Sunteți pe pagina 1din 12

Norwegian Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

Note: Before heading to the tutorial I would Strictly recommend to download any online dictionary which could easily translate the difficult Norwegian words provided below so that you can understand them easily and learn quickly, if you have one so that’s good if not then I’ll personally prefer BabelFish dictionary which is free so you don’t need to buy it. The download link is provided below:

There are two types of written Norwegian, Bokmål and Nynorsk. This tutorial includes Bokmål only. Thanks to Dan for helping with this tutorial!

1. Basic Phrases

God morgen

Hallo / God dag

God kveld

Good Morning

Hello / Good Day

Good Evening

God natt

Ha det bra

Hei / Ha det

Good Night

Goodbye

Hi / Bye

Vær så snill Please

(Tusen) Takk Thank you (very much)

Ingen årsak / Vær så god Don't mention it / You're welcome

Ja / Nei

Herr / Fru / Frøken

Velkommen!

Yes / No

Mister / Misses

Welcome!

Hvordan har du det? How are you?

Hvordan går det? How it's going?

Bra / Dårlig Good / Bad

Hva heter du? What's your name?

Jeg heter My name is

(I am called

)

Hyggelig å treffe deg! Pleased to meet you!

Hvor kommer du fra? Where are you from?

Jeg er fra I'm from

Unnskyld Excuse me / Sorry

Hvor bor du? Where do you live?

Jeg bor i I live in

Jeg vil gjerne ha gjerne hatt

/ Jeg skulle

Hvor gammel er du? How old are you?

Snakker du norsk? Do you speak Norwegian?

Jeg er

I

am

år (gammel).

years (old).

Jeg snakker engelsk.

I speak English.

svensk, dansk, fransk, italiensk, spansk, tysk, holländsk, rysk, japansk Swedish, Danish, French, Italian, Spanish, German, Dutch, Russian, Japanese

Forstår du? Do you understand?

Jeg forstår [ikke.]

I [don't] understand.

I would like

Jeg vet [ikke.]

I [don't] know.

Snakk langsomt

Speak slowly

Hva heter

på norsk?

How do you say

in

Norwegian?

Vær så snill å gjenta / Vennligst gjenta Please repeat

Hva er dette?

Hvor er

?

Hvor mye koster dette?

What is this?

Where is

?

How much does this cost?

Jeg er sulten I'm hungry

Jeg er tørst I'm thirsty

Jeg er trett I'm tired

Jeg er syk

Jeg tror [ikke] det

Kom inn / hit

I'm sick

I

[don't] think so

Come in / here

Ta plass

Stans! / Stopp!

Straks!

Have a seat.

Stop!

Immediately! / Soon!

Jeg har gått meg bort

Hjelp!

Fare!

I'm lost

Help!

Danger!

Pass på!

Vent litt!

Hvor langt er det?

Watch out!

Wait a minute!

How far is it?

Det var synd.

Velbekomme!

Skål!

That's too bad!

Have a good meal!

Cheers! (toast)

Lykke til!

Jeg elsker deg.

Jeg savner deg.

Good luck!

I love you.

I miss you.

2. Pronunciation

Norwegian letter(s)

English sound

d

silent at end of word; and in -ld, -nd, -rd

ig

ee

eg

ay

h

silent before consonants, such as in hv-

j,

gj, hj

yuh, as in yes

kj, tj

sh, but softer and more palatalized (as in German)

sj, skj

sh

sl

shl

ki, ky, kei, køy ski, sky, skei, skøy gi, gy, gei, gøy

sh, but softer and more palatalized (as in German) sh yuh

g + other vowels

guh

sk + other vowels -egn, -egl, -øgn

sk g is silent

ng

nasalized, as in singer and not finger

æ

ah as in cat

ø

ay, but with lips rounded

å

aw as in saw

3. Alphabet

a ahh

k

kaw

u

ooh

b bay

l

el

v

vay

c say

m

em

w

dobbel-veh

d day

n

en

x

eks

e ay

o

ooh

y

ew (lips rounded)

f ef

p

pay

z

set

g gay

q

koo

æ

ah (as in cat)

h haw

r

air

ø

ay (lips rounded)

