MANUAL for ADVANCED DESIGN
REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS subjected to FLEXURE and SHEAR FORCE
FIRST Volume Second EDITION
Dumitru MOLDOVAN Horia CONSTANTINESCU
Tehnoredactare: Dumitru MOLDOVAN
Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României MOLDOVAN, DUMITRU
Manual for advanced design : reinforced concrete members subjected to flexure and shear force / Dumitru Moldovan, Horia Constantinescu.  Iaşi : Stef,
2014
Bibliogr.
Index ISBN 9786065754010
I. Constantinescu, Horia
658.512.2
MANUAL for ADVANCED DESIGN
Dumitru Moldovan, Horia Constantinescu: Manual for Advanced Design
Copyright © Dumitru Moldovan, Horia Constantinescu 2012
Pentru prezenta ediție toate drepturile aparțin autorilor. Reproducerea prin orice mijloace, indiferent de format sau suport, chiar și parțial, a textului cuprins în acest volum sau traducerea sa, indiferent de limbă, mijloace, format sau suport, fără acordul prealabil scris al autorilor constituie o încălcare a Legii drepturilor de autor și se sancționează potrivit prevederilor acesteia. Pentru a obține dreptul de a reproduce sau traduce prezenta ediție, precum și pentru orice alte informații vă rugăm să contactați autorul.
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The current edition is a teaching book that represents the personal opinions of the authors. No liability is provided, implicitly of otherwise.
Preface
The present book on reinforced concrete design according to (SR EN 199211:2006) (Eurocode 2:
Design of concrete structures: 2006 ed.) is part of a complex project on safe design, superior casting productivity and cost attractive members and structures. The herein book, either ebook or inprint, is based on the very first book the authors have jointly contributed. Since it is the first volume of the fore mentioned project, the “1” is used to represent that. Since it is the second edition of the hereto mentioned volume the “.2” is used to represent that.
Apart from the modifications that incurred in the styles defined and used in writing this book, some modifications have been implemented to better outline the desired explanations, as plain text and/or figures and tables with corresponding notes and keys. Extensive rewriting of the design examples provided in later chapters incurred also.
Above all, this book is for the use of civil engineering students, especially those at their first contact with structural concrete and its design. Nonetheless, this does not exclude other interested parties to read, comment, refer to the present work or address suggestions to the authors to better organise the information provided or improve specific points.
Concrete is in the authors’ opinion, one of the oldest and greatest inventions. Still, there are some aspects regarding this material that may be approached differently, in order to unlock its full potential, or, in a more general definition, to achieve sustainability.
The first step towards that goal is to proper understand the limits of the material, plain and (especially) reinforced. By doing so, it is possible to design members and structures that are safe and cost attractive, avoiding waste of energy, materials and manpower.
That being said, it is the authors’ great pleasure to (re)introduce their first book (volume) that addresses the design process. Simply, get MAD!
ClujNapoca, 15 ^{t}^{h} July 2012
Manual for Advanced Design
^{v}^{i}^{i}
Acknowledgments
The authors’ wish to thank the following:
ASRO (Asociația de Standardizare din România): permission no. LUC/12/154/7.02.2012 DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V.) Prof. PhD Eng. Dan Paul GEORGESCU Prof. PhD Eng. Zoltan KISS
For permission to cite corresponding works as presented in the REFERENCE chapter.
All support is gratefully acknowledged.
ix
Manual for Advanced Design
Contents List
Preface 
vii 
Acknowledgments 
ix 
Contents List 
xi 
[Chapter 1] Flexural Design 
15 
[Section (1) A] Actions and Loads 
16 
[Note (1A) a] Combinations of Actions 
17 
[Note (1A) b] Limit States 
18 
[Section (1) B] Flexural Design Model 
19 
[Note (1B) a] Neutral Axis 
20 
[Note (1B) b] Model Assumptions 
20 
[Note (1B) c] Stress Block 
21 
[Section (1) C] Predesign Evaluation 
24 
[Note (1C) a] Sizing of the Cross Section 
26 
[Section (1) D] Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section (SRRS) 
28 
[Note (1D) a] Theoretical Model for SRRS 
28 
[(1Da) Discussion] Check Yielding of Tension Reinforcement 
29 
[Note (OneD) b] Practical Calculation for SRRS 
31 
[Section (1) E] Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Section (DRRS) 
33 
