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cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
with Chiles unusual electoral rules.
Harbingers of the ConcertacinsESTUDIO
demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
government during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
1980s, so as time passes, the compelling force of that initial motivation
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
parties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
control. Finally, by the 2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
elected byTIERRA,
popular vote)
for 16 years. By
the standards ofMAPUCHE
multiparty
COMUNIDAD
E IDENTIDAD
coalitions anywhere, much less among Latin Americas presidential
systems, the Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
corruption charges against members, including the stripping of
Eduardo Valenzuela
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the
general disillusionment that goes with holding the reins of power for so
long. One might conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
En este artculo se examinan brevemente los datos de identificacin
undermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
tnica que contiene la encuesta realizada por el Centro de Estudios
necessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
Pblicos en poblacin mapuche. Los resultados del estudio indican
In the first place, the Chilean economy has come through the last five years
que los factores ms determinantes de esta identidad son la lengua y
in far better shape than that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
la tierra. La informacin muestra un deterioro notable de la lengua
employment and
growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
mapuche que va acompaada tambin de una desarticulacin profunConcertacin da
may
well
be in aritual
position
in comunidad
2005 to claim
credit
good
de la
comunidad
y de la
de sangre.
Lafor
posibilieconomic stewardship.
Next,
of tnica
the issues
surrounding
the nondad de afirmar
una many
identidad
en estos
factores aparece
muy
democratic legacy
of
the
Pinochet
era
including
the
renowned
disminuida, pero se recupera notablemente en la referencia a la tierra
que se ofrece como ltimo soporte de una identidad tnica duramente desafiada de todos modos por los actuales procesos de asimilacin urbana.

EDUARDO VALENZUELA. D.E.A., cole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales


(Francia). Director del Instituto de Sociologa, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile.
Autor de numerosos escritos en teora sociolgica, sociologa de la cultura y sociologa
comparada.
N. del E.: Sobre los resultados de la encuesta mapuche realizada por el
CEP (2006), vanse tambin en esta edicin los trabajos de Fernando Ziga,
Ignacio Irarrzaval y M. de los ngeles Morand, Aldo Mascareo, Rolf Foerster y
Sonia Montecino, Juan M. Ossio, as como el comentario de Jorge Larran al artculo de
Aldo Mascareo y la presentacin de Carolina Segovia y Lucas Sierra.

Estudios Pblicos, 105 (verano 2007).

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
ESTUDIOS PBLICOS
with 26
Chiles unusual electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
government during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
a encuesta
nacional
en poblacin
mapuche
porand
el Cengalvanized around
opposition
to the
Pinochet regime
ofrealizada
the 1970s
1
tieneforce
un novedoso
diseo
muestral: ha
tro so
de asEstudios
Pblicos
1980s,
time passes,
the (2006)
compelling
of that initial
motivation
tomado
como
base
muestral
las
comunas
con
mayor
densidad
de
poblacin
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
mapuche
segn
el
ltimo
censo
y
ha
construido
muestras
en
rea
urbana y
parties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
rural
de
mapuches
(segn
el
mismo
formato
de
autoidentificacin
que ocuover social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
p elFinally,
censo)by
y no
que comprende
a vecinos
corresidentes
control.
themapuches,
2005 elections,
the Concertacin
willo have
held the que
no
se
identifican
como
mapuches.
Despus
de
usar
el
criterio
censal de
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
autoidentificacin
tnica
para
seleccionar
las
diferentes
muestras,
el cueselected by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
tionario
vuelve
a
interrogar
acerca
de
la
identidad
con
una
pregunta
de tinte
coalitions anywhere, much less among Latin Americas presidential
ms subjetivo,
se siente
Ud. mapuche,
chileno
o unaofmezcla
de los dos?.
systems,
the Concertacin
is geriatric,
bearing
the scars
miscellaneous
Esta
ltima
pregunta
que
precisa
la
intensidad
de
la
identificacin
corruption charges against members, including the strippingtnica
of en
poblacin
mapuche
es
la
que
se
toma
como
base
de
este
anlisis
que
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the pretende
entregar informacin
y alguna
reflexin
naturaleza
general
disillusionment
that goes
with holding
theacerca
reins de
of la
power
for soy alde la identidad
sociedadiscontempornea.
long.cance
One might
conclude,mapuche
then, thaten
thelacoalition
simply ready to expire.
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
undermine the Concertacin, but we
do not regard these factors as
Identidad
necessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
In the first place,
the Chilean economy
has come through
five years
Las declaraciones
de autoidentificacin
segnthe
el last
formato
del cuesin fartionario
better muestran
shape than
ofbalance
any of entre
its Southern
Cone tnica
neighbors,
and a
un that
cierto
la afirmacin
(mapuche
employment
and
growth
figures
rebounded
in
first
months
of
2003.
The
secas, 38%) y la afirmacin mixta (chileno y mapuche al mismo tiempo,
Concertacin
may well
be in alaposition
in 2005
to claimprimero,
credit for
good des37%). Cuando
se incluye
precedencia,
mapuche
chileno
economic
ofalthe
issues
surroundingmixta
the (chileno
nonpus, stewardship.
la afirmacinNext,
tnicamany
alcanza
53%
y la afirmacin
democratic
the Pinochet
the renowned
primero, legacy
mapucheofdespus)
al 43%era
(conincluding
una pequesima
proporcin de