i ee

s

ess

å

aw

j yod

t

tay

4. Nouns & Cases

Nouns in Norwegian (Bokmål) have two genders, masculine and neuter, which adjectives must agree with when modifying nouns. Technically there is a third gender, feminine (which Nynorsk retains), but since feminine nouns can be written as masculine nouns, I'm including feminine nouns in the masculine category. There are two indefinite articles that correspond with these genders: en for masculine nouns and et for neuter nouns. In the

vocabulary lists, a noun followed by (n) means that it is a neuter noun and it takes the indefinite article et. The majority of nouns in Norwegian are masculine, so they take the indefinite article en.

The only case of nouns that is used in Norwegian is the genitive (showing possession), and it is easily formed by adding an -s to the noun. This is comparable to adding -'s in English to show possession. However, if the noun already ends in -s, then you add nothing (unlike English where we add -' or -'s). Olavs hus = Olav's house

5. Articles & Demonstratives

There are two indefinite articles (corresponding to a and an): en and et. En is used with most of the nouns (words denoting people almost always use en), but you will just have to learn which article goes with which noun. The definite article (the) is not a separate word like in most other languages. It is simply a form of the indefinite article attached to the end of the noun. Note that en words ending in a vowel retain that vowel and add an -n instead of adding -en. And et words ending in -e just add -t. Furthermore, the t of et as an indefinite article is pronounced; however, the t is silent in the definite article -et attached to the noun. (For feminine nouns, the indefinite article is ei and the definite article that is attached to the noun is -a. In theory, this gender does still exist in Bokmål, but in practice, it is rarely used and the feminine nouns are inflected like masculine nouns, i.e. add -en instead of -a for the definite form.)

Articles

En words (masculine)

Indefinite

en fisk

a fish

Definite

fisken

the fish

Et words (neuter)

Indefinite

Definite

et

vindu

window a vinduet the window

en baker a baker

bakeren the baker

et barn a child

barnet

the child

en hage a garden hagen

the garden et hus

a house huset

the house

Demonstrative Adjectives

masculine

neuter

plural

denne

dressen

dette

skjerfet

disse

skoene

den

this suit

dressen

this scarf det skjerfet

these

shoes

that suit

that scarf

de skoene those shoes

Notice that the noun that follows a demonstrative adjective must have the definite article attached to it. (The feminine form of demonstratives is identical to the masculine; denne and den.)

6. Subject & Object Pronouns

Subject & Object Pronouns

jeg

I

meg

me

du

you (singular)

deg

you

han

he

ham

him

hun

she

henne

her

den

it (masc.)

den

it

det

it (neut.)

det

it

man

one

man

one

vi

we

oss

us

dere

you (plural)

dere

you

de

they

dem

them

7. To Be & to Have

The present and past tenses of verbs in Norwegian are very simple to conjugate. All the forms are the same for each personal pronoun. The infinitive of the verb to be in Norwegian is være, and the conjugated present tense form is er and the past tense is var. The infinitive of the verb to have is ha, and the conjugated present tense form is har and the past tense is hadde.

være - to be

ha - to have

I am

jeg er

I was

jeg var

I have

jeg har

I had

jeg hadde

you are

du er

you were du var

you have du har

you had du hadde

he is

han er he was

han var

he has

han har he had

han hadde

she is

hun er she was

hun var

she has

hun har she had hun hadde

it is

den er

it was

den var it has

den har it had

den hadde

it is

det er

it was

det var

it has

det har it had

har

one had

det hadde

one is

man er

one was

man

var

one has

man

man

hadde

we are

vi er

we were

vi var

we have

vi har

dere

har

we had vi hadde

you had

hadde

you are

dere er you were dere var

you have

dere

they are de er

they were de var

they have de har

they

had

de hadde

To form the future tense of verbs, just add skal before the infinitive. Jeg skal være = I will be; hun skal ha = she will have; etc.

8.