[Note (1E) a] Theoretical Model for DRRS 
33 
[Note (OneE) b] Practical Calculation for DRRS 
34 
[(1Eb) Discussion] Check Yielding of Compression Reinforcement 
35 
[(1Eb) Discussion] Check Yielding of Tension Reinforcement 
35 
[Section (1) F] Tee/Flanged Sections (FS) 
37 
[Note (1F) a] Theoretical Model for SRFS 
37 
[Note (1F) b] Practical Calculation for SRFS 
39 
[Note (1F) c] Theoretical Model for DRFS 
41 
[Note (1F) d] Practical Calculation for DRFS 
42 
[(1Fd) Discussion] Check Yielding of Compression Reinforcement 
43 
[(1Fd) Discussion] Check Yielding of Tension Reinforcement 
43 
Concluding Remarks on Chapter One 
45 
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Contents List
[Chapter 2] Shear Force Design 
47 
[Section (2) A] Theoretical Model for Shear Force 
48 
[Note (2A) a] Variable Angle Truss Model 
48 
[(2Aa) Discussion] Section Through Strut 
49 
[(2Aa) Discussion] Section Through Tie 
50 
[Section (2) B] Practical Calculation for Shear Force 
53 
[Note (2B) a] Shear Force Evaluation 
53 
[(2Ba) Discussion] Constructive Reinforcement 
54 
[(2Ba) Discussion] Check of Strut Failure 
56 
[(2Ba) Discussion] Check of Tie Failure 
56 
[(2Ba) Discussion] Establish Spacing/Size of Stirrups 
56 
[Note (2B) b] Anchorage Length 
58 
[(2Bb) Discussion] Establish Tension Force for Longitudinal Bars 
58 
[(2Bb) Discussion] Calculations for the Anchorage Length 
58 
[Note (2B) c] Check Shear between Web and Flange 
60 
Concluding Remarks on Chapter Two 
63 
[Chapter 3] Worked Examples 
65 
Project Specifications 
66 
[Section (3) A] Predesign Analysis 
68 
[Note (3A) a] Durability Requirements 
68 
[Note (3A) b] Bearing Members and Partial Loads Evaluation 
69 
[Section (3) B] Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section (SRRS) 
71 
[Note (3B) a] Sizing of the Cross Section 
71 
[Note (3B) b] Area of Reinforcement for Flexure 
74 
[(3Bb) Discussion] Place Bars in Two Layers, see [(3) Figure 3] 
76 
[(3Bb) Discussion] Bundled Bars – Horizontal Placing, see [(3) Figure 4] 
78 
[(3Bb) Discussion] Bundled Bars – Vertical Placing, see [(3) Figure 5] 
79 
[(3Bb) Discussion] Decrease the Height of the Cross Section 
80 
[Note (3B) c] Area of Reinforcement for Shear Force 
82 
[(3Bc) Discussion] Establish Elementary Length(s) 
85 
[(3Bc) Discussion] Layout for Stirrups 
88 
[(3Bc) Discussion] From support towards midspan, see [(3) Figure 8] 
89 
[(3Bc) Discussion] From midspan to supports, see [(3) Figure 9] 
91 
[(3Bc) Discussion] Alternative layout and placing 
92 
[Note (3B) d] Anchorage Length 
93 
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Contents List
[Section (3) C] Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Section (DRRS) 
95 
[Note (3C) a] Load Evaluation 
95 
[Note (3C) b] Area of Reinforcement for Flexure 
96 
[(3Cb) Discussion] Place Bars on Two Layers, see [(3) Figure 10] 
97 
[(3Cb) Discussion] Bundled Bars – Vertical Placing, see [(3) Figure 11] 
100 
[(3Cb) Discussion] Modify Cross Section and Reinforcement Layout 
102 
[Note (3C) c] Area of Reinforcement for Shear Force 
109 
[Note (3C) d] Shear Reinforcement Layout 
111 
[Note (3C) e] Anchorage Length 
112 
[Section (3) D] Tee Section (TS) 
113 
[Note (3D) a] Area of Reinforcement for Flexure 
115 
[(3Da) Discussion] Single Reinforcement 
115 
[(3Da) Discussion] Double Reinforcement 
118 
[Note (3D) b] Area of Reinforcement for Shear Force 
121 
[(3Db) Discussion] Establish Elementary Length(s) 
125 
[(3Db) Discussion] Layout for Stirrups 
128 
[(3Db) Discussion] From support towards midspan, see [(3) Figure 15] 
129 
[(3Db) Discussion] From midspan to supports, see [(3) Figure 16] 
131 
[Note (3D) c] Anchorage Length 
133 
[Section (3) E] Fast Track to Design (FTD) 
135 
[Note (3E) a] Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section (SRRS) 
135 
[(3Ea) Discussion] Sizing of the Cross Section 
136 
[(3Ea) Discussion] Static Analysis 
136 
[(3Ea) Discussion] Area of Reinforcement for Flexure 
136 
[(3Ea) Discussion] Exact Calculation of the Area of Reinforcement for Flexure 
137 
[(3Ea) Discussion] Shear Force Reinforcement 
138 
[(3Ea) Discussion] Anchorage Length 
138 
[Note (3E) b] Even Faster Track to Design 
139 
[Section (3) F] Preparing the end term EXAM 
140 
[Note (3F) a] Requirements 
140 
[(3Fa) Discussion] The first 10 minutes 
140 
[(3Fa) Discussion] 10 to 20 minutes 
141 
[(3Fa) Discussion] 20 minutes to 35 minutes 
142 
[(3Fa) Discussion] The last 25 minutes 
144 
Concluding Remarks on Chapter Three 
147 
Appendix 
149 
References 
213 
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Contents List
Appendix 
149 