www.cepchile.cl

3% de mapuches que se identifica exclusivamente como chileno). Esta autoidentificacin tnica est fuertemente determinada por la lengua y la ruralidad segn muestran los resultados del anlisis de regresin logstica que
se presentan ms abajo. La probabilidad de identificarse como mapuche a
secas aumenta 4,8 veces entre quienes habitan en reas rurales respecto de
quienes lo hacen en reas urbanas y entre quienes hablan la lengua mapuche respecto de quienes no lo hacen. Ambos factores hablar la lengua y
vivir en la tierra estn muy por encima de cualquier otro: la edad (tener 35
aos o ms) no aparece significativamente asociada con la identidad, mientras que la baja escolaridad (hasta 8 aos de estudio) tiene una asociacin
modestamente positiva. La identificacin religiosa, sea catlica o evanglica
disminuye la probabilidad de identificarse como mapuche respecto de quienes no declaran ninguna religin aunque tambin de un modo que no re1 Centro de Estudios Pblicos (CEP): Estudio de Opinin Pblica: Los Mapuche Rurales y Urbanos Hoy. Mayo 2006. Santiago: CEP, 2006.

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
EDUARDO
VALENZUELA
27
with Chiles
unusual
electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
CUADRO N 1:
MODELO DE REGRESIN LOGSTICA PARA PROBABILIDAD DE IDENTIFIgovernment during theCARSE
1990s.
Moreover,
COMO
MAPUCHE the coalition itself was initially
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
1980s, so as time passes, the compelling force of that initial motivation
B
E.T.
Sig.
Exp(B)
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
parties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
Catlico
-0,812
0,181
0,000
0,444
over social
issues, such as the legal status
of divorce
and access
to birth
Evanglico
-0,472
0,188
0,012
0,624
control.Habita
Finally,
Concertacin
have held 4,870
the
zona by
ruralthe 2005 elections, the
1,583
0,130 will 0,000
35 o ms
de edad in the Chamber0,172
0,134
0,201
1,188
presidency
andaos
a majority
of Deputies
(the legislative
house
Hasta 8 aos de escolaridad
0,512
0,138
0,000
1,669
electedHabla
by lengua
popular
vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
mapuche igual o
coalitions
anywhere,
much less among
Latin Americas
presidential
mejor
que el castellano
1,561
0,195
0,000
4,765
Constante
-1,231
0,169
0,000
0,292
systems, the Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
corruption
N: 1487charges against members, including the stripping of
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the
general disillusionment
that goes with holding the reins of power for so
R2 Nagelkerke: 0,323
long. One might
conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
Hosmer y Lemeshow: 0,784
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
undermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
sulta devastating
decisivo. Latoidentidad
tnicasurvival
tiene como
dos elementos
necessarily
the coalitions
for afundamento
number of reasons.
extremadamente
inestables
en la has
sociedad
contempornea:
In the first
place, the Chilean
economy
come mapuche
through the
last five years la lenin far gua
better
shape
than
that muy
of any
of its Southern
neighbors,
and ury la
tierra,
ambos
desafiados
por los Cone
procesos
de asimilacin
employment
banos. and growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
Concertacin may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
economic stewardship. Next, many of Lengua
the issues surrounding the nondemocratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned
El examen del fundamento cultural de la identidad tnica remite en
primer lugar al estado de la lengua mapuche. Segn los datos que ofrece la
encuesta, el 15% de los mapuches habla su lengua igual o mejor que el
castellano (hasta el 28% de los mapuches del rea rural, solamente 6% de
los mapuches en rea urbana). Tambin existen diferencias de edad muy
pronunciadas: 35% de los adultos en reas rurales habla la lengua mapuche,
cosa que ocurre solamente con el 17% de los jvenes mapuches rurales.
Entre los jvenes mapuches urbanos la lengua se ha perdido casi completamente. Es importante observar que la lengua sobrevive algo mejor en hombres que en mujeres (32% en hombres del rea rural y 24% en mujeres) y en
mapuches de baja escolaridad (hasta 32% en mapuches con 3 aos o menos
de escolaridad, contra apenas un 2% en mapuches con escolaridad universitaria, diferencia que no se explica solamente por la asociacin entre ruralidad y baja escolaridad). La lengua viva es todava algo menor. Alrededor
del 80% de los mapuches rurales que conocen la lengua igual o mejor que el
castellano la habla asiduamente (al menos una vez a la semana), lo que