Useful Words

sometimes

noen granger / av og

already

allerede

always

til alltid

perhaps kanskje

 

never

aldri

both

begge

often

ofte

some

noe(n)

usually

vanligvis

again

igjen

now

between

mellom

and

og

a lot, many mye / mange

 

but

men

of course

selvfølgelig / såklart

or

eller

a little

litt ikke i det hele tatt / slettes ikke /

very

veldig / svært

not at all

overhodet ikke

here

her

almost

nesten

there

der

really? virkelig?

 

with

med

it is

det er

each other

hverandre

there is/are

det finnes

9.

Question Words

 
 

Who

hvem

How

hvordan

What

hva

How much

hvor mye

Why

hvorfor

How many

hvor mange

When

når

How long

hvor lenge

Where

hvor

Where from

hvorfra

Which

hvilken, hvilket, hvilke

What kind of

hva slags

Hvilken is used with masculine nouns, hvilket is used with neuter nouns, and hvilke is used with plural nouns.

10. Cardinal & Ordinal Numbers

0 null

1 en, ett

1st

første

2 to

2nd

annen, andre

3 tre

3rd

tredje

4 fire

4th

fjerde

5 fem

5th

femte

6

seks

6th

sjette

7

sju

7th

sjuende

8

åtte

8th

åttende

9

ni

9th

niende

10

ti

10th

tiende

11

elleve

11th

ellevte

12

tolv

12th

tolvte

13

tretten

13th

trettende

14

fjorten

14th

fjortende

15

femten

15th

femtende

16

seksten

16th

sekstende

17

sytten

17th

syttende

18

atten

18th

attende

19

nitten

19th

nittende

20

tjue

20th

tjuende

21

tjueen, tjueett

21st

tjueførste

22

tjueto

22nd

tjueandre

30

tretti

30th

trettiende

40

førti

40th

førtiende

50

femti

50th

femtiende

60

seksti

60th

sekstiende

70

sytti

70th

syttiende

80

åtti

80th

åttiende

90

nitti

90th

nittiende

100

hundre

100th

hundrede

1,000

tusen

1,000th

tusende

million

million

billion

milliard

trillion

billion

"Sju" can also be written "syv" (slightly more formal), and "sjuende" as "syvende" Similarly "tjue" can be "tyve", but this does seem less common and more formal.

11. Days of the Week

Monday

mandag

this morning

i dag morges

Tuesday

tirsdag

tomorrow morning

i morgen tidlig

Wednesday

onsdag

tomorrow afternoon

i morgen formiddag

Thursday

torsdag

tomorrow night

i morgen kveld

Friday

fredag

day after tomorrow

i overmorgen

Saturday

lørdag

tonight

i kveld

Sunday

søndag

last night

i går kveld

day

dag

yesterday

i går

morning

morgen

day before yesterday

i forgårs

afternoon

ettermiddag

week

uke

evening

kveld

next week

nest uke

night

natt

weekend

helg

today

i dag

daily

daglig

tomorrow

i morgen

weekly

ukentlig

12.

Months of the Year

 
 

January

januar

February

februar

March

mars

April

april

May

mai

June

juni

July

juli

August

august

September

september

October

oktober

November

november

December

desember

month

måned

last month

forrige måned

monthly

månedlig

year

år (n)

this year

i år

last year

i fjor

yearly

årlig

13.

Seasons

Winter

vinter

in (the) winter

om vinteren

Spring

vår

in (the) spring

om våren

Summer

sommer

in (the) summer

om sommeren

Fall

høst

in (the) fall

om høsten

14. Directions

 

North

nord

Northeast

nordøst

South

syd

Northwest

nordvest

East

øst

Southeast

sydøst

West

vest

Southwest

sydvest

to the right to the left straight ahead

til høyre til venstre rett fram / frem

Frem is slightly more formal than fram.

15. Colors

orange

oransje

pink

rosa

purple

lilla

blue

blå, blått, blå

yellow

gul, gult, gule

red

rød, rødt, røde

black

svart, svart, svarte

brown

brun, brunt, brune

gray

grå, grått, grå

white

hvit, hvitt, hvite

green

grønn, grønt, grønne

The first three colors do not change according to gender or number to agree with the noun they modify. The rest of the colors must agree, however, and they are listed in masculine, neuter and plural forms: en grønn kjole - a green dress; et blått hus - a blue house; svarte sokker - black socks

16. Time

What time is it?

