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# 20/05/2014

Chapter Objectives
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## Determine stresses developed in thin-walled pressure

vessels
Determine stresses developed in a members cross
section when axial load, torsion, bending and shear
occur simultaneously.

## THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS

Assumptions:
2. Stress distribution in thin wall is uniform or constant

Cylindrical vessels:

Hoop direction : 1 =

pr
t

Longitudinal stress : 2 =

pr
2t

## THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS (cont)

Spherical vessels:

2 =

pr
2t

## Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 1
A cylindrical pressure vessel has an inner diameter of 1.2 m
and a thickness of 12 mm. Determine the maximum internal
pressure it can sustain so that neither its circumferential nor
its longitudinal stress component exceeds 140 MPa. Under
the same conditions, what is the maximum internal pressure
that a similar-size spherical vessel can sustain?

EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions

## The maximum stress occurs in the circumferential direction.

pr
t
p(600)
140 =
12
p = 2.8 N/mm2 = 28 MPa (Ans)

1 =

2 =

1
(140) = 70 MPa
2

## The maximum stress in the radial direction occurs on the material at

the inner wall of the vessel and is
3(max) = p = 2.8 MPa

EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions

## The maximum stress occurs in any two perpendicular directions on an

element of the vessel is

pr
2t
p(600)
140 =
2(12)

2 =

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## Normal force P leads to:

uniform normal stress, =

P
A

VQ
It

## Bending moment M leads to:

longitudinal stress distribution, =

My
(for straight beam)
I

## Torsional moment T leads to:

shear stress distribution, =

Tr
(for circular shaft)
J

## Resultant stresses by superposition:

Once the normal and shear stress components for each
superposition to determine the resultant normal and shear
stress components.

## Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 2
A force of 15 kN is applied to the edge of the member shown in
Fig. 83a. Neglect the weight of the member and determine the
state of stress at points B and C.

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions

## For equilibrium at the section there must be an axial force of 15 000 N

acting through the centroid and a bending moment of 750 000 Nmm
about the centroidal or principal axis.

P
15000
=
= 3.75 MPa
A (100)(40 )

max =

Mc
75000(50)
=
= 11.25 MPa
1
I
(40)(100)3
12

EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions

triangles
75
15
=
x (100 x )
x = 33.3 mm

## Elements of material at B and C are subjected only to normal or uniaxial

stress.
B = 7.5 MPa (tension) (Ans)
C = 15 MPa (compression) (Ans)

## Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 3
The tank in Fig. 84a has an inner radius of 600 mm and a
thickness of 12 mm. It is filled to the top with water having a
specific weight of w = 10 kNm3. If it is made of steel having a
specific weight of st = 78 kNm3, determine the state of stress at
point A. The tank is open at the top.

20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
Solutions

2
612 2
600
Wst = stVst = 78

(1) = 3.56 kN
1000
1000

## The pressure on the tank at level A is

p = w z = (10)(1) = 10 kPa

## For circumferential and longitudinal stress, we have

1 =

600
)
pr 10(1000
= 12 = 500 kPa (Ans)
(1000 )
t

2 =

Wst
=
Ast

[(

3.56
= 77.9 kPa (Ans)
600 2
) (1000
)

612 2
1000

## Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 4
The member shown in Fig. 85a has a rectangular cross
at point C.

EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

## The resultant internal loadings at the section consist of a normal force, a

shear force, and a bending moment.

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

## The uniform normal-stress distribution acting over the cross section is

produced by the normal force.

At Point C,

c =

( )

P 16.45 103
=
= 1.32 MPa
A (0.05)(0.25)

EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

## Point C is located at y = c = 0.125m from the neutral axis, so the normal

stress at C, Fig. 85f, is

c =

( ))

=
= 63.16 MPa
3
1
I
2 (0.05)(0.25)

EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions

## Adding the normal stresses determined above gives a compressive

stress at C having a value of

c =

Mc
= 1.32 + 63.16 = 64.5 MPa
I

## Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

20/05/2014

EXAMPLE 5
The rectangular block of negligible weight in Fig. 86a is
subjected to a vertical force of 40 kN, which is applied to its
corner. Determine the largest normal stress acting on a section
through ABCD.

EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Solutions

P
40
=
= 125 kPa
A (0.8)(0.4 )

max =

M xcx
=
Ix

1
12

8(0.2)
= 375 kPa
(0.8)(0.4)3 ]

max =

M y cx
Iy

1
12

16(0.4 )
= 375 kPa
(0.4)(0.8)3 ]

EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Solutions