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
ESTUDIOS PBLICOS
with 28
Chiles unusual electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
entrega una proporcin de 22% de mapuches en reas rurales que conocen
government during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
y hablan la lengua. En reas urbanas solamente la mitad tiene oportunidad
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
de hablar con frecuencia la lengua mapuche, lo que permite estimar en ape1980s, so as time passes, the compelling force of that initial motivation
nas 3% la proporcin de mapuches que conoce y habla la lengua en la
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
ciudad. El declive de la lengua por desuso es muy importante en las ciudaparties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
des: se puede estimar en alrededor del 20% los mapuches que conocen pero
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
no usan la lengua en la ciudad (nunca o casi nunca, o solo en ocasiones
control. Finally, by the
2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
muy especiales)2.
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
elected by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
coalitions
anywhere,
much less among Latin Americas presidential
CUADRO N 2:
ESTADO DE LA LENGUA MAPUCHE SEGN CATEGORAS DE EDAD Y
systems, the Concertacin
is geriatric,
bearing the scars of miscellaneous
RESIDENCIA
URBANO-RURAL
corruption charges against members, including the stripping of
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the
general disillusionment that goesJvenes
with (18
holding
of jvenes
power (35
fory so
a 34) the reins No
ms)
long. One might conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
Mapuche
Mapuche
Mapuche
Mapuche
Any of these forces, or urbano
some combination
of them,
could indeed
rural
urbano
rural
undermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
Habla lengua
mapuche to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
necessarily
devastating
mejor
o
igual
In the first place, que
theelChilean economy has come through the last five years
castellano
(6)
2% (36)
17%
(46)
9% (128) 35%
in farHabla
better
shapeunathan
al menos
vez that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
por semana
(13) rebounded
12% (38) in first
39% months
(37) of17%
(122)
employment
and growth figures
2003.
The 54%
Conoce y habla lengua
Concertacin
may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
mapuche
(4)
1% (24)
11%
(20)
4% (101) 27%
economic stewardship. Next, many of the issues surrounding the nondemocratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned
Religin
Todava ms importante que el declive de la lengua es el estado de lo
que usualmente se llama cultura ancestral. En la encuesta se registran niveles altos de conocimiento de lo que significa machitn (ritual de curacin o
sanacin) y ngillatun (ceremonia para obtener una buena cosecha u otro
beneficio) y algo menos del wetripantu (fiesta del ao nuevo mapuche, que
corresponde al da de San Juan). No obstante, el conocimiento de los llamados ritos de pasaje es extremadamente bajo: solamente el 10% de los mapuches sabe qu es lakutun (ceremonia en la cual se pone nombre a los nios)
y ngapin (ceremonia por la cual dos personas se unen matrimonialmente) y
el 15% acierta en definir eluwun (rito para despedir a los muertos). Las
2

Un anlisis ms preciso sobre el estado de la lengua mapuche se ofrece en el


artculo de Fernando Ziga en este mismo nmero de Estudios Pblicos.