[Appendix 1] Actions and loads arrangements 
151 

[Appendix (1) A] Design life 
151 

[Appendix (1) B] Variable actions 
152 

[Appendix (1) C] Service Limit States 
161 

[Appendix 2] Durability Requirements 
162 

[Appendix (2) A] Exposure Classes 
162 

[Appendix 
(2) 
B] 
Cement 
167 

[Appendix (2) C] Concrete Cover 
171 

[Appendix 3] Materials Properties 
173 

[Appendix (3) A] Concrete 
173 

[Appendix (3) B] Steel 
175 

[Appendix 4] Reinforcement 
177 

[Appendix (4) A] Bars 
177 

[Appendix (4) B] Welded Wires 
178 

[Appendix 5] Fire Resistance 
181 

[Appendix (5) A] Slabs 
182 

[Appendix (5) B] Beams 
186 

[Appendix 6] Selected Service Requirements 
189 

[Appendix (6) A] Deflection Control without Calculation 
189 

[Appendix (6A) a] Code Provisions 
189 

[Appendix (6A) b] National Practice 
191 

[Appendix (6) B] Crack Control without Calculation 
193 

[Appendix (6B) a] Stress Limitation 
193 

[Appendix (6B) b] Crack Width Limitation 
194 

[Appendix (6B) c] Minimum Reinforcement Area 
194 

[Appendix (6B) d] Size or Distance Limitation 
198 

[Appendix 7] Design Tables 
199 

[Appendix 
8] Bond Requirements 
203 

[Appendix 9] Shear Force Calculations 
205 

[Appendix (9) A] Shear Reduction in the Vicinity of Supports 
205 

[Appendix 10] Elementary diagrams for shear force and flexure 
209 

[Appendix 11] Beam reinforcement drawing 
211 

References 
213 
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15 Manual for Advanced Design
Flexural Design
[1]
[Chapter 1] Flexural Design
The aims and objectives of the herein chapter may be summarized in the infra list:
Brief introduction to the concepts of “actions” and “loads” as defined in the Eurocodes;
Brief introduction to the design model of reinforced concrete members subjected to flexure;
Adequate supplementary explanations as well as recommended practice provisions related to the above.
Yielding, also referenced as “ductility” in the seismic action vocabulary, is the property of materials such as steel to exhibit large plastic deformations thus in turn allowing structural members, namely slabs, beams and columns to provide visual pointers for the imminence of failure. Although there may be many requirements the structural engineer has to accommodate within a structure, the fundamental criterion, which may not explicitly be written down in all the design codes and the corresponding provisions is the avoidance of loss of human lives. As this condition is always designed for, there will be a line at which some tradeoffs with the economic side of any construction will come first so the structural engineer should use the so called “experience/selfjudgement/etc.” to decide the limits of the fore mentioned exchange.
It is well established that under the name “fundamental combination of actions” as will be detailed hereafter, the resistive capacity of any member is about two times the maximum stress load that member may experience in its service life. Therefore there are no preestablished limits for any tradeoffs as mentioned in the previous paragraph. Still, CAUTION IS ADVISED as there are possible undesigned for events, such as explosions, impacts (special design hypothesises not usually taken in consideration in current design practice for “normal” structures) and in some limits seismic action that may “put to work” that very onetime reserve and therefore make the difference in between collapse and survival of the structure.
The reserve of resistive capacity makes the corresponding design, especially for bending, rather straight forward if no special requirements impose specific conditions. Since the yielding condition is usually satisfied, the corresponding design model for bending hasn’t changed since it was first proposed in the early 1930’s by Charles Whitney and any section that fulfils the strength condition will generally satisfy ordinary service conditions as well.
The details presented in this chapter are relevant for the above reason for the so called “normal” sections, slabs having a maximum thickness of [200 mm] and beams having the height greater than the breadth up to an imposed limit (five times). Other cases, flat slabs (thickness bigger than [200 mm]) or shallow beams (height smaller that the breadth) or deep beams (height bigger than five times the breadth) are not referenced herein as such members are considered “special” and therefore not currently used in “usual” applications.
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[Section (1) A] Actions and Loads
It was considered appropriate to introduce those explanations here to underline both the concept of actions and load arrangements as presented in the Eurocodes, see ( SR EN 1990:2004/A1:2006), (SR EN 199111:2004/NA:2006) or [Appendix 1] Actions and loads arrangements as well as the values considered in the worked example as presented infra.
The term “action(s)” is used to express the various types of loads that may act on a given structure. The most common are listed below:
[] “Permanent actions” refer to actions for which the variation in magnitude with time is negligible. This category consists of the selfweight of the members/elements/other features resting or attached to the structural members (the so called “dead load”). Partitioning that is/are unlikely to change positions over long periods of time may be considered “permanent”. Other situations that create a relatively fixed position of the action (i.e., mechanical devices or machines of important weight) are also part of this category. In this book only the selfweight of the structural members will be considered; “Variable actions” are those for which the variation in magnitude is dependent on time. This category groups relatively all other types of actions and are mainly given by specific functions of the structure (the so called “live loads”) as well as by the location of the structure (“climatic actions” such as wind, snow, volume changes, etc.). Only those imposed loads that are specific of the current service life will be considered herein;
