus systems. Consequently, Industrial Ethernet will have to demonstrate
over the next few years that it can supplement and replace the conventional
eldbus systems.

Fields of applications for Industrial Ethernet


Today, Industrial Ethernet can be implemented in (nearly) all elds in which
fast cross-level communication between the eld level and the higher levels is
important, and large amounts of data have to be transferred.
The majority of Ethernet components presently in use are represented by ofce
devices adapted to suit industrial purposes. These IP 20 devices are mostly
installed in switchgear cabinets or control rooms. These devices are only of little
or no suitability for use in harsh industrial climates.
However, it is possible to use devices and components sealed to protection
class IP 65 / IP 67 in applications in immediate industrial environments without
additional protective measures. It does not matter if these are in steelworks in
extreme temperatures and dust ridden conditions, in the automotive industry
controlling industrial robots or in wind turbines facing high degrees of mechanical
and EMC stresses today, Industrial Ethernet dominates a large part of industry,
and it continues to advance.

43

44

Figure 2-15

Harsh industrial conditions operating in a steelworks

Figure 2-16

Fast data transmission to control industrial robots manufacturing


automobiles

2 Industrial Ethernet

Figure 2-17

Wind turbines high demands on EMC and mechanical stability

General requirements placed on Industrial Ethernet networks


International standard ISO/IEC 11 801 and its European equivalent EN 50 173
dene a standard generic communication network for a building complex. Both
standards are basically identical. Both are based on building premises used for
ofce purposes, and both aim to set generic standards. The specic requirements
placed on Ethernet networks in industrial networks such as:
System specic cable routing
Individual degree of networking for each machine / system
Line network topologies
Robust, industry-standard cables and connectors with specic requirements
relating to EMC, temperature, humidity, dust and vibration
are not taken into consideration in either of these standards in line with what we
know today. The conditions for the industrial use of Ethernet are presently being
described in the revision of the EN 50 173 and its new supplements.

45

46
The essential differences between operating Ethernet in an ofce environment
and in an industrial environment are demonstrated in the overviews below:
Ofce areas

Industrial areas

Installation
requirements

Permanently installed basic


installation
Cables routed in
intermediate ooring
Variable workplace device
connections
Pre-assembled device
connection cables
Generally standard workplaces (desk with PC )
Tree network topologies

Wiring very dependent on system


requirements
System specic cable routing
Connection points rarely altered
Devices connected on site
Individual degrees of networking
required for each machine /
system
Often linear and (redundant) ring
topologies

Transmission
performance

Large volume data packets


(for example, images)
Medium network availability
Transmissions timed in
seconds
Predominantly acyclic
transfers
No isochronism

Small data packets (for example,


measurement data)
Very high network availability
Transmissions timed in microseconds
High proportion of cyclic transfers
Isochronism

Environmental
requirements

Table 2-6

Moderate temperatures
Low levels of dust
No moisture
Low levels of vibration
Low levels of EMC exposure
Low mechanical hazard
Low levels of UV radiation
Extremely limited chemical
hazard

Extreme temperatures
High levels of dust
Moisture possible
Vibrating machines
High levels of EMC exposure
Risk of mechanical damage
UV exposure in open-air
environments
Chemical hazard from oil-lled
and / or aggressive atmospheres

Different requirements for ofce and industrial environments

2 Industrial Ethernet

Ofce areas

Industrial areas

Supply voltage

230 V AC

24 V DC

Mounting

Desktop device, cabinet or


wall mounted

Top-hat rail, wall mounted

Design size

Flat

Slim

Operating temperature

0 C to +40 C

-40 C to +70 C
0 C to +55 C

Shock

15 g

Vibration

2g

Cooling

Fan

Heat sink

Degree of protection

IP 20 / IP 30

IP 20
(with protective housing)
IP 65 / IP 67

Resistance to

Dust

Dust, oils, solvents, acids,

Tests, safety

EN 60 950

EN 60 950

Tests, EMC

EN 50 081-1 (residential)
EN 50 082-1 (residential)

EN 50 081-2 (industrial)
EN 50 082-2 (industrial)
DIN EN 50 155
(railway standard)

Response time

> 100 ms

< 20 ms

Operational lifetime

> 3 years

> 6 years

Availability
(spare parts)

4 years

10 years

Table 2-7

Different requirements for network components in ofce and industrial


environments

Further standardisation, such as special requirements for industrial applications


will be specied in EN 50 173 supplements.
Freedom from collisions
The ability to calculate the communications is an essential requirement when
running Industrial Ethernet. As Ethernet as such is not deterministic, and it is
not possible to achieve clearly dened time-scheduled statuses employing the
CSMA/CD method of collision recognition, other solutions will have to be found
for its use in industry.
As well as the use of switches (please refer to the section Ethernet With Switching
in this chapter), various suppliers of industrial components have developed
different concepts for solutions. These include, amongst others:
Cyclic Ethernet operation whilst avoiding standard Ethernet communication
(example: as with PowerLink Protection Mode or EtherCat)
Standard Ethernet with additional real-time mechanisms (example: PROFINET
or EtherNet/IP)
A combination of both concepts (example: PROFINET)

47

48
Real-time capability
Real-time communication capability is a further fundamental requirement for
Industrial Ethernet networks. Real-time in this sense means the capability of a
network to full the scheduled requirements of an application under all operating
conditions. With regard to transmission speeds, Ethernet as such is superior to
every conventional eldbus system. However, it is exactly the component used to
guarantee compatibility with the ofce environment, the so-called TCP/IP stack,
that is the cause of the biggest delays in the network. For that reason, the simplest
solution would be to circumvent this stack; the result, however, would be the loss
of compatibility to the ofce world.
Various solutions are being put forward to full the demands for real-time
capability:
Using a so-called master clock to synchronise the clocks of the network
stations
In this case, IEEE 1588 is applied. This standard species a protocol for
the precise synchronisation of networked systems (PTP; Precision Time
Protocol), which is particularly suitable for Ethernet TCP/IP (example:
JetSync).
Cyclic communication by circumventing the TCP/IP stack
For real-time communication, the TCP/IP stack is completely circumvented
and replaced by a separate stack for cyclic processes. A time slot is
contained in each cycle in which normal TCP/IP or UDP/IP protocols
can be transmitted as required. Transmission is made by means of
a broadcast telegram so that all stations on the network can hear the
telegrams. Ethernet switches are not allowed for this process, as these
have a fundamentally longer and uctuating transfer time. Instead hubs
are prescribed (example: ETHERNET PowerLink).
Other means of circumventing the TCP/IP stack
Other methods of circumventing the TCP/IP stack address their real-time
extension directly to the MAC level (example: EtherCat) or they circumvent
the TCP/IP stack by using another method (example: PROFINET).

2 Industrial Ethernet

User organisations and protocol variants


IAONA

Nowadays, the question is no longer asked if Ethernet suitable for use in industry.
Owing to the technological advancements in Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet,
in switching and Full duplex transmissions, the classic Ethernet has become
suitable for use in industry and is becoming increasingly interesting for vendors.
It would be more accurate to say that the question about the proper protocol has
become more a question of what you believe.
There are presently many different approaches towards application protocols, all
of which are founded in various basic principles and are not compatible with each
other. In order to at least co-ordinate the activities of these individual companies
and organisations, the umbrella organisation IAONA (Industrial Automation Open
Network Alliance) was founded. In co-operation with the various interested parties,
this umbrella organisation for industrial communication via Ethernet is dedicated
to working towards minimising the differences between the individual approaches
to solutions. The rst result was the publication of a guideline for industrial cabling
of Ethernet: the Industrial Ethernet Planning and Installation Guide, which is now
available in its fourth version.
The IANOA works in close co-operation with the following partner organisations:
EPSG (ETHERNET PowerLink Standardization Group) for ETHERNET
PowerLink
ETG (EtherCAT Technology Group) for EtherCAT
IGS (Interest Group Sercos Interface) for Sercos III
Modbus-IDA (Modbus Interface for Distributed Automation) for Modbus/TCP
ODVA (Open DeviceNets Vendor Association) for EtherNet/IP
Different Approaches to Solutions
The user is spoilt for choice when it comes to selecting different protocol variants
for use in industrial applications. As Ethernet has only recently been deployed in
industrial automation, none of these various protocols has been able to become
established as the standard. Which of the protocols the users will put their faith in
will become apparent in the near future.
The following overview does not offer an evaluation and does not purport to be
complete or comprehensive.

49

50
Ethernet
protocol

Architecture

Hardware

Response time *

EtherNet/IP

Open

Standard

Cycle: 500 s - 10 ms
Jitter: 500 ns

ETHERNET
Powerlink

Real-Time subnet

Standard

Cycle: < 400 s


Jitter: < 1 s

PROFINET

Real-Time subnet

Standard /
dedicated**

Cycle: 5 - 20 ms (V2); 1 ms (V3)


Jitter: < 1 s with 100
synchronised drive elements

EtherCAT

Real-Time subnet

Standard

Cycle: 100 s with 100


synchronised drive elements

HSE

Open

Standard

No details

JetSync

Open

Standard

Cycle: < 5 ms
Jitter: < 10 s

Modbus-IDA

Open

Standard

Cycle: approx. 5 - 10 ms

safeethernet

Open

Standard

No details

SERCOS-III

Open

Standard /
dedicated

Cycle: 1 ms; Jitter: < 1 s with 40


axses

Table 2-8

Overview of the current Ethernet protocols

All details in accordance with vendor specications

**

Standard-ASICS with switch


supported by HARTING

Further details about the individual protocol variants are available from the
corresponding websites. The Appendix contains an overview of the protocol
variants and the corresponding websites.
EtherNet/IP

EtherNet/IP combines and supplements TCP/IP and UDP/IP /IP to allow industrial
applications to communicate; it was presented by the ODVA (Open DeviceNet
Vendor Association) at the end of 2000. The abbreviation IP in EtherNet/IP stands
for Industrial Protocol.
Built on Ethernet TCP (UDP)/IP, EtherNet/IP is essentially a ported version of
CIP (Control and Information Protocol) already in use in both ControlNet and
DeviceNet. Secured data transmission for acyclic messages (programme upload/
programme download, conguration) is implemented via TCP. Time-optimised
transmission of cyclic control data is performed with UDP.
Switches can be used to improve performance.

2 Industrial Ethernet

ETHERNET Powerlink

ETHERNET PowerLink was originally developed by the Austrian company


Bernecker + Rainer (B&R) with approval of the standard published in 2002.
With this protocol, TCP/IP and UDP/IP are extended by the PowerLink protocol
on the layers 3 and 4. With the help of the SCNM method (Slot Communication
Network Management) this PowerLink protocol completely regulates data trafc
on the network to provide real-time capability on Ethernet. Each station on the
network has a timed and strictly limited access, which allows it to broadcast data
to every other station on the network. The possibility of collisions is fully ruled out
as only one station can access the network at a particular time.
In addition to these individual time slots for cyclic data trafc, SCNM offers joint
time slots for the purpose of acyclic data exchange.
Moreover, Ethernet PowerLink version 2 contains additional communications and
device proles that are closely oriented to the corresponding CANopen proles.
Switches can only be deployed in the ETHERNET PowerLink open mode. It is not
possible to use switches when in the protected mode.

PROFINET

First introduced to the market in 2002, PROFINET was developed by the


PROFIBUS User Organisation (PNO) with the support of Siemens. For
the rst time, the current PROFINET versions support two communications
mechanisms. A standard communications channel is available for non-time critical
communication (non real-time) based on TCP/IP. An optimised, software-based
communication channel has been implemented for real-time communication. This
channel circumvents the layers 3 and 4 to shorten the protocol data sizes and
consequently the throughput times of the data packets. In accordance with IEEE
802.1p, PROFINET prioritises the data packets for optimum communication; the
highest priority 7 is awarded for real-time communication. Utilizing special ASICs
in which a hardware solution for the real-time channel is implemented is another
method used to achieve real-time communication.
Switches are only permitted for network structuring purposes. The use of hubs is
not permitted with PROFINET.

51

52
Further protocol variants
In addition to the named user organisations in which HARTING is a participating
member, other protocol variants and standards also exist (please refer to table
2-8):
EtherCAT
The Ethernet-based automation concept EtherCat (Ethernet for Control
Automation Technology) was developed by a company called Beckhoff. The ETG
(EtherCAT Technology Group) is an alliance of companies whose aim it is to
support and advance this technology.
In conventional Ethernet-based automation concepts, an Ethernet data packet
is received by every I/O module, interpreted and forwarded. Contrast this with
EtherCAT technology where the data for each I/O terminal is removed when the
telegram passes through the corresponding device. Input data is inserted into
the telegram as it runs through the device in the same manner. The delay to the
telegrams during this process can be measured in nanoseconds.
Switches can only be used to a limited degree.
HSE
Supported by the Fieldbus Foundation, HSE (High Speed Ethernet) is mainly
represented on the American market. HSE operates as a backbone and is
connected to an underlying eldbus (for example, H1) by means of gateways.
JetSync
The company Jetter developed its own protocol that can be used for synchronisation
purposes based on Ethernet TCP/IP. In doing so, it uses a process that enables
asynchronous data transfers to be carried out in accordance with IEEE 1588.
Modbus/TCP
Developed by Modicon (Schneider Electric), Modbus/TCP is derivative of the
modbus protocol. The corresponding specication was published in 1999 and
is available free of charge via the internet. The Ethernet-based protocol runs
over layer 4 (TCP or UDP). It is a simply structured, open and widely available
transmission protocol used for connection-based and secured exchange of data
in a master-slave structure.
safeethernet
safeethernet is based on standard Ethernet and as such enables utilisation of all
known IT protocols. The main eld of application for safeethernet is networking
safety-related applications.
SERCOS-III
Sercos interface (Serial Real-Time Communication System) is a digital interface
between the controls and drives in which bre optics is used as the transmission
medium (ring). In the latest version III, the entire Sercos concept has been ported
to Ethernet.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial


Ethernet

The European Standard EN 50 173 species in detail the structured cabling of


Ethernet networks. Although the standard focuses on ofce areas, substantial
features can also be applied to industry.
The following two graphics depict EN 50 173-1-compliant structured cabling in
the ofce area and the corresponding cabling for the industrial area.
Matching components in both areas are depicted in the same colour.

FD
FD
BD

TO

TO

TO

TO

FD

TO

FD
FD
BD

TO

TO

TO

TO

FD

TO

CD

Figure 3-1

Structured cabling in the ofce area in accordance with EN 50 173-1

CD ... Campus Distributor


BD ... Building Distributor
FD ... Floor Distributor
TO ... Telecommunication Outlet

53

54
ISO / IEC 11 801
Structured network
building area

BD

TO

TO

TO

Structured network
machine area

MD

MD

TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

Production area
Figure 3-2

PROFINET-compliant structured industrial network in accordance with


EN 50 173-1

BD = Building Distributor
TO = Telecommunication Outlet (coupling IP 20 and IP 65 / IP 67 in the industrial area)
MD = Machine Distributor
TE = Terminal Equipment

In addition, various standards dene cabling and networking of Ethernet stations


in industrial applications. For example, the IAONA guideline Industrial Ethernet
Planning and Installation Guide offers a general overview of cabling and
specications for cables and connectors.
Individual user organisations have published their own such guidelines. For
example, based on fundamental EN 50 173-1 requirements, PROFINET
Installation Guidelines dene industry-standard cabling for Industrial Ethernet.
These PROFINET and other guidelines specify cables and connectors that enable
the user to implement an installation for the corresponding protocol without having
to specically calculate the transmission path.
The guidelines named above set new standards because:
The component manufacturer is provided with unambiguous specications for
interfaces.
The user is provided with simple rules for installation.
As with eldbus, these guidelines enable him to create networks without
additional Ethernet-specic planning.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

3.1

Network topologies

Industrial Ethernet network topologies are oriented towards the requirements


of the facilities to be networked. The most frequently used types of topologies
are star, tree, line and ring. In practical applications, systems often consist of a
mixture of these structures, which we will consider individually in the following.
Ethernet hubs, switches, routers or gateways can be utilized as central units
for signal distribution purposes. Individual topologies are demonstrated in the
following examples with Ethernet switches utilized as central units.

Star
Star topologies are characterised by a central signal distributor (for example, a
switch) with individual connections to all terminal equipment on the network.
Star network topologies are suitable for applications with a high density of devices
in a relatively short linear expansion, for example, small manufacturing cells or
individual production machines.

SW
TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

Figure 3-3

Star topology with an Ethernet switch

SW = Switch
TE = Terminal Equipment

Tree
Tree topologies are created by connecting several star structures to form a
network. Tree topologies are suitable for subdividing and structuring complex
systems.

55

56

SW
TE

TE

SW

SW

TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

TE

Figure 3-4

TE
TE

Tree topology with Ethernet switches

SW = Switch
TE = Terminal Equipment

Line
Line topologies can be implemented with a standalone switch close to the terminal
device to be connected or by a switch integrated in the terminal device itself.
Line topologies are preferred in extensive systems incorporating longer distances,
for example in conveyor systems, and for connecting manufacturing cells.
SW

SW

SW

SW

SW

TE

TE

TE
TE

TE

Figure 3-5

Line topology with Ethernet switches

SW = Switch
TE = Terminal Equipment

Ring (redundancy)
A ring topology is created by connecting both ends of a line topology. This
additional (redundant) line is activated if a failure occurs within a line to prevent
the entire network from failing.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Ring topologies are utilized in facilities with higher requirements with regard to
maximum plant availability in the event of a line breakage or network component
failure.

3.2

Active and passive network components

In order to build a structured Ethernet network, active and passive network components are required as well as the classic components (cable and connectors).
In addition to providing the link between various levels within a structure or between different degrees of protection (IP 20 IP 67), these components are
responsible for routing and distributing data telegrams.
Often equipped with an intelligent chip, active components include those that can
process, amplify and appropriately relay incoming data telegrams. For example,
gateways, routers, switches and hubs (repeaters) belong to this group. These
active components operate on different layers of the ISO/OSI Reference Model:

Application Layer

Gateway

Application Layer

Presentation Layer

Presentation Layer

Session Layer

Session Layer

Transport Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Router

Network Layer

Data Link Layer

Switch /
Bridge

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Hub
(Repeater )

Physical Layer

layers supported by Ethernet


higher layers

Figure 3-6

Ethernet components in the ISO/OSI Reference model

Fullling a variety of tasks, passive components are the bridge between IP 20


to IP 67 environments or serve as panel feed-throughs in switchgear cabinets.
Outlets or panel feed-throughs are typical components of this group.
The following sections contain further information about gateways, repeaters,
switches, bridges, hubs and outlets. In particular, we will concentrate out focus
on switches, hubs and outlets, as these components represent the most frequently
used device types in industrial networks.

57

58
3.3

Ethernet gateways

Gateways are components used on layer 7 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model to


link networks utilising different protocols. For example, they are used to couple
Ethernet networks with conventional eldbus systems (such as, PROFIBUS).
Due to the fact that these two networks make use of very different protocols, the
data telegrams must be adapted to suit the other respective structure.

7.

Application Layer

6.

Presentation Layer

5.

Session Layer

Application
protocols *
Application
protocols
Higher-level protocol
not used by
PROFIBUS

4.

Transport Layer

TCP / UDP

3.

Network Layer

IP

2.

Data Link Layer

CSMA/CD

Master - Slave
Transmission protocol

1.

Physical Layer

Ethernet

PROFIBUS

OSI Reference model

Ethernet Layers

PROFIBUS Layers

application-oriented layers
transport-oriented layers

Figure 3-7

Comparison of Ethernet and PROFIBUS structures based on the


ISO/OSI Reference Model

* ... not applicable to PROFIBUS-DP

Layer 7
Layer 6

Layer 7
Conversion

Layer 6

Layer 5

Layer 5

Layer 4

Layer 4

Layer 3

Layer 3

Layer 2
Layer 1

Layer 2
Layer 1

Gateway
Ethernet
Telegram

Figure 3-8

PROFIBUS
Telegram

Function principle of a gateway (example: Ethernet and PROFIBUS)

The conversion process typically entails extensive calculations, and as such


places high demands on the devices being utilized.
Belonging to the intelligent group of devices, gateways are mostly equipped with
extensive conguration and diagnostics functions. And because they operate as
a station on Ethernet, each gateway is assigned its own MAC address.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Industrial Ethernet

Process
visualisation

PLC with
gateway function
Gateway
PROFIBUS

PROFIBUS
RemoteI/Os

RemoteI/Os
Operating
unit

Monitoring
unit
Act. Sensor Sensor

Act. = actuator

Figure 3-9

3.4

Act. Sensor Sensor Act.

Act. Sensor

Gateways as a link between Industrial Ethernet and PROFIBUS (Example)

Ethernet router

Routers operate only in a network environment in which all stations use the same
network protocol, and determine optimum routes between two stations across
different transmission lines. Should the transmitter and the receiver be in different
networks, the data telegram is initially addressed to a suitable router, which then
determines the optimum path for the data telegram before forwarding it to another
network or different router. In doing so, it makes use of previously determined
tables or to be more exact applies an IP routing algorithm.
From the point of view of reliability and performance, routers are decisive
components; they are frequently used in extensive structures often consisting of
several networks.