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
EDUARDO
VALENZUELA
29
with Chiles
unusual
electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy
has slowedCONOCIMIENTO
somewhat DE
since
the coalitions early years in
CUADRO N 3:
CULTURA ANCESTRAL SEGN RELIGIN Y HBITO
government during theRELIGIOSO:
1990s. Moreover,
the coalition
itself was initially
MAPUCHES URBANOS
Y RURALES
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
1980s, so as time passes, the compelling
motivation
Jvenes (18force
a 34) of that initial
No jvenes
(35 y ms)
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
Mapuche
Mapuche
Mapuche
Mapuche
parties most notably the Christian
Democrats
are internally
divided rural
urbano
rural
urbano
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
control.Machitn
Finally, by the 2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
presidency
and
majority in the
Chamber
Deputies
legislative
Ritual
de asanacin
(252)
69% of
(147)
69%(the(347)
65% house
(291) 78%
electedNgillatun
by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
Ceremonia
de rogativa
45% (119)
56% (251) presidential
47% (284) 77%
coalitions
anywhere,
much(163)
less among
Latin Americas
Wetripantu
systems, the Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
Ao nuevo mapuche
(90)
25% (136)
64% (116)
22% (241) 65%
corruption charges against members, including the stripping of
Lakutun
parliamentary
rights
from five (8)
of the coalitions
in 2002,6%
and the
Ceremonia
bautismal
2% (18) deputies
8%
(33)
(84) 23%
generalEluwun
disillusionment that goes with holding the reins of power for so
long. One
might
conclude, then,(10)
that the3%coalition
simply (46)
ready to9%
expire.
Rito
funerario
(36) is 17%
(134) 36%
Ngapin
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
Ceremonia
matrimonial
(11)
3% do(23)
11%
(19) factors
4%
(95)
undermine
the Concertacin,
but we
not regard
these
as 26%
necessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
In the first place, the Chilean economy has come through the last five years
in far better shape than that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
employment and growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
proporciones mximas se alcanzan en reas rurales con 17%, 20% y 29%
Concertacin may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
respectivamente, mientras que en reas urbanas estos ritos de pasaje son
economic stewardship. Next, many of the issues surrounding the noncasi completamente desconocidos. La participacin en estos ritos es prctidemocratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned
camente inexistente: la encuesta slo entrega informacin acerca de la proporcin que declara haberse casado segn la costumbre mapuche (hasta
23% en rea rural) mientras que los ritos bautismales y funerarios se consideran extinguidos. Los ritos de pasaje son la arquitectura religiosa de cualquier comunidad que se constituye y actualiza constantemente en la
celebracin de sus nuevos miembros, en consagracin de las alianzas y en
la despedida de sus muertos. Los ritos de pasaje son asimismo el verdadero
sostn de la lengua que adquiere en ellos el carcter de lengua sagrada o
ceremonial, el momento en que una comunidad es capaz de observarse y
pronunciarse a s misma en su lengua original. La evidencia muestra que
estos ritos han sido largamente cristianizados y se pronuncian en lengua
castellana, tal como lo hacen los dems chilenos. Es probable que el sentimiento de integracin nacional (73% de los mapuches dice sentirse plenamente integrado al pas) descanse en esta realidad fundamental: los
mapuches nacen, se casan y mueren como los dems chilenos, en los mar-

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
ESTUDIOS PBLICOS
with 30
Chiles unusual electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early 3years in
cos de ritos y ceremonias semejantes y de una lengua comn . Estos datos
government during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
sugieren que la identidad mapuche no se constituye por referencia a una
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
comunidad:
lo passes,
que sobrevive
de culturaforce
ancestral
es initial
el machitn
(ritual de
1980s,
so as time
the compelling
of that
motivation
sanacin,
comoIntodo
vnculo
es msand
bien
privado)
y el ngillamight
naturallyque
weaken.
addition,
themgico
Concertacin,
even
its component
tun,
la
nica
ceremonia
comunitaria
vinculada
a
la
fertilidad
de
la
tierra, con
parties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
dificultades
para
actualizarse
fuera
del
campo
y
de
la
economa
rural. El
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
ngillatun
es by
una
vigente
el campo, 45%
de los
mapuches
control.
Finally,
theceremonia
2005 elections,
theen
Concertacin
will have
held
the
rurales
declara
participar
con
frecuencia
o
a
veces
en
un
ngillatun,
pero la
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
participacin
del
mapuche
urbano
desciende
bruscamente
a
14%.
La
machi
elected by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
asimismo
es muy poco
solicitada
inclusoLatin
en el Americas
campo (25%)
para desaparecoalitions
anywhere,
much
less among
presidential
cer
casi
completamente
en
la
ciudad
(5%).
systems, the Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
corruption charges against members, including the stripping of
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the
Matrimonio
general disillusionment that goes with holding the reins of power for so
long. One might conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
Esta ausencia de comunidad se manifiesta tambin en la importancia
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
del connubio o del matrimonio mixto en la poblacin mapuche. Entre mapuundermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
ches urbanos, el 57% de los matrimonios o convivencias son definitivanecessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
mente mixto (mapuches con chilenos), aunque entre mapuches rurales el
In the first place, the Chilean economy has come through the last five years
connubio baja a 22%. La diferencia urbano-rural en prevalencia de matrimoin far better shape than that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
nios mixtos es muy pronunciada: las tasas de homogamia en rea urbana
employment and growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
(mapuche con mapuche) alcanzan a 23% y en rea rural suben a 65%. Es
Concertacin may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
importante notar, sin embargo, que 38% de no mapuches rurales declara un
economic stewardship. Next, many of the issues surrounding the nonmatrimonio con mapuches (contra apenas un 4% de no mapuches urbanos)
democratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned
lo que hace ms abierta la sociedad rural de lo que aparece a primera vista.
Los datos muestran tambin que no hay ninguna diferencia importante entre hombres y mujeres: unos y otras se casan ms o menos en la misma
proporcin con pares o no pares. Tambin sucede que el connubio aumenta
en las generaciones ms jvenes tanto en rea rural como urbana aunque
con una brecha moderada de 10 puntos en los extremos de edad, y se
incrementa sobre todo con la escolaridad con una brecha enorme: la homo3 La identificacin religiosa de los mapuches no tiene un sesgo tnico como
habitualmente se cree: los mapuches tienden a compartir la identidad religiosa de la
poblacin no mapuche de su misma condicin. La proporcin de mapuches que se declara
catlico (49%) es significativamente menor que el promedio nacional (70% segn ltimo
censo), aunque la proporcin de no mapuches corresidentes que se declara catlico es
bastante similar (56%). Inversamente, la proporcin de evanglicos dobla el promedio
nacional alcanzando al 35% entre mapuches y solamente algo menos, 27%, entre no
mapuches. La estructura de la identificacin religiosa entre mapuches y no mapuches en
reas urbanas es exactamente la misma, mientras que en reas rurales los mapuches
adhieren algo ms que los no mapuches al pentecostalismo y algo menos al catolicismo.