[] “Accidental actions” are actions of short duration but of significant magnitude that may or may not occur on a given structure during the intended service life. This category consists most frequently of seismic and fire action. Other cases may be considered, depending on the specific functional requirements of the structure such as accidental explosions, plane impacts, terrorist attacks, etc. Since this discussion requires extensive explanations on dynamic loads and is beyond the intended purpose of the current book, this aspect will not be considered next;
[] “Imposed deformations” usually occur during the intended service life and are frequently given by settlement of the subgrade (the soil under the foundations of the structure) under the influence of internal and/or external factors, most often because of water circulation or water season cycles in combination with poor subgrade properties or because of temperature changes determined by a specific function of the/or part of the structure. Since these usually occur locally in the structure, the change in the footing’s level that affect columns may cause some horizontal members (mainly beams and/or slabs) to develop local deformations that affect first the usability of all affected members and may even permanently negatively impact the structure. Special attention must therefore be given to the subgrade properties and characteristics. Since this is beyond the intended purpose of the current book, this aspect will not be considered herein.
Each action is referred to by its characteristic value that in turn is defined by one of the following alternatives:
[] Mean value, generally used for permanent actions;
[] An upper value with an intended probability of not being exceeded or a lower one with an intended probability of being exceeded;
[] A value with an intended probability of being achieved (normally used for variable actions with known statistical distributions, such as wind or snow);
17 Manual for Advanced Design
Flexural Design
[1]
[] A nominal value that is used for some variable and accidental actions.
Furthermore, each variable action may be referred to by four representative values:
[] THE PRINCIPAL REPRESENTATIVE VALUE Qk is the characteristic value
and this can be determined statistically or, where there is insufficient data, a nominal value may be used;
[] THE COMBINATION VALUE is obtained by applying the factor _{0} to the
characteristic value thus giving 0 _{}_{Q}_{k} and is intended to take into account the
reduced probability of the simultaneous occurrence of two or more variable actions;
[] THE FREQUENT VALUE is obtained by applying the factor 1 to the
characteristic value thus giving 1 _{}_{Q}_{k} and is intended to take into account the
possibility of the characteristic value to be exceeded only for a short period of time and is used primarily for the Serviceability Limit States (SLS) and also the accidental load for the Ultimate Limit State (ULS);
[] THE QUASIPERMANENT VALUE is obtained by applying the factor _{2} to
the characteristic value thus giving _{2} _{}_{Q}_{k} and is intended to take into account
the possibility of the characteristic value to be exceeded for a considerable period of time; alternatively it may be considered as an average loading over time. It is used for the longterm effects for the SLS and also accidental and seismic loads for ULS;
Each of the above factors is established based on semiprobabilistic methods
and is specific to every type of imposed loads. Further information on derivation of the
factors can be found in [Appendix C] of the Eurocode (SR EN 1990:2004).
[Note (1A) a] Combinations of Actions
The term “combination of actions” is used to name the situation when, at different limit states, various actions act together, case in which it is mandatory to establish the magnitude of each of those actions. It should not be confused with “load cases”, a term that refers to the arrangement of the variable actions to give the most unfavourable conditions and may be consulted in the material Eurocodes, such as (SR EN
1990:2004).
To determine the adequate value of actions used in design several processes can be used:
[] Identify the design situation:
[x] Persistent: referring to conditions of normal use;
[x] Transient: referring to temporary conditions of the structure (i.e.,. during construction or repair);
[x] Accidental: involving exceptional conditions of the structure or its exposure, including fire, explosion, impact, etc.;
[x] Seismic: when the structure is subjected to a seismic event;
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18
[] Identify all realistic actions;
[x] 
Determine the partial factors for each applicable combination of actions; 
[x] 
Arrange the actions to produce the most critical conditions. 
Where there is ONLY ONE VARIABLE ACTION (i.e., imposed load) in a combination, the MAGNITUDE OF THE ACTIONS can be obtained by MULTIPLYING them by the APPROPRIATE PARTIAL FACTORS. Where THERE IS MORE THAN ONE VARIABLE ACTION in a combination, it is necessary to
identify THE LEADING ACTION Qk,1 (subscript “1”) and OTHER
ACCOMPANYING ACTIONS Qk,i (subscript “i”). The ACCOMPANYING
ACTION is always taken as THE COMBINATION VALUE (defined in supra list).
[Note (1A) b] Limit States
The Ultimate Limit State consists of the following categories:
[] EQU (Equilibrium), Loss of Equilibrium of the structure. This situation may appear in the case of a one span simply supported beam with an end overhang WHEN ONLY the overhang is loaded, an unbalanced case load that CAN CAUSE the opposite end of the beam to lift from its support if the support closer to the overhang allows the beam to rotate freely;
[] STR (Strength), Internal failure or excessive deformation of the structure or structural member. This situation is the most common category and is the one to be considered in this book;
[] GEO (Geological), Failure due to excessive deformation of the ground. This category should be considered when “imposed deformations” occur not based on a temperature gradient but on a settlement of the subgrade as briefly presented supra;
[] FAT (Fatigue), Fatigue failure of the structure or structural members. This category should be considered whenever regular actions upon the structure have a cyclic behaviour (i.e., heavy cutting machinery used in some industries to produce the stock length of materials).
The different combinations for each of these Ultimate Limit States are presented in [Appendix 1] Actions and loads arrangements as provided by the Eurocodes.
For persistent and transient design situations under the STR limit state, the Eurocode defines three possible combinations, which are given in Expressions (6.10), (6.10a) and (6.10b), see (SR EN 1990:2004). The engineer may use either (6.10) or the less favourable of (6.10a) and (6.10b);
It may appear that there is considerably more calculation required to determine the appropriate load combination. Still; with experience the engineer will be able to determine this by inspection;
Expression (6.10) is always equal to or more conservative than the less favourable of Expressions (6.10a) and (6.10b). Expression (6.10b) will normally apply when the permanent actions are not greater than 4.5 times the variable actions (except for storage loads (category E) where Expression (6.10a) always applies). Therefore, for a typical concrete frame building, Expression (6.10b) will give the most structurally economical combination of actions;
19 Manual for Advanced Design
Flexural Design
[1]
For members supporting one variable action the combination 1,35Gk,1 1,50Qk,1
derived from (Expression 6.10b) can be used to design the corresponding reinforcement, should the permanent actions be smaller than 4,5 times the variable actions (except for storage loads);
For the Serviceability Limit State care should be taken NOT TO CONFUSE THE COMBINATIONS OF CHARACTERISTIC, FREQUENT AND QUASI PERMANENT with the representative values that have the same titles.
[Section (1) B] Flexural Design Model
Knowledge in general and engineering in particular works with models that may be considered to showcase the following levels of understanding:
[ 1 > The global level, at which one perceives everything as one unitary object (in constructions, a structure);
[ 2 > The system level, at which one perceives the object to be compound of different groups of elements (in constructions, all the members with similar functions, i.e. the slabs, the beams or the columns);
[ 3 > The
element
level,
at
which
one
perceives
constructions, a slab, a beam, or a column);
a
particular
component
(in
[ 4 > The macroscopic level, at which one perceives the major structure of that particular component (in constructions, in the case of reinforced concrete, the cross section of a member as a compound section of concrete and reinforcement);
[ 5 > The microscopic level, at which one perceives the properties and interaction of the different constituents (in constructions, in the case of concrete, the constituents of the mix – cement, aggregates, water, etc.);
[ 6 > The atomic level, at which one perceives the properties and interaction of atoms (in constructions, in the case of concrete, yet to be established).
By only addressing the macroscopic level (4th) it is possible for the engineer to predict the behaviour of the superior levels of knowledge (3rd, 2nd and 1st) in limits deemed satisfactory. Of course, as knowledge progresses it is possible to minimize those limits by use of advanced computer calculations or a more fundamental approach, namely intuition. Please bear in mind that progress, technically speaking, is a twostep process: it always starts with a brainstorm that should always be accompanied by hard work.
Reinforced concrete is (as presented) subjected to the previous as well, that is why, before all, it’s relevant to discuss the design process from a theoretical point of view, by explaining the milestones in flexure, which is (generally speaking) a state of loading in which the same cross section will have opposite stresses, of tension in one part and in compression for the rest. The transition area inbetween is called the neutral axis (nil stress or better said very close to nil stress). Its position on the height of the cross section is variable, depending on the values opposing maximum stresses reach.
Shear behaviour will be presented in the next chapter, [Chapter 2] Shear Force Design.
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[Note (1B) a] Neutral Axis
In these authors’ opinion the design process in flexure is very interconnected with the position of the neutral axis (height in compression) though the actual design seems to provide no direct link to this, meaning this variable isn’t as highlighted as others, for most formulas are pairing the neutral axis with other variables (i.e., ductility condition for plastic analysis presented in the third volume of this project).
In order to explain, the reader is invited to assume the position of a lab technician on the point of testing a beam in flexure by gravitational loading (perpendicular to its geometric longitudinal axis).
