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Francis turbines

Examples
Losses in Francis turbines
NPSH
Main dimensions

Traditional runner

X blade runner

SVARTISEN

P = 350 MW
H = 543 m
Q* = 71,5 m3/S
D0 = 4,86 m
D1 = 4,31m
D2 = 2,35 m
B0 = 0,28 m
n = 333 rpm

La Grande, Canada

P = 169 MW
H = 72 m
Q = 265 m3/s
D0 = 6,68 m
D1e = 5,71m
D1i = 2,35 m
B0 = 1,4 m
n = 112,5 rpm

Outlet
draft tube

Outlet
runner

Inlet
runner

Outlet
guide vane

Inlet
guide vane

Hydraulic efficiency
h =

c1u u1 c2u u2
=
g Hn

c 32
c12
g h1 + + z1 g h 3 + + z 3 losses
2
2

c 32
c12
g h1 + + z1 g h 3 + + z 3
2
2

Losses in Francis Turbines

Hydraulic Efficiency [%]

Draft tube

Output Energy

Head [m]

Hydraulic Efficiency [%]

Losses in Francis Turbines

Output Energy

Output [%]

Friction losses between runner


and covers

Friction losses

Gap losses

Gap losses

Friction losses

Friction losses in
the spiral casing
and stay vanes
Guide vane losses

Gap losses
Runner losses
Draft tube losses

Relative path

Absolute path without


the runner installed

Absolute path with the runner installed

Velocity triangles

Net Positive Suction Head, NPSH


c 32
c 32
c 22
h2 +
+ z 2 = hb + h3 +
+ z3 +
2g
2g
2g
c 32
H s = h3 +
+ z3 z 2
2g
c 22
+ z2
h2 +
2g
c 22
h2 +
2g

c32
= h b Hs + z 2 +
2g

J
= h b Hs + J
1

h2 = hb + h2'

NPSH
h2

c 22

= hb H s
J > hva
2g

NPSH

NPSH = h b h 2 H s

NB:
HS has a negative
value in this figure.

NPSH required
NPSH R

< h b h va H s

= NPSH A

cm2 2
u22
NPSH R = a
+b
2 g
2 g

Turbines
a 1.05 < a < 1.15

Pumps
1.6 < a < 2.0

b 0.05 < b < 0.15 0.2 < b < 0.25

Main dimensions
Dimensions of the outlet
Speed
Dimensions of the inlet

D1

D2

Dimensions of the outlet


We assume cu2= 0 and choose 2 and u2 from NPSHR:

cm2 2
u22
a (u2 tan 2 ) + b u22
NPSH R = a
+b
=
2 g
2 g
2 g
2

13o <
35 <
1,05 <
0,05 <

2
u2
a
b

<
<
<
<

22o
(Lowest value for highest head)
43 m/s (Highest value for highest head)
1,15
0,15

Diameter at the outlet


c m 2 = u 2 tan 2
Connection between cm2and choose D2 :

D 22
cm2
Q =
4

cm2

Q4
=
D 22

D1

4Q
D2 =
cm 2
D2

Speed
Connection between n and choose u2 :

D2 n
u2 =
60

u 2 60
n=
D2

Correction of the speed


The speed of the generator is given from the
number of poles and the net frequency

3000
n=
zp

for

f = 50Hz

Example
Given data:
Flow rate
Head

Q = 71.5 m3/s
H = 543 m

We choose:
a = 1,10
b = 0,10
2 = 22o
u2 = 40 m/s

D 2

1,1 40 tan 22 + 0,1 40 2


NPSH R =
= 22,8 m
2g

Find D2 from:
4Q
4Q
D2 =
=
cm 2
u2 tan 2

4 71,5
D2 =
= 2.37 m
D
40 tan 22

Find speed from:

u2 60 40 60
n=
=
= 322 rpm
D2 2.37

Correct the speed with synchronic speed:


3000
= 9 .3
zp =
n
3000
choose z p = 9 n K =
= 333 rpm
9

We keep the velocity triangle at the outlet:


u2

u2K

2
c2
c2K

4Q
D22

w2

4Q
D22 K

cm 2 cmK
tan 2 =
=
=
=

u2 u2 K
nK D2 K
n D2
60
60

nK D23K = n D23

D2 K

n D23
322
3
3
=
= 2.373
= 2.35m
nK
333

Dimensions of the inlet


u 1 c u1 u 2 c u 2
= 2 (u1 c u1 u 2 c u 2 )
h =
gH
At best efficiency point, cu2= 0

u 1 c u1
h 0,96 =
= 2 u 1 c u1
gH

h
0,96
c u1 =
=
2 u1 2 u1

Diameter at the inlet


We choose:

0,7 < u1 < 0,75

D1 n 2 D1
=

u1 =
2
60
2

D1

u1 60
D1 =
n
D2

Height of the inlet


Continuity gives:

c m1 A1 = c m 2 A 2
We choose:

cm2 = 1,1 cm1

1.1 D
B1 D1 =
4

2
2

B1 = B0

Inlet angle
cu1

u1
c1

cm1 1
w1

c m1
tan 1 =
u1 c u1

Example continues
Given data:
Flow rate
Head

Q = 71.5 m3/s
H = 543 m

We choose:
h = 0,96
u1 = 0,728
cu2 = 0

h = 2 u 1 c u1

0.96
c u1 =
=
= 0,66
2 u1 2 0,728

Diameter at the inlet


u1 = u1 2 g h = 0,728 2 9,81 543 = 75,15 m s

u1 60 75,15 60
D1 =
=
= 4,31 m
n
333

D1

Height of the inlet


1,1 D
1,1 2.35
B1 =
=
= 0,35 m
4 D1
4 4,31
2
2

B1

Inlet angle
cu1

u1
c1

cm1 1
w1

cm 2 sin 2 u2 sin 22D 40,9 m s


=
=
= 13,9 m s
cm1 =
1,1
1,1
1,1
c m1 =

c m1
=
2gh

13,9
= 0,135
2 9,81 543

c m1
0,135

= arctan
= 62.9D
0,728 0,659
u 1 c u1

1 = arctan

SVARTISEN

P = 350 MW
H = 543 m
Q* = 71,5 m3/S
D0 = 4,86 m
D1 = 4,31m
D2 = 2,35 m
B0 = 0,28 m
n = 333 rpm