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
EDUARDO
VALENZUELA
31
with Chiles
unusual
electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
gamia entre mapuches con alta escolaridad es de 13% mientras que en magovernment during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
puches con baja escolaridad alcanza a 61%, diferencia que no se explica
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
solamente por la asociacin entre baja escolaridad y ruralidad.
1980s, so as time passes, the compelling force of that initial motivation
Los resultados acerca de matrimonio mixto concuerdan ampliamente
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
con la actitud respectiva: 65% de los mapuches considera que est bien que
parties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
su hija o hermana se case con una persona no mapuche y solamente un 6%
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
lo considera definitivamente mal. Esta disposicin es apenas ms baja en
control. Finally, by the 2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
rea rural (61% con 12% de desaprobacin, hasta un mximo de 15% entre
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
los ms ancianos) donde sin embargo la homogamia es mucho ms frecuenelected by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
te. Tambin es importante mencionar que la aprobacin del connubio es
coalitions anywhere, much less among Latin Americas presidential
muy similar en mapuches y no mapuches corresidentes: la disposicin de la
systems, the Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
poblacin mapuche a casarse con no mapuches es la misma que la disposicorruption charges against members, including the stripping of
cin de sus vecinos no mapuches a casarse con mapuches. La aceptacin
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the
del matrimonio mixto reaparece con la frase est bien que una persona
general disillusionment that goes with holding the reins of power for so
mapuche se case con una persona no mapuche que obtiene una proporlong. One might conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
cin de 75% de acuerdo que puede llegar a 79% en rea urbana y bajar
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
hasta 69% en rea rural ligeramente ms reticente. Esta amplsima aceptaundermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
cin del connubio confirma que la identidad mapuche no est afincada en la
necessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
comunidad, en el sentido convencional de una comunidad de sangre, que
In the first place, the Chilean economy has come through the last five years
aparece por el contrario enteramente abierta y dispuesta al intercambio exoin far better shape than that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
gmico. Muchas comunidades, sobre todo aquellas que han perdido la tieemployment and growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
rra como el pueblo judo, se afirman justamente en la prohibicin del
Concertacin may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
connubio y en reglas de comensalidad que dificultan el contacto con extraeconomic stewardship. Next, many of the issues surrounding the nonos, cosas que no existen en absoluto en este caso. Estos mecanismos de
democratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned
autosegregacin, completados muchas veces con otros de segregacin o

CUADRO N 4:

HOMOGAMIA EN POBLACIN MAPUCHE Y NO MAPUCHE: PROPORCIN


DE HOMBRES Y MUJERES QUE IDENTIFICAN A SU CNYUGE COMO
MAPUCHE, MAPUCHE Y CHILENO, Y CHILENO, SEGN RESIDENCIA URBANO-RURAL