Also assume that:
[] You have marked with vertical lines the lateral faces of your beam over its full length;
[] Pretend that each line/slice (therefore each cross section) may be extracted from the beam itself without affecting the structural behaviour of the element, similar to the way in which you may pick out from a book set your “favourite book” to read;
[] In terms of stresses that develop during loading, name the effect of pushing „compression” (consider it to be occurring on the front cover of the „book”) while the effect of pulling „tension” (consider it to be occurring on the back cover of the forementioned „book”);
[] At first, prior to the loading, there is nil stress in each and every point over the height of the cross section. Since the neutral axis is only a limited area in the cross section, it’s safe to asses that the neutral axis is outside of the cross section. Since we assumed the loading to be gravitational in nature, that would mean that the neutral axis is somewhere below the extreme lower fibre of the cross section.
[] As the loading begins, the extreme lower part of the cross section will develop tension stresses while the extreme upper part of the cross section will develop compression stresses, in other words the neutral axis starts to move from the extreme lower edge to the upper edge of the cross section, until the resistive capacity of the cross section is reached.
[] Failure will occur, theoretically, when the entire cross section will be in tension (a „ripping apart” effect). In fact, for normal strength concrete, there will be a small area at the top of the cross section that will crush under compression, therefore causing the collapse.
[] From a mechanical (static) point of view, that is the same with the element becoming a mechanism with a hinge located at the top of the cross section. In this case, the collapse is instantaneous (even under own weight).
[Note (1B) b] Model Assumptions
Let’s convert the beam described previously to the material we call reinforced concrete. The present design model assumes that cracked concrete does not contribute to the bearing capacity, although it is well known that between cracks, the bond of concrete to steel leads to a reduction in the tensile stresses in the reinforcement. As the concrete grade increases so does its tensile strength making it logical to assume that, in some degree, the previous assumption may deflect the model from the actual behaviour. Since this is still under debate, no further details will be provided herein.
21 Manual for Advanced Design
Flexural Design
[1]
Other assumptions used in the model are:
[ 
1 > Concrete is considered to be on the brink of failure (the so called 3rd state); 
[ 
2 > Bernoulli’s hypothesis of plane sections and the compatibility of strains in concrete and steel for the same fibre in the cross section; 
[ 
3 > Hooke’s Law allows for strains and stresses to be considered a ratio of the elastic properties of the material; 
[ 
4 > The General Stress block for the compressed area of concrete is replaced by a simplified rectangular stress block; 
[ 
5 > The reinforcement yields prior to the crushing of concrete. 
[Note (1B) c] Stress Block
In comparison with a uniaxial load, whether it’s compression or tension, flexure determines different fibres over the height of the cross section to be subjected to different stresses, not only as per value but also as per nature (compression on top of the cross section and tension at the bottom in the case of gravitational loads). That is why, although flexure can be considered an eccentric compression, the compressive stress in concrete subjected to flexure is not the same as in pure compression.
First, in pure compression, all fibres are under about the same stress.
Testing has shown that there is a reduction in the stress value with the increase of the distance from the centre of geometry of the sample to its edges (further details are available in literature – not cited herein).
This is not the case for flexure where eccentricity introduces variation in values, some fibres being subjected to higher stresses than others. Therefore, different longitudinal layers of fibres have a tendency to slip from each other.
This is in these authors opinion a positive effect as it will lead to:
[] An increase in the strains an element can develop due to a decrease in the speed of strain development over time;
[] A delayed failure of concrete due to a rollover mechanism which transmits the stress from the fibres under the maximum effort to the less loaded fibres closer to the neutral axis.
Second, the longitudinal splitting effect is in opposition with the compression stress which will lead to a reduction in the amount of stress the most compressed fibres will bear (further details are available in literature – not cited herein).
The calculation model for flexure consists of two ideal forces in mechanical equilibrium, see [(1) Figure 1]:
[ 
1 > A compressive force in concrete, C ; 
[ 
2 > A tensile force in the reinforcement, T ; 
[
3 > A lever arm inbetween, z .
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22
The resistive flexural capacity for a given cross section is written as:
MRd C z T z
C T
[11] with
[12]
Since the final form of the above should be a formula for the area of reinforcement, one should:
[] Evaluate the compressive resultant:
[x] Establish a function for the stress variation based on strain values (which are very easy to measure in experimental tests) such as:
F
c
b
cu
0
(
)
() is the stress function of strains.
[x] Establish/find the limit for integration;
Cross section
Strain distribution
(a) 
Assume the cross section to be rectangular: 