Ethernet
Network 3

Router
Router

Communikation
between stations
in different networks
performed via routers

Station
11
Ethernet
Network 1

Station
12

Direct communikation
between stations
in the same network

Figure 3-10

Station
13

Router
Ethernet
Network 2

Station
24

Station
21
Station
22

Station
23

Communication between Ethernet networks with routers

59

60
3.5

Ethernet bridges

Ensuring communication between networks in accordance with protocols, bridges


operate on layer 2 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model. Based on their MAC address,
data packets are transmitted from one sub network to another.
By utilizing bridges, the user is able to extend the limits of his network with regard
to numbers of stations and linear expansion. Sub-dividing networks with the help
of bridges means each sub network can be extended to contain the maximum
number of stations and fully exploit possible linear extension.
Moreover, bridges can be used to provide a simple means of limiting failures.
Faulty data packets from the data link layer are not forwarded. An analysis of
the MAC address ensures that only those data packets are transmitted to the
sub network with the appropriate MAC address. Consequently, this allows bridges
to lter and limit the data trafc to the connected sub networks. This lter function
can make a decisive contribution towards reducing the burden in large Ethernet
networks.

3.6

Ethernet switches

Switches are important components in Ethernet networks. Through the creation


of different topologies (star, ring, tree or line topologies) as well as dividing the
Ethernet networks into individual collision domains, they allow for greater exibility
during installation.

Switch the key network component in Switched Ethernet


Switches are active infrastructure components operating in accordance with
IEEE 801.3 on layer 2 of the ISO/OSI reference model. Some switches extend
their functions to the layers 1 and 3.
Ethernet switches analyse all incoming data packets then forward them to the
specic port where the corresponding component is located. Multicast and
broadcast telegrams are the one exception, these being sent on to all active ports
on the switch.
To support correct routing of telegrams, each switch contains an address/port
assignment table, which stores the destination address assigned to a specic
address on the switch. As a rule, the address/port assignment table is generated
and maintained by the switch in a self-learning process. With the help of this
table, incoming data packets are analysed according to their destination address,
then ltered and relayed to the corresponding port. If no such entry exists in the
table, the incoming data packet is initially sent to all ports. If a target address
responds, it is added to table together with the corresponding port.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Assignment table
Address

Port

1234
4A7F
2267
AAB1

1
3
4
2

Switch Matrix
Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data
Ports

Incomming
telegrams

Ports

Outgoing
telegrams

Switch

Figure 3-11

Function principle of an Ethernet switch

A single switch can learn several thousand addresses. This becomes necessary
when more than one terminal device is connected to one or more ports. This
auto-sensing capability allows several independent subnets to be connected to a
single switch (cascading).
Together with the connected components, each port on a switch forms its own
collision domain. Consequently, it is impossible for collisions to take place with data
transmitted by other stations connected to different ports. Each port in a Switched
Ethernet system is assigned just one component. This rules out collisions from
the outset. Thus, this guaranteed freedom from collisions considerably increases
effective data throughput; it is also an absolute pre-condition for the real-time
capability of Ethernet.
Switch technology makes it is possible to build up Industrial Ethernet networks
that meet the high reliability standards required of industrial area applications,
and be real-time capable.

Operating modes
Auto-crossing
Auto-crossing performs an automatic crossing of the send and receive wires at
twisted-pair interfaces, if required. Thus, the user is able to utilize 1:1 wired cables
and crossover cables on an equal basis.
Auto-negotiation
Ethernet switches support the Auto-negotiation function in the Fast Ethernet
protocol. In this case, the switch agrees a transmission mode for each port to
which one or more Ethernet stations are connected with regard to:
the data transmission rate:

100 Mbit/s or 10 Mbit/s

and
the operating mode:

Full or Half duplex

61

62
Auto-polarity
Auto-polarity describes the automatic correction of wiring errors in twisted-pair
cables that result in a polarity reversal of the data signals.
Blocking
A switch has a certain amount of ports available, which are connected to one
another via the switch matrix. A switch matrix capable of handling all connections
operating at full transmission rates without delay is known as a non-blocking switch.
The switch is said to be blocking, if the number of simultaneous connections
operating at full transmission rates is restricted.
Half duplex mode
Half duplex actually means one direction at a time. Only one transmission
direction is in operation at any one time: either receiving or transmitting.
In order to recognise collisions, the CSMA/CD mechanism must be employed for
Half duplex operations.
Full duplex mode
Ethernet switches support both Half duplex and Full duplex operations.
Full duplex operations under Fast Ethernet (100 Base TX) for example, allow
100 Mbit/s to be transmitted simultaneously in both directions. That is theoretically
an effective doubling of the rate of data transmissions. One line is used to transmit
and the other to receive. As there is no fear of collisions, the regulations regarding
the CSMA/CD access procedure are not required.
Management
A switch without management functions (unmanaged switch) switches the entire
data trafc according to the address/port assignment table. The user does not
have to perform any conguration or parameterisation settings. The switch can
be used as a Plug and Play device. Because it is not addressed as a device, an
unmanaged switch does not need to be assigned a MAC address.
Managed switches control the data trafc according to set parameters. The
switch-management software implemented in the switch (rmware) forms the
basis for this function.
The range of management software functions varies from switch to switch.
Generally, standard functions include diagnostics and parameterisation / conguration options. Additional management functions can be, for example, how it
reacts to communication faults.
Modern switches support SNMP Management (Simple Network Management
Protocol) and web-based management. These offer the user diverse management
options.
Because it is considered to be a station and is addressed via Ethernet, a managed
switch must be assigned a MAC and an IP address.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Store and Forward


In the Store and Forward mode, the switch temporarily stores the complete data
packet, checks it for errors and, if it is error free, forwards it to its destination port
(please refer to the graphic below).

Ethernet Frame
EthernetHeader

Ethernet- Data

FCS

Store

EthernetHeader

FCS
Ethernet- Data

FCS

Ethernet- Data

EthernetHeader

Error
Check

Adress Port
1234
1
4A7F
3
2267
4
2
AA81

Figure 3-12

trash

Operating mode Store and Forward

Cut Through
In contrast to the operating mode Store and Forward the Cut Through mode of
operation waits only until the Ethernet switch has sufcient bytes to determine
the destination address of the data packet. The data packet is forwarded as
soon as the Ethernet switch is able to recognise the port to which the receiver is
connected.
The operating mode Modied Cut Through is a special variation, which waits
for the arrival of exactly 64 bytes. Otherwise, this procedure corresponds to the
Cut Through operating mode. The purpose of this special form is to recognise
fragments of data packets that can arise, for example, due to collisions.

63

64
Characteristic

Store and Forward

Cut Through

modied Cut
Through

Input storage for


switch evaluation

Entire Ethernet packet


(all bytes)

As many bytes as
necessary for the
switch evaluation

64 bytes

Switch causes
minimum delay

Number of bits in
the Ethernet packet
times lower data
transmission rate
(input or output port)

Number of bits
required until
evaluation is
complete times the
data transmission
rate

512 bits times


data transmission
rate

Jitter in the delay

Proportional to the
length of the Ethernet
packet

constant

constant
(64 bytes)

Error recognition
and forwarding of
faulty data packets

The entire Ethernet


packet is checked.
The switch recognises
the same mistake that
the receiver would.
Faulty packets are not
forwarded.

No error recognition
All packets
(including faulty)
are forwarded.

Recognition and
suppression of
packets with less
than 64 bytes (for
example, collision
fragments)

Different data
transmission rates
in input and output
ports

Yes

Table 3-1

Not possible

Comparison between the operating modes Store and Forward and


Cut Through

Ethernet switches with IP 20 protection


Under certain circumstances, Ethernet switches sealed to IP 20 can also apply
in industrial environments. For example, they can be used for structuring networks
in control rooms, for distribution of collision domains in switchgear cabinets or for
connecting machines and systems in terminal boxes. In all cases, it is important
that the switches are not used directly in harsh industrial environments; a separate
solution (for example a panel feed-through or coupling) should be sought for the
transition from IP 20 to IP 65 / IP 67 areas.
There are presently numerous suppliers offering Ethernet switches with protection
class IP 20; the number of available ports varies between 4, 8 and 16. Ethernet
switches for integrating into 19 racks can be equipped with even more ports.
In conclusion, it is possible to say that under certain circumstances Ethernet
switches, sealed to IP 20, can offer a cost-efcient solution for use in industry.
In saying that, a great deal depends on the respective tasks and the ambient
conditions in which the solutions are implemented.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Process
Contol
level

Switching cabinet

PLC
Ethernet
building
cabling

Patch
cable

Ethernet
Switch

IP 20
IP 67

Ethernet cable
to the individual
terminal devices

Figure 3-13

Transition
IP 20 to IP 67

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet switches sealed to IP 20

Ethernet switches with IP 65 / IP 67 protection for direct mounting


Ethernet switches with metal or plastic housings sealed to IP 65 / IP 67 are suitable
for mounting directly onto the machine or system. They can either be mounted
directly onto the machine using special wall mounts or onto standard mounting
rails in the immediate vicinity of the machine using top-hat adapters.
The connection options for the Ethernet cable can vary between the various RJ45
variants and M12 D-coding circular connectors. In this case, the various Ethernet
user organisations and vendors give priority to different solutions. Please refer to
the section Connectors in this chapter for more detailed information on individual
connector variants.

65

66
Process
Control
level

Switching cabinet

PLC
Ethernet
building
cabling

IP 20
IP 67

Ethernet cable to the


individual terminal
devices

Figure 3-14

Ethernet
Switch

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet switches sealed to IP 65 / IP 67

The table below offers a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of


using Ethernet switches sealed to IP 20 and those sealed to IP 65 / IP 67:

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Ethernet switch with


IP 20 protection

Ethernet switch with


IP 65 / IP 67 protection

Advantages

Competition is vigorous,
ensuring a large selection
High number of ports per
switch possible
Good mounting options in
switchgear cabinet (top-hat
rails)
Utilisation of power sources in
vicinity possible (for example,
in the switchgear cabinet)
Use of standard cables and
RJ45 connectors
Short bridging lengths possible
between controls and switch

Direct mounting onto the


machine / plant possible
Saves space in switchgear
cabinet / terminal box
No additional protective
measures necessary in harsh
industrial environments
Robust, vibration and impact
proof housing often made of
metal
Support various Ethernet
specications through different
mating faces
Short transmission paths
between switch and terminal
equipment possible
Utilise standard connectors
Direct indication of diagnostic
signals by means of LEDs
possible
Just one long transmission
path between the switch and
PLC

Disadvantages

Relatively large dimensions


No option for direct mounting
onto the machine / plant
and weight
In part, large space require Maximum number of ports is
ments in the switchgear
limited
cabinet
Power supply with 24 V DC
can prove to be difcult
In part, long transmission
paths between the switch and
terminal equipment outside of
the switchgear cabinet
Additional protective measures
necessary when used outside
of switchgear cabinet (for
example housing)
When mounted in switchgear
cabinet or terminal box, the
housing must be opened for
diagnosis

Table 3-2

Comparison between Ethernet switch sealed to IP 20 and Ethernet switch


sealed to IP 65 / IP 67

67

68
Technical features
Ethernet switches with IP 65 / IP 67 protection for direct mounting offer the
following distinctive features:
Enable terminal devices to be connected via shielded or unshielded twistedpair cables in accordance with IEEE 802.3.
Any network conguration (line, star, tree) is possible with the Ethernet
switch.
Safe and fast installation is guaranteed when pluggable connectors are used
for all connections.
All Ethernet interfaces are protected against overvoltage.
Ethernet switches are generally designed to be non-blocking. That means that
your switch matrix can process all connections between the ports without delay
when operating full data transmission rates.
There are various mounting sets available for direct mounting (wall mounting,
mounting onto top-hat mounting rails).
In accordance with Ethernet specications, the ports are designed for connectors with protection to IP 65 / IP 67.
The address/port assignment table is generated automatically by the Ethernet
switch in a self-learning process and stored in the volatile memory (RAM) of
the Ethernet switch. Voltage resumption initiates an internal reset procedure to
delete the table.
In addition, the use of Ethernet switches offers the following advantages:
Reduced cabling work and costs when constructing industrial networks
Robust metal housings made of die cast metal or plastic materials
EMC, temperature range and mechanical stability full the most stringent
requirements
Compatible with the various Ethernet specications (for example, PROFINET
or ETHERNET/IP)

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Example for an IP-65 Ethernet switch for direct mounting


The following graphic depicts a typical construction example of an Ethernet switch
from HARTING:

Protection cover Han 3 A


(for RJ45 only)

Locking lever
(for RJ45 only)

Data ports DP 1...5


(example: RJ45)

ild

yp
T

Status indication
Operating voltage
Status indication
Operating status
Data ports 1...5

sc

Zinc die-cast
housing
Degree of
protection: IP 65

Eth

Pow
Por

er

ern
et
ESC Switch
67

t1
Por
t2
Por
t3
Por
t4
Por
t5

Link

Device
identication
label

Power supply
feed-in
(example:
Han 4 A)

Act

Connector set for


data ports
(example: RJ45)

Figure 3-15

Connector for
power supply
(example:
Han 4 A)

Construction of the ESC TP05U HARTING RJ Industrial

69

70
Block diagram
R1
T1
R2
T2
R3
T3
R4
T4
R5
T5

Figure 3-16

10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver

Assignment
table

10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver

3,5 V DC
Auto Negotiation

24 V DC

U1+ U1- U2+ U2-

Block diagram of Ethernet switch ESC 67-10 TP05U

In-between Ethernet switches for mounting onto external


enclosure panels
So-called In-between Ethernet switches represent a further Ethernet switch
variant for use in industry. These are Ethernet switches that can be mounted
directly onto the external panel of switchgear cabinets, terminal boxes or other
housings; they serve as a coupling between the IP 20 environment within the
housing on the one hand, and the harsh IP 67 industrial environment on the
other.
These In-between Ethernet switches full several functions at the same time:
Ethernet ports with IP 65 / IP 67 protection levels offer the possibility of structuring the Ethernet network and coupling terminal equipment in external
industrial areas.
At the same time, with ports sealed to IP 20 on the rear side of the Ethernet
switch they offer the possibility of structuring an Ethernet network on the inside
of the housing (switchgear cabinet) as well as coupling terminal equipment in
the IP 20 environment.
Last but not least, they act as panel feed throughs linking the worlds of IP 20
and IP 67.
To full the various Ethernet specications, In-between Ethernet switches are
also available with different connectors.
The following graphic demonstrates uses for In-between Ethernet switches:

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Process
Control
level

Ethernet
building
cabling

Switching cabinet IP 20

Patch
cable

In-between
Ethernet
Switch

IP 20
IP 67
Ethernet cable to the
individual termination
devices

Figure 3-17

Options for utilising In-between Ethernet switches

Technical features
Essentially, the same characteristics apply for direct mounting as those for
Ethernet switches:
In-between Ethernet switches enable terminal devices to be connected
using shielded or unshielded twisted-pair cables in accordance with
IEEE 802.3.
In-between Ethernet switches support all network topologies (line, star, tree)
in IP 20 as well as IP 65 / IP 67 areas.
Various ports are available to structure networks to IP 65 / IP 67 (outside
switchgear cabinet)
Ethernet stations in IP 20 areas can be connected using standard RJ45
connectors (switchgear cabinet interior).
Pluggable connectors guarantee quick and reliable installation of all connections.
All Ethernet interfaces are protected against overvoltage.
In-between Ethernet switches are designed to be non-blocking.

71

72
The address/port assignment table is generated automatically by the Ethernet
switch in a self-learning process and stored in the volatile memory (RAM) of
the Ethernet switch. Voltage resumption initiates an internal reset procedure to
delete the table.
Diagnostic message indication via LEDs on the front plate of the In-between
Ethernet switches possible.
Utilisation of In-between Ethernet switches offers the following additional
advantages:
Reduced cabling work and costs when constructing industrial networks
Suitable as panel feed-through from switchgear cabinets or terminal boxes
Robust housings with higher shock and vibration resistance as well as EMC
compatibility
Compatible with the various Ethernet specications (for example, PROFINET
or ETHERNET/IP)
Mount directly onto exterior panels of switchgear cabinets, terminal boxes
Practical experience shows that network structures often consist of both types
of IP 65 / IP 67 switches: sealed to IP 20, Ethernet stations are connected in
a structured manner to the ports of the In-between Ethernet switches. The
structure is then routed outside of the switchgear cabinets via ports offering
IP 65 / IP 67 protection levels. Additional structures can be created with the help
of Ethernet switches suitable for direct mounting.
Switch cabinet
Machine module n

Switch cabinet
Machine module 1
TE
TE

TE
TE

TE

TE
TE

TE
TE

...
Figure 3-18

Example of a structure based on In-between Ethernet switch and


Ethernet switch for direct mounting

TE ... Terminal Equipment

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Example for an In-between Ethernet switch


The following graphic depicts a typical construction example of an In-between
Ethernet switch from HARTING:
Fixing strap
Status indicators
on the back side:

Device
identication
label

Data ports IP 20 (RJ45)


Termination for power
supply

Data ports
IP 67
(example: RJ45)

Figure 3-19

Construction of the ESC 67-30 TP05U HARTING RJ Industrial

Block diagram
R1
T1
R2
T2
R3
T3
R4
T4
R5
T5

Figure 3-20

10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver

Assignment
table

10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver

3,5 V DC
Auto Negotiation

24 V DC

U1+ U1- U2+ U2-

Block diagram of In-between Ethernet switch ESC 67-30 TP05U

73

74
3.7

Ethernet hubs
Hub as an active network component

Operating on layer 1 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model, hubs are often referred to
as repeaters. They can also partly extend their function to layer 2.
An Ethernet hub is used to implement cabling in an Ethernet / Fast Ethernet
network between more than two Ethernet stations using shielded (STP) or
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables in accordance with IEEE 802.3. Ethernet
hubs operate at speeds of 10 Mbit/s, Fast Ethernet-Hubs at 100 Mbit/s. Hubs
capable of operating at both speeds are known as dual speed hubs. Cabling
implemented with Ethernet hubs is less susceptible to faults and when utilised in
a star arrangement has the advantage that the failure of a network node does not
mean the failure of the entire network.
As well as serving to structure the network, Ethernet hubs also regenerate
incoming signals and perform other tasks.
In contrast to Ethernet switches, which only forward the incoming data packets to
the port to which the station with the corresponding address is connected, hubs
relay all incoming data packets to all ports and their stations.
Contrary to Ethernet switches, Ethernet hubs cannot create their own collision
domains to prevent collisions. Thus, Full duplex operations are not possible.
Ethernet hubs operate only in Half duplex mode.

TE

TE

Switch

Hub

TE

TE
TE

Ethernet hub
Figure 3-21

TE

TE
TE

Ethernet switch

Difference between an Ethernet hub and an Ethernet switch

TE = Terminal Equipment (Datenendgert)

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Ports

Ports

Ethernet Data

Ethernet Data

Incomming
telegrams

Figure 3-22

Hub

Outgoing
telegrams

Function principle of an Ethernet hub

Operating modes
Auto-sensing
Auto-sensing makes it possible for Ethernet hubs to automatically recognise the
data transmission rate (10 Mbit/s or 100 Mbit/s) and to transmit and receive data
at the same rate. If terminal devices operating with different transmission rates
are connected to a hub, the hub will automatically function with the higher transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s. That guarantees that existing Ethernet connections
operating with 100 Mbit/s are not stalled by a factor of 10 should a terminal device
operating with 10 Mbit/s be connected.
In this case, communication with terminal device(s) or equipment operating with
10 Mbit/s is not performed via the Ethernet hub.
These settings also apply when two or more Ethernet hubs are connected in a
network (cascade).
Half duplex mode
Ethernet hubs support Half duplex operations. A single data line is used to transmit
and receive signals. The other data line is used to recognise possible collisions.

Ethernet hubs with IP 20 protection


Under certain circumstances, Ethernet hubs sealed to IP 20 can be also be
used in industrial environments. This allows them to be used to structure networks in control rooms as well as in switchgear cabinets and terminal boxes.
In all cases, it is important that the hubs are not used directly in harsh industrial
environments; a separate solution (for example, a panel feed-through or
coupling) should be sought for the transition from IP 20 to IP 65 / IP 67 areas.
There are presently numerous suppliers offering Ethernet hubs with protection
class IP 20, which means that the user is able to acquire the hub that exactly ts
his requirements. The number of available ports varies a great deal; however,
most Ethernet hubs are equipped with 4, 8, 16, 24 or 32 ports. Ethernet hubs for
integrating into 19 racks can be equipped with even more ports.