Mapuche
rural

Mapuche
urbano

Total
mapuche

No
mapuche

No
mapuche

Total no
mapuche

HOMBRES
Mapuche
Mapuche y chileno
Chileno

68
12
20

21
19
61

39
16
45

36
11
53

3
8
89

16
10
74

MUJERES
Mapuche
Mapuche y chileno
Chileno

62
14
24

25
21
54

38
19
44

40
10
50

5
6
88

19
8
74

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
ESTUDIOS PBLICOS
with 32
Chiles unusual electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
discriminacin abierta, han fundado comunidades solidsimas y que se mangovernment during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
tienen intactas en medio de las mayores perturbaciones. El pueblo mapuche
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
ofrece una imagen distinta: la posibilidad de afirmar la identidad en una
1980s, so as time passes, the compelling force of that initial motivation
comunidad de lengua o de sangre parecen desvanecerse completamente,
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
aunque todava subsiste la tierra como ltimo soporte de una identidad viva
parties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
y actual.
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
control. Finally, by the 2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
Tierra
elected by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
coalitions anywhere,
much
amongcoinciden
Latin Americas
presidential
Todos los datos
de less
la encuesta
en la afirmacin
de la tierra
systems,
the
Concertacin
is
geriatric,
bearing
the
scars
of
miscellaneous
como el asiento fundamental de la identidad mapuche. Despus de la lengua
corruption
charges
against
including
the stripping
(51%), vivir
del trabajo
de members,
la tierra es el
segundo elemento
que los of
mapuparliamentary
rights
from
five
of
the
coalitions
deputies
in
2002,
andmuy
the por
ches consideran ms importante para mantener su cultura (32%),
general
disillusionment
with holding
reins of power
for so o
encima
de casarse that
entregoes
mapuches
(14%) the
y participar
en ceremonias
long.ritos
One might
then, that
the coalition
simplyha
ready
to expire.
(15%),conclude,
lo que vuelve
a mostrar
que laiscultura
perdido
su soporte
Any
of
these
forces,
or
some
combination
of
them,
could
indeed
comunitario. En el plano de las polticas pblicas este orden entre
la lengua
undermine
the seConcertacin,
but we do not
regard indgenas
these factors
as
y la tierra
invierte: la recuperacin
de tierras
ancestrales
necessarily
devastating
to
the
coalitions
survival
for
a
number
of
reasons.
(35%) es el principal problema al que el gobierno debera dedicar su atenIn thecin,
firstmuy
place,
Chilean
has come
throughdethelalast
five mapuche
years
porthedelante
deeconomy
la proteccin
y fomento
lengua
in far(17%).
better Cuando
shape than
that
of
any
of
its
Southern
Cone
neighbors,
and o
se pregunta por la forma en que el pas debe reparar
employment
and
growth
figures
rebounded
in
first
months
of
2003.
The
compensar a los mapuches, las tierras vuelven a ocupar el lugar primero
Concertacin
may well
in a position
2005 ytocultura
claim credit
(48%), mientras
quebe
el fomento
de lainlengua
ocupafor
unagood
posicin
economic
stewardship.
Next,
many
of
the
issues
surrounding
the
nonmucho ms discreta (6%). La reparacin por tierras prima por sobre la edudemocratic
legacy
the Pinochet
theencima
renowned
cacin (19%)
y elof
empleo
(10%) y seera
sitaincluding
largamente por
del reconocimiento social y legal de la etnia mapuche (14%). La tierra es la modalidad de reparacin preferida sobre todo por los mapuches urbanos (59%)
que se ubican por arriba de los mapuches rurales en este aspecto (39%).
Totalmente decisiva es la opinin acerca de la capacidad de mantener la
cultura mapuche en el medio urbano: 76% de los mapuches considera que
quienes viven en la ciudad pierden su contacto con la cultura mapuche. La
urbanizacin es vista como una amenaza cultural de primer orden justamente por su impacto sobre la lengua y sobre todo por la prdida de contacto
con la tierra. La incomodidad urbana de la poblacin mapuche es manifiesta:
por ejemplo, 66% considera que se vive mejor en el campo contra solamente
22% que afirma que se est mejor en la ciudad. Esta apreciacin es ms
fuerte entre mapuches rurales, 79% declara que se vive mejor en el campo,
pero se mantiene alta todava entre mapuches urbanos (58%). Asimismo, la
disposicin a irse a vivir al campo entre mapuches urbanos alcanza a 71%
(con un 46% que marca la alternativa ms vehemente, le gustara mucho