Hva er klokken?

now

It is 2.

Klokken er to.

early

tidlig

6:20

half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5

tjue over seks halv fire kvart over fire

kvart på fem

earlier soon late later

tidligere snart sent senere

10

past 11

ti over elleve

in 10 minutes

om ti minutter

20

to 7

tjue på sju

in 15 minutes

om et kvarter

noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly About/around 8.

middag midnatt om morgenen om kvelden Den er nøyaktig omtrent åtte

in a half hour in an hour right now at once immediately At 8.

om en halvtime om en time akkurat nå med en gang straks klokken åtte

17. Weather

How's the weather? It's cold It's warm It's beautiful It's bad It's clearing It's icy It's windy It's cloudy It's humid/muggy

18. Family

Hvordan er været? Det er kaldt Det er varmt Det er pent Det er dårlig Det lysner Det er isete Det blåser Det er overskyet Det er fuktig

What temperature is it? It's foggy The fog is lifting It's snowing It's raining It's going to storm There's thunder There's lightning It's freezing (cold as ice) It's hailing

Hvor mange grader er det? Det er tåke Tåken letner Det snør Det regner Det bli storm Det tordner Det lyner Det er iskaldt Det hagler

Parents

foreldre

Niece

niese

Mother

mor

Nephew

nevø

Father

far

Uncle

onkel

Son

sønn

Aunt

tante

Daughter

datter

Boy

gutt

Brother

bror

Girl

jente, pike

Sister

søster

Child / Baby

barn

Grandfather

bestefar

Adult

voksen

Grandmother

bestemor

Man

mann

Grandson

barnebarn

Woman

kvinne

Granddaughter barnebarn

Friend (male)

venn

Cousin (male)

fetter

Friend female)

venninne

Cousin (female)

kusine

Some family words have irregular indefinite plurals: mødre (mothers), fedre (fathers), sønner (sons), døtre (daughters), brødre (brothers), and søstre (sisters)

19. To Know People & Facts

kjenne - to know vite - to know

 

people

facts

present

kjenner

vet

past

kjente

visste

future

skal kjenne

skal vite

20. Formation of Plural Nouns

Masculine nouns generally add -er or -r to the indefinite singular noun to form the indefinite plural, and -ene or -ne to form the definite plural. The names of jobs ending in -er only add -e and -ne in these cases. Neuter nouns that are more than one syllable form plural nouns the same way as masculine nouns. Neuter nouns that are only one syllable, however, add nothing to form the indefinite plural and either -ene or -a to form the definite plural.

Singular

en fisk

en hage

Indefinite Plural

fisker

hager

some fish

some

gardens

some

bakers

en baker bakere

et vindu vinduer some windows

et hus

et barn

hus

barn

some

houses

some

children

Definite Plural

fiskene

hagene

bakerne

vinduene

husene

barna

the fishes

the

gardens

the bakers

the

windows

the houses

the

children

Irregular plural nouns in Norwegian:

Singular

Irregular Indefinite Plural

Singular = Indefinite Plural

and

ender

duck(s)

angrep (n)

attack(s)

bok

bøker

book(s)

besok (n)

visit(s)

bonde

bønder

fot

føtter

hånd

hender

håndkle

håndklær

kne (n)

knær

kraft

krefter

ku

kyr

natt

netter

mann

menn

rand

render

rot

røtter

sted (n)

steder

stang

stenger

strand

strender

tang

tenger

tann

tenner

tre

trær

tær

øye

øyne

peasant(s)

foot(feet)

hand(s)

hand

towel(s)

knee(s)

strength

cow(s)

night(s)

man(men)

edge(s)

root(s)

place(s)

bar(s)

beach(es)

pincher(s)

tooth(teeth)

tree(s)

toe(s)

eye(s)

eventyr (n)

tale(s), story(ies)

feil

error(s), mistake(s)

forhold

circumstance(s)

høve (n)

opportunity(ies)

kreps

crawfish(es)

mus

mouse(s)

mygg

mosquito(es)

sild

herring(s)

sko

shoe(s)

spiker

nail(s)

ting

thing(s)

våpen

weapon(s)