75

76
In conclusion, it is possible to say that under certain circumstances Ethernet hubs,
sealed to IP 20, can provide a cost-efcient solution for use in industry. In saying
that, a great deal depends on the respective tasks and the ambient conditions in
which the solutions are implemented.
Process
Control
level

Switching cabinet

PLC
Ethernet
building
cabling

Patch
cable

Ethernet
Hub

IP 20
IP 67
Ethernet cable to the
individual terminal

Figure 3-23

Transision
IP 20 and IP 67

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet hubs sealed to IP 20

Ethernet hubs with IP 65 / IP 67 protection


Ethernet hubs with IP 65 / IP 67 protection level can, for example, be mounted
directly onto the machine / system. They can either be mounted directly onto
the machine using special wall mounts or onto standard mounting rails in the
immediate vicinity of the machine using special top-hat adapters.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

The connection options for the Ethernet cable can vary between the various RJ45
variants and M12 D-coding circular connectors. In this case, the various Ethernet
user organisations and vendors give priority to different solutions. Please refer to
the section Connectors in this chapter for more detailed information on individual
connector variants.
Process
Control
level

Switching cabinet

PLC
Ethernet
building
level

IP 20
IP 67

Ethernet cable to the


individual terminal
devices

Figure 3-24

Ethernet
Hub

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet hubs sealed to IP 65 / IP 67

The table below offers a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of


using Ethernet hubs sealed to IP 20 and those sealed to IP 65 / IP 67:

77

78
Ethernet hub with
IP 20 protection

Ethernet hub with


IP 65 / IP 67 protection

Advantages

Competition is vigorous,
ensuring a large selection
High number of ports per hub
possible
Good mounting options in
switchgear cabinet (top-hat
rails)
Utilisation of power sources in
vicinity possible (for example,
in the switchgear cabinet)
Use of standard cables and
RJ45 connectors
Short bridging lengths possible
between controls and hub

Direct mounting onto the


machine / plant possible
Saves space in switchgear
cabinet / terminal box
No additional protective
measures necessary in harsh
industrial environments
Robust, vibration and impact
proof housing often made of
metal
Support various Ethernet
specications through different
mating faces
Short transmission paths
between hub and terminal
equipment possible
Utilise standard connectors
Direct indication of diagnostic
signals by means of LEDs
possible
Just one long transmission
path between the hub and
PLC

Disadvantages

Relatively large dimensions


No option for direct mounting
onto the machine / plant
and weight
In part, large space
Maximum number of ports is
requirements in the switchgear
limited
cabinet
Power supply with 24 V DC
can prove difcult
In part, long transmission
paths between the hub and
terminal equipment
Additional protective measures
necessary when used outside
of switchgear cabinet (for
example housing)
When mounted in switchgear
cabinet or terminal box, the
housing must be opened for
diagnosis

Table 3-3

Comparison between Ethernet hub sealed to IP 20 and Ethernet switch


sealed to IP 65 / IP 67

Technical features
Ethernet hubs are distinguished by the following features:
They enable terminal stations to be connected via shielded or unshielded
twisted-pair cables in accordance with IEEE 802.3.
Utilising Ethernet hubs reduces cabling work and costs when creating industrial
networks.
Ethernet hubs support all network congurations.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Pluggable connectors guarantee quick and reliable installation of all


connections.
All Ethernet interfaces are protected against overvoltage.
In accordance with Ethernet specications, the ports are designed for
connectors with protection to IP 65 / IP 67.
In addition, the use of Ethernet hubs offers the following advantages:
Robust housings made from either metal or plastic offering higher shock and
vibration resistance as well as EMC compatibility
Suitable for harsh industrial environments
Compatible with specications of different Ethernet user organisations (for
example, with M12 D-coding in accordance with ETHERNET Powerlink)
Cabling
When cabling, a distinct characteristic of Ethernet hubs must be considered:
Due to the fact that hubs feature an integrated cross-over function, 1:1 Ethernet
cables are normally used between the hub and the connected terminal
equipment.
However, when connecting two Ethernet hubs with one another (cascading), it
must be ensured that the cross-over functions in both Ethernet hubs do not
contrive to mutually neutralise each other. Utilising a cross-over cable, for
example, when connecting the two hubs could bring this about. Various solutions
are possible; one is that the cross-over function can be changed over at the
respective hub port.
For this reason, it is important to observe the operating instructions of the
respective manufacturer when connecting Ethernet hubs with one another.
Example for an Ethernet hub (IP 65 / IP 67)
The following graphic depicts a typical construction example of an Ethernet hub
from HARTING:

79

80

Data ports DP 1...5


(example:
M12-L D-coding)

Device
identication
label

ild

Zinc die-cast
housing
Degree of
protection:
IP 65

yp
T

Status indication
Operating voltage
Status indication
Operating status
Data ports 1...5

sc

Eth
Pow
Por

er

ern
ESC et Hub
67

Power supply
input
(example:
M12 A-coding)

t1

Por

t2

Por

t3

Por

t4

Por

t5
Link

Act

Connector for
power supply
(example:
M12-L
A-coding)

Connector for
Data ports
(example:
M12-L D-coding)
Figure 3-25

Construction of EHB 67-10 TP05 M12 D-coding

Block diagram

T1
R2
T2
R3
T3
R4
T4
R5
T5

Figure 3-26

10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver
10Base-T
100Base-Tx
Transceiver

10Base-T
Repeater

Port Switching Logic

R1

100Base-X
Repeater
3,3 V DC
Auto-sensing

24 V DC

U1+ U1- U2+ U2-

Block diagram of Ethernet hub EHB 67-10 TP05

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

3.8

Industrial Outlets for Industrial Ethernet


Industrial Outlet as a passive network component

Industrial Outlets are passive network components not equipped with intelligence
and lacking their own power supply. In principle, they are the socket outlets
for Industrial Ethernet within the system; they are essentially tasked with
continuing the structured building cabling through to the machine or system
in an industrial environment in accordance with ISO/IEC 11 801:2002 and
EN 50 173:2002. This allows Ethernet cables to be permanently installed in
factory buildings. As pluggable modules / units, the machine and other components
are connected via the Industrial Outlet as required. IP 65 / IP 67 protection levels
are maintained.
If it becomes necessary to separate the machine from the Ethernet network (for
example, for maintenance or replacement purposes), then all that is required
is to simply disconnect the connector from the Industrial Outlet. Extending the
facility is just as easy; simply plug the new component to an existing or additional
Industrial Outlet.

Industrial
Plant

Machine
Network

Figure 3-27

Structured cabling to ISO/IEC 11 801:2002 with Industrial Outlets

81

82
Essentially, an Industrial Outlet consists of the housing, a PCB with a terminal
strip or other wiring option to wire the Ethernet cable to the IP 65 / IP 67 ports.
Designed with pluggable connections, Industrial Outlets are usually equipped with
two or more ports with high protection levels for routing the Ethernet connection
to the industrial system.

Industrial Outlets for wall mounting in industrial environments


Industrial Outlets are generally mounted directly onto walls, girders, pillars or
similar. As a rule, permanent cabling is implemented using Ethernet cables routed
through cable ducts or via cable bridges to the point of assembly and wired to the
Industrial Outlet. The actual connection to the machine / system is implemented
via a (disconnectable) plug-in connection, which can take the form of either
RJ45 or M12 D-coding variants. Thus, Industrial Outlets can also be deployed in
accordance with the respective Ethernet specication.
Technical features
Industrial Outlets are distinguished by the following characteristics:
Utilising Industrial Outlets allows the structured building cabling to be fed
directly through to the machine in the industrial area in accordance with
ISO/IEC 11 801:2002.
Industrial Outlets enable terminal stations to be connected via shielded or
unshielded twisted-pair cables in accordance with IEEE 802.3.
With pluggable Ethernet ports with IP 65 / IP 67 protection levels they offer the
possibility of structuring the Ethernet network and coupling terminal equipment
in external industrial areas.
Utilising plug-in connectors guarantees that the Ethernet connection is rapidly
and reliably connected to the terminal equipment.
At the same time, for example, by taking advantage of LSA connection technology Ethernet cables can be connected to a PCB, and as a consequence
offer a rapid, simple and reliable connection between the facility network and
the respective terminal device.
Industrial Outlets are available with different connectors to comply with various
Ethernet specications. Thus, the user can select the requisite Industrial Outlet
for his particular application to full the respective Ethernet specications.
In addition, the use of Industrial Outlets offers the following advantages:
Robust housings made from either metal or plastic for a high degree of shock
and vibration resistance as well as EMC compatibility
Compatibility with the various Ethernet specications (for example, PROFINET
or ETHERNET Powerlink)
The following graphic depicts an Industrial Outlet in typical use in an industrial
application:

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Figure 3-28

Industrial Outlet in a production facility at Daimler Chrysler AG, Rastatt


(source: HARTING)

Example for an Industrial Outlet


The following graphic depicts a typical construction example of an Industrial
Outlet from HARTING:

Labelling eld

Cable entries
Blanking plugs M20
to block off nonutilised cable entries
Data ports IP 67
Protection cover
Han 3 A

Figure 3-29

3.9

Construction of INO 67 HARTING RJ Industrial

Cabling

For use in industrial applications, it is necessary for more than the individual
components to be protected. The cables and connectors for Ethernet also have
to resist what can be unfavourable effects of use in direct industrial environments.
These unfavourable effects include:
Acids, alkalines and other aggressive substances in the air and immediate
vicinity.
High humidity

83

84
Mechanical stresses
Vibration
High temperature uctuations
Electromagnetic disturbance elds
and others
In addition, the ease with which a cable can be integrated into the machine and
system (for example, via cable ducting or trailing cable) and ease of handling play
a large part in the decision for or against a specic cable.

Standardisation
The actual status of standardisation pertaining to Ethernet cabling in industrial
areas is conspicuous by the existence of numerous standards, supplements of
these and various guidelines. For example, the actual requirements for Gigabit
Ethernet, which are specied in IEEE 802.3ab, have been taken on by the
ISO/IEC 11 801:2002 and in the EN 50 173-1:2002.
The various user organisations prefer different product proles for the cabling.
All of these proles will remain valid along side each other so long as there is no
uniform standardisation in this eld. The following table offers an overview of the
product proles issued by IANOA, ODVA and PNO (PROFINET):
Characteristic IAONA

ODVA

PNO

Wire crosssection

Fixed cabling: AWG


22 / AWG 24
Flexible cabling:
AWG 24 / AWG 26

AWG 24

AWG 22

Shielding

Yes, obligatory

Yes, unshielded
permissible

Yes, obligatory

Connector for
IP 65 / IP 67
areas

RJ45 compatible
M12 D-coding,
4-poles

Variant 01 of
IEC 61 076-3-106

Variant 04 of
IEC 61 076-3-106
M12 D-coding,
4-poles

Via data line:


PoE to IEEE 802.3af

Via hybrid cable and


IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 05 connector

Optional
power supply
(incorporated)
Table 3-4

Various solutions available for Ethernet cabling

The rst step towards a uniform world-wide valid standard has already been
taken. For example, agreements have been made that highlight the differences
between the cabling in ofce and industrial environments. These include, amongst
others:
Structure
Line and ring structures are widespread in industrial environments, with star
and tree structures more prevalent in ofce environments.
Transmission media in industrial environments are:

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Copper cable, Category 5, UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) or STP (Shielded


Twisted Pair)
Fibre optics cable with HCS or POF bres (HCS - Hard Clad Silica;
POF Polymer Optical Fibre)
Structures complying with ISO/IEC 11 801 are being revised:
Campus Backbone and Building Backbone are being retained
The Horizontal Cabling Subsystem will be divided into a Floor Backbone
Subsystem and an Apparatus Cabling Subsystem.
The Consolidation Point will be superseded by an Intermediate/Industrial
Distributor.
User-independent cabling ends at the interface to the application (machine or
plant component)
Environmental conditions
Essentially, two areas will be differentiated in industrial environments:
IP 20 within control rooms, switchgear cabinet and other protected
environments
IP 65 / IP 67 in unprotected external areas
It should be noted that different industrial areas could be subjected to vastly
different environmental conditions:

Vibration

Temperature

Moisture

Radiation

EM elds

Aggressive
uids

Oils

Gases

Industry

Motor vehicle
manufacture

Chemical

Electronics

Power stations

Mechanical
engineering

Steel

Table 3-5

Environmental inuences in various elds of industry

Frequently used Ethernet transmission media


Essentially, two transmission media are utilised in Industrial Ethernet:
Twisted-pair: copper cables with 2x 2 or 4x 2 cores, twisted around each
other in a spiral pattern. These cables can be shielded (Shielded Twisted
Pair STP) or unshielded (Unshielded Twisted Pair UTP).

85

86
Fibre optic cables as multimode or single mode bre; suitable for short- or
long-wave lasers
The answer to the question about the right type of cable often depends on
a number of factors. One important factor is the required transmission length
between two components. Further factors can be found in electromagnetic
interference, mechanical stress, the required category and other conditions.
The variants listed in the table below represent only a small selection of possible
cables:
Standard

Transmission medium

Distance

10Base-T [FD]

2 wire pairs, mind. Category 3, UTP / STP

> 100 m

10Base-FL [FD]

2x multimode bre-optic cables

> 1000 m
depends on type
of bre

10 Mbit/s system

100 Mbit/s system (Fast Ethernet)


100Base-TX [FD]

2 wire pairs, Category 5, UTP and STP

100 m

100Base-FX [FD]

2x multimode bre-optic cables

depends on type
of bre

1000 Mbit/s system (Gigabit Ethernet)


1000Base-T [FD]

4 wire pairs, Category 6, UTP

100 m

1000Base-SX [FD]

2x multimode or single mode bre-optic


cables (short-wave laser)

275 m

1000Base-LX [FD]

2x multimode bre-optic cables (longwave laser) or


2x single mode bre-optic cables (longwave laser)

depends on type
of bre

Table 3-6

Transmission media for Ethernet protocols

[FD] = Full Duplex operation possible


STP = Shielded Twisted Pair
UTP = Unshielded Twisted Pair

Characterising cables and channels


In the main, Ethernet installations are characterised by two parameters: the
category of the cable, and the class of the channel.
Cable is categorised in accordance with its electrical transmission and highfrequency properties:

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Specication

Max. frequency

Impedance

Application

Category 1

not specied

100

Analogue speech transmissions

Category 2

up to 1 MHz

100

IBM cabling, type 3 (language)

Category 3

up to 16 MHz

100

10Base-T; 100Base-T4; ISDN

Category 4

up to 20 MHz

100

16 Mbit Token Ring

Category 5

up to 100 MHz

100

100Base-T

Category 6

up to 250 MHz

1000Base-T

Category 7

up to 600 MHz

10Base-T

Table 3-7

Overview of cable category assignment

The channel is the point-to-point part of the transmission process; the electrical
transmission and high-frequency properties are classed follows:
Class A

up to 100 KHz

Class B

up to 1 MHz

Class C

up to 16 MHz

Class D

up to 100 MHz

Class E

up to 250 MHz

Class F

up to 600 MHz

Table 3-8

Overview of cable class assignment for transmission channels

The requirements placed on the transmission channel and therefore on the cable
become increasingly discriminating the higher letter in the alphabet. For example,
if just category 5 cable is used in a system, then its performance must correspond
to channel D. The same applies to category 6 and class E as well as to category
7 and class F.

60 dB
Next
50 dB
40 dB

CAT 7

30 dB
CAT 5
20 dB
10 dB

Attenuation
Frequency [MHz]
100

Figure 3-30

200

Cable properties in conjunction with the category used

Next = Near end crosstalk

600

87

88
Specications for transmission cables made of copper for
Industrial Ethernet
Industry-standard cables can be subjected to extreme mechanical stress.
Accordingly, the cables require a special construction, which in turn affects the
transmission properties. Therefore, when using special cables, it may only be
possible under certain circumstances to implement short transmission lengths.
One important question when choosing the right cable concerns the type of
installation: will the cable be installed permanently and stationary in cable ducting
or similar? Or does it need to be drag-chain suitable? Depending on the location,
the cable and its construction must full various requirements.
The possible cable types for Industrial Ethernet are contained in the relevant
IEEE 802 standards. For example, both copper or bre optic cables can be utilised
in Fast Ethernet.

Figure 3-31

Twisted-pair cable with two cable pairs (example: for permanent installation)

The following general conditions apply for standard copper cables:


Signals are transmitted via symmetric copper cables (twisted-pairs) in
accordance with 100Base-TX at a transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s (Fast
Ethernet).
The transmission medium consists of either 2- or 4-pair sets of twisted and
shielded copper cables (twisted-pair or star-quad) with a characteristic
impedance of 100 Ohm.
Only shielded cables and connection elements are permitted.
Individual components must full Category 5 requirements in accordance with
EN 50 173-1: 2003.
The entire transmission path must full Class D requirements in accordance
with EN 50 173-1.
Non-permanent connections are created using RJ45 and M12 plug-in connection systems.
Device connections to IP 67 are designed as female connectors.
Connecting cables (device connections, patch cables) are tted at both ends
with male connectors.
All devices are connected via an active network component.
In order to guarantee the easiest possible installation, the transmission cables
are equipped with the same connectors at both ends (patch cable). The maximum
transmission length is 100 m.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

max. 100 m

Figure 3-32

Maximum transmission length of Ethernet cables

Using the specied cables in conjunction with the specied connectors results in
a maximum cabling length of 100 m for up to 6 mated connector pairs.
Cabling examples

Table 3-9

Number of
connectors

Maximum
cabling length

100 m

100 m

100 m

100 m

100 m

100 m

100 m

Maximum cabling lengths for Ethernet / Fast Ethernet according to


PROFINET specications

TE = Terminal Equipment Inside


PMD = PROFINET
environment
Machine Distributor

Connector

Coupling

89

90
When calculating the maximum transmission length, it is not of any signicance
if the cable is only to be used inside a switchgear cabinet or outdoors, or as a
connection between two switchgear cabinets.
For calculation purposes, the combination of male and female connectors is
considered a pair; in this case, it does not matter if the pair is used purely for
coupling purposes or if one component (connector or socket) is integrated in a
device.
Each additional mated connector pair reduces the length of the transmission
path. A separate calculation must be made when utilising more than 6 pairs.
This calculation is described in the standard IEC 11 801, which also contains
further information including additional verication of the transmission path, for
example.

Hybrid cable
Hybrid cables (data line and power supply combined in one cable) are used where
decentralised eld devices are connected with both data and power supply via a
combined connector. As well as 4 copper wires for the power supply, this cable
consists of 2 or 4 sets of shielded data lines for communi-cation.

Figure 3-33

Hybrid cable with 2 sets of shielded data lines and 4 copper wires for the
power supply

Special cable for Gigabit Ethernet


In comparison with Ethernet / Fast Ethernet, the most important difference when
using Gigabit Ethernet is to be found in the adaptation of the components physically
involved with transmissions, or, in other words, the cables and connectors.
Although these components have to be designed for a higher band-width, they
are downward compatible for Ethernet / Fast Ethernet. For this reason, cables
suitable for the higher performance of Gigabit Ethernet are often laid in new
installations.
Cable for Gigabit Ethernet must full Category 6 / Class E requirements in
accordance with the cabling standard ISO/IEC 11 801:2002.
Fibre optics
Single-mode or multimode bre optics are utilised in the Gigabit Ethernet variants
1000Base-SX and 1000Base-LX. Longer transmission paths can be achieved
with single-mode bre optics than with the equivalent multimode bre optics. As a
rule, dispersion is less with single-mode bre optics.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Type

Frequency Cable type

Diameter of
bre

Transmission length
(maximum)

1000Base-SX

850 nm

Multimode

50 m

550 m

62.5 m

275 m

1000Base-LX

1330 nm

Multimode

50 m

550 m

62.5 m

500 m

9 m

3000 m

Single mode
Table 3-10

Special bre-optic cables for Gigabit Ethernet

Copper cable
The copper cables used for Gigabit Ethernet are generally individually shielded
twisted-pairs with a stranded core diameter of AWG 22 to AWG 26.
Pair-wise stranding with additional individual shielding is designed to guarantee
an improved and cleaner differential signal transmission in comparison with
normal twisted-pair cables without individual shielding. In addition, this enables
common mode interferences to be eliminated.
The twisted-pair cables to be utilised can be differentiated as follows:
Twisted-pair cable

Individually
shielded

Overall shield

Shielded, Foiled / Unshielded Twisted Pair

SF/UTP Yes

No

Shielded / Pair Foiled Twisted Pair

S/FTP

Yes

Table 3-11

Yes

Twisted-pair cables for Gigabit Ethernet

Special cable for 10 Gigabit Ethernet


Presently, only single-mode or multimode bre optics are utilised in 10 Gigabit
Ethernet.
Type

Frequency

Cable type

Transmission length
(maximum)

10GBase-LX4

1300 nm

Multimode

300 m

10GBase-SR/SW

850 nm

Multimode

66 m

10GBase-LR/LW

1310 nm

Single mode

10 km

10GBase-ER/EW

1550 nm

Single mode

40 km

Table 3-12

Overview of bre-optic cable for 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Power on Ethernet (PoE)


The latest developments in the cabling eld have the aim of guaranteeing
the power supply to the connected device via the Ethernet cable. In contrast
to hybrid cables, which feed the power via a separate wire, PoE (Power
on Ethernet) utilises the standard Ethernet cable. The supply of energy via
the standard Ethernet cable is dened in the supplement IEEE 802.3af.