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
EDUARDO
VALENZUELA
33
with Chiles
unusual
electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
radicarse en el campo), mientras un 69% de los mapuches rurales rechaza la
government during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
posibilidad de vivir en la ciudad. El horizonte rural del mapuche urbano se
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
mantiene intacto entre los jvenes (68% le gustara vivir en el campo), entre
1980s, so as time passes, the compelling force of that initial motivation
los cuales debe contarse una proporcin importante de migrantes de segunmight naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
da generacin que no obstante prefieren la vida rural.
parties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
En este contexto de afirmacin identitaria de la tierra no debe sorover social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
prender demasiado la justificacin del uso de la fuerza para reclamar tiecontrol. Finally, by the 2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
rras que alcanza a 22% entre quienes la justifican incondicionalmente y
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
36% en algunas circunstancias (aunque un 39% no justifica el uso de la
elected by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
fuerza, lo que muestra que se trata de un tema controversial dentro de la
coalitions anywhere, much less among Latin Americas presidential
poblacin mapuche). Esta legitimacin de la violencia tnica no tiene los
systems, the Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
sesgos de edad y escolaridad que son caractersticos del radicalismo polticorruption charges against members, including the stripping of
co, usualmente alojado en jvenes de alta escolaridad relativa. Al contrario,
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the
la justificacin del uso de la fuerza est levemente cargada hacia mayores de
general disillusionment that goes with holding the reins of power for so
35 aos, especialmente en reas rurales, y hacia quienes tienen baja escolalong. One might conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
ridad: el apoyo incondicional al uso de la fuerza alcanza a 23% entre quienes
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
tienen hasta 8 aos de estudio, mientras que entre quienes tienen 13 o ms
undermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
aos de estudio o escolaridad superior disminuye a la mitad, solamente
necessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
11%, con una diferencia similar en rea urbana y rural. Es probable que
In the first place, the Chilean economy has come through the last five years
estos datos no muestren tanto una actitud polticamente relevante hacia el
in far better shape than that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
movimiento indgena, sino simplemente una afirmacin incondicional del
employment and growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
derecho a la tierra que aparece por encima de cualquier consideracin.
Concertacin may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
La identidad tnica mapuche parece estar recluida en la tierra que se
economic stewardship. Next, many of the issues surrounding the nonconstituye en soporte material de la economa mapuche, pero sobre todo en
democratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned
el fundamento simblico de una comunidad que por otra parte se desvanece
totalmente. Como sostn de una identidad tnica, la tierra mapuche no debe
ser entendida solamente como propiedad. Es cierto que la tierra no alberga
ninguna comunidad, ni existen tierras comunitarias: el 89% de los mapuches
considera que las tierras deben ser de las personas y sus familias como ha
sido la costumbre. Pero el valor simblico y patrimonial de la tierra se manifiesta tambin en el 65% de mapuches que aprueba la prohibicin ancestral
de vender tierras mapuches a no mapuches (hasta 76% entre mapuches que
viven en el campo). El cierre de la comunidad que no se consigue a travs
de la prohibicin del connubio, se logra con la clausura patrimonial de la
tierra indgena. Asimismo, mucho de lo que se llama el problema mapuche
proviene del desbalance entre la inviabilidad econmica de la tierra indgena
y la exacerbacin de su valor cultural. El minifundio alberga esta contradiccin interna: su valor econmico no se compadece con su valor simblico.
Las dificultades de afirmar una identidad al margen de la tierra no auguran
sino una profundizacin de este desajuste.