(i) 
h is the height and b is the width; 

(b) 
Selected parameters: 
General stress block
[13] with
(1) Figure 1
Forces
in equilibrium
Note(s)
(i) x is the height in compression and d is the depth of the section.
Since the above is difficult to evaluate precisely, a simplified stress block replacing the real distribution of stresses while being easier to evaluate was deemed necessary.
The substitution of one with the other is based on two conditions:
[] The volume of stresses must be correctly evaluated;
[] The position of the compression centroid in the real and simplified diagram must be the same.
Those conditions are used to calculate two reduction coefficients, and .
The notations used in general with reinforced concrete and their meaning are presented in [(1) Figure 2] and the subsequent list. The cross section is considered to be rectangular both for the shape’s simplicity and for the fact that this particular shape is the most common in constructions.
23 Manual for Advanced Design
Flexural Design
[1]
With this model in mind, the previous equation may be rewritten as:
[14] 
C x fcd _{}_{}_{b} 

[15] 
T 
Asl f _{y}_{d} 
In (Expression [14]) terms have been grouped to outline the simplified stress block while in (Expression [15]) subscripts dependent on the part of the cross section (lower or upper) have been omitted to outline the formula for the resultant in the reinforcement (whether in tension or compression).
(1) Figure 2
Design model
parameters
Note(s)
Cross section
Strain distribution
^{G}^{e}^{n}^{e}^{r}^{a}^{l} ^{s}^{t}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{s}
block
Simplified stress
block
(a) Concrete’s properties in compression given by its design strength
fcd
while the
maximum strain in compression in concrete is denoted by cu ;
(b) Reinforcement’s properties in tension are given by its design d strength at yielding y
denoted f _{y}_{d} , also considered the maximum stress;
(c) Main reinforcement Asl,1 as longitudinal l steel s bars in tension T, t placed
in the bottom part 1 of the cross section:
(i) 
sl,1 is the ultimate tensile strain; 
(ii) 
fst is the stress when the reinforcement doesn’t yield; 
(iii) 
d1 is the axis distance from the extreme bottom fibre; 
(d) Main reinforcement Asl,2 as longitudinal l steel s bars in compression C, c
placed in the top part 2 of the cross section:
(i) 
sl,2 is the ultimate tensile strain; 
(ii) 
fsc is the stress when the reinforcement doesn’t yield; 
(iii) 
d2 is the axis distance from the extreme top fibre; 
(e) Simplified stress block parameters are:
(i) Coefficient for reducing the maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete c :
1.00
1
if f
ck
f
ck
50
200
EN 199211:2006);
50
MPa
if
50
f
ck
90
MPa
as per [Expression 3.21; 3.22] in (SR
[1]
Flexural Design
Manual for Advanced Design
24
(ii) Coefficient for reducing the height in compression
x
:
0.80
0.8
same reference.
if f
ck
f
ck
50
400
50
MPa
if
50
f
ck
90
MPa
as per [Expression 3.19; 3.20] in
Note(s)
In addition, by writing equilibrium for the horizontal forces, the above (Expression [14] and Expression [15]) give the height in compression as:
T
C
x
A
sl
f
yd
b
f
cd
[16]
This may be used to calculate the position of the neutral axis x ONLY after the
reinforcement has been calculated. Bear in mind that UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED there is NO need to actually calculate the height in compression (further guidance will be provided on the matter as described in subsequent sections).
[Section (1) C] Predesign Evaluation
The reader is advised to refer to the code provisions (SR EN 199211:2006), (SR EN 199212:2006) and the Appendixes at the end of this book to make use of the Tables and other referenced information as indicated;
It is assumed that the maximum flexural moment M _{E}_{d} and the maximum shear
VEd are known so no information on static calculation is provided.
Any structure must fulfil two fundamental requirements:
[] To be designed in such a manner that it does not collapse under normal loading conditions, partially or totally, and that any partial collapse does not impair the unaffected part of the structure causing a “domino effect” to bring the structure down (to be therefore redundant), collectively named “Ultimate Limit States” Design (ULSD);
[] To be designed in such a manner that it does not impair on the intended use of that structure, partially or totally, collectively named “Service Limit States” Design (SLSD).
To address the first supra limit state it’s enough to provide for a cross section
defined primarily by its width and height
Sizing of the cross section is subject to certain conditions, which will be detailed herein. To address the second supra limit state it’s enough to check that the proposed section fulfils additional requirements which in the case of RC members are deflection and crack width. For Normal Strength Concrete, by obeying certain limitations as per code provisions, a section proposed for ULSD will check for SLSD also. For this reason SR EN 199211 states firmly that in all the cases when given limitations are respected there is no need to check for SLSD conditions.
bh
the corresponding reinforcement.
25 Manual for Advanced Design
Flexural Design
[1]
Therefore the first step in any design is to “propose” a cross section which would best provide safety by bearing the loads acting upon it and which is also economical and easy to cast. That is why, today, as mankind struggles to find better management plans for the depleting resources at our disposal, engineers in general and civil engineers in particular are called upon to find ways unexplored before to achieve that end (i.e. construction industry consumes about 40% of the overall energy produced worldwide). In order to achieve SUSTAINABILITY (by its generalised meaning) it’s primordial to insure DURABILITY for each member and therefore the structure itself.
DURABILITY is plainly said, the response of a member subjected to exposure conditions due to climatic conditions (rain, snow, etc.) or processes (wanted or accidental) which take place inside the structure or outside it that may negatively affect steel or concrete. It is achieved by providing a minimum concrete cover to protect the reinforcement from corrosion or the adverse effects of fire. Of course, the concrete grade is the most important factor to be considered, as it will be explained herein.
Since exposure conditions pair up with fire safety conditions to impose a concrete cover and even minimum dimensions for the cross section and are furthermore generally valid the first answer in the previously proposed endeavour should be to correctly calculate concrete cover.
Any cross section has (generally speaking) two types of reinforcement, for flexure – longitudinal to the axis of the member and for shear – transverse to the same axis, which means that there will be two types of concrete cover to be checked against the required thickness.
(1) Figure 3
Concrete cover
parameters
Note(s)
Notations
Deviation(s) in placing
(a) The nominal concrete cover is cnom cmin cdev as per [Expression 4.1, 4.4.1.1] in (SR
EN 199211:2006);
(b) The minimum concrete cover is
c
min
max
c
c
10 mm
min, b
min,
dur
c
dur
,
c
dur st
,
c
dur add
,
,
as per [Expression 4.2, 4.4.1.2] in (SR EN 199211:2006) with:
(i) cmin,b [mm] is the concrete cover based on bond conditions [App. (2) Table 5];
(ii) cmin,dur [mm] is the concrete cover based on exposure condition [App. (2) Table 6];
(iii) cdur,
[mm] is the safety cover, cdur, 0 mm ;
(iv) cdur,st [mm] is the reduction due to using stainless steel, cdur,st 0 mm ;
[1]
Flexural Design
Manual for Advanced Design
26
(v) cdur,add cdur,add 0 mm ;
[mm]
is
the
reduction
due
to
additional
concrete
protection,
Note(s)
(vi) cdev [mm] is the deviation (tolerances) in actual pouring.
The following design workflow may prove useful:
[
1 > Exposure conditions are explained in:
[ a > (SR EN 199211:2006, pp. 4348) or [Appendix (2) C] Concrete Cover;
[ b > Recommended values for predesign purposes: exposure conditions XC2 and structural class, S4;
[
2 > Choose the material (concrete and steel grade), if no values are imposed:
[ a > (SR EN 199211:2006, pp. 2442 and 190191) or [Appendix 3] Materials Properties;
[ b > Recommended values for predesign purposes: C30/37 for concrete and S500 for steel;
[
3 > Choose the steel bar size (herein “diameter” will be referred to by “size” to account for deformed bars that have ribs outside their “diameter” as opposed to plain bars):
[ a > Recommended values:
[ 
i > øsl,max 6 [mm] for slabs; 

