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20/05/2014

Chapter Objectives



Determine stresses developed in thin-walled pressure


vessels
Determine stresses developed in a members cross
section when axial load, torsion, bending and shear
occur simultaneously.

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THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS


Assumptions:
1. Inner-radius-to-wall-thickness ratio 10
2. Stress distribution in thin wall is uniform or constant

Cylindrical vessels:

Hoop direction : 1 =

pr
t

Longitudinal stress : 2 =

pr
2t

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THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS (cont)

Spherical vessels:

2 =

pr
2t

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20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 1
A cylindrical pressure vessel has an inner diameter of 1.2 m
and a thickness of 12 mm. Determine the maximum internal
pressure it can sustain so that neither its circumferential nor
its longitudinal stress component exceeds 140 MPa. Under
the same conditions, what is the maximum internal pressure
that a similar-size spherical vessel can sustain?

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions

The maximum stress occurs in the circumferential direction.

pr
t
p(600)
140 =
12
p = 2.8 N/mm2 = 28 MPa (Ans)

1 =

The stress in the longitudinal direction will be

2 =

1
(140) = 70 MPa
2

The maximum stress in the radial direction occurs on the material at


the inner wall of the vessel and is
3(max) = p = 2.8 MPa

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions

The maximum stress occurs in any two perpendicular directions on an


element of the vessel is

pr
2t
p(600)
140 =
2(12)

2 =

p = 5.6 N/mm 2 = 5.6 MPa (Ans)

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20/05/2014

REVIEW OF STRESS ANALYSES

Normal force P leads to:


uniform normal stress, =

P
A

Shear force V leads to:

shear stress distribution, =

VQ
It

Bending moment M leads to:


longitudinal stress distribution, =

My
(for straight beam)
I

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REVIEW OF STRESS ANALYSES (cont)

Torsional moment T leads to:


shear stress distribution, =

Tr
(for circular shaft)
J

Resultant stresses by superposition:


Once the normal and shear stress components for each
loading have been calculated, use the principal of
superposition to determine the resultant normal and shear
stress components.

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EXAMPLE 2
A force of 15 kN is applied to the edge of the member shown in
Fig. 83a. Neglect the weight of the member and determine the
state of stress at points B and C.

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20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions

For equilibrium at the section there must be an axial force of 15 000 N


acting through the centroid and a bending moment of 750 000 Nmm
about the centroidal or principal axis.

P
15000
=
= 3.75 MPa
A (100)(40 )

The maximum stress is

max =

Mc
75000(50)
=
= 11.25 MPa
1
I
(40)(100)3
12

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions

The location of the line of zero stress can be determined by proportional


triangles
75
15
=
x (100 x )
x = 33.3 mm

Elements of material at B and C are subjected only to normal or uniaxial


stress.
B = 7.5 MPa (tension) (Ans)
C = 15 MPa (compression) (Ans)

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EXAMPLE 3
The tank in Fig. 84a has an inner radius of 600 mm and a
thickness of 12 mm. It is filled to the top with water having a
specific weight of w = 10 kNm3. If it is made of steel having a
specific weight of st = 78 kNm3, determine the state of stress at
point A. The tank is open at the top.

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20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
Solutions

The weight of the tank is


2
612 2
600
Wst = stVst = 78

(1) = 3.56 kN
1000
1000

The pressure on the tank at level A is

p = w z = (10)(1) = 10 kPa

For circumferential and longitudinal stress, we have

1 =

600
)
pr 10(1000
= 12 = 500 kPa (Ans)
(1000 )
t

2 =

Wst
=
Ast

[(

3.56
= 77.9 kPa (Ans)
600 2
) (1000
)

612 2
1000

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EXAMPLE 4
The member shown in Fig. 85a has a rectangular cross
section. Determine the state of stress that the loading produces
at point C.

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

The resultant internal loadings at the section consist of a normal force, a


shear force, and a bending moment.

Solving, N = 16.45 kN, V = 21.93 kN, M = 32.89 kN

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

The uniform normal-stress distribution acting over the cross section is


produced by the normal force.

At Point C,

In Fig. 85e, the shear stress is zero.

c =

( )

P 16.45 103
=
= 1.32 MPa
A (0.05)(0.25)

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

Point C is located at y = c = 0.125m from the neutral axis, so the normal


stress at C, Fig. 85f, is

c =

( ))

Mc 32.89 103 (0.125)


=
= 63.16 MPa
3
1
I
2 (0.05)(0.25)

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

The shear stress is zero.

Adding the normal stresses determined above gives a compressive


stress at C having a value of

c =

Mc
= 1.32 + 63.16 = 64.5 MPa
I

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20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 5
The rectangular block of negligible weight in Fig. 86a is
subjected to a vertical force of 40 kN, which is applied to its
corner. Determine the largest normal stress acting on a section
through ABCD.

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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Solutions

For uniform normal-stress distribution the stress is

P
40
=
= 125 kPa
A (0.8)(0.4 )

For 8 kN, the maximum stress is

max =

M xcx
=
Ix

1
12

8(0.2)
= 375 kPa
(0.8)(0.4)3 ]

For 16 kN, the maximum stress is

max =

M y cx
Iy

1
12

16(0.4 )
= 375 kPa
(0.4)(0.8)3 ]

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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Solutions

By inspection the normal stress at point C is the largest since each


loading creates a compressive stress there

c = 125 375 375 = 875 kPa (Ans)

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