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
ESTUDIOS PBLICOS
with 34
Chiles unusual electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy
has slowed
somewhat since the coalitions early years in
CUADRO N 5:
AUTOIDENTIFICACIN Y SENTIMIENTO DE INTEGRACIN NACIONAL ENgovernment during TRE
theMAPUCHES
1990s. Moreover,
the coalition
itself was initially
SEGN CATEGORAS
DE EDAD
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
1980s, so as time passes, Jvenes
the compelling
force of that
initial motivation
(18-34)
No jvenes (35 y ms)
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
Plenamente Parcialmente
Nada
Plenamente Parcialmente
Nada
parties most notably
the Christian
are internally
integrado
integrado Democrats
integrado
integrado
integrado divided
integrado
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
control.
Finally, by the 2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
Mapuche urbano
presidency
of
house
tnica and a majority
6 4 in the3Chamber
0
6 Deputies
7 3 (the legislative
23
4
Mixta
68
2 7 years. By
5 the standards
81
1 7 multiparty
1
elected
by popular vote)
for 16
of
Chileno
83
17
0
84
12
4
coalitions anywhere, much less among Latin Americas presidential
systems,
the rural
Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
Mapuche
tnica
9
4members,
0
1 including
7 7 the stripping
19
4
corruption
charges 5 against
of
Mixta
69
31
0
82
14
4
parliamentary
rights from
deputies
in 2002,
and the
Chileno
4 0 five of
6 0 the coalitions
0
75
22
3
general disillusionment that goes with holding the reins of power for so
long. One might conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
La mirada econmica no acierta muchas veces a comprender el signiundermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
ficado de la tierra mapuche cuando confunde tierra con propiedad. Tamnecessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
poco lo hace mejor la mirada poltica que tiende a confundir tierra con
In the first place, the Chilean economy has come through the last five years
territorio. La encuesta no entrega muchos datos sobre este importante asin far better shape than that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
pecto de la cuestin mapuche. El sentimiento de integracin nacional puede
employment and growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
ser un buen indicio, sin embargo, del reconocimiento de la nacin como
Concertacin may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
unidad territorial: como se ha dicho; el 73% de los mapuches dice sentirse
economic stewardship. Next, many of the issues surrounding the nonplenamente integrados al pas (apenas 3% marca nada integrado) y esta
democratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned
proporcin es la misma en rea rural y urbana. Este sentimiento de integracin es algo menor entre quienes se identifican como mapuches a secas
(identificacin tnica) aunque slo en la ciudad: en el rea rural el sentimiento de integracin nacional es tanto o ms alto entre quienes se declaran
abiertamente mapuches. Los datos indican que identidad tnica no va en
desmedro del sentido de pertenencia nacional, lo que puede ser una prueba
de que la afirmacin tnica de la tierra no tiene un alcance territorial. Tambin los datos que proporciona la encuesta acerca de la exigencia de autonoma van en este mismo sentido: el 80% de los mapuches considera que
las comunidades indgenas deberan integrarse ms al pas, mientras que
solamente un 18% considera que deberan tener ms autonoma del resto
de Chile, proporciones que alcanzan a 78% y 22% respectivamente entre
mapuches de rea rural. No parece existir nada parecido a una nacin mapuche (y la expresin pueblo mapuche es exacta en este sentido, los pueblos tienen tierras, las naciones en cambio tienen dominio jurisdiccional
sobre territorios): al menos la encuesta no entrega ningn indicio acerca de

www.cepchile.cl

impossible to assign responsibility among them. We share the opinion that


the Concertacin may well dissolve before Chiles next election, but not for
the reasons commonly cited. Our argument is based, instead, on the
structure of Chilean political careers, which in turn is connected inextricably
EDUARDO
VALENZUELA
35
with Chiles
unusual
electoral rules.
Harbingers of the Concertacins demise point out that the Chilean
economy has slowed somewhat since the coalitions early years in
demandas o aspiraciones propiamente nacionales. La tierra es patrimonio,
government during the 1990s. Moreover, the coalition itself was initially
no territorio: no tiene ningn valor como sede de una organizacin poltica,
galvanized around opposition to the Pinochet regime of the 1970s and
lo que es propio de un pueblo que no ha conocido ninguna forma desarro1980s, so as time passes, the compelling force of that initial motivation
llada de poder estatal. Por contrapartida, la tierra parece adquirir un valor
might naturally weaken. In addition, the Concertacin, and even its component
cultural inconmensurable en el mundo mapuche como soporte de una idenparties most notably the Christian Democrats are internally divided
tidad que ya no encuentra otros espacios ni maneras de afirmarse.
over social issues, such as the legal status of divorce and access to birth
control. Finally, by the 2005 elections, the Concertacin will have held the
presidency and a majority in the Chamber of Deputies (the legislative house
elected by popular vote) for 16 years. By the standards of multiparty
coalitions anywhere, much less among Latin Americas presidential
systems, the Concertacin is geriatric, bearing the scars of miscellaneous
corruption charges against members, including the stripping of
parliamentary rights from five of the coalitions deputies in 2002, and the
general disillusionment that goes with holding the reins of power for so
long. One might conclude, then, that the coalition is simply ready to expire.
Any of these forces, or some combination of them, could indeed
undermine the Concertacin, but we do not regard these factors as
necessarily devastating to the coalitions survival for a number of reasons.
In the first place, the Chilean economy has come through the last five years
in far better shape than that of any of its Southern Cone neighbors, and
employment and growth figures rebounded in first months of 2003. The
Concertacin may well be in a position in 2005 to claim credit for good
economic stewardship. Next, many of the issues surrounding the nondemocratic legacy of the Pinochet era including the renowned