[ 
ii > øsl,max 25 [mm] for beams; 

[ 
iii > _{ø}_{s}_{l}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} _{} _{2}_{8} _{[}_{m}_{m}_{]} for columns; 

[ 
iv 
> 
øsw 8 [mm] _{}_{6} 12 
(14) [mm] for stirrups; 
[
[
[
4 > Calculate nominal concrete cover for both stirrups cnom,sw and the longitudinal
reinforcement cnom,sl ;
5 > Calculate design concrete cover (see previous [(1) Figure 3]):
c
v
max
c
c
nom sw
,
nom sl
,
sw
6 > Check if design concrete cover is at least the minimum cover after casting:
cv cmin,dur cdev
[17]
[18]
[Note (1C) a] Sizing of the Cross Section
It is well known that a board set flat over two supports will bend downward when pressed upon in direct ratio to the height of the board. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid excessive deflections. This condition and other requirements as presented in the subsequent list:
[ 1 > Rigidity conditions (see [Appendix 6] Selected Service Requirements);
[
2 > Fire safety conditions (see [Appendix 5] Fire Resistance);
27 Manual for Advanced Design
Flexural Design
[1]
[ 3 > Technological conditions (usually likely expressed as spantodepth ratios).
(1) Table 1
Recommended
Slab Thickness
Note
Slab thickness
60 [mm] for roofs 70 [mm] for civil structures
80 [mm] for industrial structures
100 [mm] for pavements
(1) The indicated values are minimal. In actual practice higher values should be cast.
Similar conditions applied to beams will lead to establishing the height of the cross
section h as a multiple of [50 mm] if the result is less than [800 mm] or as a multiple of
[100 mm] otherwise. The width of the cross section b is also a multiple of [50/100
mm] accordingly.
(1) Table 2
Recommended
heighttowidth
ratios
Heighttowidth ratios
1,5 ≤ h/b ≤ 3,0 for rectangular sections
2,0 ≤ h/b ≤ 4,0 for tee sections
b _{m}_{i}_{n} ≥ 200 [mm]
The above are true for members with no connections to other structural/nonstructural members that may prevent the member to fall over prior to fixing in its final position in the structure (mainly precast elements). This is ALWAYS a transitory state for precast members; more details are available in (KISS & ONEȚ, 2010, pp. 332342);
For all other members a thinner web is recommended h _{b} _{} 3 as for reinforced
concrete members the height is more relevant to design than the width. Still, a maximum
ratio should be h _{b} _{} 5 because a higher ratio may lead to a cross section too thin to
withstand shear or in danger of developing lateral buckling or to a particular type of beam, the so called “deep beam” which has other reinforcement particularities because of the specific development of principal stresses. This should be avoided as the best solution (section and corresponding reinforcement) should be reached in one run (with the first chosen section).
After calculating the concrete cover and establishing the dimensions for the cross section, design may proceed to the main step, design of the corresponding reinforcement, first for flexure and second for shear force.
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