91

92
This also includes a denition of an optional data-free supply of power, which
allows power to be drawn from the data cabling system. In this case, the energy is
routed via the RJ45 interface to the corresponding terminal device together with
10Base-T, 100Base-TX or 1000Base-T.
PoE itself is divided into 5 performance classes:
Class

Use

Classication
current

Max.
power supply

Max. power drawn

Default

0 - 15 mA

15.4 W

0.44 - 12.95 W

Optional

8 - 13 mA

4.0 W

0.44 - 3.84 W

Optional

16 - 21 mA

7.0 W

3.84 - 6.49 W

Optional

25 - 31 mA

15.4 W

6.49 - 12.95 W

Optional

35 - 45 mA

15.4 W

reserved

Table 3-13

Power on Ethernet (PoE) performance classes

The power supply is fed via an active source to a passive IEEE 802.3af-compliant
terminal device.
The IEEE 802.3af denes 3 operating modes for the power supply via different
wire pairs:
Endpoint PSE, operating mode A
Endpoint PSE, operating mode B
Midspan PSE, operating mode B
Operating mode A
In operating mode A, the power is fed via the pairs 1/2 and 3/6 using the Phantom
Feed method. Thus, with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet the pairs 4/5 and 7/8 remain
free.
This operating mode is particularly suitable for Gigabit Ethernet, because all
4 pairs are required for the transfer of data.
Operating mode B
In this operating mode, the power is fed separately from the data via the pairs 4/5
and 7/8; the data is fed via the pairs 1/2 and 3/6. Because no pairs remain free,
this operating mode is not suitable for Gigabit Ethernet.
The difference between Endpoint PSE, operating mode B and Midspan PSE,
operating mode B is a question of the voltage source. Whereas the switch or
another Ethernet component is the source of power for the Endpoint PSE,
operating mode B, an external device supplies the power for Midspan PSE,
operating mode B.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

For all operating modes, standardised terminal devices must be equipped with a
passive, resistive circuit. This circuit serves various purposes:
The active source identies the passive terminal device
The operating mode is recognised
The necessary performance class is recognised.
A PoE solution will only supply power, if a corresponding terminal device is
recognised. That avoids damage should a non-standard terminal device be
connected.
At present, there are few elds of applications for this technique. However,
developments in this eld will result in an increased use of this technique in
industry. For example, conceivable applications include control of sensors,
monitoring of processes or systems by means of cameras or handling of alarms.

3.10 Connectors
Straightforward on-site handling of the termination technology is a major criterion
for use in industry. Moreover, it is not just the cable that determines the quality
and reliability of data transfers. Connectors and other non-permanent connections
also play a major role regarding the susceptibility of networks to faults.
RJ45 and M12 connectors in protection classes IP 20 and IP 65 / IP 67 are
available for use in industry and Industrial Ethernet. In particular, RJ45 connectors
with different mating faces as specied in the IEC 61 076-3-106 enjoy widespread
use.
These connectors are easy to assemble on site using standard tools.

Figure 3-34

Possible connectors for Industrial Ethernet from HARTING

93

94
We should also mention the Industrial Twisted Pair D-SUB connectors to
DIN 41 652, available in 9- or 15-pole versions. Connected with the twisted-pair
cables by means of screw connections, these connectors are mostly available
with metal housings. However, as they generally only play a minor role we will not
be taking a detailed look at them within the framework of this book.

Connectors for IP 20
When housed in switchgear cabinets, connectors are used that are fully compatible with connectors used in ofce communications. Theoretically, it would be
possible to use normal ofce cables with RJ45 connectors.
However, greater demands are generally placed on IP 20 connectors used in
industrial applications. For example, the PROFINET guidelines dene also the
requirements for connections utilising RJ45 connectors as protection class
IP 20.

Figure 3-35

Connectors for Industrial Ethernet in IP 20

As an example, the following image demonstrates the use of connectors with


protection level IP 20 in a switchgear cabinet.

Figure 3-36

HARTING RJ Industrial connectors to IP 20 in use at the Stadler Rail


Group, Switzerland (source: HARTING)

Connector for IP 65 / IP 67
In particular, special account must be taken of the industrial demands placed on
connectors destined for use outside of the switchgear cabinet. Connector types
RJ45 sealed to IP 65 or IP 67 are used in such applications. Special designs can
provide protection levels to IP 68.

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

The M12 circular connector is a further variant. Utilised are the shielded, 4-pole
variants with D-coding as included in IEC standards by the DKE for Industrial
Ethernet (DKE = German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information
Technologies).
A third variant is the use of special connectors for bre-optic cables. In accordance with PROFINET Installation Guidelines, for example, the ISO/IEC11801compliant connection of bre-optics with an Ethernet component is preferably
performed using a special connector system as specied in the IEC 60 874-14.
However, utilisation of bre-optics is not widespread under Industrial Ethernet
so that in the following descriptions a more detailed look will be taken at the
conventional connectors RJ45 and M12 with D-coding.
The following provides an overview of the individual connectors with their different
types of connections, in which standards they are specied and which user
organisations support these types of connectors.
Connectors

Specied in

Supported by
User organisation
IAONA
ODVA

Type

Method

RJ45

Bayonet coupling

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 1

Snap-in connection

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 2

Screw terminal

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 3

Push Pull connection

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 4

PNO

Connection with
locking clamp

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 5

PNO

Push Pull connection

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 6

IAONA
IDA
INTERBUS

Connection with
locking clamp

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 7

PNO

Screw terminal

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 8

Screw terminal

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 9

Pulse Lock connection

IEC 61 076-3-106
variant 10

M12
D-coding

Screw terminal

IEC 61 076-2-101

Fibre-optics

Connection with
locking clamp
Fibre-optic connection

Table 3-14

IAONA
ODVA
PNO
PNO

IEC 60 874-14

PNO

Different connectors for Industrial Ethernet in IP 65 / IP 67

95

96
HARTING has the appropriate connector for all supported Ethernet specications
in its range of supply.
Connector type

Ethernet
specication *

HARTING connector

RJ45

EtherNet/IP
PROFINET

RJ Industrial
IP 67 Data 3A

Identication

Drawing

RJ Industrial
IP 67 Push Pull

RJ Industrial
IP 67 Hybrid

RJ45 Han-Max

M12 D-coding

Table 3-15

EtherNet/IP
ETHERNET Powerlink
PROFINET

M12-L
D-coding

HARTING connectors

* ... Specications supported by HARTING

The following image demonstrates a typical example of IP 65 / IP 67 connectors


used with robots:

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Figure 3-37

HARTING RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A connectors in use on robots


(source: HARTING)

Which variant in the nal analysis will come out on top, RJ45 or M12 connectors,
is now more than ever a question of faith. Some experts are of the opinion that
the M12 connector will run up against the buffers when 8-wire based Gigabit
Ethernet is introduced, because, according to the norm, M12 D-coding is based
on a 4-wire cable. On the other hand, other experts point to the fact that the
connection technique utilising M12 is already established across the globe in
the eld of sensors/actuators, and will for that reason come out on top. And yet
others are of the opinion that as it all depends on the respective application, that
neither of the two variants will be able to gain the upper hand in the near future:
M12 will be relied upon when the focus is placed on connecting sensors and
actuators, whereas RJ45 connectors will be preferred for vertical communication
applications with an eye to the connection with building networks.
When the dust settles, the same will happen as with the introduction of the classic
eldbus system: the user will decide for himself which variant he prefers.

Hybrid connectors
The hybrid connector (data line and power supply combined in one cable) is used
where decentralised eld devices are connected with both data and power supply
via a combined connector. A fully shock-hazard protected connector enables the
use of identical connectors at both ends of the cable; the necessity for a male
female conguration eliminated by the integrated protection against accidental
touch. The connector in question is the RJ45 to IP 67 for connecting 2- or 4-pair
sets of shielded data communication lines for communication, and 4 copper wires
for the power supply.

97

98

Figure 3-38

Hybrid connector

Contact assignment
Contact assignment for RJ45 and M12 connectors are determined in accordance
with the corresponding standards:
RJ45:

IEEE 802.3

M12 D-coding:

IEC 61 076-2-101

In accordance with the cabling standard (ISO/IEC 11 801:2002), the connectors


should be wired to Category 5 compliant, shielded twisted-pair cables with 2x2 or
4x2 cable pairs.
When assembling Ethernet cables, two variants are possible for contact
assignments:
1:1 cable
With this cable, the contacts are wired 1:1. That means, for example, that the
contact for TD+ on the one connector is connected with the same contact TD+ on
the other connector. The contact assignment for such a cable is as follows:
Contact connector 1

Contact connector 2

TD +

TD +

TD -

TD -

RD +

RD +

RD -

RD -

Table 3-16

Contact assignment for 1:1 cable

Figure 3-39

Contact assignment for 1:1 cable (example: RJ45, 2-pair)

Cross-over cable
With this cable, the contacts for transmitting and receiving are wired crossed
over. That means, for example, that the contact for TD+ on the one connector is

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

connected with the contact RD+ on the other connector. The contact assignment
for such a cable is as follows:
Contact connector 1

Contact connector 2

TD +

RD +

TD -

RD -

RD +

TD +

RD -

TD -

Table 3-17

Contact assignment for cross-over cable

Figure 3-40

Contact assignment for cross-over cable (example: RJ45, 2-pair)

Contact assignment for RJ45, 2-pair


The connectors RJ45 should be wired to twisted-pair cables with 2x2 cable
pairs.
Signal

Function

Wire colour
(EIA/TIA 568-B)

Wire colour
(PROFINET)

RJ45
Contact number

TD+

Transmission Data +

White-Orange

Yellow

TD-

Transmission Data -

Orange

Orange

RD+

Receiver Data +

White-Green

White

RD-

Receiver Data -

Green

Blue

Table 3-18

Contact assignment for RJ45, 2-pair (colour code)

Contact assignment, circular connector M12 D-coding


Twisted-pair cables with 2x 2 cores only are used to wire M12 D-coding circular
connectors, as these are tted with 4 pins as standard.

Figure 3-41

Contact assignment for circular connector M12 D-coding (female / male)

99

100
Signal

Function

HARAX
Contact number

Wire colour
(EIA/TIA 568-B)

Wire colour
(PROFINET)

TD +

Transmission Data +

White-Orange

Yellow

TD -

Transmission Data -

Orange

Orange

RD +

Receiver Data +

White-Green

White

RD -

Receiver Data -

Green

Blue

Table 3-19

Contact assignment, circular connector M12 D-coding (colour code)

Contact assignment for RJ45, 4-pair


When wiring 8-wire twisted-pair cables to RJ45 connectors, all 8 wires are
wired. However, with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, only the pairs 2 and 3 have
the corresponding functions. The other two pairs (1 and 4) are not recognised or
processed by the connected Ethernet device.
Pair 2

Pair 4

Pair 3
Pair 1

Figure 3-42

Contact assignment (pairs) RJ45, 4-pair

Contact assignment
Pair

RJ45
Contact number

Signal

Not assigned

5
2
3
4

Function

Not assigned

TD +

Transmission Data +

TD -

Transmission Data -

RD +

Receiver Data +

RD -

Receiver Data -

Not assigned

Not assigned

Table 3-20

Contact assignment, wire pairs RJ45 connector

3 Transmission Technology and Cabling for Industrial Ethernet

Signal

Function

EIA/TIA 568-A

EIA/TIA 568-B

RJ45
Contact number

Transmission Data +

White-Green

White-Orange

TD -

Transmission Data -

Green

Orange

RD +

Receiver Data +

White-Orange

White-Green

Not assigned

Blue

Blue

Not assigned

White-Blue

White-Blue

Receiver Data -

Orange

Green

Not assigned

White-Brown

White-Brown

Not assigned

Brown

Brown

TD +

RD -

Table 3-21

Wire colour according to

Contact assignment RJ45 according to EIA/TIA 568 (colour code)

Special conditions for Gigabit Ethernet


In comparison with Ethernet / Fast Ethernet, the principle difference when using
Gigabit Ethernet is to be found in the adaptation of the components physically
involved with transmissions, or in other words the cable and connectors. Although
these components have to be designed for a higher bandwidth, they are downward
compatible for Ethernet / Fast Ethernet. For this reason, cables suitable for the
higher performance of Gigabit Ethernet are mostly laid in new installations.
In the case of copper cables, 4-pair cables only are utilised, because Gigabit
Ethernet requires all 8 wires.
Preferably, twisted-pair cables with 4x2 cable pairs should be used.
Pair 3

Pair 4

Pair 2
Pair 1

Figure 3-43

Contact assignment (pairs) RJ45, 4-pair for Gigabit Ethernet

101

102
Contact assignment
Pair

Ethernet / Fast Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet

RJ45
Pin

RJ45
Pin

Signal

Function

1
2
3
4

Signal

Function

RD

Not assigned

BI_DC+

Receive Data

TD

Not assigned

BI_DC-

Transmission Data

TD

Transmission Data +

BI_DA+

Transmission Data

RD

Transmission Data -

BI_DA-

Receive Data

TD

Receiver Data +

BI_DB+

Transmission Data

RD

Receiver Data -

BI_DB-

Receive Data

TD

Not assigned

BI_DD+

Transmission Data

RD

Not assigned

BI_DD-

Receive Data

Table 3-22

Contact assignment for wire pairs, RJ45 connector for Ethernet /


Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet

Figure 3-44

Contact assignment for 1:1 cable and Gigabit Ethernet

Figure 3-45

Contact assignment for cross-over cable and Gigabit Ethernet

4 Future Prospects

Future Prospects

Even as we speak today, Ethernet has already become established in industry.


Collision domains are divided up through the utilisation of switches. The special
case Switched Ethernet fully excludes collisions.
The use of devices and connectors with IP 65 / IP 67 protection levels makes
it possible to operate Ethernet in tough industrial conditions, right down to
the machine, sensor or actuator. Here the proper cable has a role to play. For
longer distances, bre-optic cables or even wireless connections are available.
Wireless LAN can also be utilised should connections with mobile devices be
necessary.
Intelligent terminal devices create increasingly complex data packets that
conventional eldbus systems are only able to transmit very slowly. In the future,
only Ethernet will be able to guarantee fast and super fast transfers of data.
The continued developments in the hardware sector will also result in falling
prices in the manufacture of Ethernet components. The more widespread the
use of Ethernet becomes in industry, the more affordable switches, hubs and
connectors will be. Observed for years in the ofce world, this trend can also be
perceived in industry.
When all is said and done, there can now be no stopping the triumphant progress
of Ethernet in industry, side-by-side with the ofce world. In saying that, it is not
a case of driving out the established eldbus systems overnight. These bus
systems will also retain their right to exist in certain elds. The future world of
automation will see Ethernet responsible for the bulk of communication between
the individual levels of the automation pyramid (please refer to chapter 1). At the
eld level in particular, conventional eldbus systems will undoubtedly continue
to exist in future.

103

104

5 Overview of Modules and Accessories for Ethernet Components from HARTING

Overview of Modules and Accessories for Ethernet


Components from HARTING

5.1

Ethernet devices Overview of types

HARTING has a variety of Ethernet components in its programme. The user can
select between the following products to full application requirements.

RJ45 to IP 20

RJ45 to IP 65 / IP 67

M12 D-coding

ESC 67-10 TP05U


M12 D-coding

no

ESC 67-10 TP05U Push Pull

no

no

ESC 67-10 TP05U


Han-Max

ESC 67-30 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

no

ESC 67-30 TP05U


M12 D-coding

no

Full duplex

Half duplex

Auto-sensing

no

Auto-polarity

ESC 67-10 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Auto-negotiation

Auto-crossing

Connection
options

Management functions

Type

EHB 67-10 TP05


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

EHB 67-10 TP05


M12 D-coding

HARTING RJ Industrial
Metal Outlet

INO M12 D-coding

HARTING RJ Industrial

Outlet Push Pull


Table 5-1

Overview of types of components for Industrial Ethernet from HARTING

105

106
Ethernet switches for direct mounting
Type

In accordance with
Ethernet specication

ESC 67-10 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

PROFINET

ESC 67-10 TP05U


M12 D-coding

PROFINET
ETHERNET/IP

ESC 67-10 TP05U


Push Pull

PROFINET

ESC 67-10 TP05U


Han-Max

ETHERNET/IP

Table 5-2

Overview of types of Ethernet switches for direct mounting

In-Between Ethernet switches


Type

In accordance with
Ethernet specication

ESC 67-30 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

PROFINET

ESC 67-30 TP05U


M12 D-coding

PROFINET
ETHERNET/IP

Table 5-3

Overview of types of Ethernet switches for mounting on to exterior cabinet


panels from HARTING

5 Overview of Modules and Accessories for Ethernet Components from HARTING

Ethernet hubs
Type

In accordance with
Ethernet specication

EHB 67-10 TP05


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

EHB 67-10 TP05


M12 D-coding

Table 5-4

ETHERNET/IP

Overview of types of Ethernet hubs to IP 67 from HARTING

Industrial Outlets
Type
HARTING RJ Industrial
Metal Outlet

Housing
material

In accordance with
Ethernet specication

Metal

PROFINET

INO 67 M12 D-coding

Metal

PROFINET
ETHERNET/IP

HARTING RJ Industrial
Outlet Push Pull

Plastic

PROFINET

Table 5-5

Overview of types of Industrial Outlets from HARTING

107

108
5.2

Mounting options
Wall mounting at

Wall mounting vertical

Mounting onto
top-hat
mounting rail

Direct mounting
onto housing
panel

Direct mounting
onto panel or
grider

Type

ESC 67-10 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

Yes

Yes

ESC 67-10 TP05U M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

Yes

ESC 67-10 TP05U Push Pull

Yes

Yes

Yes

ESC 67-10 TP05U Han-Max

Yes

Yes

Yes

ESC 67-30 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

Yes

ESC 67-30 TP05U M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

EHB 67-10 TP05 HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

Yes

Yes

EHB 67-10 TP05 M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

Yes

HARTING RJ Industrial Metal Outlet

Yes

Yes

INO M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

HARTING RJ Industrial Outlet Push Pull

Yes

Yes

Table 5-6

5.3

Mounting options

Available cable types

Device type

STP*

UTP**

ESC 67-10 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

Yes

AWG 24 / AWG 22

ESC 67-10 TP05U


M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

AWG 26 / AWG 22

ESC 67-10 TP05U Push Pull

Yes

Yes

AWG 24 / AWG 22

ESC 67-10 TP05U Han-Max

Yes

Yes

AWG 24 / AWG 22

ESC 67-30 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

Yes

AWG 24 / AWG 22

ESC 67-30 TP05U


M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

AWG 26 / AWG 22

Table 5-7
*

Cable type

Cable types for Ethernet switches

... Shielded Twisted Pair

** ... Unshielded Twisted Pair


*** ... Category

Cat***

Cross-section

5 Overview of Modules and Accessories for Ethernet Components from HARTING

Device type

Cable type
STP*

UTP**

EHB 67-10 TP05 HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

Yes

AWG 24 / AWG 22

EHB 67-10 TP05 M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

AWG 26 / AWG 22

HARTING RJ Industrial Metal

Yes

Yes

AWG 24 / AWG 22

INO M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

AWG 26 / AWG 22

HARTING RJ Industrial Outlet


Push Pull

Yes

Yes

AWG 24 / AWG 22

Outlet

Table 5-8
*

Cat***

Cross-section

Cable types for Ethernet hubs and outlets

... Shielded Twisted Pair

** ... Unshielded Twisted Pair


*** ... Category

Cable type

Cat**

Industrial Ethernet Shielded Twisted Pair


standard cable; 2x2 AWG 22/1 *

PROFINET type A for


permanent installation
For example, for Ethernet
switches and outlets with
HARTING RJ Industrial

Industrial Ethernet Shielded Twisted Pair


standard cable; 2x2 AWG 22/7 *

PROFINET type B for


exible installation
For example, for Ethernet
switches and outlets with
HARTING RJ Industrial

Industrial Ethernet Shielded Twisted Pair


standard cable; 2x2 AWG 22/7 *

PROFINET type C for drag


chains

Industrial Ethernet Leitung, two wires twisted to


a pair; 4-pairs, symmetrically stranded with foil
screen; 4x2 AWG 26/7 *

For exible installation

Gigabit Ethernet cable, two wires twisted to


a pair, and shielded, 4-pairs, symmetrically
stranded with screening braid; 4x2 AWG 26/7 *

For exible installation

Table 5-9

Remarks

Examples of cable types

* ...

Can be supplied by HARTING

** ...

Category

Further cable types with a variety of cross-sections can be utilised when they
comply with Ethernet specications.

109

110
5.4

Connectors

RJ45 - IP 20
data connector

HARTING RJ
Industrial
IP 67 Data 3A

HARTING RJ
Industrial
Push Pull

Han Max

M12 D-coding

Type

ESC 67-10 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

ESC 67-10 TP05U


M12 D-coding

Yes

ESC 67-10 TP05U Push Pull

Yes

ESC 67-10 TP05U


Han-Max

Yes

ESC 67-30 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

Yes

ESC 67-30 TP05U


M12 D-coding

Yes

Yes

EHB 67-10 TP05 HARTING


RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A

Yes

EHB 67-10 TP05


M12 D-coding

Yes

HARTING RJ Industrial
Metal Outlet

Yes

INO M12 D-coding

Yes

HARTING RJ Industrial
Outlet Push Pull

Yes

Table 5-10

Connector variants

111

Annex

112

List of Standards and Guidelines

Annex A

List of Standards and Guidelines

This chapter contains a list of the essential standards and guidelines considered
in this manual. No claim is made is made that this list is exhaustive or up-todate.
The standards and guidelines quoted in this manual are up-to-date at the time of
going to press (2005).
Should individual standards in the meantime be withdrawn, up-dated or rewritten,
it is the sole responsibility of the user to keep his knowledge as up-to-date as
necessary. In particular, IEEE standards are subject to constant revision.

A-1

Standards and guidelines applicable to Ethernet /


bus technology

EN standards
EN 50 173-1

Generic cabling systems (international: ISO/IEC 11 801)


Part 1: General requirements and ofce areas

EN 50 173-2

Generic cabling systems Part 2: Industrial area

EN 50 173-3

Generic cabling systems Part 3: Residential area

EN 50 174-1

Cabling installation Part 1: Specication and quality


assurance

EN 50 174-2

Cabling installation Part 2: Installation planning and


practices inside buildings

EN 50 174-3

Cabling installation Part 3: Installation planning and


practices between buildings

EN 60 950

Information technology equipment - Safety

EN 61 131-2

Programmable controllers Part 2: Equipment requirements


and tests

113

114
IEEE standards
IEEE 802

Local and metropolitan area networks: Overview and


architecture

IEEE 802.1p

QoS in Bridges (Multiple Queues)

IEEE 802.2

Local and metropolitan area networks; Specic requirementsPart 2: Logical Link Control

IEEE 802.3

Local and metropolitan area networks; Specic requirementsPart 3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specications

IEEE 802.3a

10Base-2 Transmission medium (RG58, BNC)

IEEE 802.3b

10Broad36 Transmission medium (CATV)

IEEE 802.3c

10 Mbit/s Repeater for 10Base-2 and 10Base-5

IEEE 802.3d

Fibre Optic Inter-Repeater Link (FOIRL)

IEEE 802.3e

10Base-5: Star topology with Twisted-pair (replaced by


10Base-T)

IEEE 802.3h

Layer Management

IEEE 802.3i

10Base-10 (UTP /5 mit 10 Mbit/s)

IEEE 802.3j

10Base-F Fiber-Link (10Base-FL, 10Base-FB, 10Base-FP)

IEEE 802.3k

Repeater Management

IEEE 802.3l

PICS for 10Base-T Transceivers

IEEE 802.3m

Supplement #2 of the standard (sections 1, 7, 8, 9, 10)

IEEE 802.3n

Supplement #3 of the standard (sections 4, 6, 7, 8, 10)

IEEE 802.3p

10 Mbit/s MAU Management

IEEE 802.3q

Guidelines for the Development of Managed Objects (GDMO)

IEEE 802.3r

PICS for 10Base-5

IEEE 802.3s

Supplement #4 of the standard (sections 7, 8)

IEEE 802.3t

120 cable to 10Base-T

IEEE 802.3u

Fast Ethernet standards 100BaseTX (2 pairs Cat 5),


100BaseT4 (4 pairs Cat 3), 100BaseFX

IEEE 802.3v

Shielded 150 cable to 10Base-T (STP)

IEEE 802.3w

MAC supplements

IEEE 802.3x

Full Duplex (10 / 100 / 1 000 Mbit/s and Auto-negotiation)

IEEE 802.3y

100Base-T (UTP, Category 3 / 4 / 5)

IEEE 802.3z

Gigabit Ethernet (1000Base-T / SX / LX / CX)

IEEE 802.3aa

100Base-T supplements (Maintenance)

IEEE 802.3ab

100Base-T (Gigabit Ethernet via UTP; 4 cable pairs)

IEEE 802.3ac

Frame format for VLANs (comparision to IEEE 802.1q


Tagging)

IEEE 802.3ad

Trunking

IEEE 802.3ae

Parameters, Physical Layer and Management Parameters for


10 Gbit/s Operation

IEEE 802.3af

Powered on Ethernet

List of Standards and Guidelines

IEEE 802.3ak

Physical Layer and Management Parameters for 10 Gbit/s


Operation, Type 10GBASE-CX4

IEEE 802.5

Local and metropolitan area networks; Specic requirementsPart 5: Token Ring Access Method and Physical Layer
Specication

IEEE 802.8

Local and Metropolitan Area Network; Specic requirementsPart 8: Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group

IEEE 802.11

Local and Metropolitan Area Network; Specic requirementsPart 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and
Physical Layer (PHY) Specications

IEEE 1 588

Precision clock synchronization protocol for networked


measurement and control systems

The respective latest list of IEEE standards is available at:


http://standards.ieee.org

IEC standards
ISO/IEC 11 801

Information technology Cabling systems for customer


premises (see also EN 50 173)

Guidelines
Guideline

IAONA Industrial Ethernet Planning and Installation Guide


Release 4.0

Guideline

Installation guideline PROFINET 2.251

115

116
A-2

Standards and guidelines for devices

EN standards
EN 50 022

Mounting rail. Top-hat mounting rails 35 mm wide for snap-on


tting of devices

EN 50 155

Railway applications - Electronic equipment used on rolling


stock

EN 50 081-1

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Generic Emissions;


Part 1: Residential, Commercial, and Light Industrial
Environments

EN 50 082-2

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Generic Emissions;


Part 2: Heavy Industrial Environments

EN 50 310

Application of equipotential bonding and earthing in buildings


with information technology equipment

EN 55 011

Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and methods of


measurement

EN 55 022

Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance


characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement

EN 55 024

Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics Limits and methods of measurement

EN 60 068-1

Environmental testing Part 1: General and guidance

EN 60 068-2-6

Environmental testing Part 2: Tests - Test Fc: Vibration


(sinusoidal)

EN 60 068-2-27

Environmental testing Part 2: Tests - Test Ea and guidance:


Shock

EN 60 793-2

Optical bres Part 2: Product specications - General

EN 60 794-2

Optical bre cables Part 2: Indoor cables - Sectional


specication

EN 60 794-3

Optical bre cables Part 3: Sectional specication - Outdoor


cables

EN 60 874-1

Connectors for optical bres and cables Part 1: Generic


specication

EN 61 010-1

Safety requirements for electrical equipment for


measurement, control, and laboratory use Part 1: General
requirements

EN 61 373

Rolling stock equipment - Shock and vibration tests


Shock and vibration tests

EN 187 000

Generic Specication: Optical bre cables

EN 188 000

Generic Specication: Optical bres

EN 188 100

Sectional specication - Single-mode (SM) optical bres

EN 188 201

Family specication: Ala graded index multimode optical


bres

EN 188 202

Family specication: AIb graded index multimode optical


bres

List of Standards and Guidelines

IEC standards
IEC 61 000-4-2

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4-2: Testing and


measurement techniques - Electrostatic discharge immunity
test

IEC 61 000-4-3

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4-3: Testing


and measurement techniques - Radiated, radio-frequency,
electromagnetic eld immunity test

IEC 61 000-4-4

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4-4: Testing and


measurement techniques - Electrical fast transient/burst
immunity test

IEC 61 000-4-5

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Part 4-5: Testing and


measurement techniques - Surge immunity test

IEC 61 000-4-6

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4-6: Testing


and measurement techniques - Immunity to conducted
disturbances, induced by radio-frequency elds

IEC 61 000-4-8

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4-8: Testing and


measurement techniques - Power frequency magnetic eld
immunity test

UL standards
UL 508

Industrial Control Equipment Standard for Safety

UL 1604

Industrial Control Equipment for use in hazardous locations

UL 60 950

Safety of information technology equipment

A-3

Standards and guidelines for connectors

EN Standards
EN 60 352-2

Solderless connections Part 2: Solderless crimped


connections

EN 60 352-3

Solderless connections Part 3: Solderless accessible


insulation displacement connections

EN 60 352-4

Solderless connections Part 4: Solderless non-accessible


insulation displacement connections

EN 60 512

Connectors for electronic equipment

EN 60 603-7

Connectors for frequencies below 3 MHz for use with printed


boards - Part 7: Detail specication for connectors, 8-way,
including xed and free connectors with common mating
features, with assessed quality

EN 61 076-2-101

Connectors for electronic equipment - Part 2-101: Circular


connectors - Detail specication for circular connectors M8
with screw- or snap-locking, M12 with screw-locking for low
voltage applications

EN 61 984

Connectors Safety requirements and tests

117

118
IEC standards
IEC 60 512

Connectors for electronic equipment Part 2: Tests and


measurements

IEC 61 076-3-106

Connectors for electronic equipment Part 3-106:


Rectangular connectors: Protective housings for use with
8-way shielded and unshielded connectors for frequencies up
to 600 MHz for industrial environments

A-4

Standards and guidelines, general

EN standards
EN 50 110-1 / -2

Operation of electrical installations

EN 60 204-1

Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines


Part 1: General requirements

VDE 0100/100

Erection of low-voltage installations

EN 60 529

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

EN 60 715

Dimensions of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear


Standardized mounting on rails for mechanical support of
electrical devices in switchgear and controlgear installations

EN 60 950

Safety of information technology equipment

IEC standards
IEC 60 364

Electrical installations of buildings

IEC 60 364-1

Electrical installations of buildings Part 1: Fundamental


principles, assessment of general characteristics, denitions

IEC 60 364-4-41

Electrical installations of buildings Part 4-41: Protection for


safety - Protection against electric shock

IEC 60 364-4-44

Electrical installations of buildings Part 4-44: Protection


for safety - Protection against voltage disturbances and
electromagnetic disturbances

IEC 60 364-5-52

Electrical installations of buildings Part 5-52: Selection


and erection of electrical equipment - Cabling and wiring
installations

HD / VDE standards
HD 384.4.41 S2
(VDE 0100 Teil 410)

Erection of power installations with nominal voltages up to


1000 V - Part 4: Protection for safety; Chapter 41: Protection
against electric shock

VDE 805

Information technology equipment - Routine electrical safety


testing in production

HD 384 (VDE 0100)

Erection of power installations

Annex B Bibliography

Annex B

Bibliography

No claim is made that the following list is complete or exhaustive. Many of


the following specialist books and documents contain further sources and
bibliographies.
For more detailed information about the individual bus systems, please refer
to the corresponding websites. The respective addresses are contained in the
following chapter.

B.1

General information about eldbus technology

[FB 1]

W. Kriesel, O. Madelung: AS-Interface, das Aktuator-SensorInterface fr die Automation; Carl Hanser Verlag, Mnchen, Wien,
1999

[FB 2]

R. Becker : AS-Interface Die Lsung in der Automation; ASInternational Association, Schweinfurt, 2002

[FB 3]

G. Schnell: Bussysteme in der Automatisierungstechnik; Fried.


Vieweg & Sohn Verlag GmbH, Braunschweig, 2000

[FB 4]

W. Kriesel, T. Heimbold, D. Telschow: Bustechnologien fr die


Automation; Hthig-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1998

[FB 5]

K. Etschberger: CAN Controller Area Network; Carl Hanser Verlag,


Mnchen, Wien, 2000

[FB 6]

W. Lawrenz: CAN Grundlagen und Praxis; Hthig-Verlag,


Heidelberg, 2000

[FB 7]

H. Zeltwanger: CANopen; VDE Verlag, Berlin, 2001

[FB 8]

J. Pimentel: Communication Networks for Manufacturing; PTR


Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, USA, 1990

[FB 9]

B. Reienweber: Feldbussysteme; Mnchen, Wien, 1998

[FB 10]

W. Bong: Feldbussysteme; Expert-Verlag, Renningen-Malmsheim,


1992

[FB 11]

R. Busse: Feldbussysteme im Vergleich; Paum Verlag, Mnchen,


1996

[FB 12]

B. Scherff, E. Haese, H. Wenzek: Feldbussysteme in der Praxis;


Berlin, Heidelberg, 1999

[FB 13]

Phoenix Contact: Grundkurs Sensor/Aktor-Feldbustechnik; Vogel


Verlag und Druck, Wrzburg, 1997

[FB 14]

W. Jansen, W. Blome: INTERBUS: Das offene und durchgngige


Kommunikationssystem; Landsberg/Lech, 1998

[FB 15]

M. Popp: PROFIBUS-DP /DPV1; Hthig-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2000

[FB 16]

D. Reinert, M. Schfer: Sichere Bussysteme fr die Automation;


Hthig-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001

119

120
B-2

Industrial Ethernet / network technology

[IE 1]

M. Popp, K. Weber: The Rapid Way to PROFINET; PNO,


Karlsruhe, 2004

[IE 2]

M. Hein: Ethernet Standards, Protokolle, Komponenten;


Thomson Publishing Company, Bonn, 1995

[IE 3]

HARTING manual Ethernet Switch ESC 67-10 TP05U; Espelkamp


2004

[IE 4]

F. Furrer: Ethernet TCP/IP fr die Industrieautomation; Hthig


Verlag, Heidelberg, 1998

[IE 5]

H. Johnson: Fast Ethernet Dawn of a new Network; PrenticeHall PTR, Upper Saddle River, N.J., USA, 1996

[IE 6]

R. Seifert: Gigabit-Ethernet; Addison Wesley Longman, Reading


USA, 1998

[IE 7]

Hirschmann manual Grundlagen Industrial Ethernet und TCP/IP;


version 1.0; Neckartenzlingen 2001

[IE 8]

HARTING Catalog Han-InduNet - Gerte und Komponenten fr


die Automatisierung; Espelkamp 2004

[IE 9]

IAONA manual Industrial Ethernet; Magdeburg, 2004

[IE 10]

IAONA Industrial Ethernet Planning and Installation Guide,


Release 4.0; 2004

[IE 11]

Hirschmann Pocket Guide Industrial Ethernet; Ausgabe 1; 2003

[IE 12]

Praxis Proline: Industrial Ethernet; Vogel Verlag 2003

[IE 13]

Praxis Proline: Industrial Ethernet; Vogel Verlag 2004

[IE 14]

P. Marshall: Industrial Ethernet A Pocket Guide; ISA


(Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society), USA, 2002

[IE 15]

Frank J. Furrer: Industrieautomation mit Ethernet-TCP/IP und


Web-Technologie; Hthig, 3. Auage 2003

[IE 16]

LANline spezial issue IV / 2003; AWi Verlag, 2003

[IE 17]

LANline spezial issue IV / 2004; AWi Verlag, 2004

[IE 18]

P. Schnabel: Netzwerktechnik-Fibel; Ludwigsburg, 2004

[IE 19]

PROFINET Installation guideline 2.251; 1998

[IE 20]

PROFINET Technologie und Anwendung; PNO, Karlsruhe, 2002

[IE 21]

R. Breyer, S. Riley: Switched and Fast Ethernet; MacMillan


Computer Publishing, Emeryville, USA, 1996

[IE 22]

J. Marti, J. Leben: TCP/IP Networking Architecture,


Administration and Programming; PTR Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, USA, 1994

[IE 23]

M. Santifaller: TCP/IP und ONC/NFS in Theorie und Praxis;


Addison-Wesley Publishing Company GmbH, Bonn, 1993

[IE 24]

HARTING tecNews issue 11; 2003

[IE 25]

HARTING tecNews issue 12; 2004

Annex C Continuative Links

Annex C

Continuative Links

No claim is made that the following list is complete or exhaustive. For more
detailed information about the individual bus systems, please use search engines
or read corresponding technical literature (see also Annex B).

C-1

Links for eld bus, general

ArcNet

www.arcnet.de

AS Interface

www.as-interface.net

Bitbus

www.bitbus.org

CAN

www.can-cia.de

CANopen

www.canopen.de

ControlNet

www.controlnet.org

DeviceNet

www.odva.org

DIN Messbus

www.measurement-bus.de

EIB

www.eiba.com

Foundation Fieldbus

www.eldbus.org

INTERBUS

www.interbusclub.com

LON

www.lonmark.org

ODVA

www.odva.org

OPC Foundation

www.opcfoundation.org

PROFIBUS

www.probus.com

C-2

Links for Industrial Ethernet

EtherCAT

www.ethercat.org

Ethernet/IP

www.odva.org

ETHERNET Powerlink

ww.ethernet-powerlink.com

Fieldbus.pub Ltd. (The Industrial Ethernet Book)

http://ethernet.industrialnetworking.com

Gigabit-Ethernet Alliance

www.gigabit-ethernet.org

HSE

www.eldbus.org

IAONA

www.iaona.org

Industrial Ethernet Association

www.industrialethernet.com

JetSync

www.jetter.de

LON

www.lonmark.org

Modbus-IDA Group

www.modbus-ida.org

ODVA

www.odva.org

PROFINET

www.probus.com

SERCOS-III

www.sercos.de

safeethernet

www.hima.de

Virtual Private Networking Technologies

www.vpn.com

121

122
C-3

Other links

Deutsches Institut fr Normung

www.din.de

EIA

www.eia.or

Fieldbus.pub Ltd. (The Industrial Ethernet Book)

http://ethernet.industrialnetworking.com

HARTING Electric GmbH & Co. KG

www.HARTING.com

IEEE

www.ieee.org

IEEE list of actual standards

http://standards.ieee.org

ISO Standards

www.iso.ch

Request for Comments

www.ietf.org

Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbauer

www.vdma.de

Virtual Private Networking Technologies

www.vpn.com

Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und


Elektronikindustrie e.V.

www.zvei.de

Glossary

Glossary
1:1 cable

Twisted-pair cable by which the cable ends are wired


1:1. That means that each pin on the one end of the cable
is connected to the same pin on the other end of the cable
(example: TD+ TD+)

10Base-2

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 10 Mbit/s


using thin coaxial cables (Thin Wire, Cheapernet). The
maximum length of the segments is 185 m.

10Base-5

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 10 Mbit/s


using coaxial cables (Thick Wire, Yellow Cable). The
maximum length of the segments is 500 m.

10Base-FL

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 10 Mbit/s


using bre-optic cables. Each connection is created
using two bres. One bre is used for transmitting, the
other for receiving.

10Base-T

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 10 Mbit/s


using twisted-pair cables (categories 3, 4 or 5). Each
connection is created with two wire pairs. One wire pair is
used for transmitting, the other pair for receiving.

100Base-FX

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 100 Mbit/s


using bre-optic cables. Each connection is created
using two bres. One bre is used for transmitting, the
other for receiving.

100Base-TX

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 100 Mbit/s


using twisted-pair cables (Category 5). Each
connection is created with two wire pairs. One wire pair is
used for transmitting, the other pair for receiving.

1000Base-LX

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 1 000 Mbit/s


using bre-optic cables operating at a wavelength of
1 300 nm. Each connection is created using two bres.
One bre is used for transmitting, the other for receiving.

1000Base-SX

Ethernet standard for transmitting data at 1 000 Mbit/s


using bre-optic cables operating at a wavelength of
850 nm. Each connection is created using two bres. One
bre is used for transmitting, the other for receiving.

Address Resolution
Protocol

Please refer to ARP

Address/port assignment
table

Table containing the assignment of destination addresses to the respective ports on a switch. This table is
created and maintained automatically by the switch.

Aging

Process used to update data, in particular those of the


address/port assignment tables. In this process, an
address is marked as old once a certain amount of
time has elapsed and is then deleted if it is again not
recognised at any port during the next cycle.

American Wire Gauge

Please refer to AWG

Approved use

Applicable conditions that fall within the specications for


that type of construction or rated values, environmental
conditions and characteristics determined by the
manufacturer.

123

124
ARP

Address Resolution Protocol


A protocol that ascertains a MAC address through the
IP address assigned to the station. In this case, each
device administers its own ARP table.If the station MAC
address to which it is intended to send a telegram is not
contained in the ARP table, the device transmits an ARP
request in the form of a broadcast telegram. The station
whose IP address is contained in this ARP request
transmits an ARP reply together with its MAC address.
The station that initiated the ARP request adds the MAC
address to its ARP table, and is then subsequently able to
transmit the telegram..

AUI

Attachment Unit Interface


Term for an Ethernet interface with a 15-pole D-Sub
connector

Auto-crossing

Enables automatic crossing at the twisted-pair interfaces of the wires used for transmitting and receiving. This
allows the user to utilise 1:1 wired cables and crossover cables on an equal basis.

Auto-negotiation

Recognises the transmission parameters of the connected


device such as speed, duplex mode and ow control
at the port, and automatically sets the corresponding
optimum values.

Auto-polarity

Function utilised by components in accordance with


10BASE-TX or 100BASE-TX to automatically correct
wiring mistakes in twisted-pair cables that result in
polarity reversal of the data signals (RD+ and RD-).

Auto-sensing

Enables a device, (for example, a hub) to detect the


maximum possible transmission rate of a connected
station (10 Mbit/s or 100 Mbit/s), and then to transmit and
receive at this rate.
In the case of hubs, all ports operate at the lowest
transmission rate detected.

AWG

American Wire Gauge


The AWG gure describes a cable based on its wire
diameter and permissible attenuation. Depending on the
cable structure, AWG sizes correspond to metric values
as follows:
AWG 22: 0.33 to 0.38 mm wire cross-section
AWG 24: 0.21 to 0.25 mm wire cross-section
AWG 26: 0.13 to 0.15 mm wire cross-section

Backbone

Term for the highest-level network of an hierarchically


structured installation (for example, in building networks)

Backpressure

Function using a jam signal to simulate a collision in


Half duplex mode of operation

Bandwidth

Please refer to transmission rate

Bandwidth-length product

A characteristic unit of measurement used with breoptic cables that describes the factor for determining the
maximum distance that can be covered when utilising
multi-mode bres.

Glossary

Bayonet Fibre Optic


Connector

Please refer to BFOC

Bayonet Neill Concelmann

Please refer to BNC

BFOC

Bayonet Fibre Optic Connector


Widely used connector for bre optic cables with bayonet lock; also known as ST connector. BFOCs are the
only connectors standardise for 10 Mbit/s Ethernet.

Blocking

Please refer to switch, blocking

BNC

Bayonet Neill Concelmann


Widely used connector for coaxial cables and devices
under 10Base-2

BootP

Bootstrap Protocol
A protocol that supplies a station connected to an
Ethernet network with a permanent IP address based
on its MAC address.

Bootstrap Protocol

Please refer to BootP

Bridge

Component used in Ethernet networks operating on


layer 2 of the OSI Reference Model to connect two
sub-networks of the same kind. Based on their MAC
address, data packets are transmitted from one sub
network to another.

Broadcast

Term for transmitting a (unreceipted) message to a group


of unspecied recipients.

Broadcast telegram

Data packets addressed to all network nodes. Hubs and


switches are transparent for broadcast telegrams.

Burst

Brief increase of network load due to ood of data or gush


of signals

Bus

Common transmission line connecting all components.


Topologies usually have two ends, ring topology being the
exception. Communication is based on a protocol.

Bus system

A bus system formed by all components being physically


connected via a bus.

Cable

Together with the sheath, one or more insulated


conductors. These conductors can belong to the
same type and to the same category as well share a
joint shielding.

Carrier Sense Multiple


Access with Collision
Detection

Please refer to CSMA/CD

Category

Cable is categorised according to its electrical


transmission and high-frequency characteristics.

CENELEC

Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechnique


European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation
responsible for harmonisation of electrotechnical
standards within the European Union.

Cheapernet

Please refer to 10Base-2

Class

Classication of point-to-point transmission channels


according to their transmission and high-frequency
characteristics.

125

126
Coding pin

Ensures the correct alignment of the both mating


connectors

Collision

Occurs when several stations attempt to transmit simultaneously over the network.
This is detected by the CSMA/CD mechanism.

Collision domain

The CSMA/CD access procedure restricts data packet


transmission time between two components. Depending
on the transmission rate, this results in a spatially
restricted network: the collision domain. The maximum
extension of a collision domain is 4250 m at 10 Mbit/s
(Ethernet) and 412 m at 100 Mbit/s (Fast Ethernet).
Full duplex mode connections allow extensions exceeding these limits, because no collisions can occur. The
use of switches is a pre-condition.

Connection Mirroring

This function makes it possible for a copy of data transmission between two ports of a switch to be made
available to other ports, for example, for analysis
purposes.

Connector

Component part enabling the electrical connection of


the electric cable; designed to create a disconnectable
electrical connection with a suitable mating connector.
A connector consists of a housing, contact inserts and
contact elements

Contact insert

Insert for accommodating and positioning of contact


elements in the connector.

Conductor

Arrangement of wires, insulation and accessories to


conduct electrical energy from one point of a network to
another.

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check


Term for algorithm used to detect and correct errors in bitoriented protocols. The unit used for error recognition and
correction is called the Haming Distance.

Cross-over cable

Twisted-pair cable whose ends are wired crossedover. In other words, the pins for transmissions (TD+)
on the one end of a cable are connected to the pins for
receiving (RD-) of the respective wire pair on the other
end of the cable (example: TD+ (1) RD+ (1))

CSA

Canadian Standards Association


Canadian institute for quality assurance of technical
products

CSMA/CD

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection


Network access method by which the component checks
if the network is free for transmissions (Carrier Sense).
Simultaneous Collision Detection checks are made at the
beginning of transmissions to ascertain if another node
has also began to transmit. If this is the case, a collision
occurs. As a result, all participating network components
stop transmitting, and wait a randomly determined period
of time before resuming transmissions.

Glossary

Cut-Through

Switch operating mode for forwarding telegrams as


soon as the destination address is recognised. The
lower latency time in comparison with the Store and
Forward mode is the major advantage of this mode; the
disadvantage is that faulty telegrams are also forwarded.
Speed synchronisation between the individual segments
is not possible with this operating mode.

Cyclic Redundancy Check

Please refer to CRC

DA

Destination Address
Destination addressing the Ethernet telegram

Data Terminal Equipment

Please refer to DTE

DCP

Discovery and Conguration Protocol


Protocol for reading of the name, the IP address and
other parameters of a network station. Individual stations
can be found out in the netwok via an Identify service.

Delay

Delay, caused by the running time of transmission or by


internal time delays of a network component

Destination address

Device MAC address in an Ethernet telegram that is


clearly assigned to a port of a switch in the
address/port assignment table.

Deterministic system

A system by which the timing process can be planned and


therefore predicted.

DHCP

Dynamic Host Conguration Protocol


Protocol for allocating temporary IP addresses taken
from an agreed range.
The protocol automates and centralises the IP settings
of individual devices on the network. Network devices in a
network intended for integration in a network or Internet by
means of the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) require various
basic settings, without which communication would not
be possible. This process can be carried out via a DHCP
server without user assistance, because the DHCP server
is acquainted with the settings and can pass these on
to the device. Without a DHCP server, the user has to
carry out the settings manually, and re-enter these each
time the network is changed. This process is performed
automatically each time when a DHCP server is utilised.

DIN

Deutsches Institut fr Normung


German Institute for Standardization

Dispersion

Differences in propagation times with bre-optic cables


that can lead to degradation of the pulses of light fed into
the bre-optic cable.

DKE

Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik


Informationstechnik
German Commission for Electrical, Electronic and
Information Technologies (of DIN and VDE).

DNS

Domain Name System


Name of a system that maps host names, addresses
in plain text and IP addresses to one another. DNS
servers or les designated as hosts can serve as the
source of data for implementation purposes.

127

128
Domain Name System

Please refer to DNS

DSC

Duplex Straight Connector


Connector variant widely used for bre-optic cables.

DTE

Data Terminal Equipment


Term used for terminal equipment in an Ethernet
network.

Duplex Straight Connector

Please refer to DSC

Dynamic Host
Conguration Protocol

Please refer to DHCP

Earth

Conductive mass of earth whose electrical potential is,


in accordance with the relevant agreements, zero at all
points.

EHB 67-10 TP05

Type designation for an Ethernet hub from HARTING


EHB
67
10
TP
05

Ethernet hub
IP 67
Housing design
Twisted-pair
5 ports

EIA

Electronic Industries Association


American electronic industries alliance whose standards
are entitled RS (Related EIA Standard) for example,
RS 232, RS 485.

Electromagnetic
compatibility

Please refer to EMC

Electrostatic Discharge

Please refer to ESD

EMC

Electromagnetic Compatibility
Refers to the capability of a piece of electrical equipment in a given (electromagnetic) environment to function
awlessly without it having a negative inuence on its
surroundings.

EN

European Norm
Please refer to CENELEC

Equipment, electrical

All components used for creating, converting, transmitting,


distributing and use of electrical energy.

ESC 67-10 TP05U

Type designation for an Ethernet switch from


HARTING
ESC
67
10
TP
05
U

ESD

Ethernet switch
IP 67
Housing design
Twisted-pair
ports
unmanaged

Electrostatic Discharge
Electrostatic discharges that can lead to short and
irregular disturbances in electronic devices or to the
destruction to electronic components.

Glossary

Ethernet

Network transmission system developed and standardised


by DED Intel and Xerox; characterised by the following
components:

Baseband technology
CSMA/CD access method
Variable packet lengths between 64 and 1518 bytes
Transmission rates from 10 Mbit/s
Logical bus topology
Coaxial cable

The subsequent standard, IEEE 802.3, ensured integration in the ISO/OSI Reference Model and extended
the physical layer and transmission media by the use of
repeaters and implemented applications operating via
bre-optic cables, broadband and twisted-pair cables.
In addition, protocols from layers 3 and 4 are often called
upon.
Today, Ethernet is often used as a generic term, without
differentiating between the various transmission rates
of 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s (Fast Ethernet), 1000 Mbit/s
(Gigabit-Ethernet).
Ethernet packet

Term for an Ethernet data packet comprising:

Preamble (8 bytes)
Destination address(6 bytes)
Source Address (6 bytes)
Length/Type (2 bytes)
Data eld (64 to 1518 bytes)
Check (4 bytes)

EtherType

Identication of an Ethernet frames by a number


of 16 bits assigned by the IEEE. For example, IP
uses EtherType 0x0800, PROFINET 0x8892 (both
itemisations are hexadecimal)

Fast Ethernet

Fast data network specied in 1995 in the IEEE 802.3.


Important parameters: transmission rate 100 Mbit/s;
variable packet lengths: 64 to 1522 byte (with optional
4-byte tag eld).

FCS

Frame Check Sequence


An array of bits required for data security purposes in bitoriented protocols. The device transmitting the telegram
calculates a checksum in accordance with an established
algorithm; the checksum is then added to the end of the
telegram (check eld). The recipient of the data telegram
also creates a checksum from the data received using the
same algorithm. The telegram was transmitted without
any errors if both checksums match.

FCX

Please refer to Full duplex mode

FDDI

Fibre Distributed Data Interface


A standard for data networks covering layers 1 and 2 of
the ISO/OSI Reference Model. FDDI was originally
based on a double-ring technology specifying bre-optic
cables as transmission medium.

Female connector

Contact element by which the inside surface is designed


to make suitable contact with a male pin.

129

130
Female insert

Insulated housing used for accommodating and


positioning of (contact) female insert in the connector.

Fibre optics

Please refer to bre-optics cable

Fibre-optics cable

In contrast to electrical transmission technology that, for


example, uses twisted-pair cables for data transmissions, optical transmission technology utilises glass or
plastic as the transmission medium. Fibre-optic cables are
available in multi-mode and single-mode (mono-mode)
bre versions.

Filters

Switches lter the data trafc based on the source and


destination address contained in a data packet.
A switch will only relay an incoming data packet to the
port to which the terminal device with the corresponding
destination address is connected.

Firmware

Software code containing all device functions. This code is


stored on a PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory),
and remain stored after the device is turned off. It is
possible for the user to up-date the rmware when a new
software version becomes available (rmware upgrade).

Flow Control

This function discards data packets or signals connected


stations informing them to stop transmitting if a port
becomes overloaded. In Half duplex mode, this signal is
generated by simulating a collision, and in Full duplex
mode by transmitting a special pause signal.

Frame

Data packet containing the header, data and checksum;


in the case of Ethernet, a frame consists of between 64
and 1518 bytes (1522 with VLAN tag).

Frame Check Sequence

Please refer to FCS

FTP

File Transfer Protocol


A protocol on layer 5 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model,
used for transporting les.

Full Duplex

Please refer to Full duplex mode

Full duplex mode

A switch simultaneously transmits to and receives


signals from the same ?port.

GARP

Generic Attribute Registration Protocol


Family of protocols for exchanging parameters between
switches on layer 2 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model.
Presently available are the protocols GMRP and
GVRP.

Gateway

A device operating above layer 2 of the ISO/OSI


Reference Model converting and translating the protocols
of the various networks.

Gigabit Ethernet

Term for a very fast data network that has been


standardised in the IEEE 802.3 since 1999. It is based
on a transmission rate of 1000 Mbit/s with a variable
packet length of 64 to 1518 bytes.

Glossary

GMRP

GARP Multicast Registration Protocol


IEEE 802.1p compliant protocol allowing dynamic
signing-on and off of stations belonging to multicast
groups. switches supporting GMRP forward the
multicast telegrams only to those ports to which
stations belonging to the corresponding multicast group
are connected.

Ground

An electrically conductive part, which is conductively


connected to the earth mass via the earthing system.

GVRP

GARP VLAN Registration Protocol


Switches are able to utilise this protocol to exchange
information with VLANS. If a VLAN is set up on a
switch, then this information is transmitted by the
switch to all other switches on the network. As a
result, other switches can, for example, declare the
port, at which the information was received, a station of
this VLAN.

Half duplex

Please refer to Half duplex mode

Half duplex mode

The switch can only receive or transmit at any given


time. collision recognition is active in half duplex mode.

HARTING RJ Industrial
RJ45 IP 67 Data 3A

HARTING connector for twisted-pair cables with RJ45


connection technology (4- or 8-wire) sealed to degree of
protection IP67 in a standard housing of the type
Han 3 A.

HCS

Hard Clad Silica


Fibre-optic cables with an optical core made of quartz
glass and optical cladding made of a special, patented
sheath of plastic.(Registered trademark of Spectran
Corporation)

HDX

Please refer to Half duplex mode

Header

Part of an Ethernet packet heading the actual data eld


containing addresses, packet number, type and other
information.

HIPER Ring

Name of a redundancy procedure based on the concept


of a ring-type network structure. Components supporting
HIPER RING networks are connected to each other within
such a ring via their ring ports. A redundancy manager
controls the ring and prevents telegrams ying around.

Hops

Term for the maximum number of routers that a data


packet is allowed to pass through on its way through the
network. The number of hops within a connection is not an
indication of the quality of that connection. For example,
a connection with 8 hops can be faster than one with 5 or
6 hops.

HSRP

Hot Standby Routing Protocol


Protocol for controlling redundant routers

131

132
Hub

Component on level 1 of ISO/OSI Reference Model


that regenerates the amplitude and shape of the incoming
signal before forwarding it to all ports. Some hubs (for
example, from HARTING) generate a jam signal when
they detect a collision. Thus, these hubs can also be
assigned to layer 2 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model.

Hybrid cable

Cable containing data lines and 2 to 4 wires to supply


power to decentralised eld devices.

Hybrid connector

Connector that can be terminated to a hybrid cable


(data line and power supply in a single connector).

IAONA

Industrial Automation Open Networking Alliance


An alliance of leading manufacturers and users of
automation systems wishing to establish Ethernet as
the standard application in all industrial environments
on an international basis as well as striving to achieve
uniform, interface-free communication across all company
levels of plant, process and building automation.
For more information, visit www.iaona-eu.com

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol


Protocol that reports failures and errors during the
transmission of IP packets (for example, through the
Ping command).

ID

Identier

IDC connection

Solder-free connection created by pressing the individual


wires into precisely dened slits in the terminal; the bladelike slit sides displace the insulation from the wire as well
as deforming it at the same time to create the connection.

IDC connection
technology

Insulation Displacement Connection


Please refer to IDC connection

Identify

Identication service of DCP. For example, a station


with a particular name can be invited to answer.

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission


An international standardisation committee

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers


Standardisation committee for LANs providing the most
important standards 802.3 for Ethernet and 802.1 for
switches.

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force


Group responsible for technical matters concerning the
Internet.

IFG

Inter Frame Gap


Unit of measure for the minimum distance between two
data packets.

IGMP

Internet
Group
Management
Protocol
Name of the layer-3 protocol that informs routers
immediately adjacent to stations and routers of their
afliation to multi-cast groups.

Glossary

IGMP Snooping

Internet Group Management Protocol Snooping


A function with which switches examine IGMP packets
and assign device membership of a multi-cast group
to the respective port. This allows multi-casts to be
specically communicated to segments in which members
of a group are located.

IGP

Interior
Gateway
Protocol
Classication of routing protocols used for exchanging
information between routers within an autonomous
network. Protocols utilised include IGRP, RIP und OSPF.

Impedance

Input resistance of an innitely long wire or of a closed


wire with the characteristic resistance.

Industrial Ethernet

Term used for Ethernet in automation engineering. Due


to the industrial environments, the network components
have to full higher demands in respect of increased
temperature ranges and increased demands for
availability and network safety.

Insert

Part of a connector, mostly identical with the contact


insert

Instructed person
(to DIN EN 50 110-1)

A person instructed by a skilled person (electrician) to a


sufcient degree, who is then able to avoid danger arising
from electricity. (IEV 826-09-02, modied)

Insulation stripping length

Length of insulation to be stripped from the cable or


individual wires.

Insulation voltage

Also known as rated insulation voltage: refers to the


insulation within an electrical circuit, between electrical
circuits as well as between active components
and conductive parts. This is the voltage to which
dielectric tests and creepage distances refer. Under no
circumstances is it permitted for the operating voltage to
be greater than the insulation voltage. It must be assumed
for devices without a declared insulation voltage that the
highest operating voltage is the insulation voltage.

Inter Frame Gap

Please refer to IFG

Interference, capacitive

A capacitive (electrical) coupling occurring between two


wires carrying differing potentials. For example, signal
cables routed in parallel or static discharges are typical
sources of interference.

Interference, inductive

An inductive (magnetic) interference occurring between


two live, current carrying wires. The magnetic effect
resulting from the currents induces an interference
voltage. For example, motors, parallel routed network
cables and HF signal cables are typical sources of
interference.

IP

International Protection
Protection class for devices and equipment according to
EN 60 529 and IEC 60 529.

133

134
IP

Internet Protocol
Transmission protocol on layers 3 and 2 of the ISO/OSI
Reference Model. The following versions are presently
valid:
IPv4:
IPv6:

Version 4
Version 6

4 address bytes
6 address bytes

IP address

Logical address allocated by the network operator


to a station on layer 3 of the ISO/OSI Reference
Model. Under IPv4 (4 bytes) the address is written
in decimal notation separated by a full stop (example:
198.178.002.001). This labels the addresses for the
network (network ID) and the address area of the terminal
device (host ID). Because IP addresses must be
unique, public network addresses are administered by
a central organisation. Local (private) IP addresses
are issued by the administrator of the respective local
network.

IP address, dynamic

Contrary to a static IP address, the dynamic IP


address is temporarily assigned through the DHCP
protocol.

IP address, static

In contrast to a dynamic IP address, this is a


permanently set IP address.

IPv4

Internet Protocol Version 4


IPv4 has an address volume of 4 bytes.
Please refer to IP

IPv6

Internet Protocol Version 6


IPv6 has an address volume of 6 bytes. In addition, it
differs as far as the structure of the header is concerned
and how it categorises networks in address types instead
of classes.
Please refer to IP

ISO

International Standardization Organization


World-wide standardisation committee

ISO/OSI Reference Model

Model for describing communication within a network.


The functionality is specied in 7 levels. The lower
(physical level) provides the interface to the physical
transmission medium.

ITU-T

International Telecommunication Union


Telecommunication Standardization Sector
Standardisation committee for telecommunications

Jabber

Relates to abnormal Ethernet frame transmissions. The


data packets triggering the situation are generally too long
(more than 1518 bytes). A malfunctioning Ethernet card
also be the cause of the problem. Jabber can lead to loss
of data for all network users.

Jam signal

Short code sequence that a network node transmits in


a CSMA/CD network when a collision is detected and
the data transmission has been discontinued. This signal
informs the other network nodes about the collision,
so that they desist from attempting transmissions.

Caution! Do not confuse with the MAC address!

Glossary

Jitter

Term for the uctuation in the timing of the signal edge

LAN

Local Area Network


Local network, for example, Ethernet

Last Signicant Bit

Please refer to LSB

Latency

Term used for the time difference between receiving and


forwarding of data. Latency is generally measured as the
time between receiving the last bit and transmission of the
rst bit.

Link aggregation

Term used for a function that combines up to 4 ports


operating the same transmission rate to a virtual port.
Thus, redundancy is created should a connection fail.
This function is also known as trunking.

Link

Logical connection between a single or several user(s)


using network services.

Local Area Network

Please refer to LAN

LSA+

Ltfrei Schraubfrei Abisolierfrei


Universal usuable termination technology of wires by a
special IDC connection

LSB

Last Signicant Bit


Least signicant bit within a sequence of bits on
Ethernet

M12 D-Coding

Circular connector from HARTING for twisted-pair cable


with IDC technology.

MAC

Media
Access
Control
Term for a sub-layer of layer 2 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model. This sub-layer polices access to the shared
transmission medium. To do so, it can utilise processes by
which either several stations with equal rights compete for
access (for example, CSMA/CD) or in which no collisions
occur at all, for example, token ring.

MAC address

Media Access Control-Address


Unalterable, world-wide unique hardware address
allocated by the manufacturers of devices operating on an
Ethernet network; assigned to a port of a switch in
the address/port assignment table as the destination
address.

MAC Media Access


Control

Parts of a network protocol that manage access to the


transmission medium; this eases data exchange between
network nodes.

Male

Contact element by which the outside surface is designed


to make suitable contact with a female connector.

Male insert

Insert used for accommodating and positioning of


(contact) male inserts in the connector.

Managed

Please refer to switch, managed

Mass

All interconnected inactive components that do not take


on a dangerous touch potential in the case of a fault.

135

136

MDI port

Medium
Dependent
Interface-Port
In accordance with IEEE standards, MDI is the term
used for the twisted-pair interface of a device to
10BASE-T
(or
100BASE-TX).
By utilising this RJ45-port, It is possible for the
hub to be connected to a networking unit (for example,
switch) using 1:1 cable.

MDI-X Port

Term for the MDI interface that crosses incoming and


outgoing signals.By utilising a corresponding RJ45port, it is possible for the switch to be connected to
any unit with a standard interface using 1:1 cable (for
example, a server or a router).

Mean Time Between


Failure

Please refer to MTBF

Media Access Control

Please refer to MAC

Media converter

A device operating on layer 1 of the ISO/OSI Reference


Model that converts signals between different media, for
example, optical to electrical.

MII

Media Independent Interface


Term for an interface complying with the ISO/OSI Reference Model operating between the physical layer (1) and
the data link layer (2) and supports 100BASE-TX,
100BASE-T4, 100BASE-FX and 10BASE-T.

Mono-mode bre

Please refer to single-mode bre bre-optic cable

Most Signicant Bit

Please refer to MSB

MSB

Most Signicant Bit


Most signicant bit within a sequence of bits on
Ethernet

MTBF

Mean Time Between Failure


Considered probability denoting expected time between
failures.

Multicast ltering

Term for process that enables a switch to selectively


forward multicast telegrams. Otherwise, multicasts are
forwarded to all ports on a switch.

Multicast telegram

Data packet addressed to all devices of a group. This


offers the possibility of addressing a given group via just
one address.

Glossary

Multi-mode bres

Fibre-optics distinguished by core diameters of a similar


size. The typical core diameter of step-index bres made
of glass is 100 m, 200 m for PCS/HCS bres and
980 m with POF bres. On the other hand, gradient
index bres typically have a core diameter of 50 and
62.5 m. Due to the relatively large core diameter, the
light disperses in multi-mode bres along different paths
(several modes). The distance to be bridged along a multimode bre depends on several factors: the rated data of
the bres, the link budget as well as the attenuation resulting from connectors, splices and other components.
Signal bandwidths:
Ethernet
=
Fast Ethernet
=
Gigabit Ethernet =

10 MHz,
125 MHz and
1.25 GHz

Network management

Administration, conguration and monitoring of network


components. The management agent in the component to
be managed communicates with the management station
(PC) by means of the SNMP management protocol.

Network management
station

Station on which the SNMP management software is


operated. The network management station is utilised by
the network administrator to monitor the network.

Network mask

The network mask marks all of the bits contained in an IP


address identifying the network and sub-networks. Binary
code:
IP address
10010101.11011010.00010011.01011010
Network mask 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
Sub-network 10010101.11011010.00010011.00000000
Decimal code:
IP address
Network mask
Sub-network

149.218.19.90
255.255.255.0
149.218.19.0

Available address range:


Station addresses
Broadcast address

149.218.19.1 to 149.218.19.254
149.218.19.255

Please refer to IP address


Network nodes

Term for network elements such as hubs, switches


and routers through which various data transmission
paths converge.

Network segmentation

Network segmentation restricts collision domains


enabling improved performances in Ethernet networks.
Network segmentation can, for example, be achieved by
utilising switches.
Please refer to segmentation

NEXT

Near End Cross Talk


A form of feed-over, in which the signals from components
at the same end of a twisted-pair cable superimpose on
one another.

Non-blocking

Please refer to switch, non-blocking

Octet

Term of IEC 61 158. An octet includes exactly 8 bits.

137

138
OSI

Open System Interconnect


International programme for standardisation founded by
ISO and ITU-T to create standards for data networks
that guarantee compatibility of devices from different
manufacturers.
Please refer to ISO/OSI Reference Model

OSPF

Open Shortest Path First


Name of a routing protocol. OSPF uses the information
supplied by routers concerning the topology of the
network to determine the shortest path between the
routers. A pre-condition for this function is that each
router creates a routing table in which the actual
topology of the network is stored. The routing tables are
constantly updated by the routers immediately informing
adjoining routers of changes to the topology. The
advantage offered by OSPF in comparison with RIP is
in the speed and improved network load distribution.

OUI

Original Unique Identier


Term for the most signicant 3 bytes of the MAC
address.

Patch cable

Term for cable with a maximum length of max. 5 m used


for connecting Ethernet components within a room (19
rack, switchgear cabinet). Patch cables are mostly used in
conjunction with patch elds.

PCF

Term for a bre-optic cable whose optical core is made


of quartz glass and whose optical sheath is made of a
layer of polymer.

PDU

Protocol Data Unit


Term for a data packet compiled on a layer of the ISO/
OSI Reference Model that is passed to the layer below
through a service access point (SAP).

Personnel, qualied

According to EN 50 110-1, skilled personnel (electrician)


and persons properly instructed by an electrician count
as qualied personnel.

Ping

Packet Internet Groper


A program that tests the connection between two IP
addresses. This determines if a station on a given network
is active, and how good the connection to it is.

Plastic Optical Fibre

Please refer to POF

PoE

Power of Ethernet
Technology dened in IEEE 802.3af for carrying the
voltage supply via Ethernet cabling.
Depending on the operating mode, power is supplied
either via the free wire-pair of an Ethernet cable or via
the wire-pair used for data transmissions.

POF

Plastic Optical Fiber


Term for a bre-optic cable whose optical core is
made of quartz glass and whose optical sheath is made
of synthetic material. POF bres typically have a core
diameter of 0.98 mm.

Port

Ethernet connection of a switch to which one or


several devices can be connected.

Glossary

Port Mirroring

Function for copying of incoming and outgoing data at a


port of a switch to a different port, where it can be
analysed using a network analysing device.

Port security

Function that protects against unauthorised access to the


network. Switches supporting this function provide the
option of determining for each port from and to which
terminal device data can be received and forwarded. The
check is made based on the MAC addresses of the
connected devices. If a device is connected to a port
where the MAC address is not registered, the port
can be shut down automatically.

Port trunking

Please refer to link aggregation

Potential equalization

Electrical connection that achieves the same or approximately the same electrical potential for components of
equipment and separate conductive components.

pps

Packets per Second


Unit of measurement used for switching speeds.

Prioritising

Prioritised data transmissions of Ethernet packets are


switched as a matter of priority in accordance with dened
criteria. Such Ethernet packets are labelled via the
tag eld on layer 2 and in the TOS eld in layer 3 of
the ISO/OSI Reference Model.

PROFINET

A network concept dening communication from the eld


to the process control level that includes PROFIBUS and
Ethernet as well as a model for plant-wide engineering.
For more information, log onto: www.probus.com.

Protective earth (PE)

Cable required for several protective measures against


dangerous shock currents in order to create an electrical
connection to one of the following components:

Framework of electrical equipment


Separate conductive components
Main earthing terminal / earth
Earthed point of power source or articial neutral point

Protocol Data Unit

Please refer to PDU

PTP

Precision Time Protocol


Protocol according to IEEE 1588 for description of a
method to exactly time synchronisation

PTP Master

Station acting as timer in a network segment

PTP-Slave

Station in a network segment, which is synchronised by a


PTP-Master synchronisiert wird.

QoS

Quality of Service
Term for a range of factors that inuence the quality of
a network. These factors include, for example, network
down times, delay times, stability of connections and
many more. Denitions of QoS vary widely.

Quad Cable

Star quad
A cable type, whose both wire pairs are twisted
together. This results in a hihger electromagnetic
compatibility.

Quality of Service

Please refer to QoS

139

140
Railway standard
(DIN EN 50 155)

Standard specically concerned with operating conditions


of electronics equipment on rolling stock

RAM

Random Access Memory


Term for a volatile memory

Random Access Memory

Please refer to RAM

Rapid Spanning Tree


Protocol

Please refer to RSTP

RARP

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol


A protocol that supplies the assigned static IP address
to a MAC address

Real-time

From the point of view of a system, this means that delay


times in communication have no negative effects or
disrupting inuences on a process.

Real-time Protocol

Please refer to RTP

Redundancy

Availability of equipment not required for basic functions.


Should a piece of equipment fail, the additional
(redundant) equipment can perform its function.

Redundancy manager

Term for HIPER ring network components responsible


for monitoring the ring and for activating redundant
connections when an interruption in the ring architecture
occurs. The redundancy manager shuts down this
connection once the cause of the interruption has been
rectied. Hence, although the ring is physically intact, it is
interrupted from a communication point of view.

Reference potential

Potential from which the voltage of the electrical circuits


are observed and / or measured.

Remote Network
Monitoring

Please refer to RMON

Request for Comments

Please refer to RFC xxx

Resource Reservation
Setup Protocol

Please refer to RSVP

Return loss

Describes the reduction of amplitude of the signal during


transmission in a cable. With increasing frequency and /
or cable length, the attenuation increases, which means
the level of the signal deteriorates.

Reverse Address
Resolution Protocol

Please refer to RARP

RFC xxx

Request for Comments


Request for CommentsAn abbreviation prominent in
Internet circles. It is very closely associated with the
publication of Internet standards. RFCs are numbered in
the sequence they are adopted

RIP

Routing Information Protocol


A protocol for cyclic exchange of routing tables per
broadcast between routers within autonomous
networks. RIP is one of the oldest, simplest and most
widespread routing protocols there is. The more complex
OSPF is considered its successor.

Glossary

Ripple, permissible

Corresponds to the ratio between the peak-to-peak


amplitude values of the AC component and the upper limit
of the signal value.

RJ45

Denotes the usual connection technique with twistedpair cables in ofce environments.
Often known as a western connector.

RMON

Remote Network Monitoring


A network management protocol. RMON denes nine
classes of collectable data on the lower layers of the
ISO/OSI Reference Model. Data is then subsequently
transmitted, for example, via the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to a network management
station.

RMON 2

Remote Network Monitoring 2


A network management protocol. RMON 2 is an
extension of RMON extending into the higher levels of
the ISO/OSI Reference Model.

Router

A device operating on layer 3 of the ISO/OSI Reference


Model connecting different network segments with one
another or separating them for purposes of network
security or to limit broadcasts in sub-networks. A router
only transfers data packets to other segments sent to its
own MAC address. Subsequently, the router forwards
the data packets based on routing tables. That means
that transmitting stations must know that the intended
recipient is not in the same network. The transmitting
station extracts this information from the IP address of
the recipient. Routing tables are either pre-dened or are
learnt by the router by means or routing protocols.

Routing

A function on layers 3 and 2 of the ISO/OSI Reference


Model. A distinction is drawn between dynamic an
static routing. Dynamic routing provides optimum
support for the transmission of data, whereas static
routing supports the transmission of data, speech and
video on an equal basis.

Routing, dynamic

Utilising dynamic routing, routers calculate the control


and parameters for choosing the path through the
network. This information is stored in routing tables and
exchanged between the routers via routing protocols.
Through this process, the optimum path is automatically
adapted to suit the current topology and network load.
Each telegram is routed individually. Thus, telegrams can
be received by the recipient in a different order to which
the transmitting station sends them.

141

142
Routing, static

With static routing, the paths used for transmitting data


between the transmitting and receiving stations are set,
and a certain bandwidth reserved for each connection.
Thus, data packets transferred between two terminal
devices always take the same route. That means there is
no possibility of automatically reacting to changes in the
topology or connection overloads. With this process,
the routers need not support any routing protocols,
because all changes to the network structure have to be
entered manually in the routers.

Routing Information
Protocol

Please refer to RIP

Routing protocol

Term for protocols utilised by routers for dynamic


routing in order to exchange information with one another
via connected networks. This information is stored in
routing tables in the routers.

RS 232 C

Recommended Standard 232 C


A widely used serial interface for transferring data with
speeds of up to 20 Kbit/s over distances up to 15 m. This
interface was standardised by the EIA as Standard No.
232 in Version C in 1969. Often also known as RS 232.

RS 422

Recommended Standard 422


A serial interface for transmitting data in Full duplex mode.
This serial interface was standardised in the 70s by the
EIA as Standard No. 422.

RS 485

Recommended Standard 485


A serial interface for transmitting data that allows a bus
structure with several stations. This serial interface was
standardised in the 70s by the EIA as Standard No.
485.

RSTP

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol


This protocol prevent that data packets circle between
switches for an endless time.
RSTP is dened in IEEE 802.1 D (issue 2004).
Please refer also to Spanning-Tree

RTP

Realtime Protocol
A protocol that supports real-time applications. It supports
transmission of additional information such as the type
of user data transmitted or the time the user data was
created.

Rx

Abbreviation for receiver. Designation for the connection


on a port at which data is received.

SA

Source Address
Source address within an Ethernet packet

Safety extra-low voltage

Abbreviation: SELV
Low voltage ranging up to 42 V DC. Devices specied
as SELV system, are protected against direct or indirect
touch; thus ensuring that no dangerous currents ow
through the body even when simultaneous contact is
made with both poles.

Glossary

SAP

Service Access Point


Term for the interface between two layers of the ISO/
OSI Reference Model through which a higher layer can
utilise the services of the layer below.

SC

Straight Connector
A widely known connector for bre-optic cables.
Please refer to DSC

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy


A European standard dening several standards covering
transmission speeds and forms or transmissions for
optical bres (bre-optic cables).

Segmentation

Segmentation restricts collision domains enabling


improved performances in Ethernet networks.
Segmentation can, for example, be achieved by utilising
switches.
Please refer to network segmentation

SELV

Safety Extra Low Voltage


Please refer to safety extra-low voltage

Service Access Point

Please refer to SAP

SFD

Start Frame Delimiter


Part of an Ethernet packet.

Shared network

Term used for an Ethernet network in which all stations


share the available bandwidth. Device access to the transmission medium in these networks is regulated by the
CSMA/CD mechanism

Shielded Twisted Pair

Symmetrical Category 5, twisted-pair cable consisting


of pairs of twisted and shielded wires with an overall
shielding either made of aluminium foil or copper braiding
to reduce interference from noise or radiation. Impedance
is 100 .

Signal propagation time

The time required for a data packet to transmit through a


network.

Single-mode bre

A single-mode bre is a bre optic cable distinguished


by an extremely low core diameter (max. 10 m). Because
of this, the light can only disperse above the cutoff wavelength along one path one mode. The distance to be
bridged along a single-mode bre depends on several
factors: the rated data of the bres, the link budget as well
as the attenuation through connectors, splices and other
components.Signal bandwidths:
Ethernet
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet

Skilled person (electrician)


(to DIN EN 50 110-1)

=
=
=

10 MHz,
125 MHz
1.25 GHz

A specialist, who with suitable training, knowledge and


experience can recognise and avoid danger resulting from
working with electricity (IEV 826-09-01, modied)

143

144
SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol


IETF standardised protocol for network management
of communication between switches and the management station.
Please refer also to RFC 1157 / RFC 1156 and in the
web: www.ietf.org

Source Address

Please refer to SA

Spanning tree

Term used for a protocol used in Ethernet networks to


determine the path. It is specied as the standard
IEEE 802.1 D.
In this process, the entire network is considered to be a
tree in which the terminal devices are represented by the
leaves and the switches by the branches or the roots.
By disconnecting individual connections or ports, the
spanning tree algorithm prevents data packets from ying
around within a LAN containing several possible paths.
In addition, it determines the optimum path when several
alternatives are available. Should a path become disabled
due to interference or interruption, the spanning tree
protocol searches for an alternative path. Reconguration
of this type of network can take between 30 to 90
seconds.

S/STP

Screened Shielded Twisted Pair


The individual twisted wire pairs of a twisted-pair
cable are wrapped with a foil shield in this type of cable
construction. Both individual shielded wire pairs are
enclosed in a common copper braid.

ST

A widely used connector with bayonet lock for breoptic cables. Also known as a BFOC connector. The
only standardised connector for Ethernet (10 Mbit/s)
(ST is a registered trademark of AT&T).

Star coupler

Please refer to hub

Start Frame Delimiter

Please refer to SFD

Store and Forward

Operating mode in which the switch temporarily stores


the respective data packet, checks it for errors and, if it is
error free, forwards it to its destination port.

STP

Please refer to Shielded Twisted Pair

Straight Connector

Please refer to SC

Structured cabling

Application-independent cabling of buildings for technical


information purposes in accordance with EN 50173
Generic cabling systems. This standard divides locations
in:
Primary areas (connecting buildings at a location)
Secondary areas (connecting different oors of a
building)
Tertiary areas (technical connections for terminal
equipment).
For these areas, the EN 50173 standard contains
recommendations for suitable cabling systems that are
both exible and generic as well as being equipped to full
future communication requirements.

Glossary

Subnet mask

Network mask
The network mask marks all of the bits contained in an
IP address that identify the network and sub-networks. It
is a method for dividing several IP networks into a string
of subgroups or sub-networks. The network mask is a bit
pattern that must t the IP addresses in the network.
The standard subnet mask is 255.255.255.0. In this case,
254 different IP addresses, from x.x.x.1 to x.x.x.254, can
occur in a sub-network.
Please refer to IP address

Switch

A device operating on layer 2 of the ISO/OSI Reference


Model. In contrast to hubs, switches analyse the
incoming data packets and forward these only to the
port to which the recipient is registered. Excluded from
these targeted switching operations are multicasts
and broadcasts, which are transmitted to all ports.
Data packets can be transmitted to several ports
simultaneously and in Full duplex mode. In doing
so, switches are able to optimise the available LAN
bandwidth. In the mean time, there are so-called layer-3
and layer-4 switches that also have some of the functions
of these layers implemented in them.

Switch, blocking

Switch that can process only a limited number of


connections simultaneously when operating full data
transmission rates.

Switch, managed

Switch with management functions; controls data trafc


in accordance with parameters / rules

Switch, non-blocking

Switch that can process all connections without delay


when operating full data transmission rates

Switch, unmanaged

Switch without management functions; switches the


entire data trafc based on the address/port assignment
table

Switch matrix

Matrix covering all connections between all ports of a


switch.

Switched network

Term for a switch-based Ethernet network

Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy

Please refer to SDH

Tag

Optional eld in the Ethernet frame that contains


information relating to priority of the user data and
membership of a VLAN; inserted after the source data.

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol


TCP is a connection-oriented protocol on layer 4 of the
ISO/OSI Reference Model. Mostly utilized for
transferring large amounts of data, this protocol is
responsible for error-free transmission of data.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol


TCP/IP is the standard Internet protocol that is not only
composed of TCP and IP, but contains a range of
protocols.

Terminating resistor

A resistor used for line termination of triaxial cables used


for Industrial Ethernet.

145

146
TFTP

Trivial File Transfer Protocol


An ISO/OSI Reference Model layer-5 protocol that uses
UDP for fast and uncomplicated transmissions of les.
TFTP is a considerably leaner and less complex than
FTP.

Thick Wire

Please refer to 10Base-5

Thin Wire

Please refer to 10Base-2

Time To Live

Please refer to TTL

Topology

Layout structure of a network

TOS

Type Of Service
A eld in the Internet protocol that oversees prioritising of
data.

TP

Please refer to twisted-pair

Transceiver

General term for a component used for transmitting and


receiving.
Term for media converters within the Rail family of
products.
Components that convert data signals from an AUI
interface to another medium.
There are two plug-on transceivers for bre-optic
cables, twisted-pair and coaxial cables. The latter are
supplied with power from the connected terminal device
via the 15-pole AUI interface.

Transmission Control
Protocol

Pleaser refer to TCP

Transmission Control
Pleaser refer to TCP/IP
Protocol / Internet Protocol
Transmission path

Complete transmission path connecting two user-specic


facilities with each other. Device connection cables are a
part of the transmission path.

Transmission rate

The speed of data transmission also known as bandwidth;


with Ethernet, the following transmission rates are
possible:

10 Mbit/s
100 Mbit/s
1000 Mbit/s
10 000 Mbit/s

(Ethernet)
(Fast Ethernet)
(Gigabit Ethernet)
(10 Gigabit-Ethernet)

Transport Control Protocol

Pleaser refer to TCP

Trap

Term for the message concerning spontaneous events,


such as error messages to a network management
station.

Triaxial cable

10Base-5 compliant data cable that, with a solid


aluminium shield and outer sheath, has been adapted for
use in industry.

Trivial File Transfer


Protocol

Please refer to TFTP

Trunking

Please refer to link aggregation

Glossary

TTL

Time To Live
A eld in the header of the Internet protocol detailing for
how long the packet is valid.

Tunnelling

Term used for packaging of data in the data packet of a


different protocol operating on the same layer of the
ISO/OSI Reference Model. Encapsulation is another
name give to this process.

Twisted-pair

Denotes point-to-point connection method using a data


cable with twisted-pair cables (shielded or unshielded)
in an Ethernet network. The opposing effects of EMC
interferences in the individual wire loops of the twistedpair cables cancel each other out.

Tx

Abbreviation for transmitter.


Term for the connection on a port from which the data is
transmitted.

Type Of Service

Please refer to TOS

UDP

User Datagramm Protocol


Operating on layer 4 of the ISO/OSI Reference Model,
UDP is a connectionless protocol that is particularly
suitable for fast cyclic data trafc. Transmissions using
UDP protocols are generally faster than with TCP,
however errors are not xed.

UL

Underwriters Laboratories
American institute for quality assurance of technical
products.

Unicast

Term for transmitting a message to a specied recipient.

Unmanaged

Please refer to switch, unmanaged

Unshielded Twisted-pair

Symmetrical twisted-pair cable with unshielded wires


twisted in pairs without overall shielding

UTP

Please refer to Unshielded Twisted Pair

VDE

Verband der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und


Informationstechnik
German Association for Electrical, Electronic and
Information Technologies

Virtual Redundant Router


Protocol

Pleaser refer to VRRP

VLAN

Virtual LAN
A switch-based virtual LAN tasked with restricting
broadcasts to the network areas in which the broadcast is of use. Also used to separate networks for security
purposes.

VRRP

Virtual Redundant Router Protocol


A protocol for controlling redundant routers.

WAN

Wide Area Network


Term used for private or public networks that often
connect several LANs with each other.

Weighted Fair Queuing

Please refer to WFQ

147

148
WEP

Wired Equivalent Privacy


A coding mechanism based on a key length of 40/64 bits
and 104/128 bits.
WEP is dened in IEEE 802.11.

WFQ

Weighted Fair Queuing


A procedure according to which the queues in a
switch are processed, if the data is prioritised. Due to
the bandwidths assigned to the queues, this procedure
guarantees that all queues are processed.

Wide Area Network

Please refer to WAN

Wire Speed

Term used for forwarding data packets at the speed


allowed by the physical properties of the wire.

Wired Equivalent Privacy

Please refer to WEP

Wireless LAN

Pleaser refer to WLAN

WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network


A group of stations connected to one another without
wires (wireless LAN).

Xmodem

Protocol for transmitting data between stations. The data


is divided up into 128-byte blocks.
Errors in the data are corrected.

Yellow Cable

Please refer to 10Base-5

Zero potential

The zero potential is the sum of all connected, inactive


components of equipment that, even in the event of a
fault, cannot take on a dangerous shock hazard voltage.

Glossary

149

150

Degrees of Protection

Degrees of Protection
HARTING can draw on many years of extensive experience gained in achieving
high degrees of protection in industrial environments (IP 65 and greater); all of
which has owed into the development of its family of devices.
These devices achieve their degree of protection as a result of the corresponding
housings and covers or by the interlocking of their connections. Depending on
the degree of protection, the devices are protected from external mechanical
inuences (impacts, foreign objects, dust, and accidental touch contact) as well
as against ingress of moisture (water, cleaning agents, oils and other uids).
The degree of protection provided by a device is dened in the standards
EN 60 529 and IEC 60 529, which also contain a classication of the different
degrees of protection.
In accordance with the above-mentioned standards, the degrees of protection are
indicated as follows:
Code letters
(International Protection)

First Index Figure


(Protection against
solid foreign objects)

Second Index Figure


(Protection against water)

IP

The following pages contain an overview of the individual codes and their
meaning.

151

152

First Index Figure

Index
gure

Scope of protection against solid foreign objects and mechanical


contacts

No protection

No protection against
accidental contact
No protection against solid
foreign objects

Protection against
large foreign
objects

Protection against contact with


any large area by hand
Protection against large solid
foreign objects with
> 50 mm

Protection against
medium sized
foreign objects

Protection against contact with


the ngers
Protection against solid foreign
onjects with
> 12 mm

Protection against
small solid foreign
objects

Protection against tools, wires


or similar objects with > 2,5
mm
Protection against small solid
foreign objects with
> 2,5 mm

Protection against
grain-shaped
foreign objects

as 3 however > 1 mm

Protection against
injurious deposits
of dust

Full protection against contact


Protection against interior
injurious dust deposits

Protection against
ingress of dusts

Total protection against contact


Protection against penetration
of dust

Degrees of Protection

Second Index Figure

Index
gure

Scope of protection against water and other uids

No protection
against water

No protection against water

Drip-proof (vertical)

Protection against vertical water


drips

Drip-proof (angular)

Protection against water drips (up


to a 15 angle)

Spray-proof

Protection against diagonal water


drips (up to 60 angle)

Splash-proof

Protection against splashed water


from all directions

Hose-proof

Protection against water (out of a


nozzle) from all directions

Protection against
ooding

Protection against temporary


ooding

Protection against
immersion

Protection against temporary


immersion

Water-tight

Protection against water pressure

153

154

List of gures

List of gures
Figure 1-1

Cable installation based on conventional wiring .........13

Figure 1-2

Cable installation based on a eldbus ........................14

Figure 1-3

Overview of transmission rates for various classic


eldbus systems and Industrial Ethernet ....................16

Figure 1-4

The automation pyramid .............................................17

Figure 1-5

ISO/OSI Reference Model ..........................................20

Figure 1-6

Example of message transmission utilising a eldbus


in accordance with the ISO/OSI Reference Model .....22

Figure 1-7

Classifying the eldbus systems .................................23

Figure 2-1

Ethernet The idea ....................................................25

Figure 2-2

Development of Ethernet to date ................................26

Figure 2-3

Ethernet and the ISO/OSI Reference Model...............27

Figure 2-4

Structure of a MAC address........................................29

Figure 2-5

Standard Ethernet Frame ...........................................30

Figure 2-6

Path taken by an Ethernet telegram ...........................31

Figure 2-7

Path taken by broadcast telegrams ............................31

Figure 2-8

Path taken by multicast telegrams (group 1) ..............32

Figure 2-9

Path taken by multicast telegrams (group 2) ..............32

Figure 2-10

Sequence of a data transmission with CSMA/CD.......33

Figure 2-11

Schematic portrayal of the CSMA/CD method............34

Figure 2-12

Carrier Extension for a short Gigabit Ethernet frame


(data eld < 493 bytes) ...............................................38

Figure 2-13

Conventional system extension operating different


eldbus systems .........................................................41

Figure 2-14

System extension based on Ethernet / Industrial


Ethernet ......................................................................42

Figure 2-15

Harsh industrial conditions operating in a steelworks


....................................................................................44

Figure 2-16

Fast data transmission to control industrial robots


manufacturing automobiles .........................................44

Figure 2-17

Wind turbines high demands on EMC and


mechanical stability .....................................................45

155

156
Figure 3-1

Structured cabling in the ofce area in accordance


with EN 50 173-1 ........................................................53

Figure 3-2

PROFINET-compliant structured industrial network


in accordance with EN 50 173-1 .................................54

Figure 3-3

Star topology with an Ethernet switch .........................55

Figure 3-4

Tree topology with Ethernet switches .........................56

Figure 3-5

Line topology with Ethernet switches ..........................56

Figure 3-6

Ethernet components in the ISO/OSI Reference


model ..........................................................................57

Figure 3-7

Comparison of Ethernet and PROFIBUS structures


based on theISO/OSI Reference Model .....................58

Figure 3-8

Function principle of a gateway (example: Ethernet


and PROFIBUS) .........................................................58

Figure 3-9

Gateways as a link between Industrial Ethernet and


PROFIBUS (Example) ................................................59

Figure 3-10

Communication between Ethernet networks with


routers .........................................................................59

Figure 3-11

Function principle of an Ethernet switch .....................61

Figure 3-12

Operating mode Store and Forward ..........................63

Figure 3-13

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet switches sealed to


IP 20............................................................................65

Figure 3-14

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet switches sealed to


IP 65 / IP 67 ................................................................66

Figure 3-15

Construction of the ESC TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial .............................................................69

Figure 3-16

Block diagram of Ethernet switch ESC 67-10 TP05U


....................................................................................70

Figure 3-17

Options for utilising In-between Ethernet switches ....71

Figure 3-18

Example of a structure based on In-between


Ethernet switch and Ethernet switch for direct
mounting .....................................................................72

Figure 3-19

Construction of the ESC 67-30 TP05U HARTING


RJ Industrial .............................................................73

Figure 3-20

Block diagram of In-between Ethernet switch


ESC 67-30 TP05U ......................................................73

Figure 3-21

Difference between an Ethernet hub and an Ethernet


switch ..........................................................................74

Figure 3-22

Function principle of an Ethernet hub .........................75

List of gures

Figure 3-23

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet hubs sealed to IP 20


....................................................................................76

Figure 3-24

Industrial utilisation of Ethernet hubs sealed to


IP 65 / IP 67 ................................................................77

Figure 3-25

Construction of EHB 67-10 TP05 M12 D-coding ........80

Figure 3-26

Block diagram of Ethernet hub EHB 67-10 TP05 .......80

Figure 3-27

Structured cabling to ISO/IEC 11 801:2002 with


Industrial Outlets .........................................................81

Figure 3-28

Industrial Outlet in a production facility at


Daimler Chrysler AG, Rastatt (source: HARTING) .....83

Figure 3-29

Construction of INO 67 HARTING RJ Industrial .......83

Figure 3-30

Cable properties in conjunction with the category used


...................................................................................87

Figure 3-31

Twisted-pair cable with two cable pairs (example:


for permanent installation) ..........................................88

Figure 3-32

Maximum transmission length of Ethernet cables ......89

Figure 3-33

Hybrid cable with 2 sets of shielded data lines and


4 copper wires for the power supply ...........................90

Figure 3-34

Possible connectors for Industrial Ethernet from


HARTING ....................................................................93

Figure 3-35

Connectors for Industrial Ethernet in IP 20 ................94

Figure 3-36

HARTING RJ Industrial connectors to IP 20 in use


at the Stadler Rail Group, Switzerland
(source: HARTING).....................................................94

Figure 3-37

HARTING RJ Industrial IP 67 Data 3A connectors


in use on robots (source: HARTING) ..........................97

Figure 3-38

Hybrid connector .........................................................98

Figure 3-39

Contact assignment for 1:1 cable (example: RJ45,


2-pair)..........................................................................98

Figure 3-40

Contact assignment for cross-over cable (example:


RJ45, 2-pair) ...............................................................99

Figure 3-41

Contact assignment for circular connector


M12 D-coding (female / male).....................................99

Figure 3-42

Contact assignment (pairs) RJ45, 4-pair ..................100

Figure 3-43

Contact assignment (pairs) RJ45, 4-pair for Gigabit


Ethernet ....................................................................101

157

158
Figure 3-44

Contact assignment for 1:1 cable and Gigabit Ethernet


..................................................................................102

Figure 3-45

Contact assignment for cross-over cable and Gigabit


Ethernet ....................................................................102

List of tables

List of tables
Table 2-1

Overview of address types..........................................29

Table 2-2

Standard Ethernet frame.............................................30

Table 2-3

Inuence of the transmission rate on the collision


window and maximum transmission path ...................34

Table 2-4

Comparison between Ethernet and Fast Ethernet ......35

Table 2-5

Comparison of Gigabit Ethernet with Ethernet and


Fast Ethernet ..............................................................37

Table 2-6

Different requirements for ofce and industrial


environments ..............................................................46

Table 2-7

Different requirements for network components in


ofce and industrial environments ..............................47

Table 2-8

Overview of the current Ethernet protocols.................50

Table 3-1

Comparison between the operating modes Store


and Forward and Cut Through..................................64

Table 3-2

Comparison between Ethernet switch sealed to


IP 20 and Ethernet switch sealed to IP 65 / IP 67 .......67

Table 3-3

Comparison between Ethernet hub sealed to IP 20


and Ethernet switch sealed to IP 65 / IP 67 ................78

Table 3-4

Various solutions available for Ethernet cabling .........84

Table 3-5

Environmental inuences in various elds of industry


....................................................................................85

Table 3-6

Transmission media for Ethernet protocols ................86

Table 3-7

Overview of cable category assignment .....................87

Table 3-8

Overview of cable class assignment for transmission


channels......................................................................87

Table 3-9

Maximum cabling lengths for Ethernet / Fast Ethernet


according to PROFINET specications.......................89

Table 3-10

Special bre-optic cables for Gigabit Ethernet ............91

Table 3-11

Twisted-pair cables for Gigabit Ethernet .....................91

Table 3-12

Overview of bre-optic cable for 10 Gigabit Ethernet


....................................................................................91

Table 3-13

Power on Ethernet (PoE) performance classes ..........92

Table 3-14

Different connectors for Industrial Ethernet in IP 65 /


IP 67............................................................................95

Table 3-15

HARTING connectors .................................................96

159

160
Table 3-16

Contact assignment for 1:1 cable ...............................98

Table 3-17

Contact assignment for cross-over cable....................99

Table 3-18

Contact assignment for RJ45, 2-pair (colour code) ....99

Table 3-19

Contact assignment, circular connector


M12 D-coding (colour code)......................................100

Table 3-20

Contact assignment, wire pairs RJ45 connector.......100

Table 3-21

Contact assignment RJ45 according to EIA/TIA 568


(colour code) .............................................................101

Table 3-22

Contact assignment for wire pairs, RJ45 connector


for Ethernet / Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet.....102

Table 5-1

Overview of types of components for Industrial


Ethernet from HARTING ..........................................105

Table 5-2

Overview of types of Ethernet switches for direct


mounting ...................................................................106

Table 5-3

Overview of types of Ethernet switches for mounting


on to exterior cabinet panels from HARTING ...........106

Table 5-4

Overview of types of Ethernet hubs to IP 67 from


HARTING ..................................................................107

Table 5-5

Overview of types of Industrial Outlets from


HARTING ..................................................................107

Table 5-6

Mounting options.......................................................108

Table 5-7

Cable types for Ethernet switches ............................108

Table 5-8

Cable types for Ethernet hubs and outlets ................109

Table 5-9

Examples of cable types ...........................................109

Table 5-10

Connector variants .................................................... 110

Index

Index
0 ... 9
1000Base-LX .................................................................................................
1000Base-SX ................................................................................................
1000Base-T ...................................................................................................
100Base-FX ..................................................................................................
100Base-TX ..................................................................................................
10Base-FL .....................................................................................................
10Base-T .......................................................................................................
10 Gigabit Ethernet .......................................................................................
cable .......................................................................................................

86
86
86
86
86
86
86
38
91

A
accumulated frame telegram ......................................................................... 24
address/port assignment table ...................................................................... 60
address types ................................................................................................ 29
application layer ............................................................................................ 21
Auto-crossing ................................................................................................ 61
Auto-negotiation ...................................................................................... 35, 61
Auto-polarity .................................................................................................. 62
Auto-sensing ................................................................................................. 75
automation pyramid ....................................................................................... 17
availability ...................................................................................................... 47

B
bit transmission layer ..................................................................................... 20
block diagram
Ethernet hub ........................................................................................... 80
Ethernet switch ....................................................................................... 70
In-between Ethernet switch ..................................................................... 73
bridge ............................................................................................................ 60
broadcast ................................................................................................. 20, 31
bus access, deterministic .............................................................................. 23
bus access, random ...................................................................................... 23

C
cable, category .............................................................................................. 87
cable, class .................................................................................................... 87
cable, hybrid .................................................................................................. 90
cable, properties ............................................................................................ 87
cable, twisted-pair ......................................................................................... 88
cabling, structured ................................................................................... 53, 81

161

162
carrier extension ............................................................................................ 37
Carrier Sense ................................................................................................ 33
Carrier Sense Multiple Access ...................................................................... 23
category ......................................................................................................... 86
cell level ......................................................................................................... 18
CIP................................................................................................................. 50
class .............................................................................................................. 87
collision .......................................................................................................... 33
collision, freedom from ............................................................................ 47, 61
Collision Detection ......................................................................................... 33
collision domain ....................................................................................... 33, 61
collision window ............................................................................................. 34
colour code .................................................................................... 99, 100, 101
communication layer ..................................................................................... 21
conditions, environmental .............................................................................. 85
connector ....................................................................................................... 93
IP 20 ........................................................................................................ 94
IP 65 / IP 67 ............................................................................................ 94
overview in IP 65 / IP 67 ......................................................................... 95
connector, hybrid ........................................................................................... 97
contact assignment ....................................................................................... 98
1:1 cable ................................................................................................. 98
cross-over cable ...................................................................................... 98
Gigabit Ethernet .................................................................................... 101
M12 D-coding .......................................................................................... 99
RJ45, 2-pair ............................................................................................ 99
RJ45, 4-pair .......................................................................................... 100
Control and Information Protocol ................................................................... 50
control level ................................................................................................... 18
copper cable .................................................................................................. 88
cross-over function ........................................................................................ 79
CSMA ............................................................................................................ 23
CSMA/CD ................................................................................................ 27, 33
Cut Through................................................................................................... 63

D
data link layer ................................................................................................ 20
data port ............................................................................................ 69, 73, 80
destination address ....................................................................................... 30
dual speed hub .............................................................................................. 74

E
Endpoint PSE, operating mode B .................................................................. 92
EtherCat ........................................................................................................ 52

Index

Ethernet, address .......................................................................................... 28


Ethernet, classic ...................................................................................... 25, 26
Ethernet, development .................................................................................. 26
Ethernet, frame .............................................................................................. 30
Ethernet, protocol variants ............................................................................ 50
EtherNet/IP .................................................................................................... 50
Ethernet cabling
solutions .................................................................................................. 84
standardisation ........................................................................................ 84
ETHERNET PowerLink ................................................................................. 51

F
Fast Ethernet ................................................................................................. 35
FDX ............................................................................................................... 36
eldbus systems, classication ..................................................................... 22
eld level ....................................................................................................... 17
ow control .................................................................................................... 36
frame bursting ............................................................................................... 38
Full duplex ............................................................................................... 36, 62

G
gateway ......................................................................................................... 58
Gigabit Ethernet ...................................................................................... 36, 90
copper cables .......................................................................................... 91
bre optics ............................................................................................... 90

H
Half duplex ....................................................................................................
HSE ...............................................................................................................
hub ................................................................................................................
hub, function principle ...................................................................................
hybrid cable ...................................................................................................

62
52
74
75
90

I
IAONA ........................................................................................................... 49
IEEE .............................................................................................................. 25
impedance ..................................................................................................... 88
In-between Ethernet switch ........................................................................... 70
Industrial Outlet ............................................................................................. 81
instance ......................................................................................................... 20
ISO/OSI Reference Model ................................................................. 19, 21, 26

163

164
J
jam signal ................................................................................................ 31, 33
JetSync .......................................................................................................... 52

K
L
layer model .................................................................................................... 19
lifetime, operational ....................................................................................... 47
locking lever .................................................................................................. 69

M
MAC address ................................................................................................. 28
management function .................................................................................... 62
management level ......................................................................................... 19
master............................................................................................................ 23
mating face .................................................................................................... 93
Medium Access Control ................................................................................. 28
Midspan PSE, operating mode B .................................................................. 92
Modbus/TCP.................................................................................................. 52
Modied Cut Through .................................................................................... 63
multicast .................................................................................................. 20, 32

N
network, structured ........................................................................................
network component, active ............................................................................
network component, passive .........................................................................
network layer .................................................................................................
network topology ...........................................................................................

54
57
57
21
55

O
operating mode
Cut Through ............................................................................................
Modied Cut Through..............................................................................
Store and Forward ..................................................................................
OSI Model .....................................................................................................

63
63
63
19

P
patch cable .................................................................................................... 88
physical layer ................................................................................................. 20
PoE ................................................................................................................ 91

Index

Power on Ethernet .........................................................................................


Endpoint PSE, operating mode B ...........................................................
Midspan PSE, operating mode B ............................................................
operating mode A ....................................................................................
operating mode B ....................................................................................
performance classes ...............................................................................
preamble .......................................................................................................
presentation layer ..........................................................................................
process control level ......................................................................................
process level .................................................................................................
PROFINET ....................................................................................................
protection cover .............................................................................................
protocol ..........................................................................................................

91
92
92
92
92
92
30
21
19
18
51
69
19

Q
R
real-time................................................................................................... 48, 61
real-time communication capability ............................................................... 48
repeater ......................................................................................................... 74
requirements, environmental ......................................................................... 46
requirements, general ................................................................................... 45
requirements, installation .............................................................................. 46
response time ................................................................................................ 47
router ............................................................................................................. 59

S
safeethernet .................................................................................................. 52
SERCOS-III ................................................................................................... 52
session layer ................................................................................................. 21
signal propagation time, maximum ................................................................ 34
slave .............................................................................................................. 24
SNMP Management ...................................................................................... 62
standards ..................................................................................................... 113
starting frame delimiter .................................................................................. 30
status indication ................................................................................. 69, 73, 80
Store and Forward ......................................................................................... 63
switch............................................................................................................. 60
switch, blocking ............................................................................................. 62
switch, function principle ............................................................................... 61
switch, managed ........................................................................................... 62
switch, non-blocking ...................................................................................... 62
switch, unmanaged ....................................................................................... 62

165

166
Switched Ethernet ................................................................................... 39, 61
switch matrix .................................................................................................. 62
system, deterministic ..................................................................................... 39
system extension, based on Ethernet ........................................................... 42
system extension, conventional .................................................................... 41
system level ................................................................................................... 18

T
TCP ............................................................................................................... 28
telegram
broadcast .......................................................................................... 20, 31
multicast ............................................................................................ 20, 32
unicast ..................................................................................................... 20
tests, EMC ..................................................................................................... 47
tests, safety ................................................................................................... 47
Time Division Multiplex .................................................................................. 22
token .............................................................................................................. 23
Token Passing ............................................................................................... 23
topology
line .......................................................................................................... 56
ring .......................................................................................................... 56
star .......................................................................................................... 55
tree .......................................................................................................... 55
Transmission Control Protocol ...................................................................... 28
transmission length, max. .............................................................................. 89
transmission media ....................................................................................... 86
1000Base-LX .......................................................................................... 86
1000Base-SX .......................................................................................... 86
1000Base-T............................................................................................. 86
100Base-FX ............................................................................................ 86
100Base-TX ............................................................................................ 86
10Base-FL............................................................................................... 86
10Base-T................................................................................................. 86
transmission performance ............................................................................. 46
transport layer ............................................................................................... 21
trunking .......................................................................................................... 36

U
UDP ...............................................................................................................
unicast ...........................................................................................................
user data .......................................................................................................
User Datagram Protocol ................................................................................

28
20
30
28

Index

V
W
X
Y
